Recycling of PE Plastic Bags in terms of Life

Document Sample
Recycling of PE Plastic Bags in terms of Life Powered By Docstoc
					Life Cycle Assessment IX “toward the global life cycle economy”



             Recycling of PE
       Plastic Bags in terms
                of Life Cycle
             Inventory (LCI)
                                      Boston - 29/sept - 02/oct
                   Guilherme de C. Queiroz & Eloísa E. C. Garcia
                          Packaging Technology Center - CETEA
             PROJECT - CETEA/PLASTIVIDA




OBJECTIVE

The influence of polyethylene recycling rate on
the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of PE plastic bags
in Brazil, considering two different final disposal
situations: mechanical recycling and degradation.

                            Acknowledgment: The authors are
                            grateful to CNPq (The National Council
                            for Scientific and Technological
                            Development) for the fellowship and
                            financial support to present this work in
                            Life Cycle Assessment IX Conference.
                 PROJECT - CETEA/PLASTIVIDA

Representativeness:

 Brazil: base year 2003
 61% ethylene production
 63% LDPE, 78% HDPE/LLDPE e 100% HDPE-HMW production
 4 PE plastic bags companies/technologies
 7 PE mechanical recycling companies/technologies
               Bag type A               Bag type B



                                   4%
       20%                   15%
                                                     HDPE-HMW
                                                     HDPE/LLDPE
                            13%
                                                     LDPE
                                           68%       Imported HDPE

                  80%
  Final Disposal - Degradation




                               Total organic
                               degradation
                             (biodegradation)




1000kg plastic bag –type A
     Mechanical Recycling




1000kg plastic bag – type B
                                                Mechanical Recycling


                                      32%
Reduction on energy consumption (%)



                                                 Hydroelectricity
                                                 Fossil energy (electricity nd combustion)
                                                 Total energy




                                      16%




                                      0%
                                           0%                                  16%           32%
                                                                Type B– recycling rate (%)
                                                             Mechanical Recycling
Reduction on natural resources consumption (%)




                                                 32%
                                                           Water
                                                           Coal
                                                           Natural gas
                                                           Oil
                                                           Uranium

                                                 16%




                                                 0%
                                                      0%                                  16%          32%

                                                                         Type B – recycling rate (%)
                                             Mechanical Recycling


                                 32%
Reduction on air emissions (%)




                                            Acids
                                            Amonia
                                            CO2 - non-renewable
                                            HC
                                            Metals
                                            CH4
                                            CO
                                 16%
                                            SO2
                                            NOx
                                            Particulate




                                 0%
                                       0%                                          16%          32%
                                                                  Type B – recycling rate (%)
                                           Mechanical Recycling


                                 10%
Reduction on air emissions (%)




                                            VOC
                                            CH4 - hydroelectric

                                            N 2O



                                 5%




                                 0%
                                      0%                                  16%          32%
                                                         Type B – recycling rate (%)
                                                        Mechanical Recycling


                                               35%
Reduction/increase on emissions to water (%)




                                               20%                                                              Decrease - all other emissions...

                                                5%
                                                   0%                                 16%                                    32%
                                               -10%
                                                        Acids
                                               -25%     Nitrogen compounds
                                                        Sulphur compounds
                                               -40%
                                                        BOD
                                                                                                                      Increase - only NSS
                                                        COD
                                               -55%
                                                        HC
                                                        Phosphates
                                               -70%
                                                        Metals
                                                        Oil and greases
                                               -85%
                                                        Soluble solids
                                                        Dissolved organic compounds
                                               -100%
                                                        Not soluble solids (NSS)       Type B – recycling rate (%)
                                         Mechanical Recycling


                               32%
                                         Open loop recycling
Reduction on solid waste (%)




                                         Waste to treatment

                                         Idustrial waste

                                         Landfill volume

                                         Littering

                               16%




                               0%
                                    0%                                  16%                 32%
                                                              Type B – recycling rate (%)
                                               Mechanical Recycling

                                                              GWP 100 years
                                    32%
Reduction on carbon footprint (%)




                                    16%




                                    0%
                                          0%                        16%           32%

                                                    Type B – recycling rate (%)
                                   Energy recovery potential

                                                             Energy recovery potential (PE waste)
                                 45000
                                                             Energy recovery with 80% efficiency
Energy - MJ/1000kg plastic bag




                                 40000
                                                             Feedstock - PE recycled
                                 35000

                                 30000

                                 25000

                                 20000

                                 15000

                                 10000

                                 5000

                                     0
                                         0%                16%                      32%
                                              B type – recycling rate (%)
1000kg plastic bag



   - 10 g / bag
   -Packaging and transportation - 500 tonnes of products...




                                =
                        5 kg


                                4 bags = 20 kg products
                             Reuse

- Reusabe bag - 30 g
-at least 3 trips ≅ environmental impact (and it should
be RECYCLABLE at the and of its useful life...)




                            =
                 5 kg
                                        1reusable bag = several trips...
        Sustainable Consumption
      Consumer, Industry, Government

                     Reduction

   Durable:
 not degradable,                  Reuse
 noble use of oil,
 carbon bunker...


Energy recovery                  Recycling


                                  Guilherme de Castilho Queiroz
                                  guilherme@ital.sp.gov.br