Indentured Servant: _____________________ CHAPTER TWO, “THE PLANTING OF ENGLISH AMERICA, 1500-1733” “In studying man’s past we are also, inevitably, studying ourselves. In doing so, our empathic capacity is our most valuable, and most humane, tool of understanding.” – Peter Loewenberg MAIN QUESTION FOR CHAPTER: Compare and contrast English and Spanish colonization. Word or phrase Meaning in context primogeniture (28) exclusive right of inheritance for the eldest son repudiate (31) to refuse to accept; reject catalyze (31) to bring about significant change or action salutary (31) promoting health or a beneficial effect monoculture (33) cultivation of one crop exclusively dissenter (38) one who differs in opinion; a nonconformist quintessence (38) the essence of something or the most typical example vale (38) valley Most Relevant Identification Summary Theme(s) 1. Sir Walter Raleigh was a courtier who was liked by Queen Elizabeth for his good looks and courtly manners. He was responsible for important colonizing failures in the New World and was later beheaded for treason. He was like Queen Elizabeth’s favorite doll of whom she later became bored (AK). 2. Francis Drake was a “sea dog” who, with support from investors (including Elizabeth in secret), set out to plunder Spanish goods. In 1580 he returned to England with a 4,600 percent profit and was therefore knighted by Elizabeth. He was like a pirate ripping off the Spanish for their money (AK). 3. Newfoundland was the first colonization attempt in North America by England. It failed when its promoter, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, died at sea. No lasting settlement arose there for quite some time. It was like the forgotten toys left on the ground by toddlers who had found a better game (Rachel S.). 4. North Carolina’s Roanoke Island was the site where Walter Raleigh landed in 1585. It was off the cost of Virginia, a vaguely defined region named for Elizabeth (the Virgin Queen), where many colonizing attempts failed to take hold. It was like a ghost town once inhabited by many people (AK). 5. The “Protestant wind” (1588) was a devastating storm that scattered the retreating crippled Spanish fleet of ships when Phillip II of Spain, who was against the Protestant Reformation, invaded England. Phillip II created an “Invincible Armada” of ships. The British fought back and beat out the unwieldy, over laden Spanish ships like the Americans did after September 11th (SG). The Protestant Wind was called so because it was the Protestants who were destroying the Spanish. The wind was like kicking someone when she is down because the Spanish Armada was already retreating when the wind ruined the fleet (GB). 6. In the English countryside, landlords “enclosed” croplands for sheep grazing which forced farmers off of their land or into tenancy. This is as if all apartment building owners stopped renting to tenants, forcing them into the streets. In England, this forced many to migrate to America (SG). 7. The laws of primogeniture stated that only eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates. Younger sons were forced to make their fortunes elsewhere. This is like the Chinese favoritism toward their sons (SG). 8. The joint-stock company was the forerunner to the modern corporation. While the population and unemployment rates grew, joint-stock companies provided financial means for the English. Investors pooled money to fund colonies, expeditions, and other projects, later splitting the profits. The joint-stock company is like when the neighborhood kids pool their allowances to set up a lemonade stand and then divvy up the profits afterward (GB). 9. The charter of the Virginia Company guaranteed all English citizens equal rights no matter where they were in the New World. It was like a giant umbrella that stretched from Europe to North America. It protected English-speaking people under a universal cover with English rights and laws (MW). 10. Jamestown was established in 1607 after the Virginia Company landed in Chesapeake Bay. The place turned out to be a disease-infested swamp. There were decent hunting and fishing opportunities, but the settlers were too preoccupied with the thought of gold to realize it so many died. It was like Tom Sawyer's fence whitewashing trick. The kids (settlers) were so caught up in the "cool" whitewashing that they lost their view of reality (MW). 11. An intrepid young adventurer, Captain John Smith took over the leadership role in Jamestown in 1608. He made the colonists work instead of search for gold. His saying was, “He who shall not work shall not eat.” In December 1607 he had been captured and sentenced to mock execution by the Indian chieftain Powhatan. However, he was “saved” by Pocahontas. He also had a great role in Disney’s Pocahontas. He was like Danny DeVito in Renaissance Man, taking a bunch of not-so-bright individuals and turning them into logically intelligent, successful individuals that worked well as a unit (GG). 12. The winter of 1609-1610 in Jamestown was aptly dubbed the "starving time." Men ate "dogges, catts, ratts and myce" as well as human corpses. Only 60 of the original 400 lived. It was like hatmakers working with mercury. The hatmakers (colonists) were overly exposed to the poisonous mercury (cold, disease) that they went crazy (MW). 13. Lord De la Warr arrived with orders from the Virginia Company to declare the First Anglo-Powhatan War (1614) on American Indians. He used “Irish Tactics” to raid and burn villages and cornfields and confiscate possessions. The war ended with a peace settlement sealed by Pocahontas marrying John Rolfe [first interracial marriage in VA]. De La Warr’s carrying over of such tactics is like a student taking his bad habits (such as cheating) from science class to history (JB). 14. In the Second Powhatan War, a series of American Indian attacks left 347 settlers dead. The Virginia Company called for a war that would totally eradicate the native population. Ultimately losing, the Powhatans were pushed completely off their ancestral land. The war is like retaking a test to get a better grade and ending up doing worse than you did before (JB). 15. The Lakotas (Sioux) were a Native American tribe who had previously been sedentary forest dwellers. They moved onto the wide open plains with the introduction of the horse from Europe. These people flourished on the Plains. They were like a child receiving his first bike. They acquired a domestic animal that increased their ability to travel as a child who received a vehicle would also increase his mobility (NS). 16. John Rolfe was Pocahontas’s husband and the father of the tobacco industry; he saved the Virginia Company economically. He perfected methods of harvesting the weed by eliminating some of the bitter taste, causing tobacco’s popularity in Jamestown and Virginia to sky-rocket. This is like a remixed song suddenly becoming more popular and being played on every radio station (JB). 17. King Nicotine is a nickname for tobacco, a major crop in the South. Tobacco was crucial in the economy of the South and helped it prosper. However, tobacco also ruined the soil, depended on a plantation system with many slaves, and made Virginia widely dependent on one crop. King Nicotine is like coffee, you want more of it and it helps you wake up and do well, but you can quickly become dependent on it and it can ruin your teeth (soil). (RG) 18. The first representative self-government in America, the House of Burgesses was formed in 1619 after the London Company authorized the formation of an assembly. King James distrusted it, calling in a “seminary of sedition.” It was like a teenager getting a driving permit because it is an apparently harmless development that eventually leads to much greater independence. It, too, is highly distrusted by parental figures (PMW). 19. Lord Baltimore was a member of a prominent English Catholic family who founded Maryland in 1634. He hoped to make it rich there but also to create a safe haven for Catholics discriminated against elsewhere. Lord Baltimore was an “absentee proprietor” who awarded vast estates to his Catholic relatives. Eventually Lord Baltimore lost his proprietary rights for a period of time when an open rebellion flared up between resentful backcountry planters and land barons. Lord Baltimore is like a teacher who leaves the room for a while and puts snobby kids in control. When he comes back the other children are angry and he has to take the time to get the class under control (RG). 20. Indentured servants were poor white immigrants who received a ticket to America in exchange for so many years of labor. Blacks did not come until the 1600s and were originally indentured servants. They were like kids escaping to college from their parents; both wanted desperately to leave where they came from and may have had no money with them while facing extended working periods (RM). 21. The Act of Toleration (1649) was an act passed by the local representative assembly that guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians who accepted the Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Ghost). The act also decreed a death penalty for those who denied the divinity of Jesus (Jews and atheists). The Act of Toleration was drafted to provide temporary protection for the Catholics, who feared a Protestant takeover and discrimination. The Act of Toleration was like a sword, protecting some people and hurting others (RG). 22. The African diaspora was the separation and scattering of Africans throughout the Americans in the three and a half centuries after Columbus’s discovery, forced by the slave labor in which Africans were used to harvest crops in the Caribbean. This was a result of the slave trade, causing many family ties to sever and breaking the slaves away from their only support system. This was like when seeds of many different flowers are mixed together and spread over a field so that no two similar flowers are near one another (GB). 23. The Barbados slave code (1661) involved documents that limited the slaves’ legal status and the masters’ prerogatives. This code stripped the slaves of all their human rights. They were often subjected to severe physical punishment as well. The slave code was like a dog trainer; it punished the subjects to “keep them in line.” (The slaves were not dogs, but they were treated just as badly) (SS). 24. The Restoration Period (1680-1685) was a time of empire rebuilding after unrest in England, when unrest was caused by King Charles’s dismissal of Parliament and Olive Cromwell’s military rule. At this time, colonization resumed with more intensity. This is like aloe that you put on after a sunburn because it heals the burn (SS). 25. Carolina was created in 1670 after King Charles II granted to eight of his court favorites an expanse of land. These aristocrats wanted to grow foodstuffs to provision the sugar plantations in Barbados and to export non-English products like wine, silk, and olive oil. Carolina was like a son trying to make it on his own. His parents (the king) give him money (land) to start out with until he can start making his own profit. (DS) 26. Charles Town became the busiest seaport in the south. Many high-spirited young men came over because they did not an inheritance from their parents. They gave the city an aristocratic flavor. The city became extremely diverse with many different races and religions living in proximity. Charles Town was like a painting; all of the colors (diversity) put together created a beautiful image. (DS) 27. The Yamasees were defeated by citizens of North Carolina in one of several wars facing increased importation of slaves to Carolina. After their defeat, nearly all Indian tribes in the colonies of the south were destroyed by 1720. The destruction of the Europeans was for the Europeans similar to destroying the last bolder blocking a path for a railroad under construction in that the Yamasees were the last American Indian obstacles in the way of the colonists’ expansion in the South (WA). 28. One of the ablest founders of Georgia, James Oglethorpe was a dynamic soldier- statesman who was interested in prison reform after one of his friends died in a debtors’ jail. He repelled Spanish attacks and saved “the Charity Colony.” He was like a blockade to the Spanish attacks against the colony in Georgia (JDH). 29. John Wesley was a missionary in Georgia trying to convert and work with Indians and debtors. He later returned to England to found the Methodist Church. John Wesley was like a teacher’s assistant who gets his feet wet, before venturing out on his own and developing his own ideas. (DS) 30. The League of the Iroquois was an alliance founded in the late 1500s by Hiawatha and Deganawidah. It was composed of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onandagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. It was initially a force to be reckoned with but eventually fell to the colonists like everything else that got in their way. It was unique in that it was the most coherent effort made by the American Indians to centralize their power. It was like when you finally learn how to play a game, but you are too late to beat your opponent who is more experienced (JS). 31. The Tuscaroras were a tribe of American Indians who chose not to resist the expansionism of the League of the Iroquois, but rather sought peaceful assimilation into the league. Many tribes were absorbed into the league, some more violently than others. They were like a good card player who knows when to fold his hand because he is beaten (JS). 32. One of the strategies used by the League of Iroquois, the mourning wars were the conquest and adoption of refugees and captives from other tribes in order to build up the League. These new members of the league added substantially to its power, but distracted it from the real enemy. This was like when a coach tries so hard to pick the best team and becomes distracted from the goal of beating their town rival (GB). Other Questions to Consider A. To what extent is it appropriate to compare the experience of the settlers in Jamestown to the experience of the Taino during the Contact Period? B. Please write a personal ad or want ad of 40-50 words for settlers to come to ONE of the following places: Jamestown, Virginia; Maryland, Charles Town, Carolina, North Carolina, or Georgia. What might you say to draw colonists there and not somewhere else? C. To what extent did the English suppression of the Irish from 1565-1590 affect colonial and United States history? D. Assess the validity of the textbook authors’ claim that “The fate of the Powhatans foreshadowed the destinies of indigenous people throughout the continent as the process of European settlement went forward.” E. To what extent was 1619 a turning point in our nation’s history? F. To what extent is it appropriate to compare the experience of indigenous people on encomiendas in the West Indies to people on sugar plantations in the Caribbean? G. The textbook authors consider North Carolina and Rhode to be quite similar. Which two colonies appear to have been most different at this point? H. Identify at least THREE factors in the spread of slavery on the mainland. FOOD FOR THOUGHT! Where do you suspect you would have chosen to settle?