Psychology in Action, Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Methods by iht11609

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									Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods

      Testing your knowledge of idioms and other
      vocabulary
How familiar are you with Idioms and other vocabulary? Match each item in column A
with the appropriate meaning given in column B. If you are unsure, look at the sentence
context given below. Remember that words may have different meanings in different
contexts. The meanings given here are appropriate for the contexts from your textbook, but
in different contexts the idioms might have different meanings. Answers are given on page
6.

COLUMN A                                       COLUMN B

a. to move on to                               1. time for relaxing
b. to change the course of                     2. to show the best of oneself; to show the best
                                               parts of oneself
c. on the basis of                             3. to make sure
d. owing to                                    4. based on
e. to take care                                5. to be based on; to depend on
f. to keep in mind                             6. to try to win a particular position in a form of
                                               government
g. to breathe a sigh of relief                 7. because of; due to
h. to set up                                   8. to continue with; to advance to another place
i. to present oneself in a good light          9. to build; to establish
                                               10. to listen and observe other people without
                                               their seeing you
j. to become like a fly on the wall            11. to use in the best way
k. to rely on                                  12. to try to remember
l. to run for                                  13. to alter; to make different
m. a number of                                 14. to feel more relaxed
n. to take advantage of                        15. several
o. down time                                   16. your responsibility
p. to bear in mind
q. it’s up to you




        Sentence context
a. Once psychologists meet the goals of description and explanation (answering the
   “whats” and “whys”), they move on to the higher-level goal of prediction,
   specifying the conditions under which a behavior or event is likely to occur. (p. 7)




Handbook for Non-Native Speakers                                                             -1-
b. It expanded the scope of psychology to include research on emotions and observable
   behaviors, initiated the psychological testing movement, changed the course of
   modern education, and extended psychology’s influence to diverse areas in industry.
   (p. 11)

c. On the basis of these peer reviews, the study may then be accepted for publication.
   (p. 20)

d. This meta-analysis also found that the differences have decreased in recent years,
   possibly owing to changes in educational practices. (p. 20)

e. Although you will learn a great deal about psychological functioning in this text and in
   your psychology class, take care that you don’t overestimate your expertise. (p. 23)

f. We will discuss each approach separately, but keep in mind that most psychologists
   use several methods to study a single problem. (p. 24)

g. For example, an experimenter may breathe a sigh of relief when a participant gives
   a response supporting the researcher’s hypothesis. (p. 28)

h. One technique is to set up objective methods for recording data and enlist “blind
   observers” (neutral people other than the researcher) to collect the data without
   knowing what the researcher has predicted. (p. 28)

i. In addition to problems with initial sampling of participants, bias can also occur when
    participants try to present themselves in a good light (the social desirability
    response) or deliberately attempt to mislead the researcher. (p. 29)

j.   The observer tries to be as unobtrusive as possible, to become, as they say,
     “like a fly on the wall.” (p. 31)

k. In contrast to pseudopsychologies, which rely on self-report, anecdotal evidence, and
   opinions, true psychology bases its findings on scientific research and critical thinking.
   (p. 31)

l. Maria is thinking of running for student body president, but she wonders whether
   her campaign should emphasize campus security, improved parking facilities, or
   increased health services. (p. 38, Check & Review)

m. There are a number of ways to actively read (and remember) information in a text.
   (p. 35)

n. You can be a more successful student (and test taker) if you take full advantage of
   all the special features offered in Psychology in Action. (p. 41)




Handbook for Non-Native Speakers                                                         -2-
o. Also be sure to schedule a reasonable amount of “down time” for sports, movies,
   TV watching, and social activities with friends and family. (p. 43)

p. Also bear in mind that most instructors actually enjoyed lectures during college and
   were trained under this system. (p. 45)

q. But, it’s up to you to discover their office hours and office location. (p. 45)


      Reviewing your knowledge of English grammar
One of the most basic facts to remember about English grammar is that singular verbs
require singular subjects, and plural verbs require plural subjects. This means that almost
all nouns occurring together with plural verb forms require an -s or -es ending.

Compare:

       A psychiatrist studies human behavior.
       (singular noun) (singular verb)

       Psychiatrists study human behavior.
       (plural noun) (plural verb)

Review your knowledge of this basic fact of English grammar by adding -s or -es endings
as needed in the blanks provided below. Note that some of the blanks will require no
ending. When you are finished, you may check your answers in the answer key section.

    Clinical psychologist__ work with mentally ill or emotionally disturbed people
    by doing therapy or counseling. Student__ often wonder about the difference
    between a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist. A psychiatrist__ is a true
    medical doctor who has gone to medical school. In fact, most psychiatrist__ have
    received their M.D. degrees with a specialization in psychiatry. Because of this
    medical training, a psychiatrist__ is licensed to prescribe medication or drugs.
    Clinical psychologist__, on the other hand, have not gone to medical school and
    cannot prescribe drugs. The typical psychologist__ has gone to graduate school
    and has received a Ph.D. degree after intense study of human behavior and
    methods of therapy.




Handbook for Non-Native Speakers                                                        -3-
      Finding key information
One technique that the authors frequently use in this chapter is to compare two terms or
concepts and give you parallel information about each. Study the paragraph in the section
above comparing psychiatrists to clinical psychologists. Notice how the authors give you
parallel information about each type of scientist:

               Clinical Psychiatrist                   Psychologist
               has gone to medical school             has gone to graduate school
               has an M.D. degree                     has a Ph.D.
               can prescribe drugs                    cannot prescribe drugs

Look at the paragraph in your textbook comparing basic and applied research
(p. 17). Study this section; then, fill in the missing information about basic research in the
chart below. When you are finished, you may check your answers in the answer key
section.

               Basic Research                          Applied Research
                                                      is conducted in the real world
                                                       (for example, in industry)
                                                      its purpose is to solve existing
                                                       real-world problems
                                                      it has real world applications
                                                      example: safety and design
                                                       improvements in machinery




Handbook for Non-Native Speakers                                                           -4-
       Examining structural clues
Because it serves as the introduction to the entire book, this chapter contains some
important definitions. In English, definitions can be introduced in a number of different
ways:

    The definition may be contained within parentheses.
     All behavior can be viewed as a response to a stimulus (an object or event, either
     internal or external, that stimulates or causes an organism to respond).

    It may be set off by dashes.
     Some behaviors are overt--easily seen or identified.

    It may be introduced by a relative pronoun.
     Applied research is research THAT utilizes the principles and discoveries
     of psychology to solve real-world problems.

    It may contain the verb BE plus a prepositional phrase.
     A case study IS an in-depth study OF A SINGLE RESEARCH SUBJECT.

Locate 5 definitions in this chapter which you think are particularly important and write
them in the spaces provided below. Study them to see if they follow the patterns listed
above.

1.      ______________________________________________________

        ______________________________________________________

2.      ______________________________________________________

        ______________________________________________________

3.      ______________________________________________________

        ______________________________________________________

4.      ______________________________________________________

        ______________________________________________________

5.      ______________________________________________________

        ______________________________________________________




Handbook for Non-Native Speakers                                                          -5-
         Answer key

    Testing your knowledge of idioms and other vocabulary
a. 8;    b. 13;   c. 4;   d. 7;    e. 3;    f. 12;   g. 14;   h. 9;   i. 2;   j. 10;   k. 5;   l. 6;
m. 15;   n. 11;   o. 1;   p. 12;   q. 16;




    Reviewing your knowledge of English grammar
Clinical psychologists work with mentally ill or emotionally disturbed people by doing
therapy or counseling. Students often wonder about the difference between a psychiatrist
and a clinical psychologist. A psychiatrist is a true medical doctor who has gone to medical
school. In fact, most psychiatrists have received their M.D. degrees with a specialization in
psychiatry. Because of this medical training, a psychiatrist is licensed to prescribe
medication or drugs. Clinical psychologists, on the other hand, have not gone to medical
school and cannot prescribe drugs. The typical psychologist has gone to graduate school
and has received a Ph.D. degree after intense study of human behavior and methods of
therapy.



    Finding key information
Basic research is usually conducted in universities or in research laboratories. Its purpose
is to explore new theories and advance general scientific understanding. It may not have
any real-world applications. An example is research linking aggression to testosterone or
research on general cognitive processes.


    Examining structural clues
Answers will vary.




Handbook for Non-Native Speakers                                                                -6-

								
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