The Affinity Diagram • The Affinity Diagram – A tool that is used to help groups identify all of the issues associated with a particular problem and converge on a set number of themes or ideas that can be addressed later. – An affinity diagram creates a hierarchy of ideas on a large surface as shown in the next slide. The Interrelationship Digraph • Interrelationship Digraph – A tool designed to help identify and understand the causal relationships between the different issues that surfaced while completing the Affinity Diagram. – This tool also helps to identify the most important issues to be focused on in pursuing the solution to a problem. Tree Diagrams • Tree Diagrams – A tool used to identify the steps needed to address a particular problem. – Very similar to a work breakdown structure used in planning projects. Prioritization Grid • Prioritization Grid – A prioritization grid is used to make decisions based on multiple criteria. For example, in choosing a technology, we might have a variety of options. Also, the decision criteria vary as to how to choose possible desired outcomes. – When there are multiple alternatives and multiple criteria, a prioritization matrix is a good method to inform your decision making without resorting to more sophisticated analysis. Matrix Diagram • Matrix Diagram – Brainstorming tool that can be used in a group to show the relationships between ideas or issues. – Similar in concept to quality function deployment in its use of symbols, its layout, and its application. – Simple to use. – Can be used in 2, 3 or 4 dimensions. – Can be used to show responsibility among different people. Process Decision Program Chart • Process Decision Program Chart – A tool to help brainstorm possible contingencies or problems associated with the implementation of some program or improvement. • Example of a Process Decision Program Chart – An example of a process decision control chart in tree form is shown on the next slide. Activity Network Diagram • Activity Network Diagram – An activity network diagram is also known as a PERT (program evaluation and review technique) diagram or critical path (longest path in time from beginning to end) diagram and is used in controlling projects. – These are discussed in detail in Chapter 11. • Example of an PERT Diagram – The figure on the next slide shows a PERT diagram with nodes and times. The nodes are circles and the times are given in days.