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									Charity: Ockenden International- Afghanistan programme

     Ockenden International works with some of the most vulnerable communities in the world. We
     provide opportunities to rebuild lives torn apart by conflict or natural disaster, helping restore self-
     reliance to displaced people.

     Afghanistan is believed to be among the three poorest nations in the world and is also responsible
     for three quarters of the world’s opium. The rate of the poverty is 53% and real GDP growth rate is
     13.8% .

     It is in this environment that Ockenden provides many Afghan people with basic services and the
     opportunity to have a say in how their community develops. Ockenden has been operational in
     Afghanistan since 1995, initially focusing in the west.

          Contact person: Samira Farahani

      1. Community Empowerment – Ghazni province
     Children suffer, often physically and emotionally from witnessing or experiencing conflict and war,
     suffering trauma as a result of having been exposed to violence and death of close family friends
     of relatives.
     With almost half the Afghan population under the age of 18, and a conflict that lasted more than
     20 years, half of all Afghans have never been free of conflict or experienced peace within their

Brief Project Description:
        Title: Home-Based Schools (HBS)
        Start date: November 2005
        CE Practitioner: Mr. Ghous.M, Lead social mobilizer

          - Bureau of Population Refugees and Migration (BPRM)
          - Community members
          - Local representative community development councils
          - District Governor
          - Ministry of Education
          - Local suppliers
          - Ockenden International

     50 Home Based Schools were established in Waghaz and Jaghatu districts. The purpose of
     establishing the HBS is to provide education facilities for small children who are not likely to have
     the chance to attend formal schools. The reasons for this include the lack of proper schools, the
     large distances from pupils’ homes to the schools, and cultural taboos that prevent young girls
     from leaving their homes and attending school.

     Establishing HBS also provided an employment opportunity for literate women from low-income
     families to earn a livelihood, albeit for a small period of time. It is hoped that establishing schools
     within the communities will encourage parents to send children first to the HBS and then later to a
     formal school and make them aware of the importance and benefit of literacy and education. An
     overarching goal of the program and of this component is also to encourage community
     participation that will build a healthy society based on learning and trust.

    ABD annual report- April 2005

Selection of teachers and students
   Community members from Sar-e-Ab and Kakrak Valley of Waghaz and Torgan, Shaki Valley and
   Qala-e-Yusuf in Jaghatu – especially women –actively participated in establishing HBS and
   helped select the 50 HBS teachers. The 50 teachers were selected according to the requested
   criteria as well as an evaluation test.

   Also 1,522 boys and girls were selected after discussions between the Shura (council) members
   and the Ockenden team.

   When selecting the teachers, preference was given to women who had worked as teachers with
   Ockenden before, students in senior classes of government schools in the target areas, women
   who were internally displaced people (IDPs) or from returnee families and women heading their

   In six villages men were selected as opposed to women as there were no women who were
   sufficiently educated to be trained as teachers.

   Selection of sites for HBS
   The criteria for selecting the sites of the HBS were that the school must be at the center of a large
   village, or a group of smaller villages and there must not be any other formal school operational in
   the area. This was to ensure that the HBS targeted the most deprived areas of the districts, and
   that it would be possible to select 30 students for each of the schools.

   After close consultation with all project stakeholders, 22 HBS were established in Sar-e-Ab valley
   and 7 in Qala-e-Yusuf of Jaghatu district, 11 in Kakrak valley and 8 in Shaki valley of Waghaz
   district. The first teacher training course began in November 2005, and the HBS opened on
   December 1, 2005. Subjects taught in the HBS included basic Dari, mathematics and theology.
   Stationery and textbooks were also distributed to all the students.

   Establishment of Parent Teacher Associations (PTA)
   Another important achievement has been the establishment of Parent Teacher Associations
   (PTA). To ensure the involvement of the parents in this program component, the Master Trainer
   and Education Officer met and discussed the idea of PTAs with communities. The idea was
   enthusiastically accepted and agreed upon by the community shuras. 50 PTAs have therefore
   been formed with 50 women and 50 men (one women and one man) in each of the villages that
   host a HBS.
   PTAs have been formed for past Ockenden programs and have been known to work very well as
   they create a strong bond between the community and the project, and encourage communities to
   take ownership of the projects which contributes to the longer term sustainability of the projects.

   2. Community Empowerment- Nimroz province

   The National Solidarity Program (NSP) was created by the Government of Afghanistan to develop
   the ability of Afghan communities to identify, plan manage and monitor their own development
   projects. NSP promotes a new development paradigm whereby communities are empowered to
   make decisions and control resources during all stages of the project cycle. In accordance with
   government policy the program is expected to lay the foundations for a long-term strengthening of
   local governance to make it more inclusive (e.g. for women, internally displaced persons,
   returnees and ethnic minorities) and to provide assistance for the reconstruction and development
   of communities

Brief description of the Program
      Title: National Solidarity Programme
      start date: October 2003
      CE Practitioner: Eng.Aman Sarhadi, Lead social mobilizer

         - Community members
         - Local representative community development councils
         - District Governor
         - Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD)
         - Local suppliers

Province area size: 41356 km2
Population of the province: 295000

Aim of the NSP Program
The goal of the NSP is to reduce poverty in Afghanistan by empowering communities though
improvements in governance and social, human and economic capital

Overview of achievements of the implementation of the programme

        -    empowered 195 communities in Zaranj, Kang and Chakhansoor districts of Nimroz
        -    To built strong ties with the communities and local government officials.
        -    Community mobilization, voter registration took place.
        -    Both female and male voters were registered, and there were no problems during the
             registration process. Once the process for voter registration was completed, elections
             took place to elect the Community Development Councils (CDC).
        -    For many of the communities this was novel and the rules and regulations of the
             elections had to be carefully explained. The entire process of elections was closely
             facilitated by the Social Organizers and Local Facilitators, male and female Social
             Organizers and monitored by representatives of RRD/NSP/OC and OI’s Provincial
             Program Manager and M&E Officer. These elections were held according to the NSP
             policy of ‘universal suffrage’, secret balloting and female and male participation. The
             participation of community members in the election process was high ranging from 85%-
             97% in the villages. Secret balloting was very useful and avoided exertion of power by
             individual community members. Women were encouraged to participate in the process,
             and the female Social Organizers worked hard to ensure women overcame social
             stigmas and actively participated in the election processes. The election process for
             women was held separately from the men’s that enabled many of the women to
             participate confidently in the process. The women’s participation was higher than that of
             male community members.

   The Communities then prepared a five years Development Plan (CDP) through a participatory
   process of need assessment, using some PRA tools to prioritize problems.

   The MRRD approved some of the community projects funded by World Bank, for the first time the
   communities implemented the projects at the village level. The fund flawed directly to the
   community bank account, for which the CDCs were accountable to the communities. For the first
   time in Afghanistan the CDCs accepted the responsibilities of book keeping, accounting and
   monitoring of their projects.

   3.   Emergency- Community based approach, Farah province (Farah, Pusht-e-Rud and
        Qala-e-Kah districts)

 Brief Project Description
       Title: Working towards reintegrating returnees within their communities, and
       preventing further displacement of the most vulnerable returnees, IDPs and host

        Start date: June 2005
        CE Practitioner: Farid Barikzay, Lead social mobilizer

        - Community members
        - Local representative community development councils
        - Local suppliers
        - District Governor
        - MRRD, RRD, Ministry of Public Health

Area size: 47788 km2
Total population of the three districts covered: 216448

Operation specific objective
To improve the well being of 1,200 of the most vulnerable families in the target areas through:
strengthened community self-organisation, and access to basic housing.
Mechanisms for identification are included:
      - Participatory mapping exercises
      - Household livelihoods surveys
      - House to house visits
      - Reports and recommendations from the female and male shuras (Councils)
      - Reports from neighbouring villages

Beneficiaries selected once the project begins. For individual beneficiary selection, a range of
vulnerability criteria is used, including:
     - Household income
     - Status of head of household (widows, disabled and elderly people will be prioritised)
     - Number of dependents
     - Recently returned to Afghanistan

When the shelter beneficiary was selected the land of each beneficiary was seen by OI site engineer
and community Mobs. Mostly the returnees or IDPs don not have a big piece of land so considering
the land area, OI engineer drawn the map which contains of tow rooms one hall and separate
washroom and latrine.
The shelters beneficiaries agreed to construct their shelters within the project timeframe. But some of
widows and host community could not construct their shelters without help of CDCs. So our
community Mobs encouraged the CDCs to help the widows or construct their shelters.

                “In Pusht-e-Rud district Gajgin village, a women Kishwara she is
                widow also land less. The Gajgin CDC provided land for her also
                helped her in construction of shelter through collective work which
                calls( Hashar ) in Afghanistan.”

   All construction materials purchased locally from Farah and most of shelter beneficiaries got
   construction tolls (tow shovel, one pickaxe). The construction tools helped the beneficiaries to
   construct their shelters.

   Although, most of shelters beneficiaries are very poor but they contributed the following material
   for construction of shelters.
          - mud and sun dried bricks
          - Water for construction activities
          - Clay and straw
          - Unskilled labours
          - Sand

   Totally 158 shelters beneficiaries moved to their shelter in three target district.
    Farah Centre: 118

Pusht-e-Rud: 25
Qala-e-Kah: 15

The contribution of the donor and community to building of each shelter is as follow:
      - Total ECHO contribution by cash and in kind= € 544.80
      - Total Community contribution, in kind and unskilled labour= € 616.09


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