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					                AGENDA-2: ENVIRONMENT STATISTICS

2.1 Need Scope and Utility vis-à-vis status of Environment Statistics in
    India

                                                 (By Dr. S.P. Sharma, Statistical Advisor
                                                    Ministry of Environment & Forests)

1. Introduction:

        Natural resources provide the basic infrastructure for producing goods and
services for the use of human and other species on the earth. The stock and flow of
amount and quality of Natural Resources guide and direct the level and scope of bio-
diversity and standard of eco-system services in a region. With the advancement in
Research and standard of living of human and growth in high degree manufacturing,
communication, services with use of advanced electronics and computing techniques, the
use of natural resources in the process of production directly and indirectly has increased
manifold. Besides, the level of consumption of Natural Resources per capita has
increased very significantly over the decades particularly during the last fifty years. This
has happened especially due to the high growth in population, urbanization and
industrialization during this period. While Research and Development has taken into
account the needs of human in the form of food, shelter, health, transport,
communication, and entertainment related requirements, the needs of the other species of
earth are not adequately considered. It has resulted in skewed and imbalanced use of
Natural Resources resulting in depleting and deteriorating quality of eco-system services
and undue pressure on earth, water, air, forests, and wildlife. As such it is imperative to
plan for balanced use of Natural Resources while planning for growth and development
of economies.

2. Scope

         As per UNSD, the media of the natural environment (air/ climate, water,
land/soil), biota found within these media, and human settlements are within the purview
of Environment Statistics. The quality and availability of natural resources, human
activities and natural events that affect the environment, the impacts of these activities
and actions and social responses to these impacts are also covered in Environment
Statistics.

3. Coverage

        Environment encompasses the various Natural Resources around us, and since it
is multi-disciplinary in nature, as such is the nature and scope of Environment Statistics.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) in consultation with United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) have designed the detailed format of tables to be
prepared and estimates to be provided at macro and micro level by the countries on
Environment Statistics.


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        The international efforts in this field started in 1973 with a seminar in Warsaw
with recommendation of giving high priority to pollution-related data continuing
exchange of information on the related parameters. The draft programme of international
work in the field of Environment Statistics was submitted to the Statistical Commission
in eighteenth session in 1974 which advocated a step-by-step approach concentrating on
need for and the availability of environment statistics and on providing methodological
guidelines. The statistical commission in its twentieth meeting in 1979 requested the
UNSO to explore the feasibility of developing a framework for the organization of
environment statistics. The first draft of international framework was presented in
twenty-first meeting in 1981 and it was revised after regional discussions and reviews by
specialist agencies by the group of experts in 1982. On the request of the twenty-second
meeting of the UNSC in 1983, the publication of the revised Framework was made.

        It was observed from the experience of regional workshops that for both the
industrialized as well as the developing countries, the scope of Environment Statistics is
similar, while the priorities assigned to the different areas may differ from country to
country. The basic framework of characteristics of Environment Statistics is as below:
   (a) Natural phenomena and human activities that exert impacts on the environment,
        on human welfare , and means of improving environmental conditions;
   (b) Synthesis of data from different subject areas and statistical sources;
   (c) Include qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of environment;
   (d) Consist of conventional statistics, monitoring data and remote sensing information

        The special feature of environment statistics is its diverse coverage comprising of
demographic, industrial, economic, ecological, and climatic data. The purposes for which
the concerned data would be collected may be quite different, as such a wide variety of
data sources have to be considered.

         The broad requirement of data in Environment Statistics are on status and
distribution of availability of Natural Resources, their use in different socio-economic,
cultural activities, nature and scope of adverse impact on them as well as the quality of
eco-system services. The broad classification of these Statistics are given in different
aspects as below:

   1. Land Resources
   2. Bio-Diversity
   3. Ecology and Eco-system Services
   4. Forest Resources ( incl. Wildlife)
   5. Ground Water
   6. Surface Water
   7. Demography
   8. Housing and Sanitation
   9. Infrastructure
   10. Climate
   11. Agriculture ( Incl. Organic Agri.)



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    12. Industry ( Alternate Technologies in Use)
    13. Energy ( Efficiency of Use)
    14. Household & Hazardous Waste ( Incl. Agri., Ind., hospital, and e-waste )
    15. Economics (Natural Resource Accounting)
    16. Air Pollution ( incl. Noise Pollution )
    17. Water Pollution ( Metal and Chemical Contamination)
    18. Disaster Management
    19. Waste Disposal (Treatment and recycling )
    20. Coastal Resources and sea level
    21. Marine Resources
    22. Wetlands and Avian Ecology
    23. Transportation ( incl. Eco-tourism and Agri-tourism)
    24. Tourism
    25. Culture and Archaelogy
    26. Legal Framework of Environmental Regulations
    27. Social norms dealing with Natural Resources
    28. Environmental Education and Awareness.

4. Need of Environment Statistics :

          There are requirements of national and local level legislations, regulations and
 administration, for assessment of impacts of industrial, development projects, major
 construction and transportation projects and activities relating to energy exploration and
 implementation projects. The major data needs as identified are
      (i) water quality and availability;
     (ii) land use and degradation;
    (iii) desertification;
    (iv) deforestation;
     (v) natural disasters;
    (vi) ecosystem services;
   (vii) air and noise pollution;
  (viii) waste accumulation, their discharge, and treatment;
    (ix) occupational health impact;
     (x) conservation of floral and faunal bio-diversity;
    (xi) human settlements;
   (xii) Research on environmental impacts of developmental plans;
  (xiii) Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change;
  (xiv) Planning , Policy Formulation and Decision making at National, State and Local
          level relating to Town, country planning, distribution of resources among sectors
          and segment-wise allocation;
   (xv) Investment Planning by Business, insurers, bankers, financers etc.;
  (xvi) For Basic Research by Scientists;
 (xvii) Requirement for Mass Communication and media for travel and tourism advisory;
(xviii) Required by International Organisations for assessing the cross-boundary,
          regional and global environmental issues;




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(xix) Required by General public for environmental education, awareness and socio-
      cultural purposes; and
 (xx) For use of farmers, fishermen, traders for planning their activities for long term.

5. Present Uses

        The present uses of Environment Statistics are manifold with requirements of
Scientists and consultants preparing Environmental Impact Assessment reports and
conducting similar studies for large development projects and feasibility studies. There
are many uses at National, regional level for Integrated Environmental Assessments
being conducted by international agencies e.g. UNEP, its regional offices, UNDP as well
by the National and State, Local Authorities preparing their assessment and
environmental outlook reports for planning and policy making purposes. Some of the
major developments in this area are as below:
   (a) Preparation and publication of Global Environmental Outlook Reports by UNEP:
        so far four such reports have been published;
   (b) Assessment of Climate Change reports by Inter-governmental Penal for Climate
        Change(IPCC): so far four such reports have been released. The IPCC having
        been awarded Nobel Prize for peace jointly with Mr. Al Gore;
   (c) Regional Environmental Assessment reports , e.g. South Asian Environmental
        Outlook ( SAEO), Central Asian Env. Outlook etc.;
   (d) State of Environment Report for Asia and the Pacific by South Asian Centre for
        Environment & Policy( SACEP);
   (e) National State of Environment( SOE) Reports for India: such reports are to be
        released every year now( Third Indian SOE report will be released shortly ) like
        Indonesia, China, Japan, Thailand, and Vietnam ;
   (f) An Interactive State of Environment Atlas for India providing Spatial data on the
        various environmental parameters was released on 22 nd April, 2008;
   (g) State Level SOE reports are being published by all states and Union Territories
        periodically in India;
   (h) Publication of Compendium of Environment Statistics by CSO at the national
        level for India;
    (i) Publication of Compendium of Environment Statistics at state level by some
        Directorates of Economics and Statistics, e.g. Andhra Pradesh;
    (j) In many countries, City level SOE reports are being published, e.g. Bangkok in
        Thailand, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Tehran in Iran, Kathmandu in Nepal, Shenzhen
        in China and Kitakyushu in Japan etc. In India also such programme is being
        initiated now for Metro cities, major River Basins,and Bio-diversity hot spots.

       All such reports require detailed data at different levels of aggregation on many
       environmental parameters on a consistent and comparable basis over the years.
       For deriving clear inferences about the level of Climate Change, statistically
       significant estimates are required to have credible decision making for initiating
       efforts for mitigation and adaptation in the different areas. The use of Remote
       sensing data has been made in Interactive SOE Atlas for India.




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6. India State-level Basic Environmental Information Database ( ISBEID):

        It is a multi-disciplinary environmental data base comprising of 23 modules at the
state level. In this database, the non-spatial data are being converted into spatial data with
the help of Geographical Information System ( GIS) techniques by NIC for the states in
India on behalf of the Ministry of Environment & Forests. The modules are as below:

1. Administrative Profile       9. Hazardous Waste               17.Ecology
2. Environment                 10. Agriculture                   18.Ground Water
3. Bio-Diversity               11.Health                         19.Climate
4. Industry                    12.Demography                     20.Infrastructure
5. Economics                   13.Institutional Framework        21. Tourism
6. Natural Resources           14.Energy
7. Forest Resources           15.Surface Water                   22.Air Pollution
8. Water Pollution            16.Disaster Management             23.Waste Disposal

         In this database the data on many parameters are being taken at Taluk/Tehsil level
within states in India. Some of the examples of data are Area under Agriculture/
Irrigation, Population, Housing condition, Availability of drinking water, sanitation
facility etc. The level of division is as below:

General Administrative Profile

       Name of State, District
       No of District (with name)
       No of Tahsils/Taluks (with name)
       No. of Blocks (with name)
       No. of Municipalities (with name)
       No. of Panchayats
       No of Urban Agglomeration/Towns (with name)
       No. of Cities with Million Plus Population (with name)
       No of Tribal Settlements

Issues Related to Database

       Availability of the data quarterly or half yearly basis
       Authentic data
       Source

7. Environmental Information System(ENVIS):

       Environmental Information System (ENVIS) is a Plan Scheme of Ministry of
Environment and Forests initiated in 1982 for establishing a comprehensive nation-wide
network of Store House of Information in disaggregated Mode in Institutions and



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Organisations for collection, collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information
related to environment. This network of environmental information includes centres on
specific thematic areas in the broad field encompassing environment located across the
country. There are in all 46 centres catering to the compilation and dissemination of
information related to specific thematic areas covering the whole country under its
jurisdiction.

        The environmental indicators have to be verifiable and their impacts in the
various fields have to be estimated in a scientific manner based on concrete data collected
by proven statistical methods. To meet these ends of the requirements of planning and
supporting research and development in the related areas, and to create awareness in
public about the environmental concerns, the ENVIS network has been established by the
Ministry. The long term objectives of ENVIS include:-

•      To build up a repository and network of dissemination centres in environmental
       science and engineering;

•      To adopt modern technologies of acquisition, processing storage, retrieval and
       dissemination of information of environmental nature; and

•      To support and promote research, development and innovation in environmental
       information technology.

         Environment being a multi-disciplinary subject, connected with many sectors of
the economy and social structure of the country and most of the human activities having
impact      on    some     aspect   of     environment,    effective   participation    of
institutions/organisations engaged in the related activities in the subject areas of
environment is essential. As such ENVIS was evolved as a disaggregated network of
institutions/organisations dealing with information on wide ranging disciplines related to
environment. ENVIS centres have been set up in the organisations located across the
country.


         ENVIS is the first web-enabled information network in the country for
dissemination of information online in real-time basis in the field of environment and its
associated areas to decision makers, policy planners, researchers, scientists,
environmentalists, students and the general public. This network bears the hallmark of
Centre-State partnership in information dissemination process. The ENVIS network has
now been linked with Environment Statistics as per the recommendation of National
Statistical Commission headed by Dr. C. Rangarajan. The State of Environment
reporting scheme which was taken up during the Xth Plan has also been merged in the
ENVIS scheme to facilitate uniform treatment to the different environmental parameters.

        Specific disciplines covered under the ENVIS network include control of
pollution, toxic chemicals, occupational health, bio-diversity, mangroves, coral reefs,
problems of mining areas, hazardous waste, ecology, forestry, wildlife, desertification,
eco-tourism, climatic change, bio-informatics, environmental economics, environmental


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law, clean technology, bio technology, human settlement, medicinal plants, treatment of
fly-ash, plastics, bio-sphere reserves, hygiene and health, Pollution, Forestry,
Conservation of Wild Life, Desertification, Environmental Audit, Accounting,
Appropriate Technology, Role of NGOs, Media and Parliament in conservation of
environment, faunal diversity, floral bio-diversity, eco-tourism, environmental
biotechnology, problems of mining, human settlement, bio-geo-chemistry, bio-sphere
reserves, role of women in environmental protection, and role of panchayats in
conservation of environment , Bio-informatics, Environmental Economics,
Environmental Law, Conservation of Medicinal Plants, the Eastern and the western
Ghats, Micro-organisms, Coastal Environment, Mangroves, Coral Reefs, Wet Lands etc..

        There are 30 ENVIS Centres on status of environment in the States/Union
Territories covering all the thematic areas in their own region . All the ENVIS Centres in
the thematic areas as well as in the States/UTs regularly maintain communication among
themselves and with the ENVIS focal point in the Ministry on data base development,
publications including newsletters and management of website. However, there are data
gaps in some areas which need to be filled at the earliest. The environment statistics cells
in the State Governments need to be established at the earliest and capacity building and
strengthening of these cells with adequate and appropriate equipments may be given
desired priority.

8. Present status of environment statistics in India

          The National Statistics Commission (NSC) in its report submitted in 2001 had
recommended that environment statistics cells may be established in the State
Governments with appropriate equipments and support from remote sensing (GIS) data
techniques. However, it has been found that only 8 smaller states have set up
environment statistics cells so far and they also require financial and other support from
the Union Government. At the National Level while the post of Statistical Advisor has
been created in the Ministry of Environment and Forests there is no supporting staff
available for establishing full-fledged statistical division in the Ministry. The
environment statistics units is still functioning in CSO, Ministry of Statistics and
Programme Implementation and they are compiling compendium of environment
statistics taking data from the Ministry of Environment and Forests and its subordinate
organizations and other concerned departments. Since the preparation of state of
environment reports require detailed district level data on many parameters and these are
to be brought out by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, duplication of effort in
CSO and Ministry of Environment and Forests may be avoided and environment statistics
unit may be shifted to Ministry of Environment and Forests with the post and all its
activities. The analysis of multi-disciplinary environmental data and the related indicators
would be more desirable in Mo E & F, due to connectivity and other regular forms of
communication. Most of the data are used for SOE reports and Environmental outlook
reports.

      The data related to forestry have delays and data gaps as recently identified after
workshops. There is requirement of staff and financial support to make the data timely
and comparable. There are technical deficiencies in the data related to forestry, which are


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being compiled by the ICFRE ( Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education),
Dehradun at present. Neither these are adequate nor appropriate for the present
requirement or the future needs of natural Resource Accounting / Carbon Credit
estimation or, applying Environment Impact Assessment and Integrated Environmental
Assessment ( IEA) methodological procedures.




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2.2.    Environment Statistics in India

                                                     (By Social Statistics Division, CSO)
1. Introduction

         Environment is defined as the physical surrounding of living organisms of which
it is a part and on which it is dependent for its activities like physiological functioning,
production and consumption. Physical environment stretches from air, water and land to
natural resources like soil and plants, animals and ecosystems. Living things grow and
interact with the environment. The activity of growing human population and other
living organisms modifies the natural environment producing what is referred to as the
built environment. The potential of the natural environment to sustain these changes
while continuing to function as an ecosystem is an issue of major concern. Key
environmental areas of concern include air pollution, water supply and waste water,
waste management and hazardous waste, and land use issues such as deforestation,
desertification, urban sprawl and climate change.

        The rapidly growing population and economic development leads to
environmental changes and degradation through the uncontrolled growth of urbanization
and industrialization, expansion and massive intensification of agriculture, and the
destruction of forests. Growth of population and developmental activities also adversely
affect the natural resources and pose the challenge of sustainable development. The
existence or the absence of favorable natural resources can facilitate or retard the process
of socio-economic development.

2. Need and Importance of Information on Environment

         One of the important challenges is to achieve closer integration between
economic policies and policies for management of natural resources and environment.
For closer integration, decision-makers need more information about the environmental
impacts of developmental policies and identification of pressure points such as
population, industrialisation, large power generation and irrigation projects, etc. This
calls for collection, compilation and dissemination of a wide variety of statistical data on
biodiversity, atmosphere, land and soil, water, human settlements, etc. Environmental
Statistics, which has become an important area requiring special attention, has three
major sub-areas, namely, basic Environmental Statistics, environmental indicators and
environmental accounting.

        Data on environment and environmental change are required for assessment of
Climate Change and its impacts in terms of higher maximum temperatures, more hot
days/ heat waves; higher minimum temperatures, fewer cold days, frost days/cold waves;
increase summer drying and drought, increased flood, land slides, avalanche and mud
slide damage, increased soil erosion, increased flood run of, increased recharge
floodplain aquifiers, sea level rises threatening many low lying islands and coastal zones,
increased heat stress in life stock and wild life, increased risk of damage to a number of
crops, extended range and activity of pests and disease vectors. Increased summer drying


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results in decreased crop yields, decreased water resource quantity and quality, increased
risk of forest fires etc.

3. Environment Statistics

        UNSD developed a Framework for the Development of Environment Statistics
(FDES) which was published in 1984. A list of environmental indicators was later
prepared by UNSD in collaboration with the Inter-governmental Working Group on the
Advancement of Environment Statistics. The fourth meeting of the Working Group held
at Stockholm in 1995 agreed on the List of environmental and related socioeconomic
indicators given at Annexure-I. The Statistical Commission, at its twenty-eighth session
in New York in 1995 approved this list for international compilation by UNSD.

         Recognising the importance of Environment Statistics as an emerging area, the
subject was first discussed in the fifth Conference of Central and State Statistical
Organisation (COCSSO) held at New Delhi in 1981. The subject was again discussed in
the Sixth and Seventh Conferences and on the recommendation of the Seventh
Conference held in 1985, a multidisciplinary working group comprising Department of
Environment, Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), State Directorates of Economics
and Statistics, and other concerned Central and State organisations and research
institutions involved in the related subjects, was set up in CSO under the Chairmanship of
its Director General in July, 1986. The Working Group, in its Report, submitted in 1990,
suggested a provisional list of variables for Framework for Development of Environment
Statistics. The FDES for the country was prepared based on the broad framework
provided by UNSD and was officially adopted in 1997. As a part of the Asian
Development Bank’s Project in 1996, a suggestive list of environment indicators
(Annexure-II) required to be maintained by India, was recommended.

4. Sources of Environment Statistics in India

         The Ministry of Environment & Forest is vested with the responsibility of
conservation & survey of flora, fauna, forests and Wildlife, prevention & control of
pollution, afforestation & regeneration of degraded areas and protection of environment,
in the frame work of legislations. The main tools utilized for this include surveys, impact
assessment, control of pollution, regeneration programmes, support to organizations,
research and training to augment the requisite manpower, collection and dissemination of
environmental information and creation of environmental awareness among all sectors of
the country's population. The Ministry works in close collaboration with other
Ministries, State Governments, Pollution Control Boards and a number of scientific and
technical institutions, universities, non-Governmental organisations etc. In the process the
Ministry maintains statistics/ data related to various aspects of environment. The Ministry
of Environment and Forests provides assistance to ENVIS Centres for maintaining
information on various aspects related to environment.

       Various Ministries and Departments of Central and State Governments collect
information related to Environment which are published in various publications namely,



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Forestry Statistics, The State of Forest Report, Inventory of Forest Resources of India,
State of Environment, etc. by organisations within the Ministry of Environment and
Forests; Agriculture Statistics at a Glance and Fisheries Statistics by the Ministry of
Agriculture; Water Statistics by Ministry of Water Resources, etc. Most of these
publications are annual, but the time lag in bringing out the publications in respect of the
Ministry of Environment and Forests is about 3 to 5 years. Information on some
indicators is also being collected by other agencies like the Central Pollution Control
Board, Registrar General, Ministry of Urban Development, The Energy and Resources
Institute, etc.

        Different Ministries/ Organizations/ Institutions collect and compile data relating
to different indicators of climate changes. Indian Metrological Departments (IMD) is the
nodal agency for cyclone warning and monitoring in India. IMD is having a list of all
depressions and cyclonic storms formed in Arabian Sea as well as Bay of Bengal for
more than 50 years. This data is useful in identifying the areas prone to cyclones, storms,
and land slides. The daily report of the data is available in the website of IMD. IMD
monitors the data on extreme weather events at 310 weather stations located in different
parts of the country. The data is being collected at meteorological sub-division level.
IMD also collects and maintains the rainfall data which is published on daily, weekly,
seasonal and quarterly basis. IMD also maintains the district wise data on heavy/scanty
rain falls which may help in identifying the hazards. As regards tropical depressions,
IMD maintains data base in respect of tropical depressions in all the coastal districts.

         The Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Boards collect
the data on different air pollutants like SO2, NOx, SPM, RSPM at all the important
locations through out the country. It also collects the data on green houses gases (GHG)
for a few important locations. Ministry of Home Affairs is monitoring the data on
damages due to heavy rains, flood and cyclone during South-West monsoon at State and
district level. The month-wise data is also available on their website. With regard to
floods, Central Water Commission (CWC) has 147 flood forecasting sites in all the major
river basins of the country. There is no format indicting the location of the centre and the
district, and the moderate, high and unprecedented flood level for dissemination of flood
data at district level. Central Water Commission is also monitoring the water availability
in the major reservoirs located in different parts of the country particularly in the summer
season. Central Bureau of Health Intelligence publishes the data on health in their
publication ‘Health Information of India’ every third year. Integrated Disease
Surveillance Project is currently in progress and is expected to be completed by 2009
which would provide the health database. Besides, hospital level data is available on
morbidity and mortality.

        Department of Agriculture and Cooperation maintains the data on land use as per
nine fold classification. It also maintains the data on area sown under different crops for
different seasons. The impact of extreme temperature on production and productivity is
also monitored by the agriculture department. After the transfer of subject matter
relating to National Disaster Management to Ministry of Home Affairs, Department of
Agriculture and Cooperation does the coordination of relief measures necessitated by



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drought. It also maintains the data on drought through out the country. There is a list of
183 districts which are covered under the drought prone area programme. Ministry of
Agriculture conducts all India Soil and Land Use Survey where data on degraded area
across all states and union territories are available. The survey covers all the aspects of
land use pattern and soil characteristics.

        Ministry of Earth Sciences is mandated to provide the nation with best possible
services in forecasting the monsoons and other weather/climate parameters, ocean state,
earthquakes, tsunamis and other phenomena related to earth systems through well
integrated programmes. The Ministry also deals with science and technology for
exploration and exploitation of ocean resources (living and non-living), and play nodal
role for Antarctic/Arctic and Southern Ocean research.

5. Recommendations of National Statistical Commission

         The National Statistical Commission set up by the Government of India under the
Chairmanship of Dr. C. Rangarajan, in 2000, observed that at the Centre, the Central
Statistical Organisation co-ordinates with various central agencies to publish in its annual
Compendium of Environment Statistics. However, since there is no suitable co-ordinating
mechanism at the State level, the availability of State-level data on environment is quite
poor. Data on a number of indicators listed by Asian Development Bank (ADB) are
either presently not being compiled or are only partially available. The database on a
variety of environmental parameters and indicators as available presently through
different sources is quite weak and needs to be substantially augmented. Although the
Ministry of Environment and Forests is the nodal agency for maintenance of proper
statistical system related to environment, the availability of statistical infrastructure in the
Ministry is totally inadequate to meet the growing data requirements. The situation is
more or less similar in organisations such as Forest Survey of India, Indian Council for
Forestry Education & Research, Central Pollution Control Board, etc. functioning under
the administrative control of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The Commission
made the following recommendations:

(i) Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) should continue to co-ordinate and collate the
relevant information on environment as is being done at present and bring out the
Compendium on Environment Statistics on an annual basis. CSO should also provide
necessary guidance to the States for development of Environment Statistics and
indicators.

(ii) The database on Environment Statistics should be strengthened and it should be
linked with the Environmental Information System (ENVIS) already functioning in the
Ministry of Environment and Forests.

(iii) CSO in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment and Forests and other
agencies should finalise the list of Environmental indicators needed for the country and
should take the steps for regular collection of relevant information.




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(iv) Considering the emerging need for Environment Statistics, a Statistical Division in
the Ministry of Environment and Forests, should be established to cater to the
requirements of environment and forest related data and analysis of the same. A
Statistical Adviser at an appropriate level from Indian Statistical Service should head the
Division.

(v) Environment Statistics Cells should be created in the Directorate of Economics and
Statistics in all the States and the same should be responsible for coordination and
collation of information from other related agencies in the State.

6. Action Taken on recommendations made by National Statistical Commission

        The Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) coordinates with various central
agencies to bring out ‘Compendium of Environment Statistics India’ under the broad
FDES provided by UNSD. The first issue was brought out in 1997 and since then nine
issues of the publication have been brought out, the latest being 2007. The Compendium
provides present status of five broad components of environment. It provides the
necessary base to bring out the magnitude of the problem. The compendium consists of
seven chapters. The first two chapters give a general introduction to environment, its
degradation through different sources and their impact on human health. The remaining
five chapters are on Biodiversity, Atmosphere, Land/Soil, Water and Human Settlements.
Besides, statistical tables depicting environment data, suitable graphs and charts have
also been added to make the publication more users friendly. The details of data
collected by the CSO along with the data source agencies are given at Annexure-III.

        State Governments have been requested to bring out their State Compendium
similar to the Compendium of Environment Statistics brought out by the CSO. The States
have also been requested to create separate Environment Cell in DES to coordinate with
data source agencies at State level. The State Governments were also offered necessary
guidance for the development of Environment Statistics. The Government of Tamil Nadu
was provided financial assistance for printing their State Compendium.

      The consultations were held with MOEF for a suitable linkage of CSO with
ENVIS in order to strengthen the environment data base. However, an effective linkage
of CSO with ENVIS through web enabled compatible system is yet to be established.

       The Ministry of Environment & Forests has strengthened the Environment
Information Cell by creating the post of Statistical Adviser at the level of Joint Secretary.
The post is encadred in the Indian Statistical Service.

7. Identification of Data Gaps by CSO

        CSO in consultation with the concerned agencies identified the additional
indicators for which data need to be compiled. Data source agencies have been
requested to compile the information and provide it to the CSO for inclusion in the
Compendium of Environment Statistics. The details of identified indicators for which the



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data are not being compiled along with the data source agency requested to provide the
information, are given below:-

 S.NO.                      Indicator                              Data Source agency
1.        Non-vertebrates                                Zoological Survey of India
             (a) rare
             (b) vulnerable
             © endangered endemic

2.        III CONSEVATIONS MEASURES                   National Botanical Genetic Resources
          B.        Outside habitats (ex-situ)        of India (NBGRI) or IARI, PUSA
               (a)      Gene banks
3.        III B. Emmissions as per WHO National Ministry of Environment & Forests
          Standard (e.g. p.p.m., Ppv.)
               (a)      CO
               (b)      HC
               (c)      Pb Concentrations
               (d)      CO2
               (e)      Others (e.g. CHs, CFCs, etc.)
4.        IV C. (c) Meteorogical information          1.IMD
               (i)   Humidity                         2. Indian Institute of Tropical
               (ii) Wind Speed                        Meteorology, Pune
               (iii) Others

5.            IV (b) Ground Water                        Central Ground water Board and
              i    pH                                    Central Water Commission
              ii Turbidity
              iii Metal Concentration
              iv Ar, F, Cl, NO3
6.        V Marine water                                 Department of Ocean Development,
              (a) Length of marine coastline(Km)
              (b) Area(Sq. km)                           Institute of National
              (c) Population                             Oceanographic, Goa
7.            (e) Relative fragility %                   To be examined by MOE&F
              (f) Preservation area
8.        VI Land/Soil                                   To be examined by MOE&F
          C.       Wetland
9         F.      Land area on waste disposal            1. Centre of Solid Waste and
              a) Industrial                              Management
              b) Municipal                               2. NEERI, Nagpur
              c) Hazardous                               3. MOE&F
              d) Mining
              e) Others
10.       VIII.   NATURAL DISASTERS                      National Institute of Disaster
          E.      Landslides                             Management , MHA
          F.      Avalanches
          G.      Typhoon
          H.      Others

         In addition to the indicators mentioned above, the following data gaps also exist.




                                                   14
Land and Soil:

   •     Area Affected by Soil Erosion: Category wise area affected under Light erosion,
         Moderate erosion, Strong erosion, Extreme erosion.

   •     Share of area affected by soil erosion under Agricultural land, Forest and other
         wooded land, Dry open land with special vegetation cover, Open land without, or
         with insignificant, vegetation cover.

   •     Area affected by Salinization: Category-wise area affected under Agricultural
         land, Forest and other wooded land, Dry open land with special vegetation cover,
         Open land without, or with insignificant, vegetation cover, etc.

   •     Area Affected by Desertification by dry-sub humid areas, semi-arid and arid
         areas.

Waste:

   •     Generation of Waste by Sector such as Agriculture and Forestry, Industrial
         Activities including Mining and quarrying, Manufacturing industries, energy
         production, construction, Municipal Waste and share of household waste, Total
         waste generation and share of hazardous waste;

   • Management of Hazardous Waste:
   (a) Hazardous Waste generated
   (b) Proportion of hazardous waste : recycling, incineration, landfill and others

   • Waste Treatment and Disposal Facilities:
   (c) Number and capacity of waste treatment and incineration plants
   (d) Number and annual inputs of landfill sites

   •     No regular data on municipal waste generated and collected from households and
         other origins at country and city level

Water:

(i) Renewable Freshwater Resources
       (e) Actual Evapo-transpiration, actual external inflow and outflow of surface and
       ground water
(ii) Water Use Balances
     (a) Gross freshwater abstracted (surface water and ground water)
     (b) Water refunded without use, desalinated water, reused water

(iii) Freshwater, Ground Water and Surface water Abstraction
     (domestic, industry, irrigation, others)



                                            15
(iv) Water Suppy Industries (ISIC)
    (a) Gross and net freshwater delivered by water supply industries
   (b) Population supplied by water supply industry

(v) Total Water Use
   (a) Sector-wise freshwater use
   (b) No regular data on supply of water, water collection and treatment plants, type of
      plants, sewage sludge production at city level

(v) Population connected with urban waste water treatment

Air:

        Regular Data on Emissions of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NM-
VOCs), Emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Emissions of Methane (CH4), Emissions of
Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Emissions of Lead (Pb), source-wise i.e. Energy industries,
Manufacturing industries and construction, Transport, Other fuel combustion, Total
fugitive emissions from fuels, Industrial processes, Solvent use, Agriculture, Other
sources of emissions are not available.

        CSO has got done eight pilot studies on Natural Resources Accounting and
prepared a Framework on Disaster Management statistics. The additional data required
on these aspects are being assessed and will be communicated to the data source agencies
in due course of time.

8. Issues and Scope for Further Improvement:

Filling up of Data Gaps: The data source agencies should generate the information on
the environmental indicators as per FDES for which the data are not available. The
information should be provided to the CSO for inclusion in the Compendium of
Environment Statistics.

Environment Statistics Cell and State Compendium of Environment Statistics:
National Statistical Commission had recommended that Environment Statistics Cells
should be created in the Directorate of Economics and Statistics in all the States and the
same should be responsible for coordination and collation of information from other
related agencies in the State.The Governments of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Madhya
Pradesh have brought out their first Compendium of Environment Statistics for their
State. Recently, Government of Andhra Pradesh has also brought out their first State
Compendium on Environment Statistics. The other States may initiate the process of
compilation of information on environment and bring out State Compendium of
Environment Statistics.

Identification of Key Environmental Indictors (KEI): Currently a large amount of
information on various aspects of environment is being compiled by various data source
agencies. This information relates to environmental areas of concern including air



                                            16
pollution, water supply and waste water, waste management and hazardous waste, and
land use issues such as deforestation, desertification, urban sprawl and climate change.
Each of these areas of environmental concern has a large number of indicators which
need to be looked at simultaneously to assess the state of environment at a particular
point of time and to compare the environmental changes over time. The sheer large
number of indicators under different areas makes it impossible. Thus, there is a need for
identification of a select few indicators under each area which can be collectively used to
assess the state of environment and on which regular information is available. The
purpose of these select indicators or key indicators would be to provide a manageable and
stable basis for indicator-based assessment of environmental issues including the climate
change issues. This would also prioritize improvements in the quality and coverage of
data flows. A Working Group may be set up by the CSO for this purpose.




                                            17
                                                                                         Annexure-I

            List of Environmental and related Socio-Economic Indicators

            The indicators that are bolded in the list were intended for short-term
    compilation directly from national statistical services or from other international
    organizations or specialized agencies.

                                            FDES Information categories

       Issues       Socioeconomic       Impacts and effects       Responses to           Inventories,
                   activities, events                               impacts                 stocks,
                                                                                         background
                                                                                          conditions

ECONOMIC          Real GDP per capita EDP/EVA per capita        Environmental         Produced capital
ISSUES            growth rate                                   protection            stock
                                      Capital                   expenditure as %
                  Production and      accumulation              of GDP
                  consumption         (environmentally
                  patterns            adjusted)                 Environmental
                                                                taxes and subsidies
                  Investment share in                           as % of
                  GDP                                           government
                                                                revenue

SOCIAL/DEMO-      Population growth     % of urban                                    Population living
GRAPHIC ISSUES    rate                  population exposed                            in absolute poverty
                                        to concentrations of
                                        SO2, particulates,                            Adult literacy rate
                                        ozone, CO and Pb
                  Population density                                                  Combined primary
                                        Infant mortality rate                         and secondary
                  Urban/rural                                                         school enrollment
                  migration rate        Incidence of                                  ratio
                                        environmentally
                  Calorie supply per    related diseases                              Life expectancy at
                  capita                                                              birth

                                                                                      Females per 100
                                                                                      males in secondary
                                                                                      school

AIR/CLIMATE       Emissions of CO2,     Ambient                 Expenditure on air    Weather and
                  SO 2 and NOx          concentrations of       pollution             climate conditions
                                        CO, SO2, NOx O3         abatement
                  Consumption of        and TSP in urban
                  ozone depleting       areas                   Reduction in
                  substances                                    consumption of
                                        Air quality index       substances and
                                                                emissions




                                               18
LAND/SOIL             Land use               Area affected by       Protected area as   Arable land per
                      change                 soil erosion           % of total land     capita
                                                                    area
                      Livestock per km2 of Land affected by
                      arid and semi-arid   desertification
                      lands
                                           Area affected by
                      Use of fertilizers   salinization and
                                           water logging
                      Use of agricultural
                      pesticides

WATER
Fresh water resources Industrial,            Concentration of       Waste water         Groundwater
                      agricultural and       lead, cadmium,         treatment, total    reserves
                      municipal discharges   mercury and            and by type of
                      directly into          pesticides in fresh    treatment (% of
                      freshwater bodies      water bodies           population
                                                                    served)
                      Annual                 Concentration of
                      withdrawals of         fecal coliform in      Access to safe
                      ground and surface     fresh water            drinking water
                      water                  bodies                 (% of population
                                                                    served)
                      Domestic               Acidification of
                      consumption of         fresh water
                      water per capita       bodies

                      Industrial,            BOD and COD in
                      agricultural water     fresh water
                      use per GDP            bodies

                      Industrial,            Water quality index
                      agricultural and       by fresh water
                      municipal discharges   bodies
                      directly into marine
                      water bodies           Deviation in stock
                                             from maximum
                      Discharges of oil      sustainable yield of
Marine water          into coastal waters    marine species
resources
                                             Loading of N and P
                                             in coastal waters




                                                    19
OTHER NATURAL
RESOURCES

Biological resources
                         Annual roundwood Deforestation             Reforestation       Forest inventory
                         production       rate                      rate
                                                                                      Ecosystems
                         Fuelwood              Threatened, extinct Protected forest   inventory
                         consumption per       species             area as % of total
                         capita                                    land area          Fauna and flora
                                                                                      inventory
                         Catches of marine
                         species                                                        Fish stocks
Mineral (incl. energy)
resources                                      Depletion of
                         Annual energy
                         consumption per       mineral resources                        Proven mineral
                         capita                (% of proven                             reserves
                                               reserves)
                         Extraction of other
                         mineral               Lifetime of proven                       Proven energy
                         resources             reserves                                 reserves

WASTE                    Municipal waste       Area of land         Expenditure on
                         disposal              contaminated by      waste collection
                                               toxic waste          and treatment
                         Generation of
                         hazardous waste                            Waste recycling

                         Imports and
                         exports of
                         hazardous
                         wastes

HUMAN                    Rate of growth of     Area and             Expenditure on      Stock of shelter
SETTLEMENTS              urban                 population in        low-cost housing    and infrastructure
                         population            marginal
                                               settlements
                         % of population in
                         urban areas           Shelter index

                         Motor vehicles in     % of population
                         use per 1000          with sanitary
                         habitants             services

NATURAL                  Frequency of          Cost and number of Expenditure on         Human settlements
DISASTERS                natural               injuries and          disaster prevention vulnerable to
                         disasters             fatalities related to and mitigation      natural disasters
                                               natural disasters




                                                     20
                                                                         Annexure-II

Environmental Indicators

       A suggestive list of environmental indicators as recommended by Asian
Development Bank in its project on institutional strengthening and collection of
environment statistics under various heads is as below.

I.     FLORA
A.     Threatened species as percentage of total native species
       Flowering Plants
       (a) Rare
       (b) Vulnerable
       (c) Endangered endemic
       Non-Flowering plants
       (a) Rare
       (b) Vulnerable
       (c) endangered ’endemic
B.     Extinct species as percentage of total native species.
C.     Possibly extinct species as percentage of total native species.

II.    FAUNA
A.     Threatened species as percentage of total native species
       Vertebrates
       (a) rare
       (b) vulnerable
       (c) endangered’endemic
       Non- Vertebrates
       (a) rare
       (b) vulnerable
       (c) endangered’endemic
B.     Extinct species as percentage of total native species.
C.     Possibly extinct species as percentage of total native species.

III.   CONSERVATION MEASURES
A.     Within habitats (in situ)
       (a) Bio sphere reserves
       (b) National Parks
       (c) Sanctuaries
       (d) Reserve forests
       (e) Other protected measures



                                            21
B.    Outside habitats (ex situ)
      (a) Botanic gardens
      (b) Gene banks
      (c) Others

IV.   AIR/ATMOSPHERE

A.    Ambient air quality in major cities
      Annual Average        24 hour average
      Ug/m3                 Ug/m3
      (a) Concentration of SOx
      (b) Concentration of NOx
      (c) Concentration of SPM
B.    Emissions as per WHO National Standard (e.g. ppm. Ppv)
      (a) CO
      (b)   HC
      (c) Pb concentration
      (d) CO2
      (e)   Others (e.g. CHs, CFCs, etc.)
C.    Energy consumption
      (a) Percentage of the households using different fuels for cooking
             (i) Cow dung
             (ii) Electricity
             (iii) Coal Coke
             (iv) LPG
             (v) Fuelwood
             (vi) Solar power
             (vii) Biogas
             (viii) Kerosene
      (b) Electricity generation
             (i)     Renewable (mgw)
             (ii)    Non-renewable (mgw)
      (c) Meteorological information
             (i)     Rainfall
             (ii)    Humidity
             (iii)   Wind speed
             (iv)    Others

V.    WATER
A.    Fresh water
      (a) Surface water



                                           22
             (i)      Rainfall
             (ii)     River water quality standard
                       -     DO level
                       -     BOD level
                       -     COD level
                       -     Total solids
                       -     Coliform concentration
                       -     Heavy metal concentration

      (b) Ground water
            (i) pH
            (ii) Turbidity
            (iii) Metal concentration
            (iv) Ar, F, Cl, NO3
B.    Marine water
      (a) Length of marine coastline (km)
      (b) Area (sq. km)
      (c) Population (m)
      (d) Coastal vegetation
             (i)     Mangroves as percentage of total forest cover
             (ii)    Lagoons
             (iii)   Estuaries
             (iv)    Coral reefs
      (e)   Relative fragility, %
      (f)   Preservation area, %

VI.   LAND/SOIL
A.    Land use (million ha)
      (a)   Geographic area (sq. km.)
      (b)   Reporting area for land utilisation
B.    Forest areas
      (a)    Forests
      (b)   Not available for cultivation
             (i) Non-agricultural
             (ii) Barren and uncultivated land
      (c)    Other cultivated land
             (i) Permanent pastures and other grazing land
             (ii) Miscellaneous tree crops and groves
             (iii) Cultivated wasteland
      (d) Gross cropped area


                                            23
       (e) Cropping intensity.
C.     Wetlands
D.     Irrigated area
E.     Soil erosion
       (a) Percentage area
       (b) Pesticide level
       (c) Consumption of fertilisers (t)
F.     Land area on waste disposal
       (a)   Industrial
       (b)   Municipal
       (c)   Hazardous
       (d)   Mining
       (e)   Others.

VII.    HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
A.     Total population
       (a) Urban
       (b) Rural
B.     Population below poverty line
       (a) Urban
       (b) Rural
C.     Slum population (class-wise)
D.     Number and percentage of facilities
       (a) Dwelling units
       (b)    Sanitation
       (c) Drinking water
       (d) Others
E.     Urban agglomeration
F.     Life expectancy and mortality rates and causes.

VIII. NATURAL DISASTERS
                    Periodicity             affected population
A.    Flood
B.    Cyclones
C.    Drought
D.    Earthquake
E.    Landslides
F.    Avalanche
G.    Typhoon
H.    Others

IX.    OTHER ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS
A.     Total expenditure
B.     Expenditure for environmental protection
C.     Percentage of national expenditure



                                            24
                                                                          Annexure-III

        The details of Data compiled by the CSO along with data source agencies

S.No.       Data Source Agency                          Data Type
1.        India    Meteorological Monsoon Performance, Sub-divisional Actual and
          Department              Normal        Rainfall, Annual Actual Rainfall by
                                  Meteorological Sub-Division, State-wise Distribution
                                  of No. of Districts with Excess, Normal, Deficient,
                                  Scanty and No Rainfall, List of Districts With Deficient
                                  or Scanty Rainfall during the Period from 1st June to
                                  30 th   September,     Number     of      Meteorological
                                  Subdivisions with Excess/Normal and Deficient /Scanty
                                  Rainfall at the end of Monsoon Season (June-
                                  September).

2.        Ministry    of       New Estimated     Potential   for   Renewable    Energy
          Renewable Energy         Technologies in India, State wise Wind Power
                                   Cumulative Installed Capacity, Status of Biomass
                                   Projects, State-wise Grid-interactive Bioass Power
                                   Installed Capacity, National Programme on Improved
                                   Chullahs, Distribution of Family-Type Biogas Plants
                                   (Number of Installations, State-wise and year-wise
                                   composition of commissioned Bio-mass Power
                                   Projects, State-wise Break-up of Energy Parks and
                                   Clubs.

3.        ,Ministry of Environment Overall Responsibility lies with Ministry of
          and Forests,             Environment & Forests although data source agencies
                                   like ENVIS Centres are furnishing data directly.

4.        Forest Survey of India,   1. State/UT Wise Forest Area
          Dehradun                  2. Forest Cover in India
                                    3. Cumulative Area of Forest Plantations by all
                                      Agencies in the States/UTs from 1951 to 1999
                                    4. Comparative Situation of Forest Cover in India
                                    5. Physiographic Zone Wise Tree Cover Estimates
                                    6. State/UT Wise Tree Cover Estimates
                                    7. Forest cover in States/UTs in India
                                    8. State/UT Wise Forest Cover in Hill Districts
                                    9. State/UT wise Forest cover in Tribal Districts
                                    10. Forest Cover in Mining Areas by State




                                           25
5.   Directorate of Education, 1. Forest Area by Ownership (As on 31-3-2000)
     Indian     Council     of 2. Forest Area by Composition (As on 31-3-2000)
     Forestry Research &       3. Comparative Situation of Forest Cover in India
     Education                 4. Change in Forest Cover of the North-Eastern Region
                               during 1990s
                               5. Forest Products of India
                               6. State-wise Production of Forest Produce
                               7. Estimates of Wastelands in India
                               8. Estimates of Non-Forest Wastelands in India
                               9. Progress of Joint Forest Management in India
                               10. National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries of India
                               11. Location of Major Zoos
6.   Department             of State wise information on degraded land of the districts
     Agriculture            &
     Cooperation
7.   Central Pollution Control 1. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
     Board, Delhi              2. Ambient Air Quality Status in Some Cities/Towns
                               3. Annual Mean Concentrations of Suspended
                               Particulate Matter (<10um) (SPM10), SO2, NO2 in
                               Ambient Air
                               4. Ambient Air Quality in Delhi
                               5. Emission Limits for Diesel Driven Vehicles
                               6. Phased Tightening of Exhaust Emission Standards
                                 for Indian Automobiles
                               7. Summary Status of Pollution Control in 17
                               Categories of Industries
                               8. State-wise Summary Status of the Pollution Control
                                 in Pre and Post-91 Units of 17 Categories of
                                 Industries
                               9. Summary Status of Pollution Control in Grossly
                                 Polluting Industries Discharging Their Effluents into
                                 Rivers and Lakes
                               10. Maximum Permissible Limits for Industrial Effluent
                                 Discharges
                               11. Effluent Standards for Sugar Industry, Large Pulp
                                 and Paper Industries, Oil Refineries, Aluminium
                                 Industry,. Effluent Standards for Petro-Chemical
                                 (Basic & Intermediates) Industry
                               12. Primary Water Quality Criteria,. Biological Water
                               Quality criteria (BWQC),. Physico-Chemical and
                               Biological Water Quality of Polluted Stretch of River
                               Yamuna and Agra Canal
                                 13. Waste Water Generation, Collection, Treatment in
                                 Metro Cities: Status
                                 14. Industrial & Sewage Discharges to the Coastal



                                       26
                                     Waters
                                 15. Criteria for Classification of Inland Surface Water
                                 16. Hazardous Waste Regulatory Quantities
                                 17. Total Amount of Solid Waste Collected and the
                                     Collection Efficiency in Some Towns/Cities in
                                     India
                                 18. Composition of Solid Wastes from Cities
                                 19. Municipal Solid Waste Data (MSW) for Delhi
                                 20. Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Major Cities
                                 21. Consumption of Plastic in the World in 2000

8.    Department of Chemicals 1. Capacity and Production in the Chemical Industry
      and Petrochemicals,        (Insecticides) in India
      Ministry of Chemicals
                                 2. Capacity and Production in the Chemical Industry in
      and Fertilizers,
                                   India (Fungicides, Herbicides, Weedicides,
                                   Rodenticides, Fumigents)
                                 3. Consumption of Chemical Fertilizers
9.    Joint Director,            1. All India Tiger population
      Project Tiger, Ministry of 2. Population of Tigers in Tiger Reserves
      Environment and Forests,
      Natural           Disaster     1. Information on Drought and Extent of Damage
10    Management,
      Ministry of Agriculture,
      Ministry      of    Water 1. List of Identified Drought Prone Districts in the
11.   Resources, Central Water Country
      commission,                2. Flood Affected Area and Flood Damages in India
                                   (Abstract for the Period 1953 to 2002)
                                 3. Water Flow in Stream
                                 4. State-wise Details of Inland Water Resources of
                                   Various Types
                                 5. Projected Annual Requirement of Water (By
                                   Different Uses)
                                 5. Catchment Area of Major River Basins
                                 6. Minimum and Maximum of Observed Values of
                                   Water Quality Parameters at CWC Sites on West
                                   Flowing Rivers
                                 7. Minimum and Maximum of Observed Values of
                                   Water Quality Parameters at CWC Sites on East
                                   Flowing Rivers
                                 8. Annual Internal Renewable Water Resources &
                                   Water Withdrawals in Selected Countries of World
                                 9. State-Wise Annual Requirement of Water for
                                   Domestic Purpose
                                 10 Industrial & Sewage Discharges to the Coastal
                                   Waters


                                        27
                                  11. State-wise Estimated Annual requirement of Water
                                  for Domestic Purposes Including for Cattle in Different
                                  States

12.   Central Ground      Water 1. Ground Water Resource Potential as per Basin
      Board,                    (Prorata Basis)
      Faridabad                  2. Ground Water Resources
13.   Zoological   Survey     of 1. India’s Major Biogeographic Habitats
      India,                    2. Estimated Number of Species
                                3. Rare and Threatened Species (Vertebrates)
                                4. Recent Addition in the List of
                                  Threatened/Endangered Species
                                5. Estimated Number/Percentage of Endemic Species in
                                  India
14.   Directorate General of 1. Production of Coal from Opencast Working by
      Mines Safety, Ministry of Mechanisation and Overburden Removed
      Labour,                   2. Productivity in Coal Mines
15.   Indian Bureau of Mines, 1. Number of Reporting Mines in India
      Nagpur                  2. Production of Minerals
                              3. Information on Rehabilitation of Mining
                              Land/Reclamation of Abandoned Mines
                                  4. Status of Afforestation in Major Non-Coal Mines
                                  5. Mining Machinery in Metalli-ferrous Opencast
                                    Mechanized Mines
                                  6. Consumption of Explosives
                                  7. Mining leases, lignite, consumption of minerals of
                                    Iron & Steel Industry, Cement Industry, Refractory ,
                                    Mineral Reserves and Resources
16.   Ministry     of      Rural 1. Status of Habitations Under Rural Water supply
      Development,                  programme
      Department of Drinking
      Water upply
17.   Central         Electricity 1. Installed Capacity of Power Utilities on 31-3-2003
      Authority                   2. Generating Capacity and Electricity Generation
                                  3. Actual Power Supply Position
                                  4. Annual Gross Generation of Power by Source
                                  5. Number of Towns and Villages Electrified in India
                                  6. Growth of Installed Generating Capacity in India
                                  7. Annual Gross Generation of Power by Source
18.   Department of Animal 1. India’s Livestock Population
      Husbandry and Dairying, 2. Livestock Population as per 2003 Census
      Ministry of Agriculture,    3. Fish Production
                                  4. Marine Fishery Resources of India



                                         28
                                 5. State-wise Fish Production
                                 6. Inland Fishery Water Resources of India
                                 7. Incidence of Livestock and Poultry Diseases in India
                                 8. State-wise Details of Inland Water Resources of
                                   Various Types

      Ministry        of   Coal 1. State wise Production of Coal and Lignite
19.   Controller,               2. State-wise Inventory of Geological Reserves of Coal
      Office of Coal Controller 3. Inventory of Geological Reserves of Coal by Type
                                4. State wise Wind Power Cumulative Installed
                                  Capacity
                                5. State wise Small Hydro Station Installed/Under
                                  Construction up to 3 MW Capacity, 1997-98
20.   Directorate of Economics 1. Land Use Classification in India
      and Statistics,           2. Selected Categories of Land Use Classification
      Ministry of Agriculture,  3. State wise information on degraded land of the
                                   districts
                                 4. Use of Agricultural Inputs
                                 5. Performance of Crop Production
                                 6. Area Under Principal Crops
                                 7. Consumption of Chemical Fertilizers
21.   National Bureau of Plant   1. Status of EX-Situ Conservation (Base Collection) of
      Genetic Resources,         Orthodox Seeds at -20 0C
      (Indian    Council    of   2. Status of In-Vitro Conservation
      Agricultural Research),    3. Status of Germplasm at National Cryobank
      Pusa Campus                4. Status of Cryopreservation of Pollen
22    Department of Petroleum    1. Domestic Production of Petroleum Products in India
      & Natural Gas              2. Availability of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products in
                                 India
                                 3. Gross and Net Production and Utilization of Natural
                                 Gas in India
                                 4. Industry-wise Off-take of Natural Gas in India
23.   Ministry     of   Road     1. Number of Motor Vehicles Registered in India
      Transport & Highways       (Taxed and Tax-Exempted
                                 2. Total Registered Motor Vehicles in Metropolitan
                                 Cities of India
                                 3. Working of State Transport Undertakings
                                 4. Navigable waterways in India, 2002-03
24.   Natural        Disaster    Data on damage on heavy rainfall, flood, cyclones and
      Management    Division,    other type of disasters
      Ministry   of   Home
      Affairs,

25.   Registrar   General    of 1. Population data as per census
      India,                    2. Mortality rate


                                        29
                               3. Housing Data
                               4. Data on slums
26.   NSSO, CPD, Ministry of Number of Households by major source of Drinking
      Statistics & PI          water, primary of source of energy cooking, primary
                               source of lighting
27.   Planning     Commission, Data on state wise percentage of population below
      Yojna Bhawan,            poverty line




                                       30
2.3.   Environmental Statistics

                                                          (By Shri Subramanyam K.V.,
                                                       Joint Director, DES, Karnataka)

        Environment is the aggregate of all the external conditions and influences
affecting the life and development of an organism. Environment consists four major
elements land, water, air and the living organisms. Land, water and air form the physical
environment and plants & animals form biological environment.

1. Some of the important problems:

 Ø Degradation of agricultural land, chiefly on account of loss of forest cover and top
   soil, leading to soil erosion and droughts;
 Ø Shortage of fuel wood and fodder, timber;
 Ø Threats to flora & fauna and biological diversity because of disturbance of their
   habitat;
 Ø Adverse impact of developmental activities such as mining, power generation,
   industrialization, irrigation, communication, etc.;
 Ø Pollution of water from industrial waste and waste from urban(domestic);
 Ø Pollution of air due to emission from vehicles, industries;
 Ø Pollution of seas;
 Ø Increased production, transportation and use of hazardous chemicals;

   Socio–economic causes

 Ø Hydrological system – dams/reservoirs, paper factories, match factories, plywood
   factories, rayon factories.

2. Pollution:

 Ø Air pollution –more carbon dioxide - increases absorption of heat reflected by earth
   – increases atmosphere temperature – polar ice melting – rise of sea level;

 Ø Chloro-fluoro-carbons(CFC’s) – increase is harmful to ozone layer;

 Ø Water Pollution –Dumping of industrial wastage, sewage of urban, chemicals,
   fertilizers, pesticides used flows to river;

 Ø Land degradation.

3. Degree of concern:

       Related issues identified by department of Forest, Ecology and Environment,
Government of Karnataka, in their “State of the Environment and Action plan 2003,”
based on degree of concern are as follows:


                                           31
Very high degree of concern:

   1.  Over exploitation of Ground water;
   2.  Degradation of coastal region;
   3.  Degradation of forests due to firewood removal;
   4.  Improper waste management and non-availability of disposal sites;
   5.  Illegal layouts in urban areas;
   6.  Deteriorating water quality;
   7.  Degraded/lost lakes in urban areas;
   8.  Degradation of tanks for construction/cultivation;
   9.  Indoor air quality affected by high SPM(suspended particulate matter) and RSPM
       (Respirable suspended particulate matter) levels;
   10. Unsustainable land management, fragmentation of land, habitat destruction
       leading to loss of bio diversity.

High degree of concern:
   1. In-adequate water supply in rural areas;
   2. Deteriorating drinking water quality in rural areas;
   3. Lack of household toilet facility in rural;
   4. Lack of sewerage systems and disposal facilities;
   5. Low intensity of integrated watershed management;
   6. Proliferation of slums;
   7. In-sufficient parks or open spaces;
   8. High PM levels in urban areas;
   9. Invasion by exotic species.

Moderate degree of concern:
  1. Air pollution due to industries;
  2. Lack of household toilet facility;
  3. Absence of regulatory mechanism of CPR’s - river basins, gomals, etc.,

Low degree of concern:
  1. Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances;
  2. High noise levels in industrial areas;
  3. Environmental degradation due to abandoned/closed mines;
  4. Disposal of Hazardous waste;
  5. Wastage of water due to over application in agriculture, seepage, pilferage;
  6. Siltation in estuaries, reservoirs and riverbeds;
  7. Coastal erosion;




                                           32
                         Resource–Region impact matrix
Region             Western    Northern     Southern
                                                                Coast          Bangalore
Resource           Ghats      Maidan       Maidan
Air                Low        Medium       Medium               Low            High
Water              Low        Very High Very High               High           High
Biodiversity and   Very High  Medium       Medium               Very High      Low
forests
Land               High           Medium         High           Very High      Medium

4. Data Requirements:

Paper titled Uncertainties in Assessing the State of the Environment: An Overview of
Environmental Statistics, Assessment and Forecasting by C. Richard Cothern and
N.Phillip Ross says –

       “Clear, complete, statistically accurate and understandable information is essential
       to making informed decisions concerning the state of the environment. To
       develop a coherent picture of national and regional environmental trends and
       conditions requires: collecting quality data; assembling the existing data which is
       scattered among many governmental, industrial, academic and environmental
       organisations; statistically analyzing and integrating the information; and
       providing complete, accurate, and understandable presentations. Unfortunately,
       in most cases much of the data do not exist or are not available and in only a few
       cases, are they fully analyzed and integrated. In general, they are constantly
       changing and thus, the overall the picture of the environment is unclear. Our
       picture of the state of the environment is like a partially assembled jigsaw puzzle
       where many of the pieces are missing, only parts are put together and the picture
       is incomplete and potentially misleading of what is actually there.”

5. Deficiencies in Data:
The Environmental Report and Action Plan 2003 of Government of Karnataka lists the
deficiencies in Environmental data as follows:
   1. Depended on the secondary data to reflect the current status, since the primary
      data was unavailable;
   2. Lacks right type of data to enable systematic and consistent data analysis;
   3. The data is either not updated or not available for the entire State;
   4. Data collected does not cover the parameters required for environmental analysis;
   5. The methodologies used for data collection by different departments for the same
      parameter are different;

6. Actions proposed on data improvement for a better action plan:
   1. Provide facility to testing of quality of water in villages;
   2. Use of chemical fertilizer and chemical pesticides contaminate the soil and water
      and which cause serious health hazard. Still there is no enough data on this;


                                            33
   3. Carrying capacity study of the region should be conducted;
   4. The existing data on water resources does not cover all important aspects –
         • Basin wise water flow in river;
         • Utilization of surface & ground water by different sectors namely industries,
             domestic, irrigation and other uses;
         • Quality of water used for non-domestic purposes like construction,
             gardening, etc.,
   5. Computerised data based on vehicles, information on age of the vehicles needs to
       be obtained;
   6. Data on location specific additional chemical and heavy metal parameters are to
       be collected and analysed which would indicate source of pollution;
   7. Continuous monitoring of air quality in transport dense areas is required;
   8. In mining and quarrying areas:
       i) a monitoring system to measure parameters like suspended particulate matter
           and respirable suspended particulate matter levels is to be evolved;
      ii) ground and surface water quality monitoring to be carried out;
     iii) time series data on land and forest degradation to asses the impact on
           environment
   9. Regular soil quality monitoring to check the physio-chemical and biological
       properties of soil;
   10. Requires development of data base on fishery and non-fishery factors to evaluate
       and monitor the bio-diversity stock positions, fluctuations etc., in the near and
       offshore waters;
   11. Baseline data on environmental health to assess the impact of deteriorating indoor
       air quality is urgent need;
   12. Data on presence of heavy metals and toxic chemicals in vegetables, fruits and
       food grains.

7. Conclusion:
Environment is a constantly changing phenomenon, which requires a continuous
monitoring. To develop a coherent picture of national and regional environmental trends
and conditions requires –

   o Collecting quality data;
   o Presentation of the data from governmental, industrial and environmental
     organizations;
   o Integrate and analyse the data and provide a complete, accurate and
     understandable presentation.

This implies-
 1. Need for environmental statistical cell at district and state levels.
 2. Improvement in quality of staff by




                                            34
            i) Imparting specialized training in collection and monitoring of
               environmental statistics;
           ii) Continuous awareness training to the staff of all the departments to
               make them more sensitive.


                                {{{{{




Source :       State of the Environment Report and Action Plan-2003 by
               Department of Forest, Ecology and Environment, Government
               of Karnataka




                                      35
2.4.   Environmental Statistics in India with focus to Pollution by
       Industries in West Bengal
                                              (By Shri Asish Banik∗ , Deputy Director
                                            Bureau of Applied Economics & Statistics,
                                                        Government of West Bengal)

1. Introduction

        The idea to protect human well being from the polluted environment arises in
recent past. Developed countries started to implement the preventive control measures
prior to 1980’s and the developing countries take the program afterwards. The subject is
new and so adequate database was not developed yet although the situation demands
such.

2. Development of Environmental Statistics in India

       Ministry of environment and forests are engaged in the task of managing India’s
environment by focusing on the development of important administrative tools and
techniques, impact assessment, research and collection and dissemination of
environmental information.

        Study of environment brings the complex subjects viz. bio-diversity, atmosphere,
water, land, soil and human settlements. Hence collection, analysis of the data on these
parameters with a view to find out inter relationship among them is not an easy task. So
efficient statistical system between (i) Government agencies (ii) Environmental scientists
and (iii) General public is desired. A working group comprising Department of
environment, State Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Research Institutions was
started functioning at Central Statistical Organization in 1986 and its first publication
“Compendium of Environmental Statistics “ was published at 1997. Afterwards yearly
national seminars were started from 1998 and two international training programs were
arranged in 1998 and 2004. Finally Central Statistical Organization started to develop
natural resource accounting system.

3. Generation of Statistics on Environmental Pollution

         Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Boards were created
in recent years for pollution control. Apart from the researchers they shoulder the
generation of pollution statistics. The allowable parameters of pollution are centrally
determined but in some occasion State Pollution Control Boards stringent the parameters.
But till date no machinery to measure the pollution periodically is developed and thus the
data gap prevents efficient planning in this respect.


∗
  The views expressed in the paper is solely of the author and not of the organization
in which he has privilege to serve


                                            36
4. Focus to Industrial Pollution

         From 18 th century rapid expansion of large-scale industries throughout the world
the industrial pollution persist. In 1940 scientists became alert about the problem as Los
Angels of U.S.A was first covered with smoke. Again in 1948 in Donora of Penisylvenia
14000 people became sick and 20 died by air pollution contributed mainly from
industries.

        The environment is polluted not only by industries but also by many sectors.
Discussion of all of them in a spell is a severe task. So in this paper the discussion will be
confined with the industrial pollution in West Bengal by large and small-scale industries.
The pollution load to environment by industry is mainly in air and water. According to
pollution concentration of Indian industries are classified (Table-1) and there are 1551
industries in the above categories. As most of them use coal, oil, gas as fuel for the day-
to-day operation and these give rise pollution of different degree. Chemicals and other
effluents produced and drained out from the industries create severe damage to the living
being.

        Apart from that production and use of chloroflurocarbons (CFC’s) and other
hidrocarbons in many industrial processes contribute to enhance radiative forcing. The
industries producing refrigeration emit such gases, which are depleting ozone layer of
atmosphere. But the contribution of the load in India is much less than the other
developed countries (Table-2). So an international protocol, the “Montreal protocol on
substances that deplete the ozone layer” came into force from January 1989.

5. A Bird’s Bye View to Industrial Pollution of West Bengal

        The intensity of the industries of West Bengal is maximum around Kolkata and
Howrah ( detailed discussion of new growing industries of Haldia is dropped here for low
pollution contribution). So the discussion will be confined to the industries located at that
region (Kolkata and Howrah ) with some comparison with India as a whole. In this state
air pollution by industries are dominating than water pollution. Water is polluted no
doubt but biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is below 3 mg/L and dissolved oxygen
(DO) is above 7 mg/L. This shows that the water pollution is within permissible limit.
Heavy pollution contributing industries are finally accounted for one by one and
recommendations to overcome the pollution are proposed in this paper.

6. Pollution Standards Framed for Small and Large Scale Units

        For pollution control in large and small scale industries Central Pollution Control
Board had specified some minimum national standards for emissions and effluent
discharged by polluting industrial units ( pH, BOD, COD ) into (a) inland surface water
(b) land for irrigation. These norms had to be maintained throughout the country. But as
State Pollution Control Board has every right to stringent the standard fixed by Central
Pollution Control Board. West Bengal Pollution Control Board makes national standard




                                             37
more stringent. Although law provides to indicate other indicators for water quality but
the same is not implemented in this state.

        Actually proper standards are to be determined by extensive survey and research.
But in our country the standards are fixed by the opinion of research institutions apart
from the detailed survey. But while fixing the standards, constraints of the development
of the industries should be taken into account. Methods of Operation Research may be
helpful for finding out better standards after creating adequate database.

        The law also provides the penalty of discontinuation of power and water supply to
the polluted industries. Law also provides the provision of monetary penalty but the same
was not imposed in the state till date.

7. Laws Support for Industrial Pollution Control

         Environmental protection act 1986 and air prevention and control of pollution act
1981, Industries development and regulations act 1951, the factories act 1948, the water
prevention and control of pollution act 1974 are the main acts by which the subject
pollution may be legally dealt (Source-“Economics and environmental management-
Can Indian economy afford to shut down dirty industries?” by N. Roy and B Chowdhury,
2000).

8. Account of load of Kolkata Air Pollution by Large and Small Scale Industries

        Normal air contains 78.03% Nitrogen, 20.09% of Oxygen, 0.03% of Carbon-di-
Oxide, other gases including Methane is 1.85%. If the atmosphere contains more than
that percentage of pollutants, it is called air pollution. According to the study of
Kalogopal Krisnan (1997) air pollution load at Kolkata arises
           (a) 48% from industries
           (b) 50% from vehicles
           (c) 2% from domestic
Again within load of industrial sector
             (a) 44% arises from small industries
             (b) 56% arises from big industries
Apart from Calcutta Electric Supply Company (CESC), New Kashipur, most of the other
big industries had already implemented the pollution control device. Hence the
contribution of the big industries is not much severe to control the pollution of the state.
              After detailed analysis of the pollution load of year 2000 in Kolkata it reveals
that particulate matter released was 32 tons / day of which
           (a) 16 ton / day by CESC, New Kashipur
            (b) 2 ton / day by CESC, Garden Reach and other big industries
            (c) 14 ton / day by small industries viz. Rubber, dying and bleaching, paper
                 and board, plywood, small pharmaceuticals

      So contribution of small industries in pollution is worth mentioned. As a result the
ambient air quality data of Kolkata, Howrah, Haldia and its surrounding area are shown



                                             38
in (Table- 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 ). From the table it is seen that the concentration of both
suspended (SPM) and reparable particulate matter (RPM) are considerably higher than
West Bengal Pollution Control Board standard but SPM and RPM in that area up to
March 2005 is within limit of National Standard (Table-8).

        SO2 emissions in Kolkata by industries are negligible (Table-8.1, 8.2 8.3). So the
marginal increase of SO2 level by the industrial pollutants may be neglected for remedial
measure. Similarly scanty emissions on an average Pb (1 mg/ m3) and CO (5 mg/m3) are
negligible.

9. Load of Water Pollution by Industries

        Big industries contribute 20-25% of country’s total water pollution. According to
“Green India, 2000” published by Tata Environmental Research Institute, the processing
of industrial chemicals generates 40-45% of total pollution load generated by the
industries. Another 40% of the BOD comes from food-industries, chemical industries,
and paper-pulp industries. Among the organized industries agro-based industries generate
65-70% of total organic wastewater. Most of the organic pollution is generated from
fermentation industry, the paper and pulp industries apart from the agro-based industries.

          In a study of National Environmental Engineering and Research Institute
(NEERI) Kolkata metropolitan development authority (1993-94) it is reported that 75%
of water of Kolkata was polluted from domestic side and only 25% from the industry
side. The dominant industries are (a) Textile dying and bleaching (b) Electroplating and
anodizing unit (c) Small pharmaceuticals (d) Food processing (fish, dry fruit) (e) Paper
and pulp industries.

10. Main Pollution Contributing Industries in West Bengal

           From the aforesaid discussions it is clear that the main pollution load of
industries arises from: -
          (a) Thermal Power Plant
          (b) Leather and Tanning industries
          (c) Small industries that use coal-boiler
          (d) Paper and Pulp industries

But within these the contribution of the first three types are discussed here
chronologically in the following three articles.

           The forthcoming pollution potential to be generated by radioactivity after
setting up of nuclear reactor is covered in the paper with the comparison of ordinary
industrial pollution with nuclear pollution. The paper also accounts for the health hazards
encountered by industrial pollutants.




                                            39
10.1 Thermal Power Station

        In electrical power generating power station, power is generated by contribution
of coal, coke or petroleum producing pollution like smoke, SO2. In coal-operating
generating station it is high due to poor quality of coal available in India with ash content
40-50%. Majority of power stations of India with maximum electric generation capacity
are coal-operated (Table-3 and 4).

       The air pollutants SPM, NOx, SOx are produced of which it is not unlikely to have
   rain by mixture of SOx and NOx in water. The industries are polluting water bodies
acid
by discharging water effluent of condenser cooling, boiler blow drum, cooling tower and
ash pond effluents. The water pollutants are pH, lead, BOD, COD oil and grease, iron,
cupper, zinc, chromium, sulphate, phosphate etc. Within these phosphate may pollute
ground water.

      In West Bengal very old plant of CESC, New Kashipur contributes more pollution.
As the plant is old the pollution control devices are ineffective there. So West Bengal
Pollution Control Board advised CESC to switch over to new plant in a stipulated period
for effective pollution control.

10.2 Leather and Tanning Industries

        Pollution contribution by leather and tanning industries is discussed everywhere
now. These industries discharge untreated effluent into agricultural fields, roadsides and
waterways and open lands. Ultimately the river as well as domestic water is polluted.
Tanning process requires 170 chemicals and 35 litter of water/kg hide processing and it is
sufficient to spoil the physical and chemical properties of the soil and contaminate
ground water by percolation. Under the prevention and control of pollution act, 1974, the
industry may release effluent to environment after proper treatment. But the treatment
plant is costly. So the idea of combined effluent treatment plant comes. It is decided to
prepare a leather complex and the combined effluent plant will be in operation there.

        Following Basu and Chakraborty (1989) the process of leather tanning is done in
three stages viz. Beam house operation (soaking, liming, deliming and bating), Tan yard
operation (pickling, chrome tanning vegetable/ synthetic tanning), and finishing
operations (dying and fat liquoring, neutralization, finishing). According to Central
Leather research industries survey report 1995 overall pollution load by volume of
wastewater generated per 100 Kg of hides and skins and by characteristics of wastewater
in chrome tanning (in Table 5 and 6) which is self-explanatory. Permissible standard
fixed by West Bengal Pollution Control Board for tanning industries is also given in
(Table 7) for proper comparison.

10.3 Coal-Boiler Driven Small Industries

           A large number of small industries are using traditional energy, inefficient
coal-fired boilers, kilns, and furnaces producing high degree of air pollution. They


                                             40
contribute more than 40% SPM through emissions with load of 14 ton SPM in air. West
Bengal Pollution Control Board introduces a stringent emission standard and comparison
of this standard is shown in (Table-9). West Bengal Pollution Control Board suggested
switch over from coal to oil in the boilers below 2-ton capacity. 136 boilers (nearly 50%)
had already changed from coal to oil. 70% of ceramic kilns and approximate cent percent
rolling mills comply with West Bengal Pollution Control Board decisions upto date.

11. Future Problem of Culture of Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Power
    Generation

       Look into the history of nuclear power generation in the world it is seen that in
1960 U.S.A started nuclear reactor and nuclear power plant for electric generation. But to
protect the environment the energy commission of U.S.A was bound to reduce the
amount of radiation from the reactors.

        At present India is ready to receive nuclear power. But the generation of nuclear
power by nuclear reactor will produce a large amount of radioactive wastes. So proper
arrangement of controlling them strictly with caution should be thought before the
starting of the nuclear power generation to protect the environment from harmful
radioactive pollution. In developed countries the procedure of culture of wastes are as
follows: -
 (1) When nuclear waste is produced it is of high temperature. So at first the waste is
      cooled and then kept stored for several decades before disposal.
 (2) Some wastes are buried in concrete chambers below seabed.
 (3) By reprocessing arrangement wastes are recycled instead of disposal.

       But safety of Atomic reactor or the disposing of the nuclear waste is still a
problem to the countries that already started the electric generation by nuclear reactor.
The father of the nuclear world U.S.A also faced severe problem with the nuclear waste.
The clean air act came in force in U.S.A in1963 and the act becomes more stringent in
1970.

       India as a new member of nuclear family should be ready to create the protection
laws in the light of U.S.A’s clean air act and also follow the recycling arrangement
procedure prior to starting of power generation. The recycling procedure is costly. Yet to
avoid environmental hazard adequate fund should be provided for that.

12. Problem of Disposal of Waste Electronic Products

        Due to growing IT industries in the state and switchover to modern technologies
the scrap of computer and other peripheries are increased in a galloping manner. Habit of
changing old Television and other electronic goods to improved ones add the load of the
waste. Proper treatment of the waste is necessary. So West Bengal Pollution Control
Board has the duty to guide about the procedure to be followed for treatment of the
waste, as the same will create serious health hazards in near future.



                                            41
13. Basic Difference of Ordinary Pollution arising from Industries and Nuclear
Pollution

        Ordinary pollution from industrial wastes is harmful to mankind presently but
nuclear radiation and waste is very much harmful to the present and future generation. It
activates cancer, give birth of disabled child. It also affects the foctus in the womb and
also changes the genetic behavior. So cautions of 360 degrees are desired in India as the
problem is to be encountered shortly.

14. Recommendations to Overcome Ordinary Industrial Pollutions

        Analyzing summary status of pollution control of 17 categories of industries of
India (Table-10) it is detected that thermal power and fertilizer industries are mainly
defaulter in meeting air pollution standards and sugar and pulp and paper industries are
more defaulters in complying with norms of the liquid effluents. In West Bengal also the
industries mentioned above are dominating towards pollution. Here there is a time to
think of the procedures for overcoming the situation quickly. So the following
proposition may be thought of

   (a) At the time of establishment of new industry which has the possibility to
       contribute in pollution, the clearance of the pollution control authority should be
       mandatory.

   (b) In case of old industry that does not change his device and as a result pollution
       persists, a heavy monetary penalty may be imposed. However they may be
       allowed suitable time to switchover failing which industry may be directed to
       close by the competent authority. It is worthy to mention that action of closure of
       industries (coal-fired boiler) was taken by West Bengal Pollution Control Board
       in recent days.

   (c) When there is a chance of ground water being contaminated by effluents of any
       industry, the same industry may be advised to shift elsewhere in a complex where
       there is a facility of common effluent plant as it is a fact that there exists
       stringency of fund in small industries. In case of leather tanning industries the
       same measure is taken in the state and leather complex with the common effluent
       plant facility is developed at Bantala.

   (d) When inhabitants are affected by the pollution of an industry/group of industries,
       the same should be statutorily bound for proper compensation to overcome health
       hazards of the affected people. For guidance the pollution by industries verses
       human diseases is presented in Table-11 to show how the pollutants affects the
       general hygiene of mankind.




                                            42
15. Concluding Remarks

      The state of West Bengal is at the door of rapid industrialization with a view to
generate maximum jobs for unemployed. From Nayachar, Salboni to Singur industries
and SEZ’s are started functioning or going to be started within short time. Big IT
industries in Sector V, Salt Lake is nicely functioning and expansion of the industry at
new premises is already created at various parts of this state viz. Siliguri, Batanagar etc.
Renowned industrialists Tata, Jindal, Salem, Mittal and various multinational
industrialists had already selected this state for investment. Countries like Japan, China
shows interest for industrialization here. From Chemical hubs to “Nano” motors state’s
venture to industrialization persists. But this rapid industrialization will necessarily
increase the pollution load. But the “Environment free of pollution “ is the demand of
today. Prosper of industry is also desirable but not at the cost of environmental pollution.
Although it is a tricky game, yet by and by the country may find ways to have
industrialized in minimum polluted environment. This state’s scenario in pollution
control is a bit better but further improvement is desired by which the future generation
cans breath in pure air and drink pure water.

         Finally for the improvement of the pollution control regular maintenance of
statistical data on environmental statistics mainly pollution data with control remedies in
the state and central is to be maintained periodically by which relevant analysis may
show the goal of proper pollution control in our country, In this context only formation of
some laws and by laws are not sufficient but proper execution of the same is also
demanded. Central Statistical Organization / State Directorate of Economics and
Statistics / Central Pollution Control Board / State Pollution Control Boards should work
neck by neck to achieve the goal. The opinion of the researchers of environmental field
will also be invited by which all out effort is possible and the same may lead to the
creation of future pollution-free earth.



                                             -




                                            43
                            ANNEXTURE
                               TABLE-1

LIST OF NOTIFIED CLASSIFICATION OF HIGHLY POLLUTED
INDUSTRIES IN INDIA


      1. Fertilizer (Nitrogen / Phosphate)
      2. Sugar
      3. Cement
      4. Distillery (fermentation and distillations)
      5. Aluminum
      6. Petrol-Chemicals
      7. Thermal Power Plant
      8. Oil Refinery
      9. Sulphuric Acid
      10.Tannery
      11.Copper Smelter
      12.Zinc
      13.Iron and Steel
      14.Pulp and Paper
      15.PVC and Dye
      16.Pesticides
      17. Basic Drugs and Pharmaceuticals



                            Source- Ministry of Environment and Forest’s
                                    Annual report, 1996-97




                                   44
                                    TABLE-2

COUNTRYWISE EMMISSIONS OF CO2 AND CFC’s FROM VARIOUS
ANTHROPOGENIC SUCCESSES, 1991


Region            CO2             Ratio           C.F.C           Ratio
              (‘000 tons)          *           (‘000 tons)         *


India          7,03,550           1.00             3             1.00
Japan         10,91,147           1.55            64            23.33
U.S.A         49,31,630           7.01            90            30.00
Europe        41,13, 771          5.84           120            40.00
U.K             5,77,157          0.82            17             5.67
Germany         9,69,630          1.37            23             7.67

Ratio = Other Countries / India                     Source- TEDDY, 1997-98



                                    TABLE-3

INSTALLED GENERATION CAPACITIES OF UTILITIES (AS
ON 31 st MARCH, 1999 (P)
                         (In Megawatt)
Hydroelectric                                       96.51

Thermoelectric
   (a) Steam                                     3376.38
   (b) Diesel                                      22.50
    (c) Gas                                      100.00
     Total                                      3395.39

                       Source- Central Electricity Authority




                                          45
                              TABLE-4

CONSUMPTION OF FUEL IN TRERMAL STATIONS BY
KIND OF FUEL (AS ON 31st MARCH, 99 (P))


Station          Fuel Type                 Unit             Quarterly

Steam            Coal                       MT                146,97,173
                 Furnace Oil                KL                    2,727
                 Light Diesel Oil / HSD     KL                   67,723
Gas              HSD                        KL                   14,642


                                          Source- Central Electricity Authority


                              TABLE-5

VOLUME OF WASTE WATER GENERATED PER 100 Kg OF
HIDES AND SKINS

Source                                         Average liters

Beam House Operation                          1860
Tan Yard Operation                             790
Finishing Operation                            395
Others (floor washing etc.)                    440

Total                                         3485

                                                Source- CLRI Survey




                                  46
                                 TABLE-6
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE WATER IN CHROME
TANNING (mg per litter)

pH                                               7.5 – 8.5
Total Solids                               10,000- 27,000
Suspended Solids                              2,500-5,000
Dissolved Solids                             7,500-22,000
Chlorides                                    4,000-10,000
Sulphates                                     2,000-5,000
Chromium                                          200-400
BOD                                           2,000-5,000
COD                                             600-1,600

                                                  Source- CLRI Survey, 1995

                                 TABLE-7

COMPARISONS OF RAW WATER CHARACTERISTICS
WITH WEST BENGAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
STANDARDS

Indicator      West Bengal Pollution Control            Raw Water
               Board’s standard

pH                   5.5-9.0                              7.6-8.3
Total Solids        100 mg/L                         1200-1800 mg/L
BOD                   30mg/L                           undetectable
BOD                  30mg/L                            undetectable
COD                  250mg/L                            undetectable
Chromium             200mg/L                            undetectable
Chloride                 -                             300-600 mg/L
Sulphate                 -                               10-50mg/L

                         Source- Paper of Sarmila Banerjee and Subikash
                         Mukherjee on pollution control of Kolkata tanneries, social
                         cost benefit analysis page-80 published in the
                         environmental Economics of India.



                                      47
                                TABLE-8

NATIONAL AMBIENTS AIR QUALITY STANDARDS, 1996
(annual average)
                                   Mg / m3

                                                    Pollutant

Area               SO2          NO2         Suspended            Respirable
                                            particulate  particulate
                                           matter (SPM) matter (RPM)

Industrial               80        80               360                      120

Residential
(Rural and
other area)              60           60             140                     60


Sensitive area           15           15               70                    50


Method of           Improved      Jacob and        High volume       Respirable
Measurement         West and     Hochheisen        Capacity          particulate
                 Geake method     ( modified )
                                ( Na- arsenite)
                                  Method

                                 Source; - Central Pollution control Board




                                      48
                               TABLE-8.1

AVERAGE AMBIENTS AIR QUALITY (combining all stations)
IN KOLKATA
                                      Mg / m3

                                                        Pollutant

Year            SO2           NO2             Suspended         Respirable
                                              particulate       particulate
                                             matter (SPM)       matter (RPM)

2002-03           5            59               181                  92
2003-04           7            49               206                 102
2004-05           8            56               209                 110

WBPCB
Standards       80             80               200                 100

Method of    Improved      Jacob and         High volume      Respirable
Measurement West and       Hochheisen        Capacity         particulate
          Geake method     ( modified )
                         ( Na- arsenite)
                              Method


                                 Source: -    Statistical Abstract, 2005 Page 49
                                              published by Bureau of Applied
                                              Economics and Statistics on the basis of
                                              the data from West Bengal Pollution
                                              Control Board report.




                                     49
                              TABLE-8.2

AVERAGE AMBIENTS AIR QUALITY (combining all stations)
IN HOWRAH
                                      mg / m3

                                                      Pollutant

Year            SO2          NO2            Suspended             Respirable
                                            particulate  particulate
                                           matter (SPM) matter (RPM)

2002-03          11            73               188                  113
2003-04          9             70               187                  106
2004-05          15           100               213                  118

WBPCB
Standards       80            80               200                   100

Method of    Improved       Jacob and       High volume           Respirable
Measurement West and        Hochheisen      Capacity              particulate
          Geake method    ( modified )
                         ( Na- arsenite)
                              Method


                                Source; -    Statistical Abstract, 2005 Page 50-52 published
                                             by Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics
                                             on the basis of the data from West Bengal
                                             Pollution Control Board report.




                                    50
                           TABLE-8.3

AVERAGE AMBIENTS AIR QUALITY (combining all stations)
IN HALDIA
                                      Mg / m3

                                                  Pollutant

Year           SO2         NO2           Suspended            Respirable
                                         particulateparticulate
                                      matter (SPM) matter (RPM)

2002-03          7         24               122                   57
2003-04          7         24               123                   57
2004-05          7         34               160                   71

WBPCB
Standards      80          80               200                 100

Method of    Improved   Jacob and      High volume            Respirable
Measurement West and   Hochheisen      Capacity               particulate
          Geake method ( modified )
                       ( Na- arsenite)

                                 Source: :-
                                          Statistical Abstract, 2005 Page 53-54
                                          published by Bureau of Applied Economics
                                          and Statistics on the basis of the data from
                                          West Bengal Pollution Control Board report.




                                 51
                                       TABLE-9

EMMISSION STANDARDS FOR BOILERS, CERAMIC KLINS,
CAST IRON FOUNDRIES AND ROLLING MILLS OPERATED
IN KOLKATA METROPOLITAN AREA VIS-À-VIS
NATIONAL STANDARDS
                                    mg / Nm3

Heating                                       Particulate matter
Installations                                 emission standard
                                     West Bengal           Central
                                     Pollution             Pollution
                                     Control Board         Control Board


Boiler                                   150                      150-1200
Ceramic kilns                            150                        200
Cast iron foundries                      150                        450
Rolling mills                            150                        150

                                                  Source;- India-Canada environment
 NB –All installations are irrespective of                facility leaflet published by
 capacity.                                                West Bengal Pollution
                                                          Control Board ,Kolkata in
                                                          2002




                                             52
                               TABLE-10

SUMMARY STATUS OF POLLUTION CONTROL IN 17
CATEGORIES OF INDUSTRIES

Serial       Category      Total No.            Status (No. of units)
 No.                        of units Closed      Having        Not having
                                                adequate       adequate
                                                facilities     facilities
                                               to comply       to comply
                                                with the       with the
                                                standards      standards

1         Aluminum              7          1       6                 0
2        Caustic Soda         33           0      33                 0
3        Cement              205          17     182                 6
4        Cupper                4           0        4                0
5        Distillery          209          39     167                3
6        Dye and Dying       102          10       90                2
7        Fertilizers         124          13     109                 2
8        Iron and Steel       19           1      14                4
9        Leather              94         15       75                 4
10       Pesticides          111          8      102                1
11       Petro-chemicals      75          0       74                 1
12       Pharmaceuticals     401         41      350                10
13       Pulp and paper      136         26      108                2
14       Refinery             16          0       16                 0
15       Sugar               462         50      409                 3
16       TPP                 151          3      133                15
17       Zinc                   6          1       5                 0

     Total                  2155         225     1877                53

                                                  Source; - Ministry of
                                                  environment and forests,
                                                  Annual report 2003-04


                                    53
                                 TABLE-11

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTANTS AND THEIR RELATED
HEALTH HAZARDS

Serial   Pollutants                      Health effects
No.
1        Nitrogen Oxide ( NOx)       Irritation of respiratory tract
2          Ozone                             Irritation of eye, nose, throat:
                                             risk asthmatics, children and
                                              those involved in heavy exercise
3          Hydrocarbons                      Drowsiness, Eye irritation, cough
4          Mercury                           Nervous diseases viz. control
                                             power of muscles damage,
                                             Mental disability, Paralysis of
                                              hands, legs, tongue and lip,
                                              deafness
5          Lead                                Obstructs hemoglobin creation
                                               and activates Anemia, Damage
                                               of brain cells, Abortion, growth
                                                of child obstruction
6          Cadmium                             Pain in joint and bones, blood
                                                pressure increase, kidney and
                                                lung diseases
7          Arsenic                             Anemia, skin disease, cancer
                                                of lung, skin and liver
8     Nitrate and Nitrite                       Reduction of hemoglobin,
                                                Cancer of liver and intestine
                                                damage of foctus of womb
9 Chromium                                      Cancer and skin diseases
10 Fluoride                                     Fluorosis of bone and teeth
11 Iron                                          Constipation, Piles, Gastric


                                     Source: -      Compendium of environment
                                                    statistics, CSO, Govt. of India,
                                                    1999 Page-10 and recent medical
                                                    bulletins

                                    54
2.5      Environment Statistics
                                                                      (DES, Maharashtra)

       Though the industries are essential for the economic development, they are
causing health hazards and environmental degradation by the way of waste disposal and
emissions.

        Govt. of India enacted the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 to
arrest the deterioration in the air quality. The act prescribes various functions for the
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at the apex level and state Pollution Control
Boards at the state level.

         The main function of the CPCB are as follows
      a) To advise the central Govt. on any matter concerning the improvement of the
         quality of the air and the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution.
      b) To plan and cause to be executed a national wide program for the prevention,
         control and abatement of air pollution.
      c) To provide technical assistance and guidance to the state Pollution Control Board.
      d) To carry out and sponsor investigations and research related to prevention, control
         and abatement of air pollution.
      e) To collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data related to air
         pollution.
      f) To lay down standards for the quality of air and emission quantities.

       Maharashtra State is industrial developed state having maximum number of
workers in the country. Out of total factory workers more than 50% factory workers
belongs to industries of polluting category. Maharashtra State Government is having an
independent Environment department, separated from Urban development department in
May 1985. One Dy. Secretary, one under secretary and one desk officer assists secretary
(Environment) in his administrative work.

        Main object of state environment department is to protect Environment. For
control water and air pollution Maharashtra Pollution Control Boards plays an important
role. Chairman of the Board, Member-Secretary and other boards member control work
of MPCB.

         The main functions of the board are as follows.
         a) To plan a comprehensive program for prevention, control and abatement of air
            pollution and secure the execution thereof.
         b) To advice the state Govt. on any matter concerning for prevention, control and
            abatement of air pollution.
         c) To collect and disseminate information related to air pollution.
         d) To collaborate with CPCB in programmed related to prevention, control and
            abatement of air pollution, and



                                              55
       e) To inspect air pollution control areas, asses quality of air and to take steps for
          prevention, control and abatement of air pollution in such areas.

MPCB has truly acquired a significance of its own in the national as well as in the global
context. The board will have to play a far greater role in management in the areas such as
water pollution control, Air pollution control, Hazardous Waste management, Municipal
solid waste management etc.

        For effective implementation of environmental legislations, the board has taken
various step such fast clearance of the consents/ Authorization, joint vigilance sampling,
legal actions under sec. 33A of water act. & 31 A of Air act, Industrial location policy
(Zoning Atlas) Environment improvement programs at religious places, conducting mass
awareness programs on large scale, frequency of inspection of polluting sources,
strengthening of laboratories for analysis of samples, development of Infrastructure and
decentralization of powers at the level of subordinate offices, maximum information
dissemination through website etc.

Organization structure of MPCB

There are 8 different wings HQ of MPCB
Namely
       1) Establishment wing
       2) Technical wing
       3) Accounts wing
       4) Scientific wing
       5) Statistical wing
       6) Estate and Material management
       7) Policy and law division
       8) Zoning Atlas
Also there are 11 Regional offices as follows
       1) R.O. Mumbai
                                                             2) R.O. Navi Mumbai
       2) APAE (Air Pollution Abatement Engineer) -
                                                       3) R.O. Raigad
       4) R.O. Thane
       5) R.O. Kalyan
       6) R.O. Pune
       7) R.O.Nashik
       8) R.O. Aurangabad
       9) R.O. Nagpur
       10) R.O. Amravati
       11) R.O. Kolhapur
The detail organisation structure of MPCB and structure of Regional offices are as
follows.




                                            56
58
There are 7 laboratories of MPCB which are as follows :

                             LABORATORIES OF MPCB
Sr. Name of the Region                Address                       Tel. & Fax No.
No.
1   Central Laboratory      Central Laboratory,         Tel. 27571678 / 27571054
    Navi Mumbai             CIDCO Bhavan,               Fax. 27570290
                            Navi Mumbai.                Email-mahacenlab@rediffmail.com
2    Regional Laboratory    Regional Laboratory Pune     Tel. (9520) 5811698
     Pune                   S.No. 21/5, F.P.No,28,       Email-mpcblabpune@vsnl.net
                            Wakdewadi,
                            Pune-Mumbai Road,
                             Pune-411 003
3    Regional Laboratory    Regional Laboratory Nagpur Tel. (0712) 2530308
     Nagpur                 Udyog Bhavan, 6 th floor,
                            Near Sales Tax Office,
                            Civil Lines,
                            Nagpur – 440 001.
4    Regional Laboratory    Regional Laboratory          Tel. (0240) 2473463
     Aurangabad             Aurangabad
                            Paryavaran Bhavan,
                            Plot No. A-4/1,
                            Chikalthana MIDC Area,
                            Behind Daink Lokpatra,
                            Jalna Road,
                            Aurangabad-431 210
5    Regional Laboratory    Regional Laboratory Thane    Tel. 25829582
     Thane                  Plot No. P-30, 5th floor,
                            Office Complex Building,
                            Mulund Check Naka, Thane.
6    Regional Laboratory    Regional Laboratory Chiplun Tel. (02355) 261970
     Chiplun                Parkar Complex, 1st floor,
                            Near Chiplun Municipal
                            Council Office, Chiplun,
                            Dist. Ratnagiri.
7    Regional Laboratory    Regional Laboratory Nashik   Tel. (95253) 2563248
     Nashik                 Kailas Deep, 3 rd floor,
                            Jail Road, Nashik-Road
                            Nashik

       MPCB is operating air quality monitoring at 45 stations of Maharashtra spread in
10 districts covering 15 towns. This is being done as part of National Air Monitoring
Program (NAMP), through independent institutes who directly report to CPCB. It is
observed of late that the air quality information from these stations is not readily
available to MPCB. We do not have regular supervision or quality control checks on
operation of these air monitoring stations and data generated. MPCB, as the regulatory
agency in the state, require the information of air quality levels at different locations for
planning the pollution control strategy, for dissemination of information through
electronic and print media and also, MPCB website on a daily basis.

       There is MPCB has increasing need of the AAQM stations in the State for
covering important cities, industrial areas and also, sensitive areas. The present network
of AAQM of 45 stations is not adequate to represent entire Maharshtra.

        Considering the various aspects, we had proposed to CPCB that all these already
approved NAMP stations will be managed by MPCB, by augmenting the entire Air
quality monitoring network. In the augmentation and strengthening process, some
stations will be added at cities covered under NAMP and some new cities/ industrial
areas will be monitored. Central Pollution Control Board has 45 sanctioned NAMP
stations in the state of Maharashtra. The present scenario of the NAMP in Maharashtra is
presented in Table-1. Recently, MPCB has already made three stations at Aurangabad
and two stations at Dombival-Ambernath operational. Three new stations at Kolhapur are
also made operational recently through Department of Environment Sciences, Shivaji
University, Kolhapur.

       The data base management for such extensive air quality network involves expert
computational capabilities. The data generated through this network needs to be regularly
uploaded on website after necessary validation. This data also need to be published on
minimum six monthly basis for public information and further uses, it is therefore
proposed that this work related to collection, compilation, validation and publishing of
the data can be handed over to reputed institutes like Science and Technology Park,
University of Pune.

        It is also proposed that the proposed arrangements with the institutions can be for
longer duration, can be for 5 years, the equipments will have to replace. This will offer
better utilization of the capital support given by MPCB and will also generated more
interest at the institute’s level. It is intended to enter into an MoU with these institutes for
the proposed association.

       Air pollution is caused mainly by Transportation, fuel combustion in stationary
sources, burning of fossil fuels like coal, wood, dry grass and construction activity. Motor
vehicles produce high levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbons (HC) and
Nitrogen Oxide (NO). Construction activities, bad roads and burning of fossil fuels are
responsible for Dust (particulate matter) Pollution. Residential and commercial activities
also contribute to Air Pollution.

        The human health affects due to poor Air Quality. Principally Air Pollution
affects the body’s respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Though the
individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed
to, the degree of exposure, Air Pollution may cause long term health problems. The
health affects caused by air pollutants may range from biochemical and physiological
changes like difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing
respiratory and cardiac conditions.



                                              60
        You can help to reduce Air Pollution by driving good condition vehicles, walking
wherever possible, bicycling and using mass transit. Stop burning wastes, refusals and
dry grass and leaves. Plant trees and avoid purchasing products un-friendly to
environment. Support and follow Air Act / Laws. Let us help each other in making
cleaner and healthier atmosphere where we live.

        Fog usually forms at night when the air is too cold to hold all its moisture. When
sky is clear the ground gets cold and it then cools the air close to it. This cool air causes
condensation and forms water droplets in air. This is a natural phenomena mainly observe
in winter season. Fogs are thickest when the air can hold a lot of moisture due to Dust
Pollution.




                                             61
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS IN MAHARASHTRA (SAMP)
Sr. Name of City       Station Location            No. of     Station type        Programme   Frequency of     Parameters      Operating
No.                                                Stations                                   Monitoring       Monitored       Agency
1                                                                                                               SO2 , NOx,
                       Sion Hospital, Sion             1       Traffic junction      SAMP       Continuous
        MUMBAI                                                                                                 RSPM, CO, HC       MPCB
       (2 Stations)                                                                                             SO2 , NOx,
                           Mulund Junction             1       Traffic junction      SAMP       Continuous
                                                                                                               RSPM, CO, HC       MPCB
2                                                                                                               SO2 , NOx,
                             Karve Road                1         Commercial          SAMP     6 Days a week                       MPCB
           PUNE                                                                                                RSPM, SPM
        (2 Stations)                                                                                            SO2 , NOx,
                          Pimpri-Chinchwad             1         Commercial          SAMP     6 Days a week                       MPCB
                                                                                                               RSPM, SPM
3        NAGPUR                                                                                                 SO2 , NOx,
                        MPCB office premises           1         Commercial          SAMP     6 Days a week                       MPCB
        (1 Stations)                                                                                           RSPM, SPM
4     CHANDRAPUR                                                                                                SO2 , NOx,
                             Chandrapur                1         Commercial          SAMP       Continuous
        (1 Stations)                                                                                           RSPM, CO, HC       MPCB
5     AURANGABAD                                                                                                SO2 , NOx,
                        MPCB office premises           1          Industrial         SAMP     6 Days a week                       MPCB
        (1 Stations)                                                                                           RSPM, SPM
6        NASHIK                                                                                                 SO2 , NOx,
                        MPCB office premises           1         Commercial          SAMP     6 Days a week                       MPCB
        (1 Stations)                                                                                           RSPM, SPM
7                      Residential over of Jalna                                               Two Days a       SO2 , NOx,
          JALNA                                        1         Residential         SAMP                                         MPCB
                       City, Near Tahsil Office                                                  week          RSPM, SPM
        (2 Stations)
                       MIDC Area, DK
8                        Ulhasnagar College                                                   Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,
                                                       1         Commercial          SAMP                                      C.H.M. College
                               Campus                                                            week          RSPM, SPM
      ULHASNAGAR                                                                              Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,
                            Pawai-Chowk                1         Commercial          SAMP                                      C.H.M. College
        (3 Stations)                                                                             Week          RSPM, SPM
                                                                                              Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,
                       Badlapur-BIWA Office            1          Industrial         SAMP                                      C.H.M. College
                                                                                                 week          RSPM, SPM
9                                                                                                                             Navi Mumbai
      NAVI MUMBAI                                                                                                SO2 , NOx,
                       Vashi Near Fire Brigade         1         Residential         SAMP      Continuous                     Mahanagar
        (3 Stations)                                                                                           RSPM, CO,HC
                                                                                                                              Palika
10                                                                                             Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,
          LATUR               Ganj Golai               1         Commercial           SAMP                                         MPCB
                                                                                                  week          RSPM, SPM
                                                                                               Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,
                         MIDC Office, Latur            1         Commercial           SAMP                                         MPCB
                                                                                                  week          RSPM, SPM
                        Terrace of Keshavraj                                                   Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,
                                                       1         Commercial           SAMP                                         MPCB
                             Vidyalaya                                                            week          RSPM, SPM
                               Total                  17



                                                                             62
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS IN MAHARASHTRA (NAMP)

Sr.   Name of City       Station Location            No. of         Station type       Frequency of      Parameters        Operating
No.                                                  Stations                          Monitoring        Monitored         Agency
1                        Bank of India, Kalbadevi                                        Two Days in a   SO2 , NOx,RSPM,
                                                                1        Residential                                           NEERI
                         Branch, Mumbai                                                      week         SPM,H2S, NH3
                         Parel T.T, BMC
          MUMBAI                                                                        Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,RSPM,
                         Southward Office,                      1         Industrial                                           NEERI
          (3 Stations)                                                                     week           SPM H2S, NH3
                         Dr.Ambedkar Road
                                                                                        Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,RSPM,
                         Worli, Greater Mumbai                  1        Residential                                           NEERI
                                                                                           week           SPM,H2S, NH3
2                                                                                       One Day in a     SO2 , NOx,RSPM,
                         Kolshet                                1        Residential                                            TMC
                                                                                           week           SPM,H2S, NH3
                                                                                        One Day in a     SO2 , NOx,RSPM,
                         Balkum                                 1        Residential                                            TMC
      THANE                                                                                week           SPM,H2S, NH3
                                                                                        Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,RSPM,
         (4 Stations)    Naupada, Shahu Market                  1        Residential                                            TMC
                                                                                           week           SPM,H2S, NH3
                                                                                        Two Days in a    SO2 , NOx,RSPM,
                         Kopri Dhobi Ghat                       1        Residential                                            TMC
                                                                                           week           SPM,H2S, NH3
3                        Bhosari, Maratha
      PUNE                                                                              Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                         Chamber of Commerce                    1         Industrial                                            MPCB
                                                                                           week            RSPM, SPM
         (3 Stations)    Building Terrace
                         MSEB Office Karve                           Residential And    Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                                1                                                               MPCB
                         Road Nal-stop                                Commercial           week            RSPM, SPM
                         Swargate, Near Traffic                                         Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                                1         Industrial                                            MPCB
                         Police Chowky                                                     week            RSPM, SPM
4
      NAGPUR             Institute of Engineering,                                      Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                                1        Residential                                           V.N.I.T.
                         North Ambazani Road                                               week            RSPM, SPM
         (6 Stations)
                         MIDC Office Hingna                                             Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                                1         Industrial                                           V.N.I.T.
                         Road                                                              week            RSPM, SPM
                         Sadar, Govt. Polytechnic                                       Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                                1        Commercial                                            V.N.I.T.
                         College                                                           week            RSPM, SPM
                         MIDC Office Hingna                                             Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                                1                                                               NEERI
                         Road                                                              week            RSPM, SPM
                         Maskshath, Corporation                                         Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                                1                                                               NEERI
                         Bldg, Itwari                                                      week            RSPM, SPM



                                                                    63
Sr.   Name of City       Station Location          No. of         Station type       Frequency of      Parameters       Operating
No.                                                Stations                          Monitoring        Monitored        Agency
                         NEERI lab, Nehru Marg,                                        Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                              1                                                              NEERI
                         N.H.-07                                                           week           RSPM, SPM
5       CHANDRAPUR       Nagar Parishad,                                               Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                              1        Residential                                           MPCB
          (3 Stations)   Chandrapur                                                        week           RSPM, SPM
                                                                                       Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                         MIDC Chandrapur                      1         Industrial                                           MPCB
                                                                                           week           RSPM, SPM
                         Sub-regional Office,                                          Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                              1        Residential                                           MPCB
                         MPCB                                                              week           RSPM, SPM
6
      AURANGABAD                                                   Residential And    Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,      Saraswati
                         Bibika Maqbara                       1
                                                                    Commercial           week            RSPM, SPM      Bhavan College
         (3 Stations)
                                                                   Residential And    Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,      Saraswati
                         SBES College of Science              1
                                                                    Commercial           week            RSPM, SPM      Bhavan College
                                                                   Residential And    Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,      Saraswati
                         CADA Office, Garkheda                1
                                                                    Commercial           week            RSPM, SPM      Bhavan College
7
      DOMBIVALI          Dombivali, Phase-II,                                         Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
                                                              1         Industrial                                           MPCB
                         CETD                                                            week            RSPM, SPM
         (1 Station)
8
                         Ambernath Municipal                                          Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,
      AMBERNATH                                               1        Commercial                                            MPCB
                         Council, Terrace                                                week            RSPM, SPM
         (1 Station)
9
                                                                                      Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,     KTHM College,
      NASHIK             VIP Nashik                           1         Industrial
                                                                                         week            RSPM, SPM          Nashik
         (3 Stations)
                                                                                      Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,     KTHM College,
                         R.T.O.                               1        Residential
                                                                                         week            RSPM, SPM          Nashik
                                                                                      Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,     KTHM College,
                         N.M.C.                               1        Commercial
                                                                                         week            RSPM, SPM          Nashik
10                       Walchand Institute of
                                                                                      Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,    Walchand Institute
      SOLAPUR            Technology, WIT                      1        Residential
                                                                                         week            RSPM, SPM       of Technology
         (2 Stations)    Campus, Ashok Chowk
                         Chitace Clinic, Saat
                                                                                      Two Days in a       SO2 , NOx,    Walchand Institute
                         Rasta, Opp. ST Bus                   1        Residential
                                                                                         week            RSPM, SPM       of Technology
                         Stand




                                                                  64
Sr.   Name of City         Station Location            No. of         Station type       Frequency of     Parameters      Operating
No.                                                    Stations                          Monitoring       Monitored       Agency
11                         Near Sub-Regional
      TARAPUR                                                                             Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
                           Office, Plot No. AM-31,                1         Industrial                                         MPCB
                                                                                             week           RSPM, SPM
         (3 Stations)      MIDC Office Compound
                           Police Chowky, Plot No.                                        Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
                                                                  1         Industrial                                         MPCB
                           AM-8, MIDC                                                        week           RSPM, SPM
                           Sports Stadium (Palghar-
                           Dhanu Taluka Sports                                            Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
                                                                  1         Industrial                                         MPCB
                           Association) O-34,                                                week           RSPM, SPM
                           MIDC
12
      KOLHAPUR             Shivaji Unversity                                              Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,      Shivaji
                                                                  1        Residential
                           Compound                                                          week           RSPM, SPM       University
         (3 Stations)
                           Raikar Trust Dhabholkar                                        Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,      Shivaji
                                                                  1        Commercial
                           Corner                                                            week           RSPM, SPM       University
                           Mahadwar Road, Near                                            Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,      Shivaji
                                                                  1        Residential
                           Mahalaxmi Temple                                                  week           RSPM, SPM       University
13
                           Water Works, Behind                                            Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
      TALOJA                                                      1        Commercial                                          MPCB
                           S.T. Stand Panvel                                                 week           RSPM, SPM
         (3 Stations)
                           Terrace of MIDC
                                                                                          Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
                           Common Facility                        1         Industrial                                         MPCB
                                                                                             week           RSPM, SPM
                           Building, MIDC
                           Nimisha Hospital                                               Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
                                                                  1        Residential                                         MPCB
                           Building                                                          week           RSPM, SPM
14                         Terrace of Dr Meghe
                                                                                          Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
      TTC                  College of Engineering,                1        Residential                                         MPCB
                                                                                             week           RSPM, SPM
            (3 Stations)   Airoli
                           Terrace of MPCB                                                Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
                                                                  1         Industrial                                         MPCB
                           Central Lab, Mahape                                               week           RSPM, SPM
                           Terrace of Dr. D.Y. Patil                                      Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
                                                                  1        Commercial                                          MPCB
                           College, Nerul                                                    week           RSPM, SPM
15
                           MIDC Water Treatment                                           Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
      LOTE                                                        1         Industrial                                         MPCB
                           Plant,                                                            week           RSPM, SPM
         (2 Stations)
                                                                                          Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,
                           MIDC- Chalke Wadi                      1        Residential                                         MPCB
                                                                                             week           RSPM, SPM



                                                                      65
Sr.   Name of City       Station Location         No. of          Station type       Frequency of     Parameters      Operating
No.                                               Stations                           Monitoring       Monitored       Agency
16
      AMRAVATI           Govt. College Of                                             Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,    Govt. College of
                                                             1         Residential
                         Engineering Campus                                              week           RSPM, SPM       Engineering
         (3 Stations)
                         Premises Of M/s Apurva
                                                                                      Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,    Govt. College of
                         Oil and Ind. Pvt. Ltd.              1          Industrial
                                                                                         week           RSPM, SPM       Engineering
                         A-23,MIDC
                         Vanita Samaj, Family
                                                                                      Two Days in a      SO2 , NOx,    Govt. College of
                         Planning Building,                  1         Commercial
                                                                                         week           RSPM, SPM       Engineering
                         Rajkamal Chowk
                                  TOTAL                      45


\\A31\d\Evaluation_G26\evl\Sirnaik\Environment.doc




                                                                  66
Water Pollution

         Water quality monitoring is one of the first steps required in the rational development
and management of water resources. In the field of water quality management, there has been
a steady evaluation in procedures for designing system to obtain information on the changes
of water quality. The ‘Monitoring’ comprise all activities to obtain ‘information’ with respect
of the water system. Water quality is monitoring is a complex subject, and the scope of it is
both deep and wide. Water quality monitoring has a direct relation with chemistry, biology,
statistics and also economics. Its scope is also related to the types of water uses and functions
which are manifold and the nature of sources of water such as surface water (rivers and
lakes), sea water ground water.

        The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is an apex body in the field of water
quality management programme, CPCB needs to know the nature and extent of water quality
degradation. Therefore, a sound scientific water quality monitoring programme is
prerequisite. Realising this fact, water quality monitoring was started in 1976 by CPCB with
18 stations on the Yamuna river. The programme was gradually extended. Today, there are
1032 monitoring stations in the country spread over all important water bodies.
Water Quality : Water quality is a complex subject, which involve physical, chemical,
hydrological and biological characteristics of water and their complex and delicate relations.
From the users point of view, the term “Water Quality” is defined as “those physical,
chemical or biological characteristics of water by which the user evaluates the acceptability
of water”. For example for drinking water should be pure, wholesome, and potable.
Similarly, for irrigation dissolved solids and toxicants are important and water quality is
controlled accordingly. Textiles, paper, brewing and dozens of other industries using water,
have their specific water quality needs.
Environmental Monitoring Network of Maharashtra

* Amravati      * Aurangabad  * Kalyan             * Kolhapur       * Mumbai        * nagpur
* Nashik        * Navi Mumbai * Pune               * Raigad         * Thane

State Water Quality Monitoring Programme (SWMP) Surface Water Locations
Amravati Region : Purna river, Pedhi river, Penganga river, Wardha river, Morna river. : 8 Locations
Aurangabad Region : Manjra river, Godavari river, Bindusara river, etc.                  : 7 Locations
Kalyan Region : Bhatsa river, Ulhas river, Vaitarana river, Tansa river, etc.            : 6 Locations
Kolhapur Region : Muchkundi river, Madvi sea, Pimpri-Paneri nalla, Vaishali river, etc. : 9 Locations
Mumbai Region : Mithi river, Sea water, etc.                                              : 10 Locations
Nagpur Region : Kanhan river, Wenna river, Wainganga river, Wardha river, etc.            : 12 Locations
Nashik Region : Hiwara river, Bori river, Kan river, Godavari river, Darna river, etc.     : 22 Locations
Navi Mumbai : Vashi creek, Panvel creek.                                                   : 3 Locations
Pune Region : Mula-Mutha river, Indayani river, Krishna river, Pawana river, etc.          : 35 Locations
Raigad Region : Patalganga river, Kundalika river, Savitri river, etc.                     : 14 Locations
Thane region : Ulhas creek, Pehlar dam, Tarapur Nalla, etc.                                : 25 Locations
Noise Pollution

Introduction : Ganesha Chaturthi, the Ganesha festival, also known as ‘Vinayak Chaturthi’ or
‘Vinayak Chavithi’ is celebrated by Hindus around the world as the birthday of Lord Ganesha. It
is observed during mid-August to mid-September and the grandest and most elaborate of them,
especially in the western Indian state of Maharashtra, lasts for 10 days, ending on the day of
‘Ananta Chaturdashi’. After 10 days, Ganesha idols are immersed in the water bodies. Large
number of people participate in the festival and the immersion procession on the last day. Vocal
music and musical instruments during the festival causes high levels of noise. In general,
ambient levels of noise increase considerably. In order to asses the situation of noise level in
various cities across the state, Maharashtra Pollution Control Board has carried out the survey for
5 days during Ganesh festival September 10th to 14th.

Objective : The objective of this exercise is to asses the problem faced by the residents when the
noise level of their surroundings exceed the permissible limit.

Noise Pollution and it effect on Environment: Noise is defined as the undesirable sound.
Sound which pleases the listeners in music and that which causes pain and annoyance is noise.
At times what is music for some can be noise for others. To some people the roar of an engine is
satisfying or thrilling and to others it may be annoying. Noise is transient once the pollution
stops, the environment is free of it.

Noise level Measurement and Noise Pollution standards: A decibel is the standard for the
measurement of noise. The zero on a decibel scale is at the threshold of hearing, the lowest
sound pressure that can be heard. According to D.B. Smith, 20 dB is whisper, 40 dB is quiet
office, 60 dB is normal conversation and 80 dB is the level at which sound becomes physically
painful.

       The Central Pollution Control Board constituted a National Committee of experts on
Noise Pollution Control. The committee recommended noise standards for ambient air and for
automobiles, domestic appliances and construction equipment, which were later notified under
the environment (protection) Act, 1986 as given below.
       Area Code            Category Of Area               Limits in dB (A), leq
                                                        Day time         Night time
           A                  Industrial area              75                  70
           B                 Commercial area               65                  55
           C                 Residential area              55                  45
           D                   Silence area                50                  40

There was a total of 85 locations covered during Ganesh festival in Maharashtra. The detailed list
of location is as follows.

Conclusion : it is observed from the results that the noise levels were exceeding the permissible
limit during the Ganesh festival from September 10 to 14, 2008 in all the cities. In spite of legal
standards in place and efforts of the regulatory agencies, the noise level could not be controlled
under the permissible limit.

In Mumbai 25 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
ranging between 50.2 dBA to 59.8 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 63.4 dBA to 102.7 dBA.



                                              68
   In Navi Mumbai 5 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008
   were ranging between 51.3 dBA to 91.3 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 85.9 dBA to 100.6
   dBA.
   In Thane 5 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 51.3 dBA to 95.8 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 59.2 dBA to 92.4 dBA.
   In Pune 20 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 62 dBA to 107 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 56.8 dBA to 99.3 dBA.
   In Nashik 5 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 41.9 dBA to 99.8 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 40.2 dBA to 89.3 dBA.
   In Aurangabad 5 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 51.3 dBA to 99.5 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 65.2 dBA to 114.1 dBA.
   In Nagpur 5 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 60.7 dBA to 85.9 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 62.2 dBA to 98.3 dBA.
   In kalyan 3 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 59.6 dBA to 92.7 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 65.4 dBA to 103.8 dBA.
   In Amravati 3 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 59 dBA to 79.7 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 52.6 dBA to 93.6 dBA.
   In Jalgaon 3 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 60 dBA to 79 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 54 dBA to 102.9 dBA.
   In Kolhapur 3 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 65 dBA to 86 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 56.9 dBA to 105.4 dBA.
   In Satara 3 locations were monitored and the sound level during monitoring in 2008 were
   ranging between 66 dBA to 100 dBA. In 2007, level ranged between 62.5 dBA to 96.7 dBA.


   It is observed that, there is significant change in noise levels in all the cities. There was a
reduction of noise this year in all the cities as compared to the previous years.
    Increasing awareness amongst masses and enforcement has resulted in reduction of noise levels
this season.




                                                69
2.6    Environment Statistics
                                                                                (DES, Orissa)

       Environment Planning and preservation is every one’s concern today. The entire
human community is concerned with the protection and enhancement of quality of
environment as an urban city disturbs the climate and creates a substantial source of pollution
because of gathering of its dwellers that live, work and move within and around its
boundaries. Many Govt. and Non- Govt. organizations are trying to help in nature’s
conservation. They are developing greenery and beautification around the cities by planting
colorful shrubs and ground herbs. It is very fascinating to see luxuriant growth of plants. This
is helping in ecological balance in fixing the sun light and controlling Carbon dioxide
concentration in the atmosphere. It is a proven fact that plants comprising herbal strata show
high photo synthetic activities. This will undoubtedly working towards nature conservation
and an eco-friendly environment.

         With this objectives and as per the Recommendation of NSC, an Environment
Statistics Cell has been created in the Official Statistics Division of this Directorate in the
month of Sept.’ 2007 for collection, compilation and building up of a sound data base for
Environment related matters.

         In this regard, Principal CCF and State Pollution Control Board have been intimated
to submit information on Environment Statistics for preparation of Compendium on
Environment Statistics. Information on specific field as Environment degradation, Flora,
Forests, Fauna, Atmosphere, Energy, Green House Gases, Noises, Land and Soil Agriculture,
Natural Disaster, Mining, Ground Water, Human Settlement, Housing Slums & Basic
facilities and best management are required for preparation of compendium on Environment
Statistics.

       Necessary formats for creation of sound data bank on environment statistics are
required to be provided by Govt. of India.




                                              70

				
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Description: The paper provides some statistics on noise and pollution levels in India