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Recording and reporting of accidents in Schools

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									               Recording and reporting of accidents in Schools



Introduction        The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences
                    Regulations 1995 detail the circumstances when employers must
                    directly report injuries at work to the Health and Safety Executive
                    and make provision to report certain diseases related to work.

                    The purpose of the Regulations is to provide the Health and
                    Safety Executive and Swansea Education Department with
                    information which will help them to effectively perform their
                    various accident and ill-health prevention activities. They must
                    indicate where and how problems arise and identify trends. The
                    information will also help to protect the interests of the Education
                    Department, the Governors and any injured party in the event of
                    an accident causing long-term effects.

The accident        This Guidance Note includes a summary of how the accident
recording and       recording and reporting forms are to be used and identifies the
reporting           Education Department staff to whom the forms are to be sent.
procedures          Samples of the forms are appended.

Minor accidents     Minor accidents to pupils, for example grazed knee from a fall in
to pupils           the playground, should be recorded as a simple entry in the
                    Accident Book. The Accident Book should be retained on site for
                    inspection purposes.

Major injuries to   Major injuries to pupils, for example broken bones or any accident
pupils              requiring a child being taken to hospital from school should be
                    reported to the Education Safety officer on Accident Report Form
                    H.S.2.

Staff               With regard to staff, any injury - minor or major - should be
                    reported on the Employee Accident Report Form H.S.1. to the
                    Education Safety Officer.       Injuries or diseases to employees
                    which result in time off work in excess of 3 consecutive days must
                    also be notified in the same manner.

                    Acts of violence should be reported on violence to staff Form
                    H.S.3.

                    If in doubt regarding these procedures, please contact the
                    Education Safety Officer on 01792 636685




                                                                     H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
      REPORTING OF INJURIES, DISEASES AND DANGEROUS
       OCCURRENCES REGULATION 1995 (R.I.D.D.O.R. 1995)


RIDDOR             Some accidents that happen in schools, or during education
                   activities elsewhere, must be reported to the Health and Safety
                   Executive (H.S.E.). The law about accident reporting changed
                   on 1st April 1996.      This guidance gives practical advice to
                   schools on what you now need to report and how to do it. The
                   regulations brought about two particularly important changes from
                   the previous reporting requirements.

                   1.    The definition of “accident” now includes an act of non-
                         consensual physical violence to staff (e.g. to a teacher, but
                         not to a pupil);

                   2.    The requirement to report certain accidents to people who
                         are not at work (e.g. pupils) has been simplified.

What accidents You must report two types of work related accidents to HSE if
to employees do they injure either your employees, or self-employed people
I need to report? working on your premises:

                   1.    Accidents which result in death or major injury (see below).

                   2.    Accidents which prevent the injured person from continuing
                         at his/her normal work for more than three days.


How do I report    You must notify HSE of fatal and major injuries without delay (e.g.
them?              by telephone). Within ten days you must follow this up with a
                   written report on Form 2508. You do not need to notify other
                   accidents immediately, but you must report them in writing to HSE
                   on Form 2508 within ten days.

What about         You need to report an accident that happens to someone who is
pupils and other   not at work, e.g. a pupil or visitor, if:
people who are
not at work?             a)     the person involved is killed or taken to hospital;
                         and
                         b)     the accident arises out of or in connection with work.

                   Like fatal and major injuries to employees, you must notify these
                   accidents to HSE without delay and then in writing ten days on a
                   completed Form 2508.




                                                                    H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
How do I decide An accident will be reportable if it is attributable to:
whether an
“accident” arises     a)     work organization (e.g. the supervision of a field
out of or is in              trip);
connection with       b)     plant or substances (e.g. lifts, machinery,
work?                        experiments etc.);
                      c)     the condition of the premises.

                 Playground accidents due to collisions, slips and falls are not
                 reportable unless they arise out of or in connection with work, e.g.
                 the condition of the premises or equipment, or the level of
                 supervision.

Keeping          A record must be kept of all reportable injuries and dangerous
Records          occurrences, the record must contain:

                 a)     The date and time of accident.

                 b)     The following particulars about the person affected:

                        i)     full name;
                        ii)    occupation;
                        iii)   nature of injury or condition.

                 c)     Place where the accident or dangerous occurrence
                        happened.
                 d)     A brief description of the circumstances.

Points to Note       It may be an offence to have circumstances which give rise
                      or could give rise to an accident.

                     It is an offence not to report an accident which is reportable.

                     If a person comes back to work within the three days, but
                      because of their injury they cannot do their normal job, the
                      incident is reportable in the same way as if they had stayed
                      off work.

                     When you are counting the days to decide whether an
                      accident is reportable, include any days they wouldn‟t
                      normally be expected to work such as weekends, rest days
                      or holidays in the total.




                                                                   H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
It is essential, therefore, in the event of any accident that you
would consider to be reportable/notifiable (whether that
accident results in injury to either a pupil or a member of
staff) that the school contacts the Education Safety Officer
who will assist in the investigation report and give advice
where necessary.

This action should not interfere in the normal procedure for
sending accident forms to the Education Department on the
internal reporting forms.




                                               H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
                       ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
                 It is important that when an accident occurs, a true and accurate
                 account becomes a matter of record.

                 The purpose of accident investigation is to:

                 1.    Establish the facts with the aim of preventing a recurrence
                       (not to apportion blame).

                 2.    To comply with the legal requirement to report major
                       injuries and dangerous occurrences to the Health and
                       Safety Executive (RIDDOR ).

                 3.    To record them for future reference and analysis.

                 An accident must be investigated whether injury has been
                 sustained or not.

                 Distinction should be made between cause and effects of the
                 accident.

                 The cause will include the unplanned events, sequence of events,
                 unsafe acts, unsafe conditions etc.

                 The effects cover injury, damage, near miss and loss.

                 The aim of the investigation should be to remove the cause of the
                 accident thereby removing the need to protect against the effect.

                 When an accident has occurred particularly when involving a
                 major injury, the first duty is to ensure that medical treatment is
                 obtained immediately.

                 Never attempt to question an injured employee/pupil about the
                 accident before medical assistance has been given.


General Points   1.    All accidents should be investigated as soon as possible.

                 2.    When eventually interviewing an injured employee/pupil,
                       make sure that he/she is in a fit state, e.g. he/she might still
                       be in shock or confused about the situation.

                 3.    It is generally better to keep eye witnesses apart during an
                       investigation and question them separately.           These
                       persons may not necessarily supply you with reliable
                       information.




                                                                   H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
                        Differentiate between those who actually saw the accident
                        and those who only saw the result, e.g. “I turned round and
                        saw him on the floor”.

                 4.     Differentiate between „opinion and fact‟.

                 5.     Note exact positions, visibility conditions etc., as soon as
                        possible.

                        When time elapses between accident and investigation,
                        accurate details may be forgotten and details may be
                        mentioned that never occurred.

                 6.     Keep evidence that is available, e.g. broken ladder, worn
                        spanner, leaking container. If, for safety reasons, you are
                        unable to retain the evidence, e.g. damaged fence, pot
                        hole, then take a photograph, date, mark and sign it, then
                        attach it to the accident report for safekeeping.


Cause Analysis   When an accident has occurred, the first step is to prevent
                 recurrence.

                 Determine the actual causes (this is not always a simple matter).
                 There are always two sides to every accident.        The human
                 element and the job itself.

                 There are 5 principles to work to:

                 1.     Who?
                 2.     When?
                 3.     Where?
                 4.     How?
                 5.     Why?

                 and finally, the conclusion, i.e. recommendations to prevent a
                 recurrence.

                 There are 3 questions to be asked:

                 1.     What did the person do or fail to do that contributed to the
                        accident?
                 2.     How did surrounding physical conditions contribute to the
                        accident?
                 3.     What factors under the control of other persons contributed
                        to the accident?

                 These questions bring us to the Unsafe Act and/or Unsafe
                 Condition.


                                                                    H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
Unsafe Act   Unsafe acts can be described as things people do that can result
             in accidents causing injury, damage to equipment (or both) or a
             near miss situation.

             Some examples are:

             1.    Misuse of equipment.
             2.    Using defective or worn equipment.
             3.    Failing to follow correct work procedure.
             4.    Negligence and horseplay.
             5.    Failing to replace guards properly after removal.

             Sometimes these problems are directly under the control of the
             employee but the manager or head of department should be
             identifying these problems and looking at solutions, e.g.

             a)    Has the employee/pupil received correct training or
                   instructions;
             b)    Is the correct equipment available?
             c)    Is the person directly in charge of the situation ensuring
                   that correct procedures, tools and equipment being used?

             The manager/head of department by turning a “blind eye” to any
             of the afore-mentioned acts is virtually guaranteeing that an
             accident will occur in the future.      He/she could be held
             responsible in a criminal/civil prosecution by their omission
             Section 7(a) Health and Safety at Work Act, to act in a safe way.

Unsafe       These can be described as conditions that by their nature are
Conditions   liable to lead to an accident.

             Examples are:

             1.    Poor housekeeping.
             2.    Poor lighting.
             3.    Poor ventilation.
             4.    Defective equipment.
             5.    Incorrect or inadequate guarding.
             6.    Poor design/construction.
             7.    Lack of maintenance.

             These are mainly the responsibility of the management although
             employees/pupils can help to reduce the problem by reporting
             them.

             Unsafe conditions do not always cause accidents but if left
             unattended, the potential for injury/damage remains.




                                                             H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
The problem with unsafe conditions is that they are continually
being created. It does not seem to matter how well trained the
staff/pupils are, they will always have the potential for causing
unsafe conditions, e.g. fire doors wedged open, materials stacked
in corridors is ongoing and frustrating but is the responsibility of
management to maintain a safe working environment.

To eliminate unsafe actions and conditions, management must
create a positive attitude amongst the staff/pupils towards safety
procedures. A system of periodic inspection and assessment
should be implemented to control and eliminate these unsafe acts
and conditions.




                                                 H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
Useful HSE     A guide to RIDDOR ’95 L73 ISBN 07176 1012 8
Publications
               Everyone’s guide to RIDDOR ’95 HSE 31 (single copies free,
               also available in packs of ten. Price £5.00, ISBN 07176 10722)

               F2508/F2508A: Report of an injury, dangerous occurrence or
               case of a disease ISBN 07176 1078 0.

               Safety policies in the education sector
               ISBN 0717607232

               Health and safety management in schools
               ISBN 0717607704

               Contractors in schools IAC(L)98 (single copies free; also
               available in priced packs of 15. ISBN 0 7176 11426).

               Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations
               1992: Guidance for the education sector IAC(L)97
               (single copies free; also available in priced packs of 15,
               ISBN 07176 10497)



Further        Additional copies of this information sheet are available from HSE
Information:   Books.

               Further advice can be obtained from HSE Offices (see under
               Health and Safety Executive in the telephone directory). For
               other enquiries, ring HSE‟s Infoline Tel: 0541 545500 or write to
               HSE‟s Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield. 53 7HO.

               HSE priced and free publications are available by mail order from
               HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 6FS, Tel. No:
               01787 881165, Fax: 01757 313995. HSE priced publications
               are also available from good booksellers.




                                                                H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
                                                                         APPENDIX 1

Major Injuries   This covers the most common major injuries but is not a complete
                 list.

Death            - as a result of an accident arising out of or connected with work.

Injuries         - as a result of an accident arising out of or connected with work.

                     any fracture, other than to the fingers, thumbs or toes;
                      (fracture includes break, chip or crack);

                     any amputation;

                     dislocation of the shoulder, hip, knee or spine;

                     loss of sight, (temporary or permanent);

                     a chemical or hot metal burn to the eye or any penetrating
                      injury to the eye;

                     any injury from an electric shock or electrical burn (including
                      any electrical burn caused by arcing or arcing products
                      leading to unconsciousness or requiring resuscitation or
                      admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours);

                     any other injury
                      - leading to hypothermia, heat-induced illness or to
                         unconsciousness;
                      - requiring resuscitation, or
                      - requiring admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours;

                     loss of consciousness caused by asphyxia or by exposure to
                      a harmful substance or biological agent;

                     either of the following conditions which result from the
                      absorption of any substance by inhalation, ingestion or
                      through the skin:
                 a)   acute illness requiring medical treatment; or
                 b)   loss of consciousness;

                     acute illness requiring medical treatment where there is
                      reason to believe that this resulted from exposure to a
                      biological agent or its toxins or infected material;

Transfer to          any injury to a non-employee, that is a pupil a visitor or a
hospital              contractor, which requires them to be transferred direct to
                      hospital from the school;




                                                                   H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
                                                                         APPENDIX 2


Dangerous           Dangerous Occurrences, as defined by the Regulations, are very
Occurrences         rare indeed in schools. The following is a very abbreviated list.


Lifting             The collapse, overturning, or failure of any load bearing part of:
machinery etc.      any lift, hoist, crane etc.

Pressure            Explosion, collapse or bursting of any closed vessel, including a
vessels             boiler or an autoclave.

Electrical short    Electrical short circuit or overload attended by fire or explosion.
circuit

Explosion or fire   An explosion or fire occurring in any plant or place.

Escape of           The sudden, uncontrolled release of one tonne or more of highly
flammable           flammable liquid.
substances

Collapse of         A collapse or partial collapse of any scaffold which is more than 5
scaffolding         metres high.

Collapse of
building or
structure



Any
unintended
collapse or
partial collapse
of:

(a)                 any building or structure under construction, reconstruction,
                    alteration or demolition, involving a fall of more than 5 tonnes of
                    material; or

(b)                 any floor or wall of any building used as a place of work;

(c)                 any false work.

Biological          any accident or incident which resulted or could have resulted in
agents              the release or escape of a biological agent likely to cause severe
                    human infections or illness.



                                                                       H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
                                                                 APPENDIX 3




Reportable     The following is an abbreviated list indicating those diseases
Occupational   possibly to be encountered in Education Service Activities.
Diseases



1.             Cramp in the hand or forearm due to repetitive movements.

2.             Subcutaneous cellulitis of the hand due to prolonged friction or
               pressure on the hand.

3.             Leigionellosis.

4.             Hepatitis.

5.             Inflammation of the tendons in the hand or forearm.

6.             Hearing loss.

7.             Vibration white finger.

8.             Tuberculosis.

9.             Diseases associated with contact with animals or their carcasses.

10.            Any infection attributable to work with micro-organisms or
               exposure to blood or body fluids.

11.            Chemical/Pesticide/Herbicide poisoning.

12.            Dermatitis.

13.            Asthma.

               Note that the disease must be directly as a result of the work
               activity.




                                                                H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
                                                                              APPENDIX 4

     SUMMARY OF ACCIDENT REPORTING PROCEDURE


                          ACCIDENT/INCIDENT




EMPLOYEE/CONTRACTOR/VISITOR                                          PUPIL/VISITORS/CONTRACTORS




                            ENTER IN ACCIDENT
                                  BOOK




                                                                            COMPLETE
                              FORWARD TO THE                            ACCIDENT REPORT
   COMPLETE                   L.E.A. AND RETAIN
   ACCIDENT                                                             FORM HS2 ONLY IF
                               A COPY AT YOUR                             THE SEVERITY
  REPORT FORM                  ESTABLISHMENT                            WARRANTS IT, OR
                                                                         THE ACCIDENT IS
                                                                        AS A RESULT OF A
                                                                          DEFECT IN THE
                                                                        PREMISES/PROCED
                                                                          URE OR IF THE
                                                                          FREQUENCY OF
                                                                           THE TYPE OF
                                                                            INCIDENT
                                                                           WARRANTS IT




                 IF REPORTABLE UNDER R.I.D.D.O.R. 95
                        COMPLETE FORM f2508*




                   FORWARD THE ORIGINAL TO THE
                   HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE
                      ONE COPY TO THE L.E.A.
                   AND ONE COPY TO BE RETAINED
                      AT THE ESTABLISHMENT




                  *If unsure contact the Health and Safety Officer

                                                                          H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A
Record of Minor Accidents to Pupils:       YEAR:                          TERM:                      SCHOOL:
(Note: Accidents resulting in major
injury should be notified to the LEA
immediately and reported on Incident
Report Forms. See Health & Safety
Policy Guidance Note No: 1)

   Date of Entry   Name of pupil   Description of Accident   Details of    Location of    Accident      First Aid   Cause of       Name of
                     injured                                  Injury        Accident                     Given      Accident    person making
                                                                                                                                    entry
                                                                                         Date   Time   Yes     No




                       Signed: …………………………….…………………..(Headteacher)                        Date: …………………….………………………………

         This form should be sent to the Education Safety Officer at the end of each term. A photocopy should be retained at the school

                                                                                                                           H&S/AK/KP/GNotes/No.1A

								
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