Essentials of Marketing Research

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					  Essentials of
Marketing Research



     Chapter 7:
  Survey Research
                    SURVEYS

SURVEYS ASK RESPONDENTS FOR
INFORMATION USING VERBAL OR
WRITTEN QUESTIONING

RESPONDENTS = A REPRESENTATIVE
SAMPLE OF PEOPLE
                   Advantages of Surveys

•   Standardization
•   Ease of Administration
•   Ability to tap the “unseen”
•   Suitability for statistical analysis
•   Sensitivity to subgroup differences
•   Quick, Inexpensive
•   Efficient, Accurate
•   Flexible
                           PROBLEMS

• POOR DESIGN
• IMPROPER EXECUTION

• Research Manager’s Task =
     Total Error Minimization
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

                    Random Sampling
                         Error


     Total Error



                    Systematic Error
                         (bias)
RANDOM SAMPLING ERROR

A STATISTICAL FLUCTUATION THAT
OCCURS BECAUSE OF CHANCE
VARIATION IN THE ELEMENTS
SELECTED FOR THE SAMPLE
         SYSTEMATIC ERROR

SYSTEMATIC ERROR RESULTS FROM
SOME IMPERFECT ASPECT OF THE
RESEARCH DESIGN OR FROM A
MISTAKE IN THE EXECUTION OF THE
RESEARCH
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

                             Administrative
                                Error


   Systematic Error (bias)
            or
     Non-sampling bias

                              Respondent
                                 Error
                SAMPLE BIAS

SAMPLE BIAS - WHEN THE RESULTS
OF A SAMPLE SHOW A PERSISTENT
TENDENCY TO DEVIATE IN ONE
DIRECTION FROM THE TRUE VALUE
OF THE POPULATION PARAMETER
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

                     Non-response
                         Error


   Respondent
      Error

                       Response
                         Bias
        RESPONDENT ERROR

A CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLE BIAS
RESULTING FROM SOME
RESPONDENT ACTION OR INACTION
  • NONRESPONSE BIAS
  • RESPONSE BIAS
        NONRESPONSE ERROR

• NONRESPONDENTS - PEOPLE WHO
  REFUSE TO COOPERATE
• NOT-AT-HOMES
• SELF-SELECTION BIAS
   • OVER REPRESENTS EXTREME POSITIONS
   • UNDER REPRESENTED INDIFFERENT
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error


                      Deliberate
                     Falsification
    Response
      Bias

                     Unconscious
                   Misrepresentation
             RESPONSE BIAS

A BIAS THAT OCCURS WHEN
RESPONDENTS TEND TO ANSWER
QUESTIONS WITH A CERTAIN SLANT
THAT CONSCIOUSLY OR
UNCONSCIOUSLY MISREPRESENT
THE TRUTH
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

         Acquiescence bias (agree with all Qs)


         Extremity bias (always extreme response)


         Interviewer bias (interviewer presence)


         Auspices bias (halo affect)


          Social desirability bias
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

                       Administrative
                          Error



   Systematic Error
        (bias)


                        Respondent
                           Error
     ADMINISTRATIVE ERROR

• IMPROPER ADMINISTRATION OF THE
  RESEARCH TASK
• BLUNDERS
   • CONFUSION
   • NEGLECT
   • OMISSION
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

            Data Processing Error


           Sample Selection Error


              Interviewer Error


            Interviewer Cheating
COMMUNICATING WITH
RESPONDENTS

• PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
    • DOOR-TO-DOOR
    • SHOPPING MALL INTERCEPTS
• TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS
• SELF-ADMINISTERED
  QUESTIONNAIRES
PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
   Door-to-Door Personal Interview


Speed of Data Collection     Moderate to fast

Geographical Flexibility     Limited to moderate

Respondent Cooperation       Excellent

Versatility of Questioning   Quite versatile
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  Questionnaire Length          Long

  Item Non-response             Low

  Possibility of Respondent     Lowest
  Misunderstanding

  Degree of Interviewer         High
  Influence of Answer

  Supervision of Interviewers   Moderate
   Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Anonymity of Respondent          Low

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up   Difficult

Cost                             Highest

Special Features                 Visual materials may be
                                 shown or demonstrated;
                                 extended probing possible
 Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Speed of Data Collection     Fast

Geographical Flexibility     Confined, urban bias

Respondent Cooperation       Moderate to low

Versatility of Questioning   Extremely versatile

Questionnaire Length         Moderate to Long
Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Item Non-response             Medium

Possibility of Respondent     Lowest
Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer         Highest
Influence of Answers

Supervision of Interviewers   Moderate to high
Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Anonymity of Respondent   Low

Ease of Call Back or      Difficult
Follow-up

Cost                      Moderate to high

Special Features          Taste test, viewing
                          of TV Commercials
                          possible
MAIL SURVEYS
                                 MAIL SURVEYS

Speed of Data Collection     Researcher has no control
                             over return of questionnaire; slow

Geographical Flexibility     High

Respondent Cooperation       Moderate--poorly designed
                             questionnaire will have low
                             response rate


Versatility of Questioning   Highly standardized format
                              MAIL SURVEYS

Questionnaire Length          Varies depending on incentive

Item Non-response             High

Possibility of Respondent     Highest--no interviewer
Misunderstanding              present for clarification

Degree of Interviewer         None--interviewer absent
Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers   Not applicable
                           MAIL SURVEYS

Anonymity of Respondent          High

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up   Easy,
                                 but takes time

Cost                             Lowest
How to Increase Response Rates for
                     Mail Surveys
• Write a “Sales Oriented” Cover Letter
•   Money Helps
•        - As a token of appreciation
•        - For a charity
•   Stimulate Respondents’ Interest with Interesting Questions
•   Follow Up
•   Keying questionnaires with codes
•   Advanced Notification
•   Sponsorship by a Well-known and Prestigious Institution
Ways to Increase Mail Survey Response


 •   Foot-in-the-door    • Length of survey
 •   Personalization     • Survey size,
 •   Anonymity             reproduction and color
 •   Response deadline   • Type of postage
 •   Incentives             – outgoing
                            – return envelopes
           SELF-ADMINISTERED
              QUESTIONNAIRES
•   MAIL
•   PLACE OF BUSINESS
•   DROP-OFF
•   COMPUTERIZED
•   E-MAIL
•   INTERNET
•   OTHER VARIATIONS
Telephone Surveys
                       Telephone Surveys

Speed of Data Collection       Very fast

Geographical Flexibility       High

Respondent Cooperation         Good

Versatility of Questioning     Moderate
                                   Telephone Surveys
Questionnaire Length                         Moderate
Item Non-response                            Medium
Possibility of Respondent                    Average
  Misunderstanding
Degree of Interviewer                        Moderate
  Influence on Answer
Supervision of Interviewers                  High, especially
                                             with central location
                                             WATS interviewing

WATS: Wide-Area Telecommunications Service
                            Telephone Surveys

Anonymity of Respondent          Moderate

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up   Easy

Cost                             Low to moderate

Special Features                 Fieldwork and supervision
                                 of data collection are
                                 simplified; quite adaptable
                                 to computer technology
 TIME PERIOD FOR SURVEYS

• CROSS-SECTIONAL
• LONGITUDINAL
         Comparison Of Data Collection
                             Methods
                        Personal   Telephone   Mail
Data collection costs   High       Medium      Low
Data collection time    Medium     Low         High
Sample size for given   Small      Medium      Large
budget
Data quantity per       High       Medium      Low
respondent
Reaches widely          No         Maybe       Yes
dispersed sample
Reaches special         Yes        Maybe       No
locations
  Comparison Of Data Collection
                      Methods
                    Personal Telephone Mail
Interaction with    Yes      Yes       No
respondents
Degree of           High     Medium    None
interviewer bias
Severity of         Low      Low       High
nonresponse bias
Presentation of     Yes      No        Maybe
visual stimuli
Fieldworker         Yes      Yes       No
training required
   Factors Determining Choice of
                 Survey Method

• Researcher’s Resources and Objectives
  – Time horizon
  – Budget
  – Desired quality of data collected
     • Generalizability vs. Completeness
   Factors Determining Choice of
                 Survey Method

• Respondent Characteristics
  – Incidence rate (% in target population)
  – Willingness to participate (suspicion, privacy,
    interest)
  – Ability to participate (time, qualified)
  – Diversity of respondents (problems with
    selection or response probabilities)
   Factors Determining Choice of
                 Survey Method

• Question Characteristics
  – Complexity of tasks (or props needed)
  – Amount of information per respondent (and
    type of information needed)
  – Topic sensitivity (e.g., hygiene, charity
    contributions, illicit behaviors)
                Potential Survey Topics

• Attitudes
  – attitude comes before behavior
  – three parts:
     • what a person knows about a topic
        – awareness (aided and unaided recall)
     • how a person feels about a topic
        – positive/negative and intensity of feeling
     • likelihood the person will take action based on the
       attitude
        – past, present and future behavior
              Potential Survey Topics

• Image
  – ask what characteristics are most important to
    the subject
  – comparison across groups to reveal differences
• Decisions
  – What was the process used to make the
    decision?
  – What information sources were used?
  – What criteria was used for evaluation?
              Potential Survey Topics

• Needs (or Wants)
  – Needs, desires or preferences
  – Find out relative importance of needs.
• Behavior
  – what respondents did or did not do
  – the timing of the behavior
  – the persistency of the behavior
               Potential Survey Topics

• Lifestyles
  – lifestyle patterns identified by activities,
    interests, opinions and possessions of the
    respondents
• Affiliations
  – family groups
  – reference groups
              Potential Survey Topics

• Demographics
  – Variables such as age, gender, income, marital
    status, education, employment, etc.
  – demographic groups often differ significantly
    on issues
  – demographics can be used to identify market
    segments
                        Survey Trends

• Over sampling of some populations
• Privacy issues
• New Technology
  –   fax
  –   e-mail
  –   internet
  –   virtual reality