EDUCATIONAL CONTENT AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR LIVING TOGETHER IN

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					               TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0      THE EDUCATION SYSTEM AT THE END OF THE TWENTIETH
         CENTURY: AN OVERVIEW           …     …     …     …            1

1.1      MAJOR REFORMS AND INNOVATIONS INTRODUCED IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM DURING THE
         LAST TEN YEARS, IN
         PARTICULAR CONCERNING:
         PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION IN GHANA 1

1.1(a)   THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF EDUCATION       …     …   …            1


1.1(b)   THE ORGANISATION, STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE
         EDUCATION SYSTEM              …     …    …      …             2

         PRE-SCHOOL PROGRAMME             …     …     …   …            2

         BASIC EDUCATION                  …     …     …   …            3

         SUBJECTS AVAILABLE FOR STUDIES …       …     …   …            4

         SENIOR SECONDARY EDUCATION       …     …     …   …            4

         KEY ISSUES     IN PRETERTIARY EDUCATION …    …   …             9

         TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION         …     …   …            10

         PRIVATE SCHOOLS                  …     …     …   …            11

         TEACHER TRAINING                 …     …     …   …            12

         TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS            …     …     …   …            14

         UNIVERSITIES                     …     …     …   …            15

         NON-FORMAL EDUCATION DIVISION …        …     …   …            17

         MANAGEMENT OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM …         …       17

         FINANCING OF EDUCATION           …     …     …   …            19

1.1(c)   EVALUATION, POLICIES, METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS    …            20

         CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT      …     …     …     …   …            20

         CRITERION REFERENCED TESTING     …     …     …   …            21

         PARTICIPATORY PERFORMANCE MONITORING (PPM)…          21



         SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL EXAMINATION (SSSCE)      …            22

         TERTIARY EDUCATION EXAMINATIONS              …   …            22

         TEACHERS’ SELF-APPRAISAL INSTRUMENT          …   …            22

         STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES                             …        …        22

         NATIONAL FUNCTIONAL LITERACY PROGRAMME           …            23

1.1(d)   OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTIC OF
         CURRENT AND FORTHCOMING REFORMS              …   …            23
                                            1
         IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING               24

         IMPROVE ACCESS AND PARTICIPATION AS WELL AS EQUITY         24

         IMPROVE MANAGEMENT EFFICIENCY IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR 24

         IMPROVE OPERATIONS OF FUNCTIONALLY LITERATE AND
         SELF-RELIANCE PROGRAMME                                    25

         IMPROVE ACCESS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOCY
         EDUCATION AS WELL AS TRAINING …      …       …    …        26

         MAKE EDUCATION MORE RESPONSIVE TO THE
         MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS OF THE NATION          …    …        26

         DECENTRALISE AND SUSTAIN MANAGEMENT OF
         THE EDUCATION SECTOR         …     …         …    …        26

1.2.0    MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS, BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND
         QUALITATIVE, ATTAINED OVER THE LAST TEN YEARS,
         ESPECIALLY IN TERMS OF:         …     …     …     …        26

1.2(a)   ACCESS AND PARTICIPATION:       …        …   …    …        26

         EQUITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME (EIP)           …    …        27

         SCHOLARSHIP FOR GIRLS                        …    …        27

         REMOTE AREA INCENTIVE PACKAGE                …    …        27

         FURNITURE          …        …   …        …   …    …    …        27

         TEXT BOOKS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS       …    …        28

         RETENTION COMPETITION       …   …        …   …    …        28

         SCHOOL LIBRARY                  …        …   …    …    …        28


         NATIONAL FUNCTIONAL LITERACY PROGRAMME            …        28


1.2(b)   EQUITY IN EDUCATION             …        …   …    …    …        28

1.2(c)   QUALITY AND RELEVANCE OF EDUCATION …         …    …        30

1.2(d)   PARTICIPATION BY SOCIETY IN THE PROCESS OF
         EDUCATIONAL CHANGE                     …     …    …    …        32

         COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT           …        …   …    …        32

         SCHOOL MANAGEMENT COMMITTEES (SMCS)          …    …        32

         DISTRICT EDUCATION OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE (DEOCs)    …        32

         DISTRICT EDUCATION PLANNING TEAMS (DEPTs)    …    …        33

         SCHOOL PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL MEETINGS (SPAMs)     …        33

         NATIONAL FUNCTIONAL LITERACY PROGRAMME            …        33

1.3.0    THE LESSONS LEARNED IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGING
         AND REFORMING EDUCATION SYSTEMS: APPROACHES

                                              2
         ADOPTED, SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES, MAJOR DIFFICULTIES
         ENCOUNTERED ETC. …      …      …     …      …      …        …         35

1.4.0    THE MAIN PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES FACING NATIONAL
         EDUCATION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY-39

1.4.1    FUNDING OF EDUCATION     …     …         …   …    …             40

1.4.2    IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION       …   …    …             42

1.4.3    LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES       …   …    …              42
1.4.4    MARKET-ORIENTED COURSES        …         …   …    …             44

1.4.5    DURATION OF THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PROGRAMME       44

2.0      EDUCATION CONTENT AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR
         THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY           …      …       …         …         45

2.1      CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, PRINCIPLES AND ASSUMPTIONS      45

2.1(a)   THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS    …         …   …    …             45


2.1(b)   CURRICULUM PLANNING AND DESIGN, GENERAL PRINCIPLES
         AND BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE EXISTING CURRICULUM …              46

2.1(c)   TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES         …   …    …             48

         TIME TABLE                     …         …   …    …         …         49

         PREPARATION OF TEACHERS TO IMPLEMENT AND
         ADOPT THE CURRICULUM     …     …    …        …    …             49

2.1(d)   ASSESSMENT POLICIES AND INSTRUMENTS USED TO
         DETERMINE THE PROGRESS OF A PUPIL OR STUDENT      …             50

         SUGGESTED PRIMARY SCHOOL TIME TABLE ALLOCATION
         OF PERIODS TO SUBJECTS PER WEEK     …     …       …             51

         SUGGESTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TIME TABLE
         ALLOCATION OF PERIODS TO SUBJECTS PER WEEK …           51

2.2      CHANGING AND ADAPTING EDUCATIONAL CONTENT         …             52

2.2(a)   FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE CURRICULUM REFORMS …             52

2.2(b)   CURRICULUM REFORM IS BROUGHT ABOUT BY:            …             52

2.2(c)   AREAS COVERED            …     …         …   …    …         …         52

2.2(d)   STRATEGIES ADOPTED IN THE DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION,
         FOLLOW-UP AND EVALUATION               …    …     …         …         53

2.2(e)   ACHIEVEMENTS; PROBLEMS AND SOLUTION …        …         54

2.2.1    CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES AND
         ASSUMPTIONS IN NON-FORMAL EDUCATION …        …         54

2.2.2    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION         …         …   …    …             56

3.0      DOCUMENTARY REFERENCES USED FOR THE PREPARATION
         OF THE NATIONAL REPORT       …     …     …      …               57

3.1      LIST OF ACRONYMS               …         …   …    …             58

                                              3
4
EDUCATIONAL CONTENT AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR LIVING TOGETHER IN THE
            TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

1.0       THE EDUCATION SYSTEM AT THE END OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY:
                                  AN OVERVIEW

1.1       MAJOR REFORMS AND INNOVATIONS INTRODUCED IN THE EDUCATION
          SYSTEM DURING THE LAST TEN YEARS, IN PARTICULAR CONCERNING:

1.1.      PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION IN GHANA

Since September 1987, the government of Ghana has embarked upon a New Educational Programme
geared strategically at making education more accessible to all children of school-going age,
improving equity and the quality of education as a whole and making education more relevant to the
socio-economic needs of the country. This is to equip the child to live a productive and meaningful
life. Since the reforms began, a number of special programmes have been introduced to deal with
specific issues to enhance the teaching and learning process. The overall objective of the education
system is to play a dynamic role in the development of the nation.

1.1. (a)THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF EDUCATION
The Education Act of 1961 established the policy of free and compulsory primary and basic
education for all children of school-going age in Ghana. The Education Act also made provision for
the establishment of Private Schools to augment government’s efforts at providing enough schools to
cater for the ever-growing demand for education, especially at the basic level. This led to the
creation of the Private Schools Unit at the Ministry of Education in August 1973.

In 1983, the Government enacted the PNDC Law 42 to modify and reinforce the Education Act of
1961. The Government declared that without the provision of basic education for as many of our
children for the challenges of this environment, we would only be turning them into misfits and
denying ourselves the most essential resources for national development.”

Since Ghana’s return to constitutional rule in January 1992, the government has set up institutions for
the promotion of democratic rule and socio-economic advancement.                       The 1992 Constitution
specifically directed that:

•     the State shall provide educational facilities at all levels in all the Regions of Ghana, and shall, to
      the greatest extent feasible, make those facilities available to all citizens;




                                                        5
•   the Government shall, within two years after Parliament first meets after coming into force of this
    Constitution, draw up a programme for implementation within the following ten years for the
    provision of free, compulsory and universal basic education;
•   the State shall, subject to the availability of resources, provide equal and balanced access to
    secondary and other appropriate pre-university or equivalent education with emphasis on science
    and technology; a free adult literacy programme, and a free vocational training, rehabilitation and
    resettlement of disabled persons; and life-long education.

1.1. (b)       THE ORGANISATION, STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE
               EDUCATION SYSTEM

The organisation, structure and linkages between the various levels of education is described below:

           PRE-SCHOOL PROGRAMME
The breakdown of the various levels of the Pre-school programme is as follows:

CRECHE                 -      0 - 2 years
DAY CARE               -      2 – 3 years
NURSERY                -      3 – 4 years
KINDERGARTEN           -      4 - 6 years

The pre-school period is the initial stage of formal schooling. Learning needs envisaged here are the
promotion of a healthy mind and body. For the realisation of this objective, all children are expected
to be fully immunized against the six-killer diseases. Also, nutrition education, family planning life
education for mothers have been put in place alongside growth monitoring programmes.
Furthermore, developing programmes for Day Nursery Attendants, environmental sanitation and
Primary Health Care activities all form part of programmes targeted at Day Care/Kindergarten
education.

All children are also expected to have a congenial creative learning environment. To this end, efforts
have been made especially in the last ten years, to develop instruments that serve as conditions under
which pre-school institutions can be opened. This is to ensure that these schools are equipped with
safe environment, play-things and toys for psychomotor development, role-plays, sports and games to
keep the children of these schools fit and strong.

It is deemed important to also pay attention to children’s socialisation process. Government endorses
local language development and use. Cultural and religious education are also offered for moral
development.




                                                     6
Normally, the Department of Social Welfare takes care of Crèches and Day Care Centres, while the
Ghana Education Service takes care of Nurseries and Kindergartens.

In practice, however, there is a major overlap in the functions of the Ghana Education Service and the
Department of Social Welfare as far as the administration of the Pre-school programme is concerned.
This overlap is caused by the fact that both Day Care Centres and Private Nurseries admit children of
all ages (0 – 6). Currently, private owners are free to register with either the Department of Social
Welfare or with the Ghana Education Service.

Although Pre-school Institutions prepare children for formal education, it is not obligatory for every
Ghanaian child to go through these centres before Primary education since conditions vary from one
district to another.

In order to ensure that Nursery Schools are properly run, the Government has set up a National
Nursery Teachers’ Training Centre where Certificated Teachers, who want to specialise in Nursery
Education, and Nursery Attendants are trained to go to both Public and Private Nursery Schools.

Here, the most vulnerable groups who have very little or no access to this level of education are the
rural dwellers since most of the facilities are mostly found in the urban and sub-urban centres.

Over the years, however, efforts have been made by the Ghana Education Service and NGOs to
establish more pre-school institutions. The 31st December Women’s Movement, which is credited
with the opening of a good number of well-patronised Day Care Centres all over the country is worth
mentioning; and so are a few organisations and private individuals.


   BASIC EDUCATION

Basic education, according to the 1992 Constitution of Ghana, is the birthright of every child
irrespective of ethnicity, religion, gender and geographical location.

It consists of six years of Primary Education followed by three years of Junior Secondary School
education. At the end of the mandatory 9-year basic school course is the Basic Education Certificate
Examination (BECE).

In accordance with the new educational policy for Basic Education in Ghana pupils in Basic School
1-3 (Lower Primary) study 5 subjects while those in Basic School 4-6 study 6 subjects. Additionally,
all pupils from Basic Schools are taught Physical Education, Music and Dance as part of their
physical activities.

                                                   7
In Basic School 7-9 (i.e. The Junior Secondary School) students study 9 subjects or 10 subjects if
French (an optional subject) is offered in a particular school. These subjects are examinable both
internally and externally, besides, Life Skills, Physical Education, Music and Dance are taught and
are internally examinable.


     SUBJECTS AVAILABLE FOR STUDIES

In accordance with the new educational policy for Basic Education in Ghana, the following subjects
have been agreed upon to be studied at the Primary and Junior Secondary School levels (BS1-9).


BS 1-3 (Lower Primary)
1.      English Language
2.      Ghanaian Language/Culture
3.      Mathematics
4.      Environmental Studies
5.      Religious/Moral Education
6.      Physical Education
7.      Music and Dance     To be taught as Physical Activities

BS 4-6 (Upper Primary)
1.      English Language
2.      Ghanaian Language/Culture
3.      Mathematics
4.      Integrated Science (Science and Agriculture Science)
5.      Environmental Studies
6.      Religious/Moral Education
7.      Physical Education
8.      Music and Dance      To be taught as Physical Activities

BS 7-9 (Junior Secondary School)
1.      English Language
2.      Ghanaian Language/Culture
3.      Mathematics
4.      Social Studies
5.      Science
6.      Agricultural Science
7.      Pre-Vocational Skills
8.      Pre-Technical Skills
9.      French (optional)
10.     Religious/Moral Education
11.     Life Skills
12.     Music and Dance       Internally Examinable
13.     Physical Education

      SENIOR SECONDARY EDUCATION
On successful completion of Basic Education, there is a 3-year Senior Secondary School Programme.

                                                  8
Students from Basic Education who obtain between aggregate 6 and 30 in their best six subjects
normally qualify for admission to Senior Secondary Schools. In reality, however, those with better
aggregates always stand better chances.
Core Subjects
There are four (4) core subjects that every student in a Senior Secondary School is expected to offer.
These are:             (a)     English Language
                       (b)     Mathematics
                       (c)     Integrated Science (including Agriculture)
                       (d)     Social Studies (formerly Life Skills) and embracing Economics,
                               Geography, History, Government etc

The above subjects are examined both internally and externally. In addition, Physical Education and
Religious/Moral Education are also offered and examined internally.


Elective Subjects
A number of subjects have been grouped into various elective categories from which students are
eligible to choose either three or four subjects for study as electives.


Agriculture Programme
Under the programme students are required to study:
a.     General Agriculture
b.     Two or three of the following:
             Crop Husbandry and Horticulture
             Animal Husbandry/Fisheries/Forestry
             Chemistry
             Physics
             Mathematics (Elective)
             French or Music
Alternative Agricultural Programme for Schools without Science Laboratories
a.     General Agriculture
b.     Two or three of the following:
             Crop Husbandry and Horticulture
             Animal Husbandry/Fisheries/Forestry
             Chemistry
             Physics
             Biology
             Mathematics (Elective)
General Programme (Science)
Students are required to study:
a.     Mathematics

                                                     9
b.     Two or three of the following:
           Physics
           Chemistry
           Biology
           Technical Drawing
           Geography
           French or Music

General Programme (Arts)
Students are required to study any three or four of the following subjects:
       Literature in English
       French
       Ghanaian Language
       Music
       Christian or Islamic or Traditional Religious Studies
       Economics
       Geography
       History
       Government
       Mathematics (Elective)
       General Knowledge in Art

Choice of subjects will depend on the subjects being offered in the school.

Business Programme (Accounting Option)
Students are required to study:
a.     Introduction to Business Management
b.     Accounting
c.     Any one or two of the following:
           Business Mathematics or Principles of Costing
           Economics Mathematics (Elective)
           Typewriting
           French or Music

Business Programme (Secretarial Option)
Students are required to study:
a.     Introduction to Business Management
b.     Typewriting
c.     Any one or two of the following:
           Accounting
           Business Mathematics or Principles of Costing
           Mathematics (Elective)
           French or Music
           Literature in English

Vocational Programme (Visual Arts Option)

                                                   10
Students are required to study:

a.     General Knowledge in Art
b.     One of the following:
          Graphic design
          Picture making

c.     One of the following:

           Ceramics
           Leatherwork
           Sculpture
           Basketry
           Textiles
           Jewellery

d.     In addition, any one of the following subjects may be selected:

           French
           Music
           Economics
           Literature in English

Vocational Programme (Home Economics Option)

a.     Management in Living
b.     One of the following:

           Foods and Nutrition
           Clothing

Students may select any one or two of the following:

           Textiles
           General Knowledge in Art
           Economics
           French

Technical Programme

Students are required to study:

a.     Technical Drawing
b.     One of the following:

           Applied electricity
           Electronics
           Auto Mechanics
           Building Construction
           Metalwork
           Woodwork

c.     Any one of the following:
                                                 11
          Physics
          Mathematics (Elective)
          French
Alternative Technical Programme

a.     Technical Drawing
b.     Two or three of the following;

             Applied electricity
             Electronics
             Auto Mechanics
             Building Construction
             Metalwork
             Woodwork
             Physics
             Mathematics (Elective)
             French

Practical training skills introduced in schools as part of the normal school timetable include the
following:

1.     Auto Practice
2.     Beads making
3.     Beauty Culture/Hairdressing etc.
4.     Basketry/Ceramics
5.     Batik work/Tie & Dye
6.     Bee-keeping
7.     Book-craft
8.     Calabash work
9.     Carpentry/Woodwork
10.    Ceramics
11.    Computer Literacy (Basics)
12.    Drumming & Dancing
13.    Electrical Installation
14.    Embroidery
15.    Gardening
16.    Graphic Designing
17.    Landscaping
18.    Video Recording
19.    Leatherwork/Shoe Repairs
20.    Music/Piano
21.    Painting (Construction)
22.    Panel Beating (Auto Body works)
23.    Photography
24.    Poultry Rearing
25.    Rabbit Rearing
26.    Radio Repairs
27.    Refrigeration
28.    Sewing/Tailoring
29.    Textile Design
30.    Tin Smithing
                                               12
31.      Weaving
32.      Wood carving/Sculpture

Each student in SSS.1 is expected to select at least one activity to engage in once a week under
constant supervision.

      KEY ISSUES IN PRE-TERTIARY EDUCATION

1.       DURATION OF PRE-TERTIARY EDUCATION

The new educational structure reduces the duration of pre-tertiary education from 17 years to 12
years.    This is achieved without reducing contact hours.       This means it is now possible for
undergraduates to complete their first Degrees at the age of 21 when they have reached the prime of
their lives and thus become vital assets in human resource to the socio-economic development of this
country. In fact, the first fruits (i.e. University graduates) of the Reform Programme have already
graduated from our Universities (i.e. August 1999) after a 4-year programme of studies.


2.       DURATON OF THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
There had been a hot debate in the past concerning the duration of the Senior Secondary Programme.
A school of thought was in favour of extending the duration to four years to give the students
sufficient time to cover their syllabi. The number of subjects was also thought to be too many.

These genuine expressions led to a readjustment of the curriculum and reduction of core-subjects
from 7 to 4 for SSS1 and SSS2 with effect from January 1997. SS1 embarked upon the new core
subjects arrangements including Integrated Science and Social Studies, while SSS2 reduced the
number of core subjects to 4 but retained the existing arrangements using existing syllabus in English
Language, Mathematics, Science and Life Skills. This was done within the context of a 3-year
course. These changes have helped in no small measure in achieving relatively better results and
stable academic atmosphere in our Second Cycle Schools.


3.       TERMINAL AND CONTINUOUS STRUCTURE
Contrary to popular notion, it is important to point out, however, that the new structure of education
does not make any pretensions whatever to designate the Senior Secondary School graduate, much
less its counterpart the Junior Secondary School, as having been fully equipped sufficiently for the
requisite manpower requirement of the nation. Indeed, the Junior Secondary School graduate has
simply been exposed to subject options geared to tease the child’s natural aptitude and talent, while
the Senior Secondary School level affords the student a transitional consolidation period for higher
studies in the student’s chosen field of study. Ultimately, it is the tertiary education that equips the
student adequately for the middle level manpower requirement of the country.
                                                  13
For those students who cannot continue further formal education, there are numerous practically
oriented institutions where these graduates can benefit from short-term apprenticeship courses to
become self-sufficient entrepreneurs in their various fields of human endeavour.


   TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Level of Technical and Vocational Education
Technical and Vocational education and training are delivered at three levels, namely, Basic
Education, Second-Cycle and Tertiary Education levels. At the Basic Education level, technical and
vocational education starts from the Junior Secondary School. At the Second-Cycle level, technical
and vocational education is provided in the Secondary Technical Schools, Technical Institutions,
Vocational Schools/Training Centres and other post-basic education training institutions as well as in
some of the initial Teacher Training Colleges. Technical education at the tertiary level is delivered at
the Polytechnics and other professional institutions, with the Universities being the highest level.


Purpose of Technical and Vocational Education
The purpose of the technical and vocational education at the non-degree level is to provide young
men and women with technical and vocational skills training (in addition to general education) in
order to enable them fulfil the country’s technical manpower needs, including self-employment in the
fields of industry, business and agriculture.


Access to Technical/Vocational Programme
Students who complete Basic Education may enter a Technical Institute or a Senior Secondary
School, where they take 3-year programmes. Senior Secondary School graduates may proceed to the
University for degree courses or to Polytechnics for Higher National Diploma (HND) courses; or to
any of the other tertiary institutions to train for careers of their choice. Others may also go to
technical institutions for technician courses. Those who complete technician courses may proceed to
the Polytechnics for HND courses. Graduates from Polytechnics may enter any of the Universities to
undertake degree courses.


Categories for Pre-Tertiary Institutions and Programme
There are 160 public technical and vocational institutions including 22 Technical Institutes under
GES, 19 National Vocational Training Institute (NVTI) Centres under the Ministry of Employment
and Social Welfare and others run by various Government Organisations. In addition, there are 250
officially registered private vocational schools/training centres operated by individuals, Churches and
NGOs.
                                                   14
These technical and vocational institutions offer courses covering theoretical and practical training as
well as general education on the following programmes:

a.     Full-time Programmes
             Pre-Employment Courses
             Block-Release Courses
             Short Courses (as requested by various industrial and commercial organisations)

b.     Part-time Programmes
             Afternoon Classes
             Evening Classes


A wide range of skills, craft and technician courses are offered under many disciplines including the
following:

     Agriculture
     Building Trades
     Business Studies
     Catering
     Dressmaking and Fashion Engineering


     PRIVATE SCHOOLS

The Reform Programme has given a new impetus, in fact, an encouragement to private individuals to
establish schools at all levels of education in this country.       This is in line with government
acknowledgement of Private entrepreneurs as development partners. It is also to facilitate access to
all children of school-going age and offer options to parents on the education of their children.

All private schools, with the exception of a few which do not come under the jurisdiction of the
Ghana Education Service, conform to the new structure of education as laid down in the Reform
Programme.


TEACHER TRAINING

Since independence, various categories of trained teachers have been produced by our Teacher
Training Colleges to help meet the demand for teachers in each specific era of our development.
These categories comprise:


                                                   15
a.        Certificate ‘A’ 4-year (Post Middle School)
b.        Certificate ‘A’ Post B
c.        Certificate ‘A’ Post Secondary
d.        Specialist Teachers

Categories ‘b’ and ‘d’ have been phased out long ago, while category ‘a’ phased out in 1991. The 3-
year Cert. ‘A’ (Post Secondary) remains today the Teachers’ initial professional certificate.

At the advent of the Education Reforms in 1987, Teacher preparation to meet the challenges of the
reform took the form of short in-service training courses for teachers to enable them use the new
syllabuses effectively and to sensitise them on the objectives of the reforms. Initial teacher training
was restructured and new syllabuses were written.         The 3-year Post-Secondary Colleges were
grouped into two:

Group I Colleges offered Mathematics, Science, Agricultural Science, Technical Skills and Technical
Drawing.

Group II Colleges offered Social Studies, Literature in English, Vocational Skills and Life Skills,
while French is offered at Mount Mary College only. In addition, each trainee, irrespective of the
group he/she opted for, studied a number of core subjects.

From October, 2000, 13 out of 38 Training Colleges in Ghana started to train Junior Secondary
School Teachers. This forms a third of the college population. The courses offered are science
biased. The remaining 25 Training Colleges have been earmarked to train Primary School Teachers.

To address the issue of shortage of trained teachers in Technical Skills and Technical Drawing, ten
colleges in Group I, (one from each region) were selected to offer Technical Skills and Technical
Drawing as compulsory major subjects.

In order to improve on the pre-service training of the teacher, the Teacher Education Division of the
GES collaborated with the Institute of Education of the University of Cape Coast and the University
College of Education, Winneba, to update the existing curriculum to make it more methodology
biased.     Workshops were also organised for Principals on School Management and Financial
Administration.


     In-Service Training

A new concept in teacher education, the Whole School Development (WSD) programme was
introduced. It is a school-based intervention programme to improve teaching and learning in basic

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schools. The WSD takes the form of training programmes to build capacities in the district and
schools as follows:

   Training of Assistant Directors in-charge of supervision, Training Officer and Circuit
   Supervisors;

   Training of headteachers of selected schools;

   Training of District Teacher Support Teams. This team comprises trained headteachers, trained
   district personnel and tutors of Teacher Training Colleges who provide support directly to schools
   to improve teaching and learning.

   In-service training workshops were organised for tutors in the area of English language,
   Literature-in-English, Maths, Science and Technical Skills. Tutors were trained in the writing of
   tutors support materials for Teacher Training Colleges. Tutors were also involved in the writing
   and reviewing of teaching syllabuses through subject panels.

   Over 120 tutors of Teacher Training Colleges were sent abroad for courses leading to Advanced
   Diploma, First and Second Degrees.

   The teacher education programmes were and are largely supported by DFID.


Access
Entry into the Teacher Training Colleges is open to both Senior Secondary School Certificate and
SC/GCE ‘O’ Level Certificate holders.

The minimum entry requirement for the 3-year Certificate ‘A’ Course for holders of Senior
Secondary School Examination Certificate is at least a pass in Core English, Core Mathematics and
either Core Science or Core Agricultural Science and Environmental Studies and two Elective
subjects in Arts. A pass in either Core Life Skills or Core Ghanaian Language for Science and
Technical candidates.

The comparable minimum entry requirement for SC/GCE ‘O’ Level candidates is as follows: Credits
in English Language and Mathematics, credit in any other two subjects in Arts, Vocational, Technical
and Science.
A pass in a Science subject is required for the Arts and Vocational candidates and a pass in an Arts
subject is required for Technical and Science candidates.


Sponsorship
                                                   17
Under the FCUBE programme competent teachers are needed for Basic Schools throughout the
country. However, it has been difficult to get trained teachers to accept posting to the rural areas.
Even when teachers accept posting they do not stay for long.         Under a new scheme District
Assemblies will be made to sponsor teachers under training. The sponsorship scheme took off in the
2000/2001 academic year. It is an attempt to meet the challenge of shortage of qualified teachers in
the rural areas and other disadvantaged areas. Sponsored teachers will be contracted to teach for
three years in the district that sponsored them.

       TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTIONS
In fulfillment of Government policy to establish a polytechnic in each region of Ghana for the
training of middle level manpower, six polytechnics in Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi, Ho, Cape Coast and
Tamale were upgraded to tertiary institutions in 1993/94 academic year. Two technical institutes at
Sunyani and Koforidua were upgraded to tertiary institutions in 1996/97 academic year. During the
1999/2000 academic year, administrative structures were put in place for the establishment of Wa
Polytechnic in the Upper West Region and Bolgatanga polytechnic in the Upper East region. It is
expected that the two polytechnics will admit their first batch of first year students during the
2001/2002 academic year. This will bring the total number of polytechnics to 10; one in each region.

INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES
This institution has been upgraded to tertiary status. It runs professional courses in Accounting,
Marketing and Secretarial Studies, among other subjects.       Various levels of these courses are
available in this institution for aspiring students who wish to be Chartered Accountants, Secretaries
or Marketing Officers. Students determine whether they should take examinations controlled by
local or foreign professional Examination Bodies.


GHANA INSTITUTE OF LANGUAGES
This is a Post-Secondary Institution, which has been upgraded to tertiary status. It currently offers
courses in English, French and German.

       UNIVERSITIES

The Government launched the tertiary component of the education reforms in 1987 after an
exhaustive re-appraisal of the problems facing the higher education sub-sector and its future
evolution within the context of national development, through the University Rationalisation
Committee (URC) which was set up for the purpose. The URC Report formed the basis of the
Government White Paper on the Reforms to Tertiary Education in 1991.
                                                    18
The broad objectives included revamping, re-capitalising and expanding of facilities at the tertiary
level.

          The medium-term goals for tertiary education were, among others, to:

•         establish an integrated and co-ordinated tertiary education system comprising all post-
          secondary pre-service training institutions under the general supervision, direction and control
          of the Ministry of Education;

•        make tertiary education more cost-effective and able to provide quality education for
         increasing number of students through increased efficiency in the utilisation of space,
         resources and personnel;

•        increasing funding for tertiary education by increasing the capacity of teaching institutions for
         the income generation;

•        provide for greater access to tertiary education for qualified people and significantly increase
         the proportion of women students;

•        achieve better balance between the supply of higher level and technician level personnel; and

•        ensure an overall balance between the supply of trained personnel from the tertiary institutions
         and labour market demand.

Amendments were effected to the laws establishing the universities while the polytechnics were
upgraded to tertiary status.

In order to ensure co-ordination of the tertiary education system and expeditious implementation of
Government policies, tertiary institutions were brought under the general supervision and direction of
the Ministry of Education. A distinction was made between policy formulation and the monitoring
functions of the Ministry of Education and the responsibility for policy implementation by the
tertiary institutions.

Furthermore, a National Council for Tertiary Education with a broad based membership was
established by an Act of Parliament - NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR TERTIARY EDUCATION ACT
454 of 1993 - for purposes, among others, of advising the Minister of Education on all matters related
to the development of tertiary education including the assessment of the financial needs and
budgetary allocations to the institutions.

In furtherance of better management of tertiary education, it was intended that the process for
admissions, accreditation and professional and technical examinations should be streamlined and
improved. In this regard, The National Accreditation Board (NAB) and the National Board for



                                                     19
Professional and Technician Examinations (NABTEX) were established to take care of accreditation
and professional and technician examinations respectively.


Institutional Development

As part of the tertiary education reform, two institutions of university status namely the University
College of Education of Winneba (an amalgamation of diploma awarding institutions) and the
University for Development Studies were established in 1992. This brings the number of universities
to five (5) comprising the traditional universities, University of Ghana, Legon, Kwame Nkrumah
University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, and the University of Cape Coast.

The structure and duration of University Education vary with the course content and the grade of the
candidate before entry. In general, however, first Degree Courses normally take three years for
candidates who possess G.C.E. “A” Level passes, Diploma or those who enter as mature students.

Senior Secondary School candidates require 4 years.

Other courses like Medicine, Architecture and Law (professional) take much longer period.

In line with government policy to expand access to tertiary education to qualified people, private
participation in the establishment of private tertiary institutions have been encouraged . So far the
National Accreditation Board has accredited fourteen private university institutions to pursue varied
degrees and diploma programmes.        In order to harmonise post-secondary pre-service training
programmes ran by sector ministries, government has drawn up an integrated programme to bring
these training institutions such as teacher training colleges under Ministry of Education, nurses
training colleges under the Ministry of Health, Agricultural training colleges under the Ministry of
Agriculture, under one segment of tertiary education sector to be known as the Regional Colleges of
Applied Arts, Science and Technology and each region is expected to host the RECAST.

Provision of Distance Education to provide more access to tertiary education is one of the
Government policies being pursued. A Distance Education unit has already been established in the
Ministry of Education to co-ordinate the Distance Education programmes of the education system.
Distance Education programmes are currently being operated in some of the University institutions.

    NON-FORMAL EDUCATION DIVISION

The Non-formal Education Division was established at the Ministry of Education in 1986. This
Division has been responsible for the administration of non-formal education in the country. It works
closely with other divisions in the governmental system to ensure the implementation of government
                                                 20
policy to eradicate illiteracy through the two-pronged approach – Primary Education and Adult
Education.

         MANAGEMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

The Central Government is essentially responsible for the provision and management of Education in
the country. The Ministry of Education performs this national assignment on behalf of the Central
Government by formulating policies, seeing to the planning and monitoring of their implementation
as well as providing the linkage between the national educational programmes and the network of
international and regional programmes.

The Minister for Education is the Political Head of the Ministry. The New Government in 2001 has
introduced the appointment of a Minister of State for Primary, Secondary and Girl-Child Education.
He is assisted by Deputies.

The Ministry of Education has various statutory bodies under it, which together form the education
sector. These bodies include the Ghana Education Service (GES), the Ghana Library Board, the
Bureau of Ghana Languages, the Ghana Book Development Council, the National Commission for
UNESCO, the National Service Secretariat, the Planning, Budgeting, Monitoring and Evaluation
Division (PBME) and the National Council for Tertiary Education.


The Ghana Education Service is the largest of the bodies under the Ministry and has the
responsibility of implementing pre-tertiary education policies formulated by the Ministry. It is
headed by a Director-General.

The Director-General is assisted by a high calibre of personnel who administer and manage education
at the National, Regional, District and Circuit levels. Each of the 10 Regions of the country is headed
by a Regional Director of Education while each of the 110 Administrative Districts of the country is
headed by a District Director of Education.

In line with the Government policy of decentralisation, the management of education at Divisional,
Regional and District levels has been strengthened by posting of highly qualified personnel to all
managerial and administrative positions in the service, while through in-service training courses all
categories of serving personnel of the service receive regular upgrading of knowledge and skills to
enable them perform to standards required of them. Every Region and District therefore has trained
personnel to take charge of planning, budgeting, monitoring and supervision of education at that
level.



                                                  21
Decentralisation Policy entails greater local community participation in decision making. In order to
foster this spirit, various bodies and committees have been established at local and District levels.
Some of these are the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), District Teacher Support Teams (DTSTs),
District Education Planning Teams (DEPTs), School Management Committees (SMCs) and District
Education Oversight Committees (DEOCs). All these bodies co-ordinate their activities with the
District.

The Planning, Budgeting, Monitoring and Evaluation Division which is being funded with
UNDP/World Bank loan is “to support sector-wide programme of institutional reforms in education
that the Government of Ghana has embarked upon as an integral part of its national plan for
economic recovery and sustained growth”. It is expected “to improve pedagogic effectiveness and
to recast the financing of education so that public expenditures are cost effective and affordable
within modest growth expectations.”

Education financing, especially in tertiary institutions by government for the past ten years under
review, has run into problems. Government found it increasingly impossible to bear the full cost of
education at the tertiary level. In December 1988, therefore, a number of measures for the funding of
education with particular reference to tertiary education were announced. Among these were:


 •    Elimination of waste in the education system and improvement of management. The financial
      and other shortcomings such as misapplication and misappropriation should cease. This has
      been achieved to a large extent.


•     Organisations such as companies, which benefit from the skills of graduates, were to be
      encouraged to contribute to education through an Education Trust Fund. This Trust Fund was
      established in the year 2000 and significant contributions from organisations and industrial
      concerns have begun pouring in. The appropriate Executive body to administer the Fund has
      also been set up.

•    Cost-sharing system for higher education was introduced. Such cost sharing, however, would not
     lead to discrimination based on ability to pay, as Government is aware of the financing problems
     faced by students and parents. The Policy of Cost Sharing is being implemented fully. Until the
     beginning of the 1988/89 academic year, the total boarding fees for students in the Universities
     were borne by the government. Now the government bears only tuition fees, the remaining fees
     are passed on to the student.



                                                  22
•   The Policy of non-residential system of education was restructured to suit the needs of non-
     residential students and transportation was improved to ease access to institutions. The cost of
     boarding is therefore no longer to be a deciding factor for access to secondary or tertiary
     education.


•    As non-residential system of education and other proposals to be adopted will not remove the
     burden of costs on parents and students, the Government has instituted with effect from
     1988/89, a scheme of loans and awards to assist students in the tertiary institutions. Tuition
     costs continue to be free. All other costs, relating to feeding, books and other miscellaneous
     items are borne by the students except those on scholarship. Students, who gain admission to
     tertiary institutions, are eligible for a loan, which initially carried a service charge of 3%. This
     will be repayable when the student begins to earn a living. This loan currently amounts to one
     million cedis (¢1,000,000.00) per annum per an undergraduate student at 6% service charge.
     Graduate students receive a little more than undergraduate students. This policy has worked
     satisfactorily over the years although a few delays in paying the loan were experienced.
     Students’ constant agitation for an upward adjustment in the loan has led to its periodic review;
     and with it, a rise in the percentage service charge.


    FINANCING OF EDUCATION

The main sources of funding for the education sector are GOG and the Donor Community. Minor
sources include internally generated funds from the payment of user fees by students in line with the
Government’s policy of cost sharing. Funds from GOG sources constitute the largest source and
averaged about 80% between 1997 and 1999.

During the three-year period (1997-1999), budgetary allocations approved for the Ministry of
Education from GOG sources was ¢1,706 billion. The Education sector’s annual recurrent budget
accounted for about 35% of the National discretionary recurrent budget over the period. Pre-tertiary
sub-sector accounted for about 80% of the total education planned expenditure. Although the basic
education sub-sector received the greatest share of the sectoral budget, about 90% was earmarked for
the payment of salaries.

Investment expenditure for the education sector has generally accounted for about 4% of the total
education expenditures.    This has made it difficult for the Ministry to implement many of its
investment programmes resulting in a number of uncompleted construction projects for educational
institutions throughout the country.


                                                   23
The share of Personnel Emoluments in the total expenditure declined from 90% in 1997 to 80% in
1999. The decline is in line with the Ministry’s policy of controlling growth in the Personnel
Emoluments with a view to increasing the non-salary component of the budget to provide some
critical inputs for the schools.           The shares of both non-salary recurrent and the
Development/Investment allocations have also shown some steady increases.


The share of planned recurrent expenditures for basic education declined slightly from 59.5% in 1997
to 57.79% in 1999. The share for Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) was about 15% during the period.
The allocation to Technical/Vocational Education increased slightly from 1.9% in 1997 to 2.3% in
1999. Please refer to Appendix A for Ministry of Education – Recurrent Expenditure between 1989
and 1999.


Total external inflows from 1997 to 1999 averaged ¢45.3 billion representing 37% of total resources
allocated to education. Major contributors had been the IDA of the World Bank, the European Union
(EU) and the DFID of U. K. There has also been substantial project support from USAID, JICA,
GTZ, KFW, UNICEF, CIDA, French Embassy, Netherlands Embassy, DANIDA, UNESCO and the
Commonwealth Secretariat.


1.1. (c)          EVALUATION POLICIES, METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS

The GES has evolved various models of evaluating the performance of pupils and students of all
levels of education in the country, as well as that of teachers and lecturers.

      CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT
At the Basic and Second Cycle levels, there is a system of Continuous Assessments by which the
actual classroom performance of the pupil/student is assessed and computed at the end of every
school term. This forms 30% of their examination marks. This means the actual examination marks
of the pupil/student at each state of education is 70%. This ratio is maintained at the BECE and SSS
levels as well.


     CRITERION REFERENCED TESTING (CRT)
This is a test administered to 5% of Primary Class Six pupils in the country to assess the skills
attained by children in English and Mathematics at this level. The result is analysed to afford
teachers the opportunity to carry out remedial exercises as well as make amends in cases of poor
performance. Schools are randomly picked all over the country for this test. The test is conducted by
officials of the GES. The first test was administered in 1992. Results showed that pupils from Public
schools did not do as well as those in Private schools.
                                                    24
Subsequent results, however, showed that public schools have improved their performance in English
and Maths since the last test in 1997. It has been observed that public school performance has been
improving gradually from the base year in 1992 to the present. The percentage of pupils scoring
above the mastery levels of 60% in English and 55% in Maths has also been improving over the
seven-year period. Analysis in gender performance indicates that differences between the genders
continue to exist in Maths. There is however no difference in performance in English. A total
sample of 20,322 Primary 6 pupils was tested in July 1999. The administration of the Test in year
2000 took place between the 17th and 28th July. Results are yet to be released.


   PARTICIPATORY PERFORMANCE MONITORING (PPM)
In response to the Ministry of Education’s directive that Ghana Education Service should establish
and implement a Performance Management System which involves objectives setting, regular
performance review and corrective action, with mechanisms for monitoring and accountability
appropriate for a decentralised education system, Ghana Education Service has developed a new
Monitoring System.

The PPM has two major components, namely, the Performance Monitoring Test (PMT) and the
School Performance Appraisal Meeting (SPAM).             It is expected that from the PMT and its
accompanying SPAM, accurate data on improvements in the performance of public primary schools
will be obtained; teachers producing good or poor results will be identified for appropriate action;
healthy competition will be generated and sustained among schools and learning achievements in
English and Maths will improve in public primary schools.


Under the PMT, uniform test instruments are developed by the Inspectorate Division but the printing
of the question papers and the Answer Sheets, as well as the administration of the tests are done in
the districts, under the supervision of the District Director of Education.

The results of the tests are made available to communities within 4 months of completion of the test
administration and this forms the subject of School Performance Appraisal Meeting (SPAM). SPAM
is a meeting of school teachers and the entire school community convened by the District Education
Office to discuss the performance of their schools in a district/nation-wide test organised by GES, set
new performance targets and design strategies for the attainment of the set targets.
There are strong indications from the field that the School Performance Appraisal Meeting (SPAM)
is having some positive impact on the attitudes of both teachers and communities towards the
education of the Ghanaian Child. The dramatic improvements in learning achievements in Kushea
JSS and Nnudu Presby Primary School are examples of the impact of SPAM on learning
achievements.
                                                    25
    BASIC EDUCATION CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
The Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) is a general Certificate awarded to successful
pupils on completion of a three-year Junior Secondary School Course.


     SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL EXAMINATION (SSSCE)
The Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination, like the Basic Education Certificate
Examination, is organised by the West African Examinations Council countrywide for all final year
Senior Secondary School students after a three-year’s course.

      TERTIARY EDUCATION EXAMINATIONS
All Tertiary institutions in Ghana run the semester system. There are normally two semesters in an
academic year and students are regularly assessed on their performance during each semester by
Interim Assessment tests and Quizzes before the main semester exams. The grades of students
during the period of their courses are cumulative.       At the end of their courses the Average
Cumulative Grade Point is struck for final classification of their Degrees Diplomas and Certificates.

      TEACHERS’ SELF-APPRAISAL INSTRUMENT
The FCUBE Programme aims, besides other objectives, to improving learning achievement and
outcomes at Basic and Secondary levels. This is possible only by having a team of highly trained and
competent teachers. The Ghana Education Service has therefore developed an Appraisal Instrument
to measure the performance of serving teachers in Basic schools, under the Whole School
Development. A sample of this Appraisal Instrument is attached, as a compendium of best practices.

    STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES
A catalogue of all current reform being pursued by the Ministry of Education/Ghana Education
Service as well as the forthcoming one has been compiled for the guidance of all stakeholders. A
central Implementation Co-ordinating Unit has been established within the GES to co-ordinate the
implementation of the Strategic Plan in all the Regions and Districts and report on quarterly basis to
stakeholders.

Consultative Panel Meetings are also held twice a year between the Ministry of Education/Ghana
Education Service and Development Partners to evaluate programmes, assess the areas of co-
operation and assistance and formulate plans for the achievement of these objectives.

    NATIONAL FUNCTIONAL LITERACY PROGRAMME
•   Assessment Policies and Instruments in Non-Formal Education



                                                  26
    The major policies guiding assessment of learners are geared towards monitoring the continuous
    performance and development of learners and the impact of learning on the individual (learner)
    and community.


•   The instruments in use include:
    Terminal Assessment Instrument:
    After a 21-month cycle of teaching and learning, the Terminal Assessment Instrument is
    administered to test learners’ acquisition of literacy and basic skills. Areas of assessment are:

    -      reading
    -      writing
    -      numeracy
    -      cognitive skills
    -      attitudinal change and
    -      Functionality skills

•   Check List Instrument:
    It is a continuous assessment mechanism to monitor the performance of learners in terms of class
    attendance, acquisition of literacy skills as well as attitudinal and functionality skills.


•   Tracer Study Instrument
    This is an impact study mechanism administered on sampled learners to monitor their
    development traits before, during and after their enrolment with the functional literacy
    programme.


1.1. (d)          OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CURRENT AND
                  FORTHCOMING REFORMS

The Ministry of Education, in consultation with agencies under it and taking into consideration the
national objectives as set up in the FCUBE Programme, has developed a mission statement for the
education sector. From the mission statement, seven strategic objectives and policies have been
identified to form the core of reforms and these are currently being pursued. These are:



    IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
           In order to achieve this, a series of in-service training courses have been organised for
           education personnel of all categories.      For instance, 1,200 headteachers, 700 District
           Education Personnel comprising 60 Assistant Directors (Manpower and Training), 60 Girls’
           Education Officers, 60 District Training Officers and more than 400 Circuit Supervisors in 60
           Districts had been trained in the promotion of Primary practices in literacy, problem-solving

                                                     27
and in the preparation of teaching and learning materials by December 1999.       The Teacher
Training College Curriculum has been redesigned to fit into a new programme of IN-IN-OUT
in order to make the teacher more effective and efficient.

The Inspectorate Division of GES has effectively pursued the administration of its evaluation
and assessment exercises in all pre-tertiary schools to ensure improvement in quality
education.

Large quantities of textbooks and other teaching and learning materials have also been
supplied to schools.


IMPROVE ACCESS AND PARTICIPATION AS WELL AS EQUITY
By way of increasing access and participation as well as equity, the Basic Education Division
has embarked on a 2-phase provision of accommodation for both teachers and pupils all over
the country. By June 2000, 128 four-unit Teacher Accommodation, 50 BS 1 – 6 Classroom
blocks, 31 BS 7 – 9 Classroom blocks and 81 four-seater KVIP Toilets had been completed.

Phase II of the project comprises the building of 172 four-unit Teacher Accommodation, 50
BS 1 – 6 Classroom blocks, 19 BS 7 – 9 Classroom blocks and 64 four-seater KVIP Toilets.
These are expected to be completed by June 2001.



IMPROVE MANAGEMENT EFFICIENCY IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR
The Ministry of Education has embarked on an exercise to build capacity at the Central
Regional and District levels in a bid to improve management efficiency in the education
sector. Workshops have been organised periodically for the top brass of Administrators,
Budget and Finance officers of the GES. This is to equip them adequately for efficient
administration in the context of a decentralised system of government.

IMPROVE OPERATIONS OF FUNCTIONALLY LITERATE AND SELF-RELIANCE
PROGRAMMES

Until the Educational Reforms Programme of 1986, functional literacy programmes had been
dormant, especially after the 1966 coup. As part of the reforms, therefore, the Non-formal
Education Division of the Ministry of Education was established in 1987 to take charge of all
educational programmes outside the formal sector, particularly, the functional literacy aspect.

The National Functional Literacy Programme has a 21-month cycle for learners to go through
basic literacy and acquisition of occupational and developmental skills. Yearly, 200,000

                                           28
       learners are recruited. They are handled by 8,000 facilitators who are volunteers within their
       respective communities. A facilitator handles between 25 and 30 learners in a class, which
       meets for six hours in a week.

       The structure of the Non-Formal Education of the Ministry of Education which handles the
       NFLP has a national headquarters, 10 regional offices, 110 district offices and 1,200 zonal
       centres.

       Management falls under the Ministry of Education Division, headed by the Hon. Minster.
       Non-Formal Education Division is headed by the Executive Director, who controls three
       directorates of the programme, namely, Finance and Administration, Field Operations and
       Materials Development.
       The major objectives of the NFLP include:

       a.     Reducing the number of Ghanaian adult illiterates between the ages of 15 and 45 with
              particular emphasis on women and rural poor.

       b.     Empowering learners with reading, writing and calculating skills.

       c.     Introducing occupational skills to learners to improve their economic base.

       d.     Leading learners to health and environmental issues

       e.     Creating the necessary awareness in the learners about their rights and responsibilities
              to civic issues.

These objectives are aimed at creating a new human material who would be well educated enough to
honour his or her social and community responsibilities and thus effectively be in a position to help
himself or herself and the community in solving problems.

       IMPROVE ACCESS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION AS WELL AS
       TRAINING

       It has been an on-going process during the past five years for the Ministry of Education and
       the Ghana Education Service to provide all 110 Districts of the country with Science
       Resource Centres and a National Resource Centre in Accra, the capital city. 107 Science
       Resource Centres have been set up so far with buses to help with the satelliting, and there is
       provision in the Secondary Education Division annual budget, for the completion of work on
       the remaining three Centres. Funds are also made available annually for the replacement of
       consumables and the running of the centre buses.




                                                 29
        MAKE EDUCATION MORE RESPONSIVE TO THE MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS OF
        THE NATION

        The new curricula of education, in general, have been designed to be relevant to the
        manpower requirements of Ghana.            This is most emphatic in the technical/vocational
        institutions where as part of their training programme technical students now do attachment to
        industry or relevant institutions to their studies for a period of their practical training. The
        student’s performance is monitored and evaluated. At the end of their courses they become
        more accomplished and competent in their various chosen fields.


        DECENTRALISE AND SUSTAIN MANAGEMENT OF THE EDUCATION SECTOR
        Through a series of workshops, District Directors of Education, Budget officers, Accountants
        and Planning officers in Budget preparation and implementation have been trained to support
        the decentralised management of Educational Districts.           Other District stakeholders of
        education namely the PTAs, SMCs, DEOCs, DTSTs etc have been set up to assist the smooth
        administration of schools within the Districts.




1.2.0   MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS, BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE,
        ATTAINED OVER THE LAST TEN YEARS, ESPECIALLY IN TERMS OF:

1.2.1 (a)      ACCESS TO EDUCATION

Access to education in Ghana by prospective candidates at all levels is guaranteed by the 1992
Constitution as the birthright of every child irrespective of ethnicity, religion, gender and
geographical location.


Since the Education Reform Programme began, access to all categories of educational institutions
under the Access and Participation component of the FCUBE Programme has improved through the
expansion of existing school infrastructural facilities.
Below is a breakdown of physical infrastructural development over the last decade in Basic Schools:
•       EdSAC
               Headteacher Bungalows           -         2,183
               Pavilions                       -         3,682 (of three classrooms each)
•       PREP
               Semi-detached Teachers’ Bungalows -              96


•       BESIP -          Phase I
        128 four-unit teacher accommodation blocks
                                                    30
          50 BS1 – BS6 classroom blocks
          31 BS7 – BS9 classroom blocks
          81 four-seater KVIP blocks

Phase II which is expected to be completed by June, 2001 comprises

          172 four-unit teacher accommodation blocks
          50 BS1 – BS6 classroom blocks
          19 BS7 – BS9 classroom blocks
          64 four-seater KVIP blocks

In addition to these, 2,000 classrooms are being rehabilitated.

     Equity Improvement Programme (EIP)
A component of the PREP programme was the EIP, which was aimed at removing disparities in the
provision of basic education. As part of the EIP, the following activities were carried out on pilot
basis:
    Scholarship for Girls
         This involved the payment of the direct cost of girls’ education i.e. dual-desks, textbooks,
         notebooks, pens, pencils and uniforms in selected schools to enhance girls’ participation in
         education.

         Remote Area Incentive Package
         Bicycles and motorbikes were supplied to qualified teachers and headteachers in selected
         remote areas as a way of attracting qualified personnel to remote area schools.

         Furniture
         Dual-desks were provided for pupils in selected schools as a way of decreasing dropout rate,
         increasing access and retention and improving the quality of instruction.

         Textbooks and Instructional Materials
         Pupils in some selected schools received free sets of core textbooks in English, Mathematics,
         Science and Stationery items consisting of plain exercise books, pens, pencils, sharpeners,
         erasers and rulers from primary one through primary six.


          Retention Competition
         This involved the organisation of enrolment and retention competition among selected
         schools. All participation schools were awarded specially designed shields/plaques. In
         addition to this were cash awards of ¢1million, ¢500,000.00 and ¢250,00.00 for the first,
         second and third schools respectively.

         The purpose of the competition was to increase retention of pupils, establish healthy
         communication between the community and PTA and reduce absenteeism of both teachers
         and pupils.



         School Library
                                                   31
        This intervention involved the provision of simple facility of 150 books per class for P5 and
        P6 in selected schools.

        The objective was to increase reading skills of pupils as a way of improving the quality of
        education in deprived area schools.

        These interventions have yielded positive results by increasing or stabilizing in some cases,
        enrolment of children in Basic Schools as evidenced in Appendix B.

       National Functional Literacy Programme
Under the National Functional Literacy Programme:
♦ There has been a tremendous increase in access to education at all levels, particularly at the basic
  level where the functional literacy programme has opened the minds of parents who were hitherto
  adamant or non-chalant about the educational prospects of their wards.

♦ With the encouragement and intensification of functional literacy activities in Ghana, the
  constitutional provision of ‘all persons shall have the right to equal educational opportunities
  and facilities’ {Article 25 (1)} has been fulfilled. This has greatly improved equity in the
  provision of educational opportunities at all levels.

♦ The national illiteracy rate has been reduced from 69% in 1985 to 53% in 1995. This resulted
  from a successful implementation of Phase I of the programme (1992 – 1997) whereby 1.2
  million learners passed as literate adults thus reducing the national illiterate adult population of
  5.6 million (1984) to 4.4 million.

1.2. (b)EQUITY IN EDUCATION

One of the core strategic objectives of the Reform Programme is to ensure both fair geographical
distribution of schools as well as gender equity for all Ghanaian children of school-going age.

As a rule, the policy of the Ministry of Education is to make Primary School available in almost
every community in Ghana such that children would not need to commute from a distance of more
than five kilometres from their villages to and from school. Second Cycle and Tertiary Institutions
are also fairly distributed all over the country.

Statistics of our immediate past on the disparity between male and female enrolment in school shows
a grave concern. The drop-out ratio of girls in school as they progress from Basic School to tertiary
institutions has been even more alarming in the past than now. To reverse this trend, the Ministry of
Education and the Ghana Education Service embarked on a vigourous proactive policy of sensitising
the entire population of Ghana on the need to send to and retain the girl-child in school.

Appendices C and D show male/female gross intake rate in Primary schools (National and Regional
figures) and Appendices E and F show male/female gross intake rate in Junior Secondary Schools
(National and Regional figures). Appendix G also shows the intake into Public Universities by
Gender.
                                                    32
In many rural communities fewer girls than boys enrol in Primary Schools. Many more girls than
boys drop out of school. Similarly, in poor families, the opportunity cost for attending school is
higher for girls than for boys because girls perform more household chores than boys and are also
engaged in farming.

Since the reforms, a variety of schemes have been devised to promote female education. These
include:
•      A scholarship scheme for Girls, which was implemented in the USAID-funded PREP
       programme. This scheme awarded scholarships for girls in poor communities to purchase
       books and uniforms and to feed themselves during the school day. An increase in enrolment
       of 53.48% was registered in four schools in Upper East, Upper West, Northern and Brong
       Ahafo where this scheme was implemented.

•      In order to improve female participation in education the GES has appointed District Girls’
       Education Officers to attend to gender issues in the District and ensure the participation of girls
       in schools.

•    A full Minister of State has now been appointed to jointly head Basic and Secondary Education
     as well as Girls’ Education. This shows the importance the government attaches to gender
     equity in education.

•   Science, Mathematics and Technical Education (STME) Clinics have become regular phenomena
    geared at sensitising girls, through improved teaching methods, to the learning of Science,
    Mathematics and Technical subjects hitherto considered as make dominated subjects. About
    2,400 girls have participated in the Clinic to date. By the year 2005, 10,000 girls are expected to
    have benefited from the clinics.

As a result of the decision by the World Food Programme in giving Food Aid to mothers in the 3
Northern Regions of Ghana since February1999, increase in enrolment for girls in these districts (the
3 Northern Regions) has been recorded. Reports from the Supplies and Logistic Division of the
GES, have it that the impact of food ration on girls enrolment is so great that parents now send even
under-aged girls to school. Parents are deemed to have been conscientised to willingly support their
children’s schooling by the end of the five-year programme.

These interventions are among a host of others that account for a steady increase in the ratio of
female intake in Basic schools. This trend of increase in female enrolment continues in Second
Cycle, as well as Tertiary institutions. Today, the ratio between male female education has narrowed
considerably as evidenced in Appendices C, D, E and F. Appendix G also shows the intake into
Public Universities by Gender.


1.2. (c)       QUALITY AND RELEVANCE OF EDUCATION



                                                    33
The provision of physical infrastructure, teaching and learning materials and the exercise of
monitoring and supervision are very necessary for quality education delivery; but the quality of the
teaching personnel, by far, is the most important factor. There is a large population of trained
teachers who teach in our Basic schools all over the country; but this number is not adequate to
ensure a uniformly high quality delivery of education throughout the country as would be expected.
Appendices H and I show the percentage of trained teachers in Primary and Junior Secondary
Schools (National Figures).

One problem facing the equitable distribution of qualified teachers throughout the country is that of
preference by qualified teachers for posting to well-endowed schools or geographical areas. The
result is to employ a few non-professional teachers to complement these vacancies, often on
temporary basis, until these vacancies are filled by qualified teachers.         Instruments are being
developed to enforce strict compliance to posting orders to teachers on the one hand, and a special
incentive package and accelerated promotion scheme on the other, for teachers who accept posting
to deprived areas of the country. These measures will definitely ensure equitable distribution of
qualified teachers to all parts of the country and thus in no small way, raise the quality of education.

Class enrolment per teacher is another factor, which impacts on quality education. The smaller the
class size the more efficiently a teacher is liable to handle the class. Appendices J, K, and L show
that the pupil-teacher ratio in Primary School is higher than that of Junior and Senior Secondary
Schools.

Since the reforms the structure and course content of Teacher Training Colleges and tertiary
institutions have been re-arranged to reflect the curriculum needs not only of First and Second Cycle
institutions but also the human resource needs of the country. In-service training courses for serving
teachers are now conducted at the school level through the concept of the Whole School
Development. This is to ensure the updating of their pedagogical skills.

Besides, Distance Education and Sandwich Courses are now available to teachers to upgrade their
academic status from First Degree to Masters’ Degree Courses.

These interventions, coupled with a decentralised District and Community-based monitoring and
supervision, has helped to raise academic standards, even if steadily, from the doldrums of the pre-
reform era. Available statistics of BECE and SSSCE results from 1996 to 1999 attest to this fact.
(Appendices M and N) There is evidence if quality education throughout tertiary institutions all over
the country by the annual good results that come from these institutions.



                                                   34
Before the implementation of the Reforms, the question of relevance of education occupied the centre
stage of debate. It was realised that there was an urgent need to take a clear departure from the
colonial educational legacy of education for white-collar jobs, bequeathed to Ghana on
independence. New curricula of studies were written taking cognisance of the vital role that the
study of the Sciences, Mathematics and Technical subjects alongside social studies are bound to play
in the manpower training of our human resources and socio-economic affairs.

Emphasis was placed, therefore, on the study of Language, General Science, Mathematics, Technical
and Life Skills and Social Studies from the Basic school level. By the time the child reaches Senior
Secondary School, higher potentials in any of these subject areas would have been unearthed. The
prospective Engineer, Architect, Statistician, Lawyer and Medical Doctor would have emerged at the
end of the Senior Secondary School. The tertiary institution prepares the student comprehensively
and competently to enter the job market, equipped with skills badly needed by the country and those
the individual graduate is very good at.

The University for Development Studies concept, for instance, attempts “to introduce new action
oriented degree programmes in areas of development priority including agriculture and industry”.
The elevation of Polytechnics and other post-secondary institutions to the tertiary education sector
has introduced considerable variety in subject scope relevant to the development of our human
resources in concert with global technological development.

The issue of relevance of education is an on-going one. It is keyed to our human resource needs. It
is therefore dynamic.


1.2. (d)          PARTICIPATION BY SOCIETY IN THE PROCESS OF EDUCATIONAL
                  CHANGE

One key area in which there has been significant community participation in the current educational
reform has been in school governance.
Various interventions have been introduced at various times to promote effective community
participation and involvement in the education delivery process.

Community Involvement (Introduced during PREP period)
           This activity was aimed at stimulating community participation in school activities in order to
           establish understanding of the value of education. It encouraged the formation of PTAs and
           holding of town meetings to discuss schooling issues. Some parents were also invited to
           participate in giving classroom instruction and were paid token amounts of money.


School Management Committees (SMCs)

                                                     35
          SMCs have been established in basic schools since 1995. Composed of the immediate
          stakeholders of the school in the community, the SMC is the basic education counterpart of
          board of governors in second cycle schools. Its main function is to control the general policy
          of the school and ensure effective management by the headteacher.


District Education Oversight Committee (DEOCs)

          At the district level, District Education Oversight Committees have been established and are
          to be concerned with, and oversee:

•      Condition of school buildings and other infrastructural requirements of schools
•      The provision of teachers and the regular and punctual attendance of teachers and pupils at the
       schools
•      The proper performance of duties by staff at the school.
•      The moral behaviour of staff and pupils and matters relating to general discipline
•      Complaints to or from teachers, non-teaching staff and pupils
•      Environmental cleanliness of schools and facilities therein
•      The supply of textbooks and other teaching and learning materials
•      District Assemblies’ Common Fund – allocation to education
          The DEOC is formed by a cross-section of stakeholders in the district namely:

          a)      The District Chief Executive - Chairman
          b)      The District Director of Education
          c)      The District Director of Health
          d)      The District Inspector of Schools
          e)      The District Social Welfare Officer
          f)      Two Representatives of the District Assembly nominated by the Assembly of whom
                  one shall be a woman.
          g)      One representative of traditional rulers in the District
          h)      One representative each of the Christian and Muslim groups
          i)      One representative of the Ghana National Association of Teachers (GNAT) in the
                  District
          j)      One representative of the District PTA and
          k)      One woman identified generally with social development in the district


(iv)      District Education Planning Teams (DEPTs)

          DEPTs are set up in the districts to:

          •    Support the planning and implementation of education programmes at the district and
               community levels.

          •    Fill the consultation and planning gap in the structures established for implementing
               education activities at the district level.

          •    Assist the District Director of Education in the planning implementation, monitoring and
               evaluation of education activities that will promote effective teaching and learning.
                                                     36
School Performance Appraisal Meetings (SPAMs)

As indicated elsewhere, besides being a criterion for evaluating pupils performance, the
SPAM is a meeting of teachers and the entire community to discuss results of performance
tests, such as Criterion Referenced Test (CRT), Performance Monitoring Test (PMT), and the
Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE).

SPAMs are now regular community for a organised and facilitated by the District Education
office. As indicated above, SPAM is an activity designed to enable all stakeholders in
education, particularly those at the grassroots level, to be well informed about the amount
teaching and learning going on in their schools so that all members of the community, not just
representatives, can participate meaningfully in deciding on how to improve learning
outcomes in their schools.


National Functional Literacy Programme
Qualitatively, the content of the curriculum of the National Functional Literacy Programme
addresses areas of national issues as well as individual and community development. By the
programme content, a neo-literate enjoys increased self-confidence and improved community
recognition (social); the neo-literate develops national thinking habits and gets involved in
village functioning (political); the neo-literate participates in income generating activity for
additional financial support and also learners application of modern techniques for increased
productivity (economic); and the neo-literate adopts health enhancing practices such as the
right age of marriage, good nutrition, immunisation of children, visiting the hospital when
sick, maintaining environmental cleanliness etc.

The National Functional Literacy Programme has enjoyed mass participation by the fact that
classes are established in most communities within the 15-Language groups. This has added
a new dimension to the process of educational provision, that is, making a conscious effort at
giving education to illiterate adults and school drop-outs.




                                           37
      1.3    THE LESSONS LEARNED IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGING AND REFORMING EDUCATION SYSTEMS: APPROACHES
               ADOPTED, SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES, MAJOR DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED etc.

                                                         THE NEW EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

                                                                                    SUCCESSFUL/UNSUCCESSFUL                      MAJOR DIFFICULTIES
      LESSONS LEARNED                    APPROACHES ADOPTED
                                                                                          STRATEGIES                               ENCOUNTERED

1. It takes a firm revolve to effect
                                        Structural changes in the                   This strategy has been successful.         The implementation of the reform
Lasting changes. Research, Findings
                                        educational system were made: the           There was a gradual phasing out of         programme did not attract whole-
and Recommendations into the need
                                        long years spent in pre-tertiary            the final year students running the        hearted support from all
for major changes in our educational
                                        institutions i.e. 6:4:5:2 (17 years)        old syllabuses and a switchover to         Ghanaians.
system and pilot projects into
                                        gave way to 6:3:3 (12 years).               the new curriculum by the other
“Continuation Schools” , the
                                                                                    students at the lower levels of            The first results of the JSS were
forerunner to the Junior and Senior
                                        Most of the then existing Middle            education.                                 not very good. Those of the SSS
Secondary School idea, have been
                                        Schools were turned into Junior                                                        in 1994 were disheartening.
lying on the drawing board for more
                                        Secondary Schools and a few new             The first “fruits”, i.e. the first four-
than 10 years before the decision to
                                        ones were set up. Similarly,                year Graduates from our                    Initially, enrolment to the new
implement the Educational Reform
                                        existing Secondary Schools were             Universities graduated in June 1999        community Senior Secondary
Programme in 1987, by the PNDC
                                        turned into Senior Secondary                with meritorious results.                  Schools was not encouraging and
Government. It was a daring
                                        Schools. A few were expanded                                                           the new emphasis on Technical,
initiative.
                                        and a few new community                                                                Vocational and Agriculture was
                                        secondary schools were set up.                                                         unattractive to students. Most of
                                                                                                                               these new schools did not have
                                                                                                                               boarding facilities.

2. Lessons of failure are
                                        Government quickly arranged for         The strategy was successful. A good            Government had to raise
opportunities to improve upon
                                        mass remedial classes for every         number of students made the grade              additional revenue to pay
existing programmes. The first
                                        unsuccessful candidate in selected      for Tertiary and other Diploma                 teachers’ allowances.
results of the SSSCE in 1994 caused a
                                        secondary schools all over the          awarding institutions and professional
general alarm because they were not
                                        country and saw to the candidates       courses.                                       Unsuccessful students had to look
encouraging. They brought the merits
                                        re-registration for the examinations                                                   for the nearest Secondary Schools
or otherwise of the Educational
                                        slated for that year.                                                                  to their residences or localities at
Reform into sharp focus.
                                                                               38
   THE LESSONS LEARNED IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGING AND REFORMING EDUCATION SYSTEMS: APPROACHES ADOPTED,
                 SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES, MAJOR DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED etc.
                                                         THE NEW EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

                                                                                    SUCCESSFUL/UNSUCCESSFUL          MAJOR DIFFICULTIES
       LESSONS LEARNED                      APPROACHES ADOPTED
                                                                                          STRATEGIES                     ENCOUNTERED
                                                                                                                    which to attend classes.
                                        It was realised that students at the
                                        SSS level were made to study too                                            Morale was low among students
                                        many subjects; hence the poor                                               and parents.
                                        performance. Henceforth, students
                                        were to offer four core subjects and
                                        three or four electives.

3. The process of change in the         Government’s expenditure on             Approaches have been quite          Release of funds did not always
educational system for a fast-growing   education rose from 17% in 1984         successful. The trend of success    come in good time.
Third World country, like Ghana,        to 35% in 1998.                         however depends on the ability of
requires sacrifices.                                                            stakeholders to sustain their       Much of Government’s funding
                                        By 1999, Donor funding for the          contributions or donations and      of education goes into the
                                        education sector had risen to           regularly.                          payment of recurrent expenditure;
                                        US$500 million.                                                             i.e. Teachers’ salaries thus
                                                                                                                    leaving hardly any substantive
All stakeholders play major roles in     The responsibility for the                                                 sum for further development.
education.                              construction and rehabilitation of
                                        school infrastructural facilities
                                        devolved on the Districts.

                                        Various cost-sharing approaches
                                        were adopted:

                                        -    Textbook user-fees in basic and
                                             second cycle schools (now
                                             abolished in basic schools)
                                        -    District Assembly Levies

                                                                               39
      THE LESSONS LEARNED IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGING AND REFORMING EDUCATION SYSTEMS: APPROACHES ADOPTED,
                    SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES, MAJOR DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED etc.

                                                                      THE NEW EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

                                                                                                   SUCCESSFUL/UNSUCCESSFUL                    MAJOR DIFFICULTIES
        LESSONS LEARNED                                APPROACHES ADOPTED
                                                                                                         STRATEGIES                             ENCOUNTERED

  -    Scholarship Secretariat                     -    Academic and residential user-         Existing scholarships have been
       currently operates :                             fees                                   successful. They have proved very
                                                                                               helpful to recipients.
       a. SSS Scholarship for the top
          2 in each form.
       b. Cocoa Marketing Board
          Scholarship
       c. Science students in tertiary
          institutions and
       d. Students from the Northern
          section of the country.
       e.   Currently, the Education Trust Fund
            has been set up to help needy
            students in tertiary institutions.


4. While focusing attention on the                Quite a number of expansion of existing      In the light of grave inaccessibility to   Lack of funds to develop the tertiary
development of education at the pre-               facilities took place. In some cases,       the huge number of Ghanaian youth          sector. Dealing with the congestion
tertiary level, there is the need to keep          new classrooms etc as the funds             to tertiary institutions in particular,    in all tertiary institutions.
wary eyes on the expansion of                      available could manage, were built to       the strategies adopted have not been
secondary and tertiary institutions as             access education at the secondary and
                                                                                               successful.
eventual outlets to successful                     tertiary levels; but these attempts were
students.                                          grossly inadequate and could not, in
                                                   any way, match the volume of
                                                   students needing secondary, let alone,
                                                   tertiary education in Ghana.

                                                                                              40
   THE LESSONS LEARNED IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGING AND REFORMING EDUCATION SYSTEMS: APPROACHES ADOPTED,
                 SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES, MAJOR DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED etc.

                                                        THE NEW EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

                                                                                   SUCCESSFUL/UNSUCCESSFUL                 MAJOR DIFFICULTIES
      LESSONS LEARNED                   APPROACHES ADOPTED
                                                                                         STRATEGIES                          ENCOUNTERED

                                       Deboardinition to ease the
                                       congestion in Dormitory Blocks
                                       and Halls of Residence.

                                       Converting the Extra-mural centre,
                                       The Workers’ College, in Accra
                                       into a full campus of the University
                                       of Ghana, Legon.


5. The supply of textbooks, teaching   At the beginning of the Reform          The supply of adequate textbooks to       Under the era of free supply of
and learning materials and other       Programme the supply of textbooks       schools has been fraught with grave       textbooks, children/students
equipment to enhance the quality of    to pupils in basic schools was free     problems.                                 adopted a carefree attitude to
education.                             in consonance with the “Free”,                                                    textbooks.
                                       Compulsory and Universal nature         New strategies have been initiated
                                       of the system. Later, the user-fee      through the decentralisation process      Replacement of torn books posed
                                       was introduced to serve as a            to supply books straight from the         a great problem
                                       revolving fund to ensure constant       publishers to the Districts. To this      It was difficult to provide
                                       supplies of these materials. The        end, containers have been distributed     adequate books and materials to
                                       user-fees have now been abolished       to the Districts to serve as Depots for   every school and regularly too.
                                       in basic schools.                       the distribution of these books.
                                                                                                                         The user-fee strategy improved
                                       One Science Resource Centre has                                                   the situation but not too
                                       been established in each of the 107                                               significantly.
                                       out of 110 Districts of the country.
                                       Arrangements have been put in                                                     Ensuring equitable distribution
                                       place to establish the three others.                                              was also a problem.
                                                                              41
       THE LESSONS LEARNED IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGING AND REFORMING EDUCATION SYSTEMS: APPROACHES ADOPTED,
                     SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES, MAJOR DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED etc.

                                                           THE NEW EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

                                                                                   SUCCESSFUL/UNSUCCESSFUL       MAJOR DIFFICULTIES
         LESSONS LEARNED                    APPROACHES ADOPTED
                                                                                         STRATEGIES                ENCOUNTERED

6. NON-FORMAL EDUCATION                  Approaches were made to chiefs and    Most of the strategies were   •   Lack of funds for programme
    DIVISION                             elders and campaigns launched         successful.                      implementation
(i)    In the process of                 through the mass media.                                             • Sustaining programmes which
       implementing the functional                                                                              have greater donor input (80%
       literacy programme it became                                                                             NFLP funding from external
       very clear that there was need                                                                           sources.
       for proper awareness creation                                                                         • Local capacity building
       within the rank and file of the                                                                          mechanisms for quality human
       community for the                                                                                        resource development and
       programmes acceptance and                                                                                utilisation
       ownership.                        Collaborative approaches were                                       • Institutional capacity building
                                         sought.                                                                initiatives to strengthen
(ii)     For effective collaboration,                                                                           structures put in place.
         NGOs and other literacy                                                                             • Creating the necessary
         providers need to be well                                                                              awareness for programme
         sensitised to support the                                                                              acceptance by government as
         programme towards its                                                                                  well as other stakeholders such
         sustainability in terms of                                                                             as traditional rulers, opinion
         moral, financial and material                                                                          leaders and NGOs.
         support.                                                                                            There is not enough literature in
                                                                                                             Ghanaian Language to create and
                                                                                                             sustain a literature environment




                                                                              42
THE MAIN PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES FACING NATIONAL EDUCATION AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

1.4.1   FUNDING OF EDUCATION

The main problem, which also poses an overriding challenge to national education at the beginning of
the twenty-first century, is the issue of funding education.

For the past decade, most public expenditure on education has been concerned with keeping the
service going.    The vast percentage (86% in 1998) of the budget was allocated to personnel
emoluments, with non-salary costs accounting for the rest. In 1998, only 4% of the total Ghana
Government budget was allocated to investment expenditure (all of it on second and third cycle
institutions).   District Assemblies contributed about         ¢30 billion (about 20% of the District
Assemblies’ Common Fund) to the development of Basic education infrastructure. The sum is wholly
inadequate to maintain let alone expand basic education facilities. As a result, at least one-third of all
basic schools do not have permanent structures.

It should be noted that:
•   if state funding of education must increase, this will imply spending less from the budget on roads,
    health, agriculture etc.

•   if government secures more external aid, this will not only increase the external debt but also
    attract higher servicing and interest payments thus reducing government’s discretionary budget
    further. Government may also seek concessionary loans and grants. But external funding is not
    sustainable and they tend to interfere with national policy.

•   Cost sharing is an alternative policy of educational funding which has been practised in one form
    or other since independence. Families and communities, especially in rural areas are frequently
    requested to contribute, either in cash or through communal labour, to expand educational
    infrastructural facilities e.g. classrooms, workshops, urinals and toilets. This is different from fees
    to cover tuition, books, basic equipment and furniture. Currently, cost-sharing is being practised at
    all levels of education except in Basic public schools, which were exempted since 1996. Even in
    cost-sharing there is a limit to which it can be imposed without its negative consequences of
    prohibiting needy students from having access to education. This, in deed, is the threat to tertiary
    education in this country.

    The major source of funding tertiary education is government subvention, which currently is about
    50% of the budget requirement of the institutions. Currently, Academic Facilities User Fees
    (AFUF) have been introduced in the universities and the polytechnics as cost-sharing measures
    which have been accepted by all stakeholders. Government currently provides 30% rebate on the
    AFUF and the students/parents bear the 70%.




                                                    43
    A Ghana Education Trust Fund (GET Fund) which was established in 2000 is to support the needs
    of all the sectors of education. The major conditions to the Fund are 20% proceeds from the total
    Value Added Tax revenue. Other sources are contributions from corporate bodies, individuals,
    NGOs and other private and public organisations.

        The tertiary education sector has registered significant progress over the last few years.
        Enrolment in universities, for example, have quadrupled while the polytechnics registered an
        all time high figure of 16,756 in the year 2000.

        In spite of progress made so far, the tertiary sector continues to face serious challenges. A
        large number of qualified applicants still do not have access to tertiary education. Academic
        and physical facilities are inadequate to accommodate the increasing number of students;
        faculty members in all the universities are aging with about 34% of academic staff about 50
        years. The participation rate for the age group 17-23 in Ghana is less than 3% compared to the
        participation rate of between 30-40% for corresponding age groups in the developed countries.
        Salaries and working conditions in the tertiary institutions are relatively poor and unattractive
        making it difficult for the institutions to attract and retain qualified academic and senior
        administrative and professional staff.

        But by far the major challenge appears to be inadequate funding. Currently, the tertiary sub-
        sector receives about 14% of the total budget allocation to the Ministry of Education. The
        allocation to the tertiary institutions is about 50% of their budgetary requirements which
        adversely affects their performance.

        The demands and pressures on tertiary education are bound to be complex and far reaching in
        the new millennium. A number of urgent steps need to be taken and action has already been
        initiated on a number of these:

•   The sources of funding tertiary education need to be diversified to sustain a certain minimum level
    of funding.

•    In spite of government’s tuition-free policy, the emergence of private institutions strengthens the
     case for cost-sharing and fee-paying in public tertiary institutions by students/parents who are
     capable.

•   Polytechnic education need to be improved and access widened to reduce pressure on the
    universities. Polytechnics should be strengthened to produce the middle level technical and
    vocational personnel required for national development.

•   Distance education is becoming more and more important to the traditional mode of instruction. It
    needs to be taken together with developments in information and communication technologies.

•    The limitations imposed by inadequate physical and academic infrastructure need to be removed.
                                                   44
•    Research and postgraduate studies in universities should be adequately funded and strengthened.

1.4.2 IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION
From a tottering start after the reform programme took off, student performance in various appraisal
examinations have shown a steady improvement; thanks to the lessons learnt and remedial strategies
taken. The need for improving further the quality of education has, nevertheless, remained so crucial a
challenge to the nation that the Ministry of Education has prioritised this issue as one of the major
components of the FCUBE Programme.


A number of basic reasons account for the trend of poor quality education. The main reasons are:
•   Inadequate pre-service preparation of trainee teachers due to lack of resources and funding.
    Trainee teachers do very minimal practical teaching and most of them are not adequately exposed
    to the rural environment where majority of them is posted after training.

•   Ineffective in-service teacher training, which has led to our teachers failing to keep up to date both
    on technical developments in their subject areas and also in teaching methodologies (a prevalence
    of “chalk and talk” teaching). Those who have had some in-service training do not seem to
    practise the new methodologies. Currently, the Whole School Development (WSD) is working
    hard to re-organise in-service training to become more meaningful and comprehensive.

•   Inadequate teaching and learning materials

•   Inadequate classroom furniture and equipment

•   Ineffective supervision

•   Poor health status of some school children

The Ghanaian teacher is among the least remunerated on the West Coast of Africa. The average
teacher endeavours to perform his/her best but a baggage of low morale has affected his/her efficiency
and effectiveness. Lack of incentives to attract qualified teachers to very remote and difficult areas has
robbed these areas of the services of some of the best teachers. Some incentive packages are now in
place and one hopes that some positive financial measures would be taken to raise the low morale of
the teacher in order for him/her to go the extra mile to show dedication to work.

In order to ensure the competence of the teacher the development of Teacher Performance Appraisal
Instruments in a good device to identify no-performing teachers for remedial training.


1.4.3 LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES
In some areas, particularly in riverine and deprived areas, the absence of transport is a significant
factor affecting the school attendance of teachers and students. It is envisaged that the Teacher
Incentive Package, which is currently under consideration, would supply bicycles to teachers in those


                                                   45
areas as well as a few rowboats or motor-boats to riverine Districts to ferry teachers and students
across rivers to and from school.

Although steady progress continues to be made at basic school level in the development of
infrastructural facilities, the Second cycle and tertiary institutions have been hardest hit with lack of
expansion and rehabilitation work on classrooms, Dormitory blocks or Halls of Residence and Lecture
Theatres. Coupled with this is the slow pace of development, if any has been initiated, of other
facilities like dining halls, sports fields, recreational facilities, water and adequate electricity supply to
cater for the huge number of student intake into these institutions. The result, most often, is over-
crowding; leading to too many students sharing the very limited facilities available.

In all second cycle and tertiary institutions the inadequacy of classrooms and lecture halls respectively
restrict enrolment growth. This situation is really very acute at the University level. The result is to
deny most prospective students access to University education.

The total enrolment in the universities increased from 9,997 in 1990/91 academic year to 36,221 in
1999/2000. This was an increase of 262% over the 1990/91 total enrolment.

The ratio of female to male total enrolment for the period was 21:79 in 1990/91 and 27:73 in
1999/2000 as against the national target ratio of 50 : 50.

The total enrolment of students pursuing tertiary programmes in the polytechnics increased from 1,385
in 1993/94 to 16,956 in 1999/2000. Female enrolment in the polytechnic also increased from 217 to
3,895 during the period.

As at the end of the 1999/2000 academic year, the total enrolment in the universities, polytechnics and
the other two professional institutions was 54,038, an increase of 44,041 over the 1990/91 total tertiary
enrolment of 9,997.

To address this problem of inadequate infrastructural development, the Ministry of Education, with
support from the donor agencies such as the IMF and World Bank, made remarkable improvement in
the physical and academic infrastructure and facilities of the Universities and Polytechnics over the
years. Notable of these are construction of Lecture Theatres, laboratories, non-residential facilities,
provision of teaching and learning materials and staff training both locally and abroad.


The tertiary institutions are gradually trying to delink themselves from the provisions and management
of residential facilities. Private and public estate developers are thus being encouraged to put up hostel
facilities on campuses and manage them. So far the interest in this regard is encouraging. The current


                                                     46
major providers are the Social Security and National Insurance Trust and the Volta Aluminium
Company Fund (Valco Fund).

1.4.4 MARKET-ORIENTED COURSES

One of the major challenges facing national education is training the human resources of this country
to meet the appropriate demands of the labour market. The education system should produce students
with the right mix of skills to meet the needs of our fast developing economy.

This does not mean just producing large numbers of computer literate “high-tech” graduates. It also
means producing skilled personnel like: Geologists, Land Economists, Agriculturists, Agronomists,
Architects, Scientists and Medical Doctors who are prepared to conduct scientific experiments and add
to the available store of knowledge in their respective disciplines.

One must not also lose sight of the production of skilled artisans such as carpenters, plumbers,
mechanics and metal workers. Current statistics may show how the development of science and
technical education has lagged behind other areas. Firstly, in the Tertiary sub-sector, in 1996/97, only
39.3% of students enrolled for science as against 60.7% for humanities and in 1998/99 the science
faculties were the only areas where planned enrolments actually decreased. Secondly, the growth in
enrolments in the polytechnic sub-sector was the slowest, at 16% of any of the sub-sector apart from
teacher training.

While increasing access to Science, technical and vocational skills as a key objective in improving the
skills mix of our educational system, the government and the tertiary institutions will have to come to
grips with the need to widen the curriculum to embrace a wide spectrum of courses, e.g. Tourism,
under a Development Studies programme, to produce the necessary human resource base for the
development of the country.


1.4.5 DURATION OF THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PROGRAMME

At a National Education Forum held in November, 1999 on: “Towards Sustaining an Effective
National Education System”, an issue of crucial importance was raised. There was an agitation by a
school of thought to extend the present three-year duration of Senior Secondary School programme to
a four-year programme. Proponents argue that this would give the students ample time to cover their
syllabi sufficiently before their final examinations.

This, in turn, would ensure excellent performance by students at the SSSCE examination. Again, this
excellent performance would easily pave the way for the students to enter the University and other
tertiary institutions.


                                                    47
Opponents to this proposal counter-argue that there is nothing wrong with the existing duration of
three years. They defend this stand by explaining that apart from the maiden SSSCE examination in
which the first results were bad, subsequent results have continued to show favourable progression and
that performance has now stabilised.

Independent observers as well as opponents to the change agree on one issue however.            Their
consensus is that if ever the government agrees to change the duration of the Senior Secondary School
to four years then the four-year Degree courses at the University should revert to the original three
years as it is even now for the equivalent holders of GCE “A” Level. That is, the one-year course in
the University prior to the three-year degree course will not be necessary.

One repercussion that a change to four years will have on the Secondary School is to restrict fresh
enrolment in all secondary schools, to the number equivalent to that of final year students, for one
year, because of accommodation problems.

On the other hand, the solution will lie in the provision of adequate accommodation for fresh Form one
students.

A final decision on this issue has not been taken.

2.0    EDUCATION CONTENT AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR THE TWENTY-
       FIRST CENTURY

2.1    CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, PRINCIPLES AND ASSUMPTIONS
2.1 (a) The Decision Making Process
Decisions about Curriculum are made by the government through various educational policy
documents. For instance, in developing the curriculum, the Curriculum Research and Development
Division (CRDD), the Division in the Ghana Education Service (GES) responsible for the
development of the National Curriculum began by examining the various educational documents of the
country, principal among them are the Educational Reform Programme of 1987, the Government’s
Vision 2020 document and the FCUBE policy documents. These documents bring out the objectives
of Education in Ghana. The FCUBE policy document dwells mainly on Education at the basic level,
namely Primary Education, and Junior Secondary Education.

The decisions on curriculum issues are implemented by the GES. The GES is an Agency responsible
for the management of the formal school education system (pre-tertiary) accountable through the
Ghana Education Service Council to the Minister of Education.
The CRDD, is responsible for implementing and evaluating curriculum issues through the
development of culturally oriented and child-centred curriculum which sets achievable learning goals
for students/pupils and carrying out research and evaluation for policy guidelines.
                                                     48
2.1 (b)          Curriculum planning and design, general principles and basic assumptions of the
                 existing curriculum:

Curriculum development essentially follows two principles. The first of these is the examination of
the needs and direction of education of the country concerned. The second is the selection of an
educational philosophy that is necessary and pertinent to the educational needs and direction of the
country.

The educational needs of Ghana are amply articulated in the policies and objectives of the Educational
Reforms of 1987. A few of the Key Principles and assumptions underlying the reforms of 1987 are as
follows:

          •   Because schooling has been of the wrong type, there are many people who come
              out of the educational system and can find no work to do, and yet there are
              many important jobs to be done for which no one is being trained.

          •   Ghana is a developing country and her people need to be able to develop
              and adapt scientific and technological skills to help her use her rich, untapped
              resources to provide her needs.
          •   The reforms, therefore set educational objectives for Primary, JSS and Senior Secondary
              Education. Two of the objectives of primary education emphasised are:-

                 a.      laying the foundation for inquiry and creativity
                 b.      development of the ability to adapt constructively to a changing environment.

The Junior Secondary School curriculum was planned to provide opportunities for pupils to acquire
basic pre-technical, pre-vocational and scientific knowledge and skills with the opportunity of
developing these skills further, since the Junior Secondary School was not planned to be terminal for
the majority of young persons leaving school at that level. The Senior Secondary Education has in
addition to the principles and objectives of Junior Secondary Education the:

          •   reinforcement of knowledge and skills acquired during basic education;
          •   provision of opportunities to cater for different talents and skills;
          •   development of a desire for further self-improvement.


Theories and experiences taken into account in the development of the curriculum:
With the goals of the basic education in mind, CRDD then examined various educational philosophies
and psychological approaches to curriculum development for direction.                 CRDD selected the

                                                       49
“Pragmatist” and the “recontructionist” philosophies to give direction to the curriculum development
process. The Division then used the “behaviourist” and “gestalt” psychologies for organising the
objectives of instruction. The “Pragmatist” emphasised discovery learning, projects approach to
learning, understanding (as opposed to rote memorization), application of knowledge and the
importance of technical/vocational education.

According to the “reconstructionists” the child must learn to be a problem solver since the society is
moving rather fast and one cannot therefore predict the problems of the future. The behaviourists
stressed pupil centred learning rather than teacher-centred learning. Gestalt psychology stressed the
need for structuring learning in such a way as to aid perception, understanding and thinking.


Organisation of subject matters and disciplines within the curriculum.                          Issues of
interdisciplinary and integration of subjects:

Two different types of curriculum organisation were used to develop the syllabuses. The first type of
curriculum organisation consists of subject-based curriculum in which a number of subjects may be
linked by different themes and topics. Important themes or topics that are important for the pupil and
for the nation were selected and repeated at different levels within each subject syllabus and across a
number of syllabuses.


       Some of the key topics and themes identified for linking within and across subjects were
       as follows:-

       a.      Democracy and Human Rights
       b.      Environmental Degradation
       c.      Communication: person to person communication
       d.      Health and Sanitation
       e.      Maintenance Culture
       f.      Belief Systems
       g.      Population and Family Life Education
       h.      Problem-solving and decision-making
       i.      Belief System – superstition and witchcraft

Some of the topics and themes listed above were hence linked in the syllabuses as follows:

Communication and other psycho-social skills such as assertiveness and confidence building, being
able to speak in public, listening to others speak before you make your points clearly etc. were
reflected in Environmental Studies in Life Skills.

Belief system like superstition and “witchcraft” which stifle scientific thinking, were reflected in the
syllabuses for Religious and Moral Education, Environmental Studies, Agriculture (JSS), Physical
Education (JSS) and Science (JSS).



                                                     50
Environmental Degradation is reflected in Environmental Studies, Integrated Science, Ghanaian
Languages and Culture, Religious and Moral Education and in Music and Dance. (The topic on
environment degradation is considered most important and is reflected in all the primary school
syllabuses and in eight of the twelve JSS syllabuses.)

Some other subjects in the Ghanaian school curriculum are organised by the second type of curriculum
organisation.   In this type, integration takes the view that, in order to increase the quantum of
knowledge young people acquire, it is possible and desirable to combine a number of subjects into one
subject such as pupils will acquire basic knowledge in the subjects in the combination within the
limited time available for basic education. Environmental Studies at the primary level for instance is a
combination of Science, Agricultural Science, Life Skills and Social Studies. Integrated Science in the
Senior Secondary is a combination of Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Agricultural Science.

(v)    Other subjects are as follows:
a.     Ghanaian Language and Culture (Ghanaian Language and Cultural Studies)
b.     Integrated Science (Science and Agricultural Science)
c.     Social Studies (Geography, History, Environmental Studies, Civics)


2.1 (c) Teaching and Learning Strategies:
Methods used to strengthen the inter-relatedness between teaching and learning and to facilitate
learners’ active participation.

Sequencing of specific objectives is one of the methods used to strengthen the inter-relatedness
between teaching and learning in order to facilitate the learners’ active participation.
The syllabus adapts a five-column approach for each section. In column 1 is the “unit” and its title.
Column 2 shows a list of “specific objectives” while columns 3, 4 and 5 indicate the content the
teacher could use to teach respective specific objectives, recommended teaching and learning
strategies and evaluation questions, exercises, home work and project work.

The specific objectives of each unit in the syllabus are planned and arranged in such a way as to help
the pupil acquire “knowledge and understanding” before moving on to analyse issues or apply the
knowledge and lastly, acquire an associated affective or psychomotor skill.

Using Environmental Studies, Primary 6 as an example, the specific objectives of Unit 1
(Environmental Degradation) of Section 6 (the Physical Environment) as sequenced as follows:

       UNIT 1:         Environmental Degradation
                The pupil will be able to:


                                                    51
          a.   explain the term environment (knowledge)
          b.   explain ways in which we depend on our environment for living (understanding)
          c.   describe ways in which the environment gets damaged (analysis)
          d.   outline how the damage of the environment affects our lives and that of plants and
               animals(analysis)
          e.   demonstrate ways by which he/she can prevent and control damage to the environment
               (synthesis) and application (Cognitive), affective and psychomotor.

Apart from sequencing of specific objectives, the specific objectives are stated in terms of the pupil i.e.
what the pupil will be able to do after instruction has taken place. The objectives are hence pupil-
centred. Each specific objective contains an action verb that shows the behaviour that the pupil will be
able to demonstrate after the instruction. The teaching/learning activities are correspondingly pupil-
centred and involve role-playing, co-operative learning, non-directive teaching, discovering method,
group participation, problem-solving and project method.

    Time Table
A copy of the suggested Primary and Junior Secondary Schools allocation of periods to subjects per
week is attached. The duration of the periods is 30 minutes. The duration of the school year is 40
weeks for Primary Schools and 45 weeks for the Junior Secondary Schools.

The duration of periods in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) is 40 minutes. The duration of the school
year is 40 weeks.

Due to the change in the academic calendar schools have adjusted the number of periods per day and
allocation of periods to the various subjects being taught in the SSS to cater for the short-falls.


     Preparation of Teachers to implement and adopt the curriculum:
Teachers are trained in the use of the syllabuses to prepare them in the implementation of the
curriculum. Five officers each from thirty (30) districts had been trained in the use of the new
syllabuses. These officers are to train the teachers in their districts. There are plans to train officers
from the remaining eighty (80) districts.

2.1 (d)        ASSESSMENT POLICIES AND INSTRUMENTS USED TO DETERMINE A
               PUPIL’S OR STUDENT’S PROGRESS

Standards for assessment are fixed centrally and are revised and changed when it is deemed necessary.

For instance, Continuous assessment weighting was initially 40% for internal assessment and 60% for
external examination.     This was changed to 30% and 70% respectively because of ineffective
implementation of continuous assessment.
                                                    52
Assessment is syllabus based, and good assessment instruments are therefore derived from the
adherence of the syllabuses to the curriculum objectives and principles.


Assessment policy in Ghana covers the following structure:
a.     Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSSCE) administered by the
       West African Examinations Council (WAEC).

b.      Technical Examinations administered by the Technical Examination Unit of the
        Ghana Education Service.

c.     Basic Education Certificate (BECE) administered by WAEC.

d.     Other assessment instruments used to determine the progress of a pupil or student which have
       already been referred to in this paper include: Continuous Assessment

e.     The Criterion Referenced Test (CRT)

f.     The Performance Monitoring Test (PMT)

g.     The SSSCE, Technical Exams and BECE are for both certification and selection to higher
       levels. Pupils/students who do not meet the required standards attend remedial classes and re-
       sit for the examinations.




                                                  53
                      SUGGESTED PRIMARY SCHOOL TIME TABLE
                   ALLOCATION OF PERIODS TO SUBJECTS PER WEEK

NO.                      SUBJECTS                           LPR           LPS          UPR       UPS
 1      ENGLISH                                                 10         8            10        8
 2      MATHS                                                   10         8            10        8
 3      GHANAIAN LANGUAGE                                        8         7             6        6
 4      ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES                                    6         6             5        5
 5      INTEGRATED SCIENCE                                                               5        4
 6      RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION                            4         4             3        3
 7      MUSIC AND DANCE                                          3         3             3        3
 8      PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                       4         4             3        3
        TOTAL PERIODS FOR PRIMARY                               45        40            45        40

        KEY:              L means Lower                                        U means Upper
                          P means Primary                                      S means Shift
                          R means Regular

        NB:               Duration of Periods      =         30 minutes



               SUGGESTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TIME TABLE
                 ALLOCATION OF PERIODS TO SUBJECTS PER WEEK

               SUBJECTS                         REGULAR/MORNING                    AFTERNOON
                                                  SHIFT PERIODS                   SHIFT PERIODS
     Maths                                                  6                                6
     English                                                6                                6
     Science                                                4                                4
     Ghanaian Language and Culture                          4                                4
     Agricultural Science                                   3                                3
     Pre-Technical Skills                                   3                                3
     Pre-Vocational Skills                                  3                                3
     Religious and Moral Education                          3                                3
     Social Studies                                         3                                3
     French (optional)                                      4                                3
     Life Skills                                            2                                2
     Music and Dance                                        2                                -
     Physical Education                                     2                                -

                                                            45                           40




                                                       54
2.2   CHANGING AND ADAPTING EDUCATIONAL CONTENT
2.2(a) FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE CURRICULUM REFORMS

      -        Change emanating from social, economic, political, cultural practices, e.g.
               ♦ Moral decadence (Moral and Religious Education)
               ♦ Unemployment (Vocational subjects)
               ♦ Pertinent life problems (Life Skills)
      -        Change in the system of education e.g. 6 –3 – 3 – 4
      -        Change necessitated by feedback from curriculum evaluation (assessment - e.g. WAEC
               results, JSS experimental)
      -        Change in the Nature and Content of education e.g. inclusion of practical subjects
               (Technical/Vocational), Employable Skills, Reduction in the number of subjects.

      -        Change necessitated by Education commission e.g. Education Review – Dzobo Report.

2.2   (b)      CURRICULUM REFORM IS BROUGHT ABOUT BY:
               •   Public opinion, concern expressed in publications (print and electronic media),
                   utterances from public figures, stakeholders.
               •   Problem/Challenge taken up by Ministry, GES, Professionals, Experts, Bodies (e.g.
                   GNAT, Subject Associations).

2.2 (c) AREAS COVERED
      Our system of education has been subject-based for a considerably long time. Subjects have
      hitherto been taught as separate entities. Even related subjects like Science and Mathematics
      were taught as separate subjects. In recognition of the importance of transfer of knowledge and
      for the fact that a person needs an understanding of a variety of subjects to operate effectively,
      knowledge in current times is integrated. The GES has now adopted the integrated subject-
      based approach.

      The integration is achieved in two (2) ways.
      ♦ By identifying major objectives within a subject and repeating these within the subject
      ♦ By identifying key issues confronting society which appear in a number of educational
        reform documents

      Some of these key issues are also identified by curriculum developers in the course of their
      work.

                                       Issues in the CRDD Syllabuses

      •     Belief systems – superstition and witchcraft
      •     Communication – person to person communication and attendant problems
      •     Courtesy and Etiquette
      •     Democracy and Human Rights


                                                   55
•   Environmental Degradation
•   Gender Issues
•   Health, Sanitation and STDs/HIV/AIDS
•   Jobs and Job Training
•   Maintenance Culture
•   National Manpower Development
•   Natural Disasters – fires (including bush fires), floods, earthquakes
•   Peace and Conflict Resolution
•   Personal Safety – rape, child abuse
•   Population and Family Life Education
•   Problem-Solving Techniques
•   Reading and Research
•   Science and Technology
•   Team Management

•   Taking some of these issues as themes, the curriculum developers then integrate each
    specific theme across a number of subjects.        For instance, certain themes which are
    considered important like HIV/AIDS is integrated in Religious and Moral Education,
    Science, English Language and other subjects. Superstition is also integrated into Science,
    Agriculture and in other subjects. This is done so that important issues confronting the
    nation are dealt with in a number of subjects.

•   2.2(d) STRATEGIES ADOPTED                 IN     THE    DESIGN,         IMPLEMENTATION,
    FOLLOW-UP AND EVALUATION

•   The design of the syllabuses is influenced by two key factors.
•   An integrated subject-based approach to curriculum development.
•   Emphasis on higher order thinking and action.

•   The integrated subject-based approach, which has now been, adopted by GES emphasises:
•   Transfer of knowledge to strengthen understanding and reinforce knowledge acquisition in
    a number of subjects.

•   Minimise forgetfulness of key issues in education through the process of planned repetition
    within a subject and across subjects

Rote learning, which has been a prominent feature of learning in our system, is inadequate as a
learning procedure for developing problem-solvers.




                                            56
        The new curriculum therefore targets high level cognitive objectives, values and practical skills
        to give learners the ability to undertake scientific, critical and logical thinking and action.
                              Structure and Organisation of the Syllabus

        Each year’s work has been grouped into sections, the General Objectives are behaviours
        expected to be exhibited by the learner after going through the sections of the syllabus.

        A five-column format is used as follows:
        Column 1       -       Unit
        Column 2       -       Specific Objectives
        Column 3       -       Content [Presents information, processes and techniques needed to
                               teach a particular unit.
        Column 4       -       Teaching/Learning Activities
        Column 5       -       Evaluation

        Teacher preparation constitutes the main implementation process. All Teachers will be trained
        in the use of the syllabuses. The training plan will involve a cascade approach whereby CRDD
        will train a team of trainers. The team of Trainers will then train a set of resource persons who
        will be responsible for the training of teachers in the field under the supervision of the trainers.
        CRDD staff will be responsible for the monitoring/evaluation of the whole training process.

2.2(e) ACHIEVEMENTS; PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED AND SOLUTIONS ADAPTED TO
       OVERCOME THEM

        Feedback from teachers on problems encountered during teaching highlight content
        presumably, because of the new approach and non-availability of teaching and learning
        materials (TLM). Solutions are normally addressed during orientation courses on the problems
        encountered during teaching.

        The CRDD Resource Centre will be used to help teachers to learn how to prepare appropriate
        TLMs. They can also borrow TLMs from the Centre.


2.2.1   CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES AND ASSUMPTIONS IN NON-
        FORMAL EDUCATION

•    The decision making process:

Decisions about curriculum issues are taken at the following levels:

a.      Ministry of Education – Policy making in terms of educational goals for the overall national
        development programmes.

b.      Non-Formal Education Division – Policy direction initiatives and implementation guidelines.

                                                     57
c. Community Level – collaboration with literacy providers for base level policy implementation, as
   well as serving as watch dogs and owners of the programme.

•      Curriculum Planning and Design:

The general principle of curriculum planning and design is that materials for the development of
Primers (the basic text of the functional literacy programme) are community generated, taking into
account the socio-cultural and geographical circumstances of each of the 15 selected Ghanaian
languages. There is also the fusion of gender sensitivity and poverty alleviation initiatives.

•    Teaching and Learning Strategies:

Teaching methods adopted in the provision of functional literacy lessons are multi-faceted. These
include:

a.     modified Freirean Approach
b.     Reflect Approach
To strengthen the inter-relatedness of teaching and learning, the Participatory Rural Approach
Technique is used to seek the active participation of learners in the field and classroom delivery.

Teachers (facilitators) are prepared to implement and adapt the curriculum by using the Facilitators’
Manual and Handbook to guide them in classroom delivery.

Emphasis on teaching and learning strategies is also placed on Facilitators’ Training Workshops.


•    Time Table
A learner goes through a 21-month cycle of teaching and learning, acquisition of developmental and
occupational skills to enable him/her acquire a certificate.

Classes are organised every weekend and six hours a week are needed to accomplish results.
Depending upon facilitator – class demands, a class may meet four times (1½ hours per lesson) or
three times (2 hours per lesson) a week in order to make the six hours.


CHANGING AND ADAPTING EDUCATIONAL CONTENT

Though the Primer (with its 28 themes) forms the basic medium of leading classroom discussions,
topical issues are handled through extension services such as radio, newspapers as well as issues of
local concern.




                                                    58
2.2.2 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
In this National Report, our concern has been to capture the major reforms and innovations introduced
in the education system during the last ten years (1990 –2000). It also attempts to catalogue the major
achievements, the lessons learned in the process and the main problems and challenges facing national
education at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

The government of Ghana has put great premium on the education of its citizens right from the cradle
because it considers education as an indispensable foundation on which the rapid development and
progress of the nation should be built. In this connection, facilities have been made available for the
“Free Compulsory Universal Education” to all children of school-going age in Ghana.


Equal facilities also exist for all adult illiterates (i.e. the Non-formal education) for the purpose of
eliminating illiteracy from the illiterate folk. There are also facilities for Distance Education vis á vis
Universities and other tertiary institutions for the upgrading of ones academic and professional
standing regardless of age.

The Education Reform Programme introduced in 1987 brought in a lot of innovations. Even though
the fruits of the reform are being harvested now in terms of the development of high calibre middle
level human resource for the socio-economic development of the country, yet the journey towards this
end has not been without its problems and handicaps.

Among the major problems facing the system is the grave concern that has been expressed about the
quality of education, especially at the basic level. Secondly, the government of Ghana has found it
difficult to fund education adequately at all levels of learning.

Notwithstanding this handicap, the government has put in place a number of interventions with
assistance from Development Partners to deal decisively with these issues. These interventions have
to yield fruitful results, it is our hope that this mutual co-operation and goodwill existing between the
government and the Development Partners will endure and promote a sustained and progressive
development of the educational sector.




                                                    59
         LIST OF ACRONYMS

AFUF     Academic Facilities User Fees
BECE     Basic Education Certificate Examination
CIDA     Canadian International Development Agency
CRDD     Curriculum Research Development Division
CRT      Criterion Referenced Test
DANIDA   Danish International Development Agency
DEOCs    District Education Oversight Committees
DEPTs    District Education Planning Teams
DGEOs    District Girls’ Education Officers
DFID     Department for International Development
DTSTs    District Teacher Support Teams
EIP      Equity Improvement Programme
FCUBE    Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education
GETF     Ghana Education Trust Fund
GCE      General Certificate of Education
GOG      Government of Ghana
GTZ      German Technical Corporation
HND      Higher National Diploma
JICA     Japanese International Co-operation Agency
NAB      National Accreditation Board
NAD      Norwegian Association of the Disabled
NABTEX   National Board for Professional and Technician Examinations
NFLP     National Functional Literacy Programme
NGOs     Non-governmental Organisations
NVTI     National Vocational Training Institute
PMBE     Planning Budgeting Monitoring and Education
PMT      Programme Monitoring Test
PPM      Participatory Performance Monitoring
PTAs     Parent Teacher Associations


                          60
                                                                      57


SMCs           School Improvement Fund
SPAM           School Performance Appraisal Meeting
SC             School Certificate
SSS            Senior Secondary School
SSCE           Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination
STD            Sexually Transmitted Diseases
TLMs           Teaching and Learning Materials
U.R.C          University Rationalisation Committee
UNESCO         United Nations’ Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organisation
UNICEF         United Nations Children’s Educational Fund
USAID          United States Agency for International Development
WAEC           West African Examination Council
WSD            Whole School Development




                                61
DOCUMENTARY REFERENCES USED FOR THE PREPARATION OF
THE NATIONAL REPORT

Strategic Plan 2000-2002.
Education sector, (Ministry of Education) October, 1999.


Towards Sustaining an Effective National Education System.
A Background Paper prepared for the Ministry of Education by the National
Forum Committee. November, 1999.
[* Source - Appendices A,C – L]


Statutus of Implementation (of the FCUBE Programme).
Report for the year 2000. January, 2001.


Report on Progress made Towards Achievement of some of the FCUBE Strategic
objectives at Regional and District levels 1996/97 – 1999/2000. A Research by
the Implementation Co-ordination Unit (ICU)       october, 2000.
[@ Source - Appendices M and N]


Ghana Country Paper on Development of Education 1998-1990.
September, 1990.


Ghana: Profile of the Education system. UNESCO (1996)


Kofi B. Quansah. Comment on linkages in Learning
      Sequences (LLS). April, 2000.


D.A. Konadu. A Manual on Participatory Performance
      Monitoring (PPM).        1998.




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63