Research Methods in by iht11609

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									Research Methods in


 Developmental Psychology



        Michael Hoerger
 Observation
  Hypothesis generation
  Laboratory Observation: Parent-child
   interactions, marriages, intrusive interviews,
   attachment style
  Naturalistic observation: bullying, ADHD

Case Study
  Used to gain detailed information on a single
   or small number of cases, commonly used in
   medicine and clinical psychology: rare
   events, new events, complex events
Correlation
Correlation
 r = Strength of relationship between two
  variables (-1 to +1)
 What is a “big” correlation?
     Reliability: r = .90
     IQ tests: r = .50 to .90
     Personality research: r = .30
     Life/death: r = .01
 Problem: Correlation ≠ Causation due to 3rd
  variable problem and directionality problem
 Solution: Methods and argument
Cross Lagged Panel Design
 (or “Cross lag panel” or “Cross panel lag”)
 Look at correlation between two variables
  over time
 Does X correlated with changes in Y?
     Smoking at Time 1 causes increased mile time
      at Time 2
       Age 20                       Age 40
      Smoking           r = -.05   Smoking
      Cigarettes                   Cigarettes

  r = .10                                r = .10

       Time to                      Time to
      run a mile         r = .30   run a mile
  Look at correlation between two variables
   over time
  Does X correlated with changes in Y?
         Maternal depression at Time 1 causes
          increased behavior problems at Time 2

  Maternal                 Maternal                 Maternal
 Depression               Depression               Depression



Child Behavior           Child Behavior           Child Behavior
  Problems                 Problems                 Problems
  THIS DRUG HAS HELPED TO
 TREAT: HAY FEVER, ASTHMA
   ATTACKS, ANXIETY, PAIN,
  ULCERS, ENURESIS, WARTS,
   ARTHRITIS, MALIGNANT
TUMORS, DIABETES, NARCOTIC
  WITHDRAWAL, INSOMNIA,
COLDS, AND INATTENTIVENESS
Experiment                        “id!”
 Independent variable: the
  manipulation; different conditions
  or groups
     Alcohol vs. placebo; CBT vs. waitlist
 Dependent variables: depends on the
  independent variable; the outcome variable
     Age at death; depression; liver functioning
 Problem: Participants must be similar across
  IV groups
 Solution: Random assignment
Survey
 Interviews, questionnaires, tests
 Used for correlational studies or as outcome
  (DV) measures in experimental studies
 Highly efficient
 Can be anonymous
 Problems: Wording, Response bias (e.g.
  social desirability)
 Solutions: Design with care
Online Research
 Most surveys and some experiments can be
  run on the web (e.g. priming studies)
 Benefits: most efficient, useful for screening
  large samples
 Risks: Lower experimental control, random
  responding, technical problems, non-
  representative sampling, ethics
 http://funpsych.com example
Physical Measures
 Physiological: changes in functioning
     Galvanic skin response (sweating), pupil
      dilation, heart rate
 Physical: walking speed, eye movement,
  speed of responding, height, weight
 Neurological: neurotransmitter levels, brain
  structure
 Benefits: reliability of measurement
 Risks: expensive, often fail to provide new
  information, low correspondence
Cross-Sectional Research
 Groups differ by age
     Compare children to teens to young adults to
      older adults
 Differences are presumed to be the result of
  age
     Older people are slower due to aging
 BUT differences may simply be due to
  contextual factors, such as the era each
  group was born in
     OR older people are slower due to differences
      in nutrition growing up
Longitudinal Research
 Follow one group over time to what changes
  with age
     Problem: expensive, bias due to dropout

Cross-Sequential Research
     Combines cross-sectional and longitudinal
      research
                Michael Hoerger

               To cite this lecture:
 Hoerger, M. (2007, January 10). Research
  Methods in Developmental Psychology.
  Presented at a PSY 220 lecture at Central
  Michigan University.

								
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