Interpersonal Skills - Download as PowerPoint

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					   Questions
What has been the relationship between
 American and Canadian federations of Labour?
Define exclusive jurisdiction, business unionism
 and political voluntarism.
  How have these issues divided the Canadian
   Labour movement?
What are some of the current challenges facing
 the labour movement?
Early Years (pre-1900)
  A criminal offense to quit a job
  Union‟s seen as „wage-setters‟ and are a conspiracy - illegal
  unions were largely craft based and local
 Trade Union Act (1872), Breaches of Contract Act
  (1877), Criminal Law Amendments Act (1875-76)
    Freedom of association
    unions no longer a conspiracy
    Right to peaceful “strike”
       Cannot coerce employer or prevent carrying on of the business
 New Model unionism (1850‟s)
    craft based and sought to organize an entire craft
Early Years – Taylorism
(1873-79)
 Scientific Management
  Time and motion studies
  Division of labour
  Only managers now knowledge of production
   process and ability to plan and direct work
  Concentration of corporate power
Deskilling
  Knights of Labour -1868
Opened to all
first major federation of trade unions
locals of craft and mixed locals (craft + unskilled)
Never more than 20,000 at a time
  100 000 men and women may have been members
Union Leaders of the time attributed its rapid rise and
 fall to:
  dual unionism - organizing workers in more than 1 trade
  partisan politics
  American Federation of Labour 1886
exclusive jurisdiction
  one union per craft
business unionism (aka pure and simple unionism)
  win best working conditions and higher wages for their
   members
  “more, more, and more now” (Gompers)
political voluntarism
  not involved with any political party
  reward friends and punish enemies
each union autonomous
Trades and Labour Congress of Canada
(TLC) 1886
Closely linked to AFL
The Parliament of Canadian Labour
includes Knights of Labour(banned from AFL),
 Canadian branches of AFL, Christian Unions,
 and Canadian unions
lobbied governments for labour reform
    shorter hours of work
    limitations on immigration
Labour - 1900-1920
 1902 - Berlin Conference
   TLC moved to exclusive jurisdiction (craft!)
   craft unions with US headquarters - TLC
   rest forced out and formed National Trades and
    Labor Congress
       limited membership to Canadian branches of AFL affiliated
        unions
 1907 - Industrial Disputes Investigation Act
 1919 - One Big Union
   free of craft jurisdictions, business union values, & eastern
    moderation
   Winnipeg General Strike
Labour in the 1930’s
 1935 Wagner Act and NLRB
   Large industrial companies were attractive
 1937 - Congress of Industrial Organizations
   organize by industry not craft
   many members are „radical‟
   expelled from AFL
 1939 - TLC expelled CIO affiliates
    Results in divided labour federation
      Trades (TLC)
      Industrial (Canadian Congress of Labour –CCL)
Labour in the 1940’s
1943 - PC 1003
  Wagner style act
    Unfair labour practices
    Certification processes
    Duty to bargain in good faith
1945 - Rand Formula
  UAW and Ford
Rapid increases in union density
    Labour in the 50’s and 60’s
1955 - AFL-CIO merger in US
1956 Canadian Labour Congress Formed in Canada
  merger of trade (TLC) and industrial (CCL) federations
  independent of American Federation
1961 - NDP party
1967 - Public Service Staff Relations Act
  Public Sector Employees permitted to unionize
1969 - Woods task Force Report
  Cdn system is working
  laws to reinforce rights to organize
Labour in the 70’s –90’s
Massive restructuring of the economy and key
 industries and companies
  Government inflation action
     1975 Anti-Inflation Board 1982 Wage and Price Controls “6
      and 5”
  Extensive layoffs
     highest unemployment rate since ‟39
     Movement to casual, temporary employment
  Just in Time Inventory
  Concession Bargaining in the US
     1985 formation of CAW
  Government deregulation and privatization
     Air Canada, CNR, etc.
Free Trade Acts
Labour Challenges in the
21st century

severe unemployment in the early 1990‟s
Globalization and massive change in the
 economy
  From product to service
  Knowledge-based workers
  24 hour-7 day customer operations
  Diversity of the labour market
  Movement to small and remote businesses
large government restructuring
North American Exceptionalism
 business unionism
   no serious threat to liberal capitalism
   labour largely not „radical”
   focus on workers wages and working conditions
 decentralized collective bargaining
   certification process
   no true employer confederations
 http://www.clc-ctc.ca
  Questions
Discuss why workers join unions
 The 5 rationales for unionism
 Propensity to Unionize
 Opportunity to Unionize
What outcomes do employees expect
 from collective representation?
  Why Do People Join Unions?
  The Five Rationales…
Economic Rationale
Fairness, Equity, and Wage Effort Bargain
Countervailing Power Rationale
Statutory and „forced‟ unionism Rationale
Voice Rationale
   Economic Rationale
Getting a Better Deal
  favorable wages and benefits for workers has always been a
   primary function of unions in N. America
     Bread and Butter Unionism
  Union-non-union wage difference is 10-25%
Take Wages Out of Competition
  Constant Labour rates
     Teamsters
     CAW
Fairness, Equity, and the Wage-
Effort Bargain
 Seek Fairness and equity
   Share profits of the firm
   Equal pay for same work
   Reduce management-bargaining unit wage differential
   Similar pay to other firms/organizations
   Forefront of many equity issues
 Wage-Effort Bargain
   Balance between wage rate and effort exerted
      Any shift in effort or wages causes dis-equilibrium
Countervailing Power Rationale
 Democratic Procedures to increase employee power and
  participation
   Votes, rules of conduct, etc
Can counterbalance Power at 2 levels
  Societal Level
      Lobbying forces concerning legislation
      Take Political action
   Workplace Level
      Increase Justice in the Workplace
        • Access to due process procedures
        • Input into rules that govern daily lives
            – Unions can serve as “checks and balances” versus
              “unfettered” managerial authority
Statutory and “Forced” Unionism

 Workplace already unionized when hired
Present during organization drive but did not
support union
Government legislation or Labour Board
Rulings
The Voice Rationale
 Deal with conflict and problems through
  Exit
  Voice
Voice
  Input/justice in the workplace
     Joint committees
     Negotiations
     Grievances
Propensity to Join Unions-
Demand for Union Representation
Propensity to Join
  Demand for union representation (not opportunity or
   supply)
  yet job seekers rarely have a choice
Job Dissatisfaction
  terms and conditions of employment and treatment by
   mgmt
Perceived Union Instrumentality
  Perceive unionization as an effective way to address sources
   of discontent
Preconceived Views of Union
  Have a positive general image of the labour movement
Supply of Union Representation:
Opportunity
Industry and geographic location
Nature of Union that traditionally organizes the
 industry in question
Public Policy
  Employer „hands-off‟
  Majoritarianism

Degree and extent of employer opposition
Expected Outcomes from
Collective Representation

Canadian Data
  Traditionally, bread and butter issues
  Voice is now key
    Say in union affairs
    Positive solutions to workplace conflicts
    Enabling workers to have a say at work
    Representing workers‟ interests
  “Help workers find collective solutions to
   work-related concerns”
Expected Outcomes from
Collective Representation
American Data
  Employees wish to participate in workplace decisions
     Seek greater representation
  Employees are concerned with the quality of labour-
   management relations
     Not confident they can trust management
  Many employees prefer dealing with management
   collectively
     Need for independent body elected by workers and not
      appointed by management
  VOICE!
     Employee involvement

				
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