SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER by ity85876

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									  SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER
    TECHNOLOGIES ASSESSMENT




                  FINAL REPORT 08-09
                        AUGUST 2008




       NEW YORK STATE
  ENERGY RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is a public benefit
corporation created in 1975 by the New York State Legislature. NYSERDA’s responsibilities include:

•   Conducting a multifaceted energy and environmental research and development program to meet
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    efficiency, and environmental protection program.

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•   Coordinating the State’s activities on energy emergencies and nuclear regulatory matters, and
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•   Financing energy-related projects, reducing costs for ratepayers.

NYSERDA administers the New York Energy $martSM program, which is designed to support certain pub-
lic benefit programs during the transition to a more competitive electricity market. Some 2,700
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NYSERDA derives its basic research revenues from an assessment on the intrastate sales of New York
State’s investor-owned electric and gas utilities, and voluntary annual contributions by the New York Power
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Federally funded, the Energy Efficiency Services program is working with more than 540 businesses,
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For more information, contact the Communications unit, NYSERDA, 17 Columbia Circle, Albany,
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at www.nyserda.org

STATE OF NEW YORK                                      ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
David A. Paterson                                      Vincent A. DeIorio, Esq., Chairman
Governor
               SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER
                TECHNOLOGIES ASSESSMENT
                            Final Report




                          Prepared for the
                    NEW YORK STATE
                  ENERGY RESEARCH AND
                 DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
                            Albany, NY
                          www.nyserda.org

                       Robert M. Carver, P.E.
                         Project Manager


                            Prepared by:
                    BRIGHT POWER, INC.
                           New York, NY

                 Jeffrey Perlman, C.E.M., LEED A.P.
                Andrew McNamara, C.E.M., LEED A.P.
                           Project Managers




NYSERDA                  NYSERDA 10219                August 2008
Report 08-09
                                         NOTICE

This report was prepared by Bright Power, Inc. in the course of performing work
contracted for and sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and Development
Authority (hereafter "NYSERDA"). The opinions expressed in this report do not
necessarily reflect those of NYSERDA or the State of New York, and reference to any
specific product, service, process, or method does not constitute an implied or expressed
recommendation or endorsement of it. Further, NYSERDA, the State of New York, and
the contractor make no warranties or representations, expressed or implied, as to the
fitness for particular purpose or merchantability of any product, apparatus, or service, or
the usefulness, completeness, or accuracy of any processes, methods, or other
information contained, described, disclosed, or referred to in this report. NYSERDA, the
State of New York, and the contractor make no representation that the use of any product,
apparatus, process, method, or other information will not infringe privately owned rights
and will assume no liability for any loss, injury, or damage resulting from, or occurring in
connection with, the use of information contained, described, disclosed, or referred to in
this report.




                                             ii
                                     ABSTRACT AND KEY WORDS

For this paper, the performance of Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems and baseline conventional
Domestic Hot Water (DHW) systems is simulated in thirteen regions of New York State using the
Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) hourly simulation tool. The SDHW design factors considered in
this assessment include collector type (flat plate, evacuated tube, unglazed building-integrated) and tank
configuration (single tank, two tank, external heat exchanger, SDHW tank with instantaneous water heater).
These systems also are analyzed with a variety of auxiliary fuel sources (natural gas, electricity, propane,
and oil).



SDHW system performance is evaluated against conventional DHW system performance in terms of
energy and economics. Metrics used include: energy production, solar fraction, simple payback, net
present value, annual maintenance costs, and annual savings. The economic analysis includes the federal
and New York State tax credits as of 2008.



The results are rendered into color geographical maps of New York State, where the different colors
represent different values of the mapped variable (solar fraction, annual savings, and simple payback) for
the selected system.



Keywords: Solar, Thermal, New York, Energy, TRNSYS, SDHW, DHW




                                                      iii
                                       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, the authors wish to thank four collaborators whose substantial contributions enabled the
research and analysis in this paper: Dr. Richard Perez (Atmospheric Sciences Research Center at SUNY
Albany) for the satellite-derived weather data, initial brainstorming, and ongoing mentoring; Kyle Benne
for the TRNSYS simulations and in-depth knowledge of solar thermal configurations; Mark Beauharnois
for the geographical renderings and web-interface at http://sdhw.brightpower.biz; and Robert Carver
(NYSERDA) for the consistently thoughtful and constructive criticism, which enabled this paper to achieve
a higher level of comprehensiveness and quality. Many individuals and organizations gave their time and
resources to provide information necessary for this assessment; in this regard, the authors wish to thank Jim
Huggins (The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC)), Bill Poleatewich and Katie Poleatewich
(Dawn Solar Systems), Alexandra Wexler (Heliodyne), Larry Waitz (Schüco Solar), Dr. Fariborz Mahjouri
(Thermomax), Frank Proske (Sun Spot Solar), Noah Tuthill (groSolar), Jeff Irish (Hudson Valley Clean
Energy), Ron Kamen (EarthKind Energy), Bob Claridge (Bobcat & Sun Solar), Radco Solar, and the many
installers interviewed as part of the assessment. Many thanks to Greg Sherman, Ruth Ayalon, and Sophie
Nimmannit for their contributions and help in writing this paper.




                                                     iv
                                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section                                                                                                                                                Page
SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................ S-1
     KEY CONCLUSIONS OF THE ASSESSMENT ........................................................................ S-3
SECTION 1. NOMENCLATURE .............................................................................................................. 1-1
SECTION 2. ASSUMPTIONS AND DESIGN FACTORS MODELED IN THE ASSESSMENT........... 2-1
      DESCRIPTION OF MODEL NEW YORK STATE HOME ....................................................... 2-1
      HOT WATER CONSUMPTION.................................................................................................. 2-1
      SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEM DESIGN FACTORS......................................... 2-1
              Design Factors included in the assessment ..................................................................... 2-2
SECTION 3. DESIGN OF SDHW SYSTEMS ........................................................................................... 3-1
      METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................ 3-1
      DEFINITION OF SDHW SYSTEM DESIGNS........................................................................... 3-1
              Collector Types............................................................................................................... 3-1
                          Tank Types ..................................................................................................................... 3-2
                          Fuel Types ...................................................................................................................... 3-3
                          Systems excluded from the assessment........................................................................... 3-3
             DHW BASELINE COMPARISON.............................................................................................. 3-4
SECTION 4. SDHW INSTALLED SYSTEM COSTS............................................................................... 4-1
      METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................ 4-1
              Material Costs ................................................................................................................. 4-1
                          Installation Costs............................................................................................................. 4-2
             RESULTS ..................................................................................................................................... 4-5
             CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................................... 4-6
SECTION 5. SDHW MAINTENANCE COSTS ........................................................................................ 5-1
      METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................ 5-1
              Material Maintenance Costs ........................................................................................... 5-2
                          Labor Maintenance Costs ............................................................................................... 5-3
             RESULTS ..................................................................................................................................... 5-4
             CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................................... 5-4
SECTION 6. MODELED ENERGY PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY SAVINGS ............................... 6-1
      SIMULATION SOFTWARE ....................................................................................................... 6-1
      SOLAR RADIATION DATA FOR NEW YORK STATE .......................................................... 6-1
      TRNSYS MODEL ........................................................................................................................ 6-1
      COLLECTOR MODEL ................................................................................................................ 6-2
      SYSTEM TYPES.......................................................................................................................... 6-2
      TANK ARRANGEMENTS.......................................................................................................... 6-2
      COMPONENTS OF THE TRNSYS MODEL.............................................................................. 6-3
      RESULTS - SIMULATION OUTPUTS ...................................................................................... 6-4
             DHW baseline loads ....................................................................................................... 6-4
                          Comparison of the SDHW Systems - Energy Performance............................................ 6-5
                          Geographical Renderings of Energy Performance.......................................................... 6-7
             ANALYSIS OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE RESULTS ......................................................... 6-12
                  Simulation Result Comparison – TRNSYS vs. RET Screen ........................................ 6-13
             ENERGY PERFORMANCE – CONCLUSION......................................................................... 6-15



                                                                              v
SECTION 7. ECONOMIC BENEFITS AND COSTS OF SDHW SYSTEMS .......................................... 7-1
      LOCAL FUEL COSTS ................................................................................................................. 7-1
      ESTIMATED ECONOMIC BENEFITS ...................................................................................... 7-1
      GEOGRAPHICAL RENDERINGS OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE ........................................ 7-1
      ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS ................................................................................... 7-6
      ECONOMIC BENEFITS - CONCLUSIONS............................................................................... 7-9
SECTION 8. BARRIERS TO THE SDHW INDUSTRY AND STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE SUCCESS
..................................................................................................................................................................... 8-1
              METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................ 8-1
              MARKET OVERVIEW................................................................................................................ 8-1
              SDHW BARRIERS ...................................................................................................................... 8-2
                            System Costs................................................................................................................... 8-2
                            Energy Costs ................................................................................................................... 8-2
                            Financial Incentives ........................................................................................................ 8-2
                            Customer Education and Awareness............................................................................... 8-3
                            Installer Competency ...................................................................................................... 8-4
                            The Author’s Experience ................................................................................................ 8-4
              SDHW STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE SUCCESS....................................................................... 8-5
                    System Costs, Energy Costs, and Financial Incentives................................................... 8-5
                            Customer Education and Awareness............................................................................... 8-6
                            Installer Competency ...................................................................................................... 8-6
SECTION 9. BENEFITS OF A SDHW MARKET TO NEW YORK STATE .......................................... 9-1
BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................................... B-1
APPENDIX 1 – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON DESIGN FACTORS......................................... A1-1
APPENDIX 2 – DEFINITION OF EACH SYSTEM TYPE AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS..... A2-1
APPENDIX 3 – DATA MATRICES OF ESTIMATED ENERGY PERFORMANCE .......................... A3-1
APPENDIX 4 – RESIDENTIAL ENERGY COSTS ............................................................................... A4-1
APPENDIX 5 – ECONOMIC MATRICES ............................................................................................. A5-1




                                                                                   vi
                                                                        FIGURES
Figure                                                                                                                                                    Page
Figure 1. Renderings of Solar Fraction for best performing systems of Each Fuel Type.                                                                      ....S-1
Figure 2. Solar Collector Technologies Analyzed in the Assessment; the technologies pictured are (left-to
right) flat plate, evacuated tube, and building-integrated. ...........................................................................S-1
Figure 3. Effective Cost to Heat Water with Solar, Electricity, and Natural Gas.......................................S-4
Figure 4. Rendering of Simple Payback of best-in-class systems in two tank arrangement co-fired with
natural gas....................................................................................................................................................S-5
Figure 5. “Typical” Family DHW Use (ASHRAE 2003)............................................................................ 2-1
Figure 6. Tank Design x0x - Solar preheat tank + Conventional tank......................................................... 3-2
Figure 7. Tank Design x1x - Solar preheat tank + Instantaneous (tankless) heater..................................... 3-2
Figure 8. Tank Design x2x - Solar preheat tank with External Heat Exchanger + Conventional Tank. ..... 3-3
Figure 9. Tank Design x3x - Conventional Tank with External Heat Exchanger. ...................................... 3-3
Figure 10. Tank Design x4x - Double Heat Exchanger Tank...................................................................... 3-3
Figure 11. Typical Simulation Input (System ID 100). ............................................................................... 6-2
Figure 12. Statewide Renderings of Highest Solar Fraction for each Fuel Type ....................................... 6-8
Figure 13. Statewide Renderings of Highest Solar Fraction for each Technology Type............................ 6-9
Figure 14. Rendering of System with Most Statewide Variability in Solar Fraction ............................... 6-10
Figure 15. Rendering of System with Least Statewide Variability in Solar Fraction............................... 6-10
Figure 16. Renderings of Solar Fraction for all analyzed SDHW Systems ............................................... 6-11
Figure 17. Levelized Residential Cost of Site Energy, in Cents per kBTU................................................. 7-1
Figure 18. Statewide Renderings of Highest Annual Savings for each Fuel Type..................................... 7-2
Figure 19. Statewide Renderings of Shortest Payback Time for each Fuel Type....................................... 7-3
Figure 20. Statewide Renderings of Highest Annual Savings for each Technology Type ......................... 7-4
Figure 21. Statewide Renderings of Shortest Payback Time for each Technology Type .......................... 7-5
Figure 22. Effective Cost to Heat Water with Solar, Electricity, and Natural Gas (hypothetical).............. 9-2
Figure 23. A two heat exchanger solar tank for installation with a heating boiler (Schüco) ................... A1-2
Figure 24. Drainback System "off"……………………………………………………………………A1-4
Figure 25. Drainback System "on"……………………………………………………………………A1-4




                                                                               vii
                                                                            TABLES
Table                                                                                                                                                            Page
Table 1. NPV for single family SDHW systems (New York State Average)..............................................S-3
Table 2. Estimated time to install & maintain a typical SDHW system......................................................S-7
Table 3. Job years created in New York State at various levels of market penetration ...............................S-7
Table 4. System Design Nomenclature. ...................................................................................................... 1-1
Table 5. Collector and System Properties.................................................................................................... 3-2
Table 6. Baseline Systems Modeled in the Assessment .............................................................................. 3-4
Table 7. SDHW Installer Survey Status. ..................................................................................................... 4-1
Table 8. Typical SDHW Material Costs...................................................................................................... 4-2
Table 9. Installer Survey Results: Installation Costs. .................................................................................. 4-2
Table 10. Out-of-State Wage Adjustment Factors....................................................................................... 4-3
Table 11. In-State Wage Adjustment Factors.............................................................................................. 4-3
Table 12. Installation Costs of SDHW Systems in New York State .......................................................... 4-4
Table 13. Estimated Labor Costs Based on Hours of Installation. .............................................................. 4-5
Table 14. Typical SDHW Installed System Costs....................................................................................... 4-6
Table 15. Average Total Installed System Costs in Albany, NY. ............................................................... 4-6
Table 16. System Component Warranty and Life. ...................................................................................... 5-1
Table 17. System Component Replacements Per Year. .............................................................................. 5-2
Table 18. MSRP System Component Costs. ............................................................................................... 5-2
Table 19 . Annual Material Maintenance Costs. ......................................................................................... 5-3
Table 20. Labor Hours / Maintenance Measure. ......................................................................................... 5-3
Table 21. Wage Data. .................................................................................................................................. 5-3
Table 22. Typical Annual Maintenance Costs............................................................................................. 5-4
Table 23. Baseline System Energy Use in Albany. ..................................................................................... 6-4
Table 24. SDHW Annual Energy Performance in Albany .......................................................................... 6-5
Table 25. Annual Solar Fraction of selected SDHW systems for two tank arrangement co-fired with natural
gas................................................................................................................................................................ 6-6
Table 26. Annual Solar Fraction of selected SDHW systems per square foot ............................................ 6-7
Table 27. TRNSYS modeled performance in Albany of systems with common tank and fuel type......... 6-14
Table 28. RETScreen modeled performance in Albany of systems with common tank and fuel type...... 6-15
Table 29. Range of Year 1 Fuel Bill Savings – All Locations, All Systems except 33x, 53x, 7xx ............. 7-6
Table 30. Range of Simple Payback – All Locations, All Systems except 33x, 53x, 7xx........................... 7-6
Table 31. NPV for single family SDHW systems (New York State Average), ......................................... 7-7
Table 32. SDHW Annual Economic Performance in Albany ..................................................................... 7-7
Table 33. Annual Fuel Bill Savings of selected SDHW systems for two tank arrangement co-fired with
natural gas ................................................................................................................................................... 7-8
Table 34. Annual Fuel Bill Savings per square foot of selected SDHW systems for two tank arrangement
co-fired with natural gas.............................................................................................................................. 7-8
Table 35. Simple Payback of selected SDHW systems for two tank arrangement co-fired with natural gas...
..................................................................................................................................................................... 7-9
Table 36. Estimated time to install & maintain a typical SDHW system ................................................... 9-1
Table 37. Job years created in New York State at various levels of market penetration ............................. 9-1
Table 38. SRCC OG-300 certified Drainback systems ............................................................................ A1-5
Table 39. Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for the Assessment .......................................................... A2-1
Table 40. Residential Cost of Energy ....................................................................................................... A4-1




                                                                                  viii
                                                               SUMMARY


Solar thermal technologies convert the sun's radiation into useful heat. In building applications, this heat is
commonly used to produce domestic hot water. New York State's climate is not customarily thought to be
very suitable for solar thermal applications. However, recent statistics (2006 EIA market data) show that
New York State was ranked fifth in the nation as a destination to which solar thermal collectors were
shipped – the equivalent of 24,000 twenty-five square foot collectors arrived in the State. This level of
activity is likely explained by
the fact that New York State
has solar energy tax credits and
high energy prices which favor
renewable technologies. In
light of these facts, the New
                                                          Natural Gas         Electric
York State Energy Research                                Flat Plate (110)    Flat Plate (101)
and Development Authority
(NYSERDA) put forth a
                                     Solar Fraction (%)




competitive solicitation (won
by Bright Power) to identify
the most promising
                                                          Propane             Oil
applications for residential
                                                          Flat Plate (102)    Evac. Tube (243)
solar domestic hot water
                                     Figure 1. Renderings of Solar Fraction for best performing systems
systems.
                                     of Each Fuel Type. (Maps for all systems analyzed are available at
                                                       http://sdhw.brightpower.biz)
In 2001, a total of 2 billion kWh
of electricity, 76 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 295 million gallons of fuel oil were used to heat water
in New York households. Water heating accounted for 18% of New York State household energy
consumption (Energy Information Administration, 2007). The vast majority of the energy currently used to




 Figure 2. Solar Collector Technologies Analyzed in the Assessment; the technologies pictured are
 (left-to right) flat plate, evacuated tube, and building-integrated
heat water in homes is derived from fossil fuels, either by burning them directly or by using electricity (in
New York State, electricity itself is derived in majority from burning fossil fuels). It is possible for a Solar
Domesitc Hot Water (SDHW) system to provide over half of the energy needed for water heating in a



                                                                    S-1
typical New York State home with adequate access to sunlight. Thus, this technology has the potential to
substantially reduce dependence on fossil fuels, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other
harmful results of fossil fuel use.


The research described herein will help to identify the most promising solar DHW technologies across
different regions of New York State. As Figure 2 indicates, this assessment analyzes three collector types:
flat plate, evacuated tube, and building integrated. The systems analyzed in this assessment are systems
available on the market today and are based on systems designed by manufacturers and installers.
Manufacturers and installers were asked to provide the most cost-effective SDHW system design possible –
including solar collectors, tanks, a backup heating source, piping, and pumps. Every system analyzed is
capable of providing reliable heated water to a typical family of four in New York State.


A primary component of the evaluation is computer simulations of SDHW systems based on a variety of
design factors. The simulations were run in Transient Systems Simulation (TRNSYS) – a powerful energy
simulation tool based on hourly computational routines. City-specific, satellite-based climatalogical data
for thirteen locations around New York State were used in the simulations to evaluate SDHW system
performance across the State.


The simulation results were rendered into color geographical maps of New York State, where the different
colors represent different values of the mapped variable (See Figure 1). An example of a mapped variable
is “Simple Payback.” As seen in Figure 4, each rendering encompasses many of the physical and economic
factors that help to determine the viability of a particular technology, including: solar irradiance, system
performance, energy prices, installed cost, and tax credits. These color geographical plots enable easy
comparison of the different systems, according to different parameters, in different regions of the State.
These maps are available at http://sdhw.brightpower.biz.


By analyzing these maps, one is able to determine the viability of each of the SDHW systems across the
State. Furthermore, the maps themselves are compelling images that should be comprehensible to people
throughout New York State. This publicly available data could serve as a tool in targeting those areas in
New York State, most suitable for a particular SDHW technology.


An assessment of possible market, institutional and infrastructure barriers that limit widespread replication
of the SDHW systems was also conducted. This assessment is followed by a discussion of potential
strategies for overcoming these barriers. Finally, the benefits of a robust SDHW market, including job
creation and fossil fuel use reduction are explored.




                                                       S-2
KEY CONCLUSIONS OF THE ASSESSMENT

For a typical home in New York State, a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system is capable of
providing over half of the energy needed to heat water. In the most favorable locations – New York City
and Long Island – certain SDHW systems are capable of providing nearly three-quarters of household
water heating energy for a typical family. The percentage of water heating energy provided by solar
energy is known as “Solar Fraction”; the solar fraction of a given technology type varies primarily with the
amount of solar radiation available at a given location. Computer simulations show the following range of
solar fractions in Islip, Long Island: 50%-70% for flat plate technologies, 52%-71% for evacuated tube
systems, and 34% for building integrated systems. Jamestown, New York was the least efficient in terms
of solar fraction; computer simulations show the following range of solar fractions in Jamestown: 41%-
59% for flat plate, 43%-59% for evacuated tube, and 30% for building integrated.



Installed costs, or the cost of all materials and labor necessary to install a functioning solar domestic hot
water system, were estimated by polling installers across the State; for all systems across the State, installed
cost ranged from approximately $9,000 to $15,100. After applying relevant federal and State tax credits,
the range of installed costs was approximately $4,700 to $9,300. Maintenance costs, including all
component replacements during system life, were estimated for each system, depending on which
components were included. The range of estimated maintenance costs was $40-$140 annually.



              Table 1. NPV for single family SDHW systems (New York State Average) 1, 2

SDHW Tech:                   Flat Plate                 Evacuated Tube               Building Integrated
Backup Fuel          Best-in-class Average           Best-in-class  Average         Best-in-class Average
Natural Gas                 (2,211)     (2,935)            ($2,901) ($3,377)            ($5,198)       N/A
Electric                      2,580         720              $1,892     $901                  $36      N/A
Propane                         657       (570)               ($67)   ($449)            ($2,158)       N/A
Oil                         (1,921)         N/A            ($2,297) ($2,554)                  N/A      N/A


One key conclusion of this assessment is that current government incentives are insufficient to bring the
cost of SDHW technology to a level that most consumers would consider cost effective. Consumers using
electricity or propane for water heating, who have a tolerance for long-term investments, may find some
systems to be attractive investments. Most homeowners, however, use natural gas to heat water in New



1
  The averages in this table are based upon the twenty-eight system types analyzed in this assessment. The
table excludes sub-optimal tank types x31 and x32. “N/A” is used for categories when only one relevant
system was analyzed.
2
  Fuel costs used in the analysis are city-specific and current to 2007. Average prices are as follows: $1.27
/ therm natural gas, $0.138 / kWh electricity, $4.04 / gallon propane, and $2.56/gallon oil, See SECTION 7
and APPENDIX 4 for additional information.


                                                      S-3
York State. None of the twenty-eight systems analyzed (System ID 100 3 ) had a positive Net Present Value
when compared against a conventional gas-fired hot water tank 4 . Unless additional incentives are
provided, solar domestic hot water technology is not likely to be an attractive economic investment to the
average homeowner. Table 1 presents information on Net Present Value for SDHW Systems across the
State.



Currently, high system costs and relatively low energy costs combine to make the economics of solar hot
water systems less attractive than they could be. While energy costs have escalated rapidly since 2000, and
are projected to increase in the coming years, higher energy costs alone will not drive the SDHW industry.
Natural gas prices would need to reach roughly three dollars per therm before the majority of today’s
SDHW systems would achieve price parity with conventional natural gas water heating. Unlike the
successful markets in Hawaii, California, or even Germany, SDHW technology has yet to obtain a solid
foothold in New York State and SDHW installation costs remain high. Manufacturers, distributors, and
installers are limited in their ability to reduce costs due to volume constraints.
          Effective Cost to Heat Water




                                                                                                 Electricity
                                                                                                 Natural Gas
                                                                                                 SDHW




                                         2007 Sales   Volum e of SDHW Sales




                         Figure 3. Effective Cost to Heat Water with Solar, Electricity, and Natural Gas 5




3
  See Table 5. Collector and System Properties
4
  Net Present Value was calculated with a discount rate of 4.38% corresponding to a 20-year U.S. Treasury
Bill as of January 2008, assumed an energy escalation rate of 3%, was exclusive of maintenance cost, and
taken over a time horizon equal to twice the warrantee period of the collectors. For all collectors except
building integrated (50 year time horizon), the time horizon was 20 years.
5
  This figure is hypothetical and is not to scale.


                                                                       S-4
Consumers are apt to choose the lowest cost option for water heating, which is presently conventional
natural gas water heating. An appropriately sized incentive could change this picture, by making the
effective cost to heat water with an SDHW system less than that of natural gas. Subsequently, this would
grow demand for the technology, which should allow economies of scale to reduce prices. This idea is
presented graphically in Figure 3. Incentive levels could be tapered as the price of SDHW technology
decreases.


According to this analysis, “flat plate” technology is the most cost-effective collector technology. This is
true across all metrics. A flat-plate collector system (System ID 101, for specifications see Table 5 in the
body of the report) installed in New York City with electric resistance backup heating, yielded a simple
payback net of tax credits of 8 to 19 years and Net Present Value (NPV) of negative $400 to positive
$6,400 over the course of system life4. The expense of electricity as a heating fuel can make these systems
a smart investment when compared against the baseline of treasury bills. Best-in-class evacuated tube
technology did not lag far behind in either payback or NPV as is shown in Figure 4.



A solar supplied pre-heat
tank coupled with an
                                   Payback (years)




instantaneous water heater
(System ID 101) appears to
be the optimal tank
configuration, as seen in                            Flat Plate (100)             Evac. Tube (200)
Figure 1. Systems using
electricity as the auxiliary
                                             Figure 4. Rendering of Simple Payback of best-in-class systems in
fuel source realize the highest
                                             two tank arrangement co-fired with natural gas
solar fraction; systems using
instantaeous gas-fired backup water heaters realize a solar fraction that is nearly as high as the electric
systems, yet cost a fraction of the amount to operate. The instantaneous configuration is optimal because
the pre-heat tank is able to maintain thermal stratification, and the instantaneous water heater provides the
remaining heat on-demand, without standby losses.



There is significant variability in system performance within a technology type. Payback time ranged by
about 20 years between the best-in-class and worst-in-class performers for both flat plate and evacuated
tube technologies. This indicates that consumers should shop around to obtain a system that is well
designed for their home. The best performing systems used cost-effective collectors, thermally optimal tank
configurations (with stratification), and were designed to meet 100% of the average summer load. The
worst performing systems analyzed in this assessment were either undersized or had sub-optimal tank




                                                             S-5
configurations. Such non-optimal tank configurations include those in which an external heat exchanger is
directly attached to a conventional natural gas or propane hot water heater.



New York City appears to be the most favorable market in New York State for SDHW, due to relatively
high energy costs and levels of solar irradiation. For systems with natural gas providing backup heat, the
simple payback against a conventional natural gas tank baseline is 24-43 years for flat plate systems, 28-42
years for evacuated tube systems, and 78 years for building integrated systems. The low natural gas costs
and lack of solar resource make Binghamton the least favorable market in the State with a simple payback
of 37-67 years for flat plate, 42-55 years for evacuated tube, and 123 years for building integrated systems
with natural gas fired backup.



Financial incentives would help to bolster the New York State SDHW industry by bringing SDHW
technology within reach of cost-conscious homeowners and businesses. A financial incentive would
improve the economics of a SDHW system by reducing the payback period and easing the financial burden
for interested customers. The NYSERDA-funded solar PV Incentive program has been successful at
bolstering the solar photovoltaic (PV) market throughout New York State. A similar incentive program
could cultivate the market for SDHW technology in the State. The results of this assessment could be used
to craft an incentive policy that would create a positive NPV for SDHW systems backed up with natural
gas water heating. According to this analysis, an additional incentive of $2,000 per system would
accomplish this. A second issue is reducing the payback time – the best-in-class flat plate system has a
simple payback of 31 years for an average location in New York State. Each $150 - $200 in incentives
would reduce the payback by 1 year; therefore, to achieve a payback within the typical warantee period of
10 years, an incentive of roughly $4,000 per system would be required. This incentive would be in addition
to the federal and State tax credits available in 2008.



The benefits of a robust SDHW market to New York State include an increase in jobs and a reduction in
non-renewable energy use. Assuming that 1.2 million households 6 in New York State will be able to
reduce their fossil fuel consumption for DHW by 50% by using SDHW systems, this would yield energy
savings of 171 million kWh of electricity, 6.5 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 25 million gallons of
fuel oil annually 7 . Furthermore, a blossoming SDHW industry would create jobs. Estimates of hours per


6
  With the portfolio of technologies outlined in the analysis, any home with a sufficient section of unshaded
and unobstructed south-facing roof should be able to use the evaluated technologies. As of 2001, there
were approximately 7 million households in New York State (EIA data). Assuming that half of these are
single family homes, and that one-third of those homes have sufficiently well-oriented, unshaded roof
space, this suggests about 1.2 million households in New York State that would be able to directly use the
results of this research.
7
  Based on 2001 water heating data referenced earlier, assuming the proportional distribution of electricity,
gas and oil fired water heating as in the 2001 EIA data.


                                                      S-6
system are provided in Table 2 below. Contracting and back office work is excluded from job growth
figures, although such job growth may be substantial.



                   Table 2. Estimated time to install & maintain a typical SDHW system

                           Labor Type                                         hours
                           Plumbing                                           30
                           SDHW Tech – install collectors on roof             90
                           SDHW Tech – maintain over life of system           25


Given the estimates in Table 2, estimated jobs created at different SDHW market penetration levels are
shown in Table 3 below.



          Table 3. Job years created in New York State at various levels of market penetration6, 8
                      Market Penetration Level:              0.1%        0.5%       2.5%
                      Systems Installed                      1167        5833      29167
                        Plumbing                                18          88       438
                        SDHW Tech - install                     53        263       1313
                        SDHW Tech - maintain                    15          73       365
                        TOTAL                                   92        458       2290


Even at relatively low levels of market penetration, a significant number of new jobs would be created by
the proliferation of SDHW systems across the State. This would involve a combination of a new “green
collar” workforce of SDHW Techs as well as an expansion of the existing trades of plumbing and
contracting.




8
    Percentages given are of homes eligible to receive installations in New York State.


                                                      S-7
                                                 SECTION 1
                                             NOMENCLATURE
Each Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system design in this paper is referred to by a three digit number.
The first digit or “hundreds” place refers to the collector type, the second digit or “tens” place refers to the
tank type, and the third digit or “ones” place refers to the auxiliary fuel type. This nomenclature is defined
in Table 4 below.



                                   Table 4. System Design Nomenclature

 DIGIT                 HUNDREDS                                      TENS                            ONES

                    COLLECTOR TYPE                                TANK TYPE                     FUEL TYPE
                                                    Solar preheat tank + 40 gal (151 L)
0        Baseline                                                                              Natural Gas
                                                    Conventional Tank
                                                    Solar preheat tank +
1        Flat Plate Model “A” - 3 Collectors                                                   Electric
                                                    Instantaneous (tankless) heater
                                                    Solar preheat tank with External
         Evacuated Tube Model “A” –
2                                                   Heat Exchanger + 40 gal (151 L)            Propane
         24 Evacuated Tubes
                                                    Conventional Tank
         Evacuated Tube Model “B” –                 80 gal (303 L) Conventional Tank
3                                                                                              Oil
         24 Evacuated Tubes                         with External Heat Exchanger
4        N/A                                        Double Heat Exchanger Tank

5        Flat Plate Model “B” - 2 Collectors
         Evacuated Tube Model “C” –
6
         24 Evacuated Tubes
         600 Square Feet
7
         Building Integrated Collector (56 m2)

For example, the Flat Plate Model “A” collector system with double heat exchanger tank and fueled by an
oil boiler would have a System ID of 143.




                                                      1-1
                                               SECTION 2
          ASSUMPTIONS AND DESIGN FACTORS MODELED IN THE ASSESSMENT


DESCRIPTION OF MODEL NEW YORK STATE HOME
Systems were designed for a typical New York State single family home with the following characteristics:
four occupants; basement and attic; two stories tall; sloped roof pitched at 30 degrees towards south; and
heating and hot water systems located in basement. Into this home are the following variables:


    ƒ    Heating system: separate from DHW system (e.g. furnace) or integrated with DHW
         system (e.g. boiler)
    ƒ    Solar energy storage in one and/or two tank arrangements


The energy consumption of the whole house is not simulated, rather only the SDHW systems and energy
usage related to hot water consumption is simulated.




HOT WATER CONSUMPTION
It was assumed that the hourly DHW usage in the household conforms to the ASHRAE typical family’s
usage, as shown in Figure 5:




                        Figure 5. “Typical” Family DHW Use (ASHRAE 2003)




SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEM DESIGN FACTORS
Complete system designs were developed for the twenty-eight SDHW systems modeled in the assessment
based on the Design Factors below 9 .


9
 To determine design factors, a survey of literature relevant to the solar domestic hot water industry was
conducted. This included conference proceedings from the American Solar Energy Society (2003 to


                                                    2-1
Design Factors included in the assessment


             x     Collector types
                     o    Flat Plate Glazed Collectors
                     o    Evacuated Tube
                     o    Building Integrated/Unglazed
             x     Tank Types
                     o    One tank
                                ƒ    Electric element in the SDHW tank for auxiliary heating
                                ƒ    Two heat exchangers, the upper one fed by a conventional
                                     boiler
                                ƒ    External Heat Exchanger
                     o    Two tank: one solar preheat, one conventional, where the auxiliary tank
                          is
                                ƒ    Conventional tank hot water heater
                                ƒ    Instantaneous (tankless) hot water heater
                                ƒ    External Heat Exchanger
             x     Fuel types
                     o    Electricity
                     o    Natural Gas
                     o    Fuel Oil
                     o    Propane


For additional information on design factors, see APPENDIX 1.




present) as well as the 2005 International Solar Energy Conference proceedings from the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers. Manufacturers producing the technologies analyzed in the assessment and those
who install SDHW systems in New York State were also consulted.



                                                     2-2
                                                 SECTION 3
                                      DESIGN OF SDHW SYSTEMS




METHODOLOGY
To define the system types, system designs were solicited from manufacturers, requesting that they submit
designs they consider to be the most cost-effective solar domestic hot water systems for the typical New
York State home. Each manufacturer was asked to submit as many unique system designs as met for the
criteria established in SECTION 2. Several manufacturers submitted different designs to account for
different collector and tank types offered within their product line.


The system designs that follow were chosen by manufacturers as those most cost-effective for the typical
New York State home outlined above. Not every system is designed to be the same size; rather, some
manufacturers suggested that a smaller solar fraction was more desirable as the system would be less
expensive to install.


A total of six collector types, five tank designs, and four backup fuel types are presented in this section.
There are 120 potenial combinations of these collectors, tanks, and fuels; only the twenty-eight
combinations recommended by manufacturers are analyzed in the assessment.


DEFINITION OF SDHW SYSTEM DESIGNS


The systems analyzed have variations in solar collector type, tank type & arrangement, and fuel type. A
three digit number is assigned to each analyzed system to designate which collector, tank, and fuel
comprise an analyzed system (see SECTION 1 – Nomenclature). A full listing of the parameters of each
system type are available in APPENDIX 2 in Table 39.


Collector Types


The collector types analyzed include: Flat Plate Glazed Collectors (Flat A, Flat B), Evacuated Tube (Evac
A, Evac B, Evac C), and Building Integrated/Unglazed (Bldg Int), as shown in Table 5. All collectors are
OG-100 certified by the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC).




                                                      3-1
                                     Table 5. Collector and System Properties

                        System                                                       Collector              Tank
                                     Delta T          Delta T        Pumping                                            Tank 1   Tank 1
System    Collector       Net                                                          Low                  High
                                      (off)            (on)            Rate                                             Volume   Volume
  ID       Type         Aperture                                                      Limit                 Limit
                                      (ºF)             (ºF)           (GPM)                                              (gal)     (L)
                          (ft2)                                                        (ºF)                  (ºF)
1xx       Flat A           69.1             12                 8              1.5              N/A                170      105      398
2xx       Evac A           58.4           13.5               5.5              1.5              N/A                175      105      398
3xx       Evac B           58.7           13.5               5.5              1.5              N/A                175       80      303
5xx       Flat B           49.4             18                 5              1.5               80                160       80      303
6xx       Evac C          40.4             15                  7              2.5              N/A                175      120      454
7xx       Bldg Int.       600.0             12               N/A              2.5              N/A                N/A       80      303


      Tank Types
      The systems analyzed include both one and two tank arrangements, as well as instantaneous heaters, as
      shown in Figure 6 through Figure 10.


                                                                                              hot water to load
                                               solar            controller
                                               thermal              C
                                               collectors
                                                                                            conv. tank
                                                                                            (gas,
                                                                                            electric, or
                                                                                            propane)



                                      antifreeze
                                      fluid        Storage
                                                   Tank       internal heat
                                                              exchanger        cold water
                                                                               from mains


                            Figure 6. Tank Design x0x - Solar preheat tank + Conventional tank
                                                                                              hot water to load
                                               solar            controller
                                               thermal              C
                                               collectors

                                                                                            instantaneous
                                                                                            water heater
                                                                                            (natural gas)



                                      antifreeze
                                      fluid        Storage
                                                   Tank       internal heat
                                                              exchanger        cold water
                                                                               from mains

                      Figure 7. Tank Design x1x - Solar preheat tank + Instantaneous (tankless) heater




                                                               3-2
                                                                                                                 hot water to load
                                          solar                 controller
                                          thermal                       C
                                          collectors
                                                                                                              conv. tank
                                                                                                              (gas,
                                                                                                              electric, or
                                                                                                              propane)




                                   antifreeze                external heat
                                   fluid                     exchanger             Storage cold water
                                                                                   Tank    from mains


                Figure 8. Tank Design x2x - Solar preheat tank with External Heat Exchanger +
                                              Conventional Tank
                                                                                             hot water to load
                                          solar                 controller
                                          thermal                       C
                                          collectors
                                                                                   conv. tank
                                                                                   (gas,
                                                                                   electric, or
                                                                                   propane)




                                   antifreeze                external heat
                                   fluid                     exchanger             Storage cold water
                                                                                   Tank    from mains

                Figure 9. Tank Design x3x - Conventional Tank with External Heat Exchanger

                                                                                             hot water to load
                                                solar
                                                thermal           controller   C
                                                collectors

                                                                                                  internal
                                                                                                  heat
                                                                                                  exchanger
                                      antifreeze
                                      fluid


                                               boiler
                                            (oil- or gas-                                  cold water
                                               fired)                                      from mains
                                                                               Storage
                                                               boiler          Tank
                                                               water


                           Figure 10. Tank Design x4x - Double Heat Exchanger Tank


Fuel Types
The four fuel types analyzed – natural gas (xx0), electricity (xx1), propane (xx2), and oil (xx3) – account
for nearly all of the DHW fuel in the State.


Systems excluded from the assessment
The analysis of every type of system type on the market is outside the scope of this assessment. Most
notably, drainback, thermosiphon, and integrated collector storage (ICS) systems were excluded from the
assessment. ICS and thermosiphon designs were excluded because they are generally intended for warmer
climates and did not meet the freeze protection requirements of New York State. Drainback systems are
likewise largely distributed in the warm climate regions of the United States in the form of kits sold directly
to homeowners. While many drainback systems did not meet the criteria for freeze protection defined in



                                                                  3-3
APPENDIX 1-F, there were two manufacturers systems that met the criteria, and system designs were
solicited from them. Despite repeated requests for information, they were unable to provide system designs
for New York State within the required timeframe to be included in this report.




DHW BASELINE COMPARISON
Baseline systems are common conventional water heating systems to which SDHW performance is
compared. Each SDHW system has a corresponding conventional hot water heating system baseline. Each
baseline system has a tank volume and fuel type identical to that of the auxiliary tank in the associated
SDHW system. In the assessment, it is assumed that all heating appliances were installed according to
manufacturer’s instructions with no additional insulation.


Each SDHW system’s performance is compared to the baseline system of the same auxiliary fuel type and
tank arrangement. For example, there are three baseline systems fueled by natural gas; a solar hot water
system with conventional natural gas backup tanks will be compared to system 000-40 or 000-80, and solar
hot water systems with an instantaneous water heater will be compared to system 010. A full listing of
baseline systems is shown in Table 6.



                         Table 6. Baseline Systems Modeled in the Assessment

               System ID                          Baseline Description
                                 a conventional gas fired water heater - 40 gallon (0.544
            000-40/80            EF) or 80 gallon (0.468 EF)
                                 a conventional electric resistance water heater – 40 gal.
            001-40/80/120        (0.877 EF), 80 gal (0.824 EF), or 120 gal (0.772 EF)
                                 a conventional propane fired water heater - 40 gallon
            002-40/80            (0.544 EF) or 80 gallon (0.468 EF)

            010                  a gas fired instantaneous heater. 0.81 EF
                                 a conventional indirect hot water tank with a single lower
                                 heat exchanger fueled by an oil boiler. 80 gallon (R-12.5
            043-80/105           insulated or 105 gallon (R-12.5 insulated)

A wide variety of collector types, tank types, and fuel types prevalent in New York State are represented in
this report. The flat plate, evacuated tube and unglazed/building-integrated systems included in this
assessment provide representation of the current collector market in the State. Similarly, the tank and fuel
types included in the assessment provide good representation of the market. While modeling every
combination of collector with every tank and fuel type is beyond the scope of the assessment, this
assessment covers SDHW systems applicable to the dominant existing Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system
types found in New York State.




                                                     3-4
                                                 SECTION 4
                                  SDHW INSTALLED SYSTEM COSTS


In this section, the SDHW installed system costs were estimated for each system design developed in
SECTION 3 at each of the thirteen New York State locations.




METHODOLOGY
Total installed system costs (labor, materials, overhead, and profit) of each of the SDHW system designs
were estimated by surveying SDHW installers. The status of installers surveyed in the assessment is shown
in Table 7.



                                  Table 7. SDHW Installer Survey Status


System                Active NYS       Additional Out-Of-          Unreachable /               Successfully
Technology            Installers       State Installers            Inactive / Unwilling        Surveyed
Flat A                4                0                           0                           4
Flat B                4                0                           1                           4
Evac A / Evac B       5                0                           2                           4
Evac C                1                2                           3                           3
Bldg. Int.            0                4                           0                           4

For calculation purposes, the installed system costs determined in the survey were then divided into two
sub-costs: material costs and installation costs. Since installer interviews are the primary source for cost
data; the costs presented in this section include any markups that installers may have made. Thus, overhead
costs and profit are not analyzed separately, but are a part of both material and installation costs.




Material Costs
Material costs associated with the installation of each of the SDHW system designs were provided by the
manufacturer or distributor. Costs include all system components as defined in SECTION 3. The
manufacturers suggested retail price (MSRP) was used to compare costs across SDHW system
technologies. For system quotes that do not include the cost of materials for the solar loop (copper piping,
pipe fittings, pipe insulation), $500 was added to the quote, based on manufacturer and installer estimates.
For systems in which the pre-existing conventional hot water heater (gas, electric, propane, or
instantaneous) is capable of being incorporated into the solar hot water system, the material costs for the
conventional hot water heater was not included in total system cost. However, every system considered in




                                                      4-1
this assessment has at least one tank (either pre-heat or single tank) that is considered a part of the materials
cost for the system.

                                  Table 8. Typical SDHW Material Costs

                        System                                  Typical Materials
                        Technology             Sys ID           Cost 10
                        Flat A                 1xx              $5,684
                        Flat B                 5xx              $4,953
                        Evac A                 2xx              $5,441
                        Evac B                 3xx              $5,759
                        Evac C                 6xx              $5,950
                        Bldg. Int.             7xx              $9,000


Installation Costs
Installation costs are considered to be a combination of labor, overhead, and profit, but exclude the cost of
materials. Installation cost estimates were calculated by subtracting the materials costs (MSRP) shown in
Table 8 from the total installed system cost estimates – this data is presented in Table 9. Since materials
cost can differ depending on the installer-manufacturer relationship, MSRP was used in order to normalize
for these variations.



                          Table 9 11 . Installer Survey Results: Installation Costs.

                                         Installation
                                            Cost          Primary Location of           Installation
             Installer Name               Estimate            Installations                Volume
       Flat A Installer 1                $3,616           Long Island                 50 / year
       Flat A Installer 2                $4,316           Long Island                 4 total
       Flat A Installer 3                $6,316           New York City               3 total
       Flat A Installer 4                $5,316           New York City               8 / year

       Flat B Installer 1                $5,539           Binghamton                  4 total
       Flat B Installer 2                $5,047           Albany                      90 / year

       Flat B Installer 3                $3,047           Plattsburgh                 1 total

       Flat B Installer 4                $8,547           New York City               15-20 total

       Evac A / Evac B Installer 1       $3,559           Binghamton                  1
       Evac A / Evac B Installer 2       $3,459           Rochester                   2
       Evac A / Evac B Installer 3       $5,559           Albany                      1

10
   Differences in tank configuration account for variations in cost of $150-$200 that are not reflected in this
table. See APPENDIX 5 for a full display of material costs.
11
   NOTE: Table 9 is comprehensive neither in terms of SDHW installers nor cumulative installations.


                                                      4-2
       Evac A / Evac B Installer 4       $9,559           New York                   8


                                                          Philadelphia County,       Unwilling to
       Evac C Installer 1                $2,050           PA                         Share
       Evac C Installer 2                $2,550           District of Columbia       75
       Evac C Installer 3                $9,050           New York City              3

       Bldg. Int. Installer 1            $3,046           Windsor County, VT         2
       Bldg. Int. Installer 2            $4,181           Essex County, MA           1
       Bldg. Int. Installer 3            $9,883           Fulton County, GA          8
       Bldg. Int. Installer 4            $6,281           Ocean County, NJ           3

For certain system types, the surveys did not provide sufficient data to estimate installation costs due to the
limited number of active installers in New York State. For Evacuated Tube Manufacturer C (Evac. C) and
the Building Integrated (Bldg. Int.) Manufacturer, installers outside of New York were surveyed. Using
annual wage data from the US Department of Labor Statistics12 and the NYS Department of Labor 13 Wage
Adjustment Factors were developed and are visible in Table 10 and Table 11.



                             Table 10. Out-of-State Wage Adjustment Factors
                                                   District
Location:            NY          Philadelphia      of             Essex      Ocean       Windsor      Fulton
County / State       State       / PA              Columbia       / MA       / NJ        / VT         / GA
Wage
Adjustment
Factor (WAF)         1.00        1.09              1.18           1.08       0.96        0.98         1.05


                                Table 11. In-State Wage Adjustment Factors
 Location        NY State       Albany    Binghamton        Buffalo        Elmira         Islip     Jamestown
 Wage
 Adjustment
 Factor
 (WAF)                1.00        0.97            0.71            0.96          0.71      1.04               0.96

 Location        Massena        NYC       Plattsburgh       Rochester      Syracuse       Utica     Watertown
 Wage
 Adjustment
 Factor
 (WAF)                0.85        1.03            0.85            0.97          0.90      0.93             0.85




12
   “Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,” U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/outside.jsp?survey=en
13
    The Wage Adjustment Factors listed in Table 11 were derived from a weighted average consisting of
25% plumber and 75% plumber helper. “Capital District Workforce and Industry Data,” New York State
Department of Labor, http://www.labor.state.ny.us/workforceindustrydata/index.asp?reg=cap


                                                     4-3
Each installer interviewed provided quotes at a particular location (L1), which may have been within or
outside of New York State; estimated costs at each other location in New York State (L2) were derived
according to Equation 1.



                Equation 1. Installation Cost at L2 = (L2 WAF) x (Installation Cost at L1)
                                                      (L1 WAF)

For example, a Wage Adjustment Factor of 1.09 (Philadelphia) indicates that labor costs in Philadelphia are
9% higher than the New York State average. It also indicates that they are 12% higher than in Albany,
since Albany has a WAF equal to 0.97. If labor costs from a quote in Philadelphia were $5,000, the
estimated labor cost in Albany would be calculated as shown in this example.



    Estimated Installation Cost in Albany = ( Albany WAF ) x (Installation Cost in Philadelphia)
                                             (Philadelphia WAF)



Based on conversations with manufacturers, distributors, and contractors, it appears that installation costs
remain stable across system designs within a particular technology. One Flat A installer, for example, was
not able to provide differentiated installation costs for a two-tank (single heat exchanger) system versus a
single tank (double heat exchanger) design. One Flat B installer simply rates system installations as
“easy”, “medium”, and “hard”. Since installation costs vary for so many reasons, installers seem to provide
quotes based on site-specific conditions more so than variations in system design. As such, installation
costs presented in Table 12 are uniform within each collector manufacturer for a given location (for full
results, see APPENDIX 5).


                   Table 12. Installation Costs of SDHW Systems in New York State
     Location        Flat A         Flat B        Evac A         Evac B        Evac C        Bldg Int.
     Albany             $4,593         $6,044       $5,729         $5,729        $4,163         $5,688

     Binghamton            $3,357      $4,417         $4,187        $4,187         $3,042        $4,157
     Buffalo               $4,541      $5,975         $5,663        $5,663         $4,115        $5,623
     Elmira                $3,357      $4,417         $4,187        $4,187         $3,042        $4,157
     Islip                 $4,932      $6,490         $6,151        $6,151         $4,470        $6,107
     Jamestown             $4,541      $5,975         $5,663        $5,663         $4,115        $5,623
     Massena               $4,023      $5,293         $5,017        $5,017         $3,646        $4,981
     NYC                   $4,864      $6,400         $6,066        $6,066         $4,408        $6,023
     Plattsburgh           $4,023      $5,293         $5,017        $5,017         $3,646        $4,981
     Rochester             $4,594      $6,045         $5,729        $5,729         $4,164        $5,689
     Syracuse              $4,242      $5,582         $5,290        $5,290         $3,845        $5,253
     Utica                 $4,380      $5,763         $5,462        $5,462         $3,969        $5,424
     Watertown             $4,023      $5,293         $5,017        $5,017         $3,646        $4,981


                                                     4-4
In order to validate the calculated installation costs, an estimate for the number of hours was created as a
means of checking the labor costs. A rigorous analysis of the number of hours required to install a solar
domestic hot water system is outside the scope of this assessment. However, 30 hours for a plumber and 90
hours for a plumber helper is used as an assumption. The hourly wage data is from the NYS Department of
Labor and is based on 2,000 hour work year.



                    Table 13. Estimated Labor Costs Based on Hours of Installation
                                                            Hourly
                                           Hourly                             Total
                                                            Wage,
                         Location          Wage,                              Labor
                                                           Plumber
                                          Plumber                             Cost
                                                            Helper
                          Albany             $24             $15             $2,050
                        Binghamton           $25              $8             $1,498
                          Buffalo            $26             $14             $2,027
                           Elmira            $25              $8             $1,498
                            Islip            $31             $14             $2,201
                        Jamestown            $26             $14             $2,027
                         Massena             $24             $12             $1,796
                            NYC              $29             $14             $2,171
                        Plattsburgh          $24             $12             $1,796
                         Rochester           $25             $14             $2,051
                         Syracuse            $21             $14             $1,893
                           Utica             $22             $14             $1,955
                        Watertown            $24             $12             $1,796

The resulting difference between the values calculated in Table 12 and Table 13 can be assumed to
represent overhead costs and profits taken by the installer.




RESULTS
The total installed system costs for each system at each of the thirteen locations in New York State were
calculated by adding the materials costs, presented in Table 8 to the installation costs presented in Table 12.
These values are exclusive of state and federal tax credits. Typical Installed System Costs are presented in
Table 14. The prices for systems with external heat exchangers (x3x) or double heat exchanger tanks (x4x)
are somewhat different. A full display of system costs is available in APPENDIX 5.




                                                     4-5
                              Table 14. Typical SDHW Installed System Costs
                                                                                          Bldg
             Location        Flat A      Flat B      Evac A       Evac B      Evac C      Int.
             Albany          $10,277     $10,997     $11,170      $11,488     $10,997     $14,688
             Binghamton       $9,041       $9,370     $9,628       $9,946      $9,370     $13,157
             Buffalo         $10,225     $10,928     $11,104      $11,422     $10,928     $14,623
             Elmira           $9,041       $9,370     $9,628       $9,946      $9,370     $13,157
             Islip           $10,616     $11,443     $11,592      $11,910     $11,443     $15,107
             Jamestown       $10,225     $10,928     $11,104      $11,422     $10,928     $14,623
             Massena          $9,707     $10,246     $10,458      $10,776     $10,246     $13,981
             NYC             $10,548     $11,353     $11,507      $11,825     $11,353     $15,023
             Plattsburgh      $9,707     $10,246     $10,458      $10,776     $10,246     $13,981
             Rochester       $10,278     $10,998     $11,170      $11,488     $10,998     $14,689
             Syracuse         $9,926     $10,535     $10,731      $11,049     $10,535     $14,253
             Utica           $10,064     $10,716     $10,903      $11,221     $10,716     $14,424
             Watertown        $9,707     $10,246     $10,458      $10,776     $10,246     $13,981




CONCLUSIONS

                       Table 15. Average Total Installed System Costs in Albany, NY
                                                              Flat       Evacuated     Building
                                                             Plate         Tube       Integrated
              Average Total Installed System Costs          $10,612        $10,818       $14,688
              Standard Deviation of quotes by
              collector type                                   15%            26%            20%
              % Premium above Flat Plate                        0%             2%            38%

While the systems analyzed are not all of the same collector capacity, it appears that Flat Plate and
Evacuated Tube systems are roughly the same cost. Albany is a relatively average location in terms of cost
(the Wage Adjustment Factor is closest to 1.0 of any location) and is therefore used as a basis for
comparison. In Albany, Flat Plate systems range from $8,353 to $12,945 14 with a Standard Deviation of
15% amongst the quotes of 8 installers surveyed. Evacuated tube technology ranges in cost from $7,785 to
$14,64514 with a Standard Deviation of 26% amongst the quotes of 7 installers surveyed. Initial results
indicate that across technology type and installer type, flat plate collectors are more uniform in terms of
installed cost.


Based on the above data, building integrated SDHW systems appear to have the highest fully installed cost
of any system. These higher costs are due mostly to their expensive, but durable stainless steel tank
specification. This tank comes with an exceptional warrantee of 25 years, which matches the warrantee
length of the entire Building Integrated system.


14
     Numbers are adjusted for local labor rates according to Table 11.


                                                      4-6
Due to the small number of active SDHW installers in New York State, the installation costs presented
above can be considered estimates only. A total of nineteen installers were surveyed. Installers varied in
size and activity, ranging from one installation per year to 50 installations per year. Installation companies
with a well-developed infrastructure had more precise cost structures and lower installed system costs.
Some manufacturers and installers use a rule of thumb to estimate that installation cost equals the materials
cost. Looking at the data collected, it appears that this crude methodology is relatively accurate.


It is clear that the SDHW installation market is still under development in New York. Generally speaking,
solar installers operating in New York choose to focus their energies on solar PV installations rather than
SDHW installations due to customer demand and larger contract sizes. Most New York State solar thermal
installers have limited experience and cannot provide costs and labor hours with the level of detail and
accuracy desired for this SDHW technologies assessment. Costs vary for many reasons and in some areas,
SDHW installation is not even offered. Further detail and analysis are presented in SECTION 8: Market,
Institutional, and Infrastructure Barriers.


Despite the limited pool of data available, the data presented is a means of estimating typical installed
system costs for a SDHW system throughout New York State. In combination with system performance
data in SECTION 7, this data will enable a comparison of the economic benefits and costs of each SDHW
system design at each of the thirteen locations in New York State.




                                                     4-7
                                                          SECTION 5
                                               SDHW MAINTENANCE COSTS
         In this section, costs associated with the maintenance of SDHW systems during their useful life were
         estimated. The objective was to develop a matrix for maintenance costs for each SDHW system design.




         METHODOLOGY
         System manuals and installer surveys often suggested that the only SDHW maintenance costs were
         associated with replacing and recharging the heat transfer fluid 15 . In order to more accurately reflect the
         costs of owning a system, maintenance costs were estimated based on projected component life for the
         solar collectors, tank, circulator pump, heat exchanger, and heat transfer fluid. A system is assumed to be
         retired when the longest lasting piece of equipment fails. For this assessment, the solar collectors
         determine the lifespan of solar hot water systems. Component life was estimated by doubling the
         manufacturer’s warranty. Heat transfer fluid is not under warranty; therefore, it was given a useful life of
         eight years, based on manufacturer and installer surveys.

                                        Table 16. System Component Warranty and Life
                                                                                                                           Heat
                                                             Heat                                           Heat
                System         Tank           Pump                         System      Tank     Pump                     Transfer
Manufacturer                                               Exchanger                                      Exchanger
                Warranty      Warranty       Warranty                       Life       Life      Life                      Fluid
                                                            Warranty                                         Life
                                                                                                                           Life
Flat A              10              5            2                            20         10         4                        8
Evac A&B            10              6            2               5            20         12         4           10           8
Flat B              10              5            2               5            20         10         4           10           8
Evac C              10              6            2                            20         12         4                        8
Bldg. Int.          25             25            2                            50         50         4                        8

         Next, the number of yearly component replacements over the course of the system life was determined.
         Table 17 was calculated as follows:
               Equation 2. Component Replacements = Component replacements during System Life
                                Year                       System Life (years)

         When using this formula, component replacement at system retirement was not included because the
         system is at the end of its useful life, and the component does not need to be replaced.




         15
           Other suggested “no-cost” maintenance measures included visual inspection of the collectors and tank,
         pump and control hardware to verify structural integrity and operation, checking collector flow rates and
         solar tank/panel temperatures, and checking supply and return pipes to collector for physical damage to
         insulation and weather shielding. This is not representative of the true maintenance costs for operating a
         SDHW system. Many of the installers in New York State have less than five years of experience installing
         SDHW systems and have little experience estimating on-going maintenance costs. Systems installed by
         relative newcomers to the field have not been operating long enough to accurately represent maintenance
         costs.


                                                               5-1
         Flat B, for example, has a system life of 20 years and the tank life of 10 years. Therefore, the tank would
         be replaced at 10 years, for a total of 1 replacement in 20 years, or 0.05 replacements per year. With an
         assumed Pump Life of 4 years, the pump would be replaced at 4, 8, 12, and 16 years, for a total of 4
         replacements in 20 years, or 0.20 replacements per year.

                                   Table 17. System Component Replacements Per Year
                     Manufacturer          Tank    Pump     Heat Exchanger        Heat Transfer Fluid
                     Flat A                 0.05     0.2                 0                         0.1
                     Evac A /
                     Evac B                0.05       0.2                  0.05                       0.1
                     Flat B                0.05       0.2                  0.05                       0.1
                     Evac C                0.05       0.2                     0                       0.1
                     Bldg. Int.               0       0.2                     0                       0.1


         The multipliers calculated in Table 17 are used to determine the annual maintenance costs for each system
         design. The maintenance costs presented in this section have been divided into material maintenance costs
         and labor maintenance costs.




         Material Maintenance Costs
         In order to calculate the annual material maintenance costs, the MSRP system component costs were
         identified. These are presented in Table 18; “HX” refers to the number of heat exchangers in a given tank.

                                           Table 18. MSRP System Component Costs

                  Tank -        Tank -             Tank - 0HX            Tank -       External                  Heat Transfer
                   1HX           2HX                (Preheat)         Conventional      HX          Pump            Fluid
Flat A             $1,540         $1,700                                                              $100               $150
Flat B                                                      $759              $600        $300        $100               $150
EvacA/             $1,350          $1,550                                     $600        $300        $100               $150
Evac B
Evac C             $1,000                                                                             $100              $150
Bldg. Int.         $2,125                                                                             $100              $150


         The system component costs were multiplied by the values in Table 17. The annual material maintenance
         costs are presented in Table 7.




                                                                5-2
                             Table 19 . Annual Material Maintenance Costs

                       System                                  Typical Material
                       Technology             Sys ID           Maintenance Cost 16
                       Flat A                 1xx              $112
                       Flat B                 5xx              $88
                       Evac A                 2xx              $103
                       Evac B                 3xx              $103
                       Evac C                 6xx              $85
                       Bldg. Int.             7xx              $35



Labor Maintenance Costs
RS Means was used to estimate the labor hours required to perform the maintenance measures. Labor
hours were multiplied by a factor of 0.25 for a plumber and 0.75 for a plumber helper.

                             Table 20. Labor Hours / Maintenance Measure
                                                                                         Heat
                                                                External Heat
                            Tank               Pump                                    Transfer
                                                                 Exchanger
                         Replacement        Replacement                                  Fluid
                                                                Replacement
                                                                                     Replacement
 Plumber                            1.25            0.5825                  0.625               0
 Plumber Helper                     3.75            1.7475                  1.875               4

Next, labor hours were multiplied by the hourly annual wage data for each of the thirteen locations,
provided by the NYS Department of Labor 17 (assuming 2,000 hours of annual work).

                                            Table 21. Wage Data
 Location      Albany         Binghamton       Buffalo         Elmira        Islip          Jamestown         Massena
                  $24.15           $24.93         $26.01          $24.93         $30.90         $26.01          $23.81
 Plumber
 Helper            $14.73             $8.34         $13.85          $8.34        $14.16           $13.85        $12.02

 Location      NYC            Plattsburg       Rochester       Syracuse      Utica          Watertown
 Plumber         $29.17             $23.81        $25.14          $20.73        $21.88          $23.81
 Helper          $14.40             $12.02        $14.41          $14.13        $14.43          $12.02


The resulting labor cost for each measure was then multiplied by the values presented in Table 17 to arrive
at labor cost. Maintenance measures associated with each system design were added together to arrive at a



16
   Differences in tank configuration account for variations that are not reflected in this table. System ID
numbers x43 cost an estimated $120/yr and x3x systems $50/yr to maintain. See APPENDIX 5, for full
display of costs.
17
   “Prevailing Wage Rates for 07/01/2007 – 06/30/2008,” New York State Department of Labor,
http://wpp.labor.state.ny.us/wpp/viewPrevailingWageSchedule.do?county=87 (April 1, 2008)


                                                     5-3
final labor maintenance cost. Depending on location and system type, these numbers ranged from
approximately $9 - $19 annually. The full results are presented in APPENDIX 5.


RESULTS
Table 22 presents the annual maintenance costs for each system design at each of the thirteen locations in
New York State. There is additonal variation in cost than what is presented here, as certain tank
configurations cost more to maintain. The range of estimated maintenance costs for these systems is $44 -
$139. See APPENDIX 5 for a full display of maintenance costs for each system at each location.

                              Table 22. Typical Annual Maintenance Costs
 Location        Flat A         Flat B         Evac A        Evac B        Evac C        Bldg Int.
 Albany               $130           $106          $121          $121          $103            $49
 Binghamton           $124           $100          $115          $115           $97            $44
 Buffalo              $130           $106          $120          $120          $103            $48
 Elmira               $124           $100          $115          $115           $97            $44
 Islip                $131           $107          $121          $121          $104            $49
 Jamestown            $130           $106          $120          $120          $103            $48
 Massena              $128           $103          $118          $118          $101            $47
 NYC                  $131           $107          $121          $121          $104            $49
 Plattsburgh          $128           $103          $118          $118          $101            $47
 Rochester            $130           $106          $120          $120          $103            $49
 Syracuse             $129           $105          $119          $119          $102            $48
 Utica                $129           $105          $120          $120          $102            $48
 Watertown            $128           $103          $118          $118          $101            $47


CONCLUSIONS
Generally speaking, evacuated tube and flat plate systems have similar maintenance costs. The main
differences in maintenance costs are:


         1.   The building integrated systems cost less to maintain due to the long tank life – half
              the annual amount according this analysis.
         2.   The external heat exchanger systems tend to cost less to maintain, since the
              replacement cost of the external heat exchanger/tank arrangement is lower than the
              internal heat exchanger tanks.
         3.   Maintenance costs are dominated by materials costs; labor costs are secondary
              according to these estimates.


Actual labor for maintenance may be higher as contractors markup the cost of labor. Since a market for
maintaining SDHW systems is not currently established, we have elected to show labor rates “at cost” to a
company maintaining an SDHW system.




                                                     5-4
                                               SECTION 6
                 MODELED ENERGY PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY SAVINGS

SIMULATION SOFTWARE


The primary software tool used to estimate the energy performance of the assessed solar thermal
technologies was TRNSYS version 16. The hourly simulation routines of TRNSYS and a wide-ranging
component library aided in the creation accurate and verifiable models of each system to be tested in a
time-efficient manner. The modular nature of TRNSYS lent flexibility to the modeling process, and
facilitated the addition to the program of mathematical models not included in the standard TRNSYS
library. This is best exemplified by the inclusion of custom weather files and custom tank profiles.
Additionally, there is a great body of knowledge about how to model solar systems in TRNSYS, due to its
use by research institutions across the world for modeling solar energy systems. In addition to TRNSYS,
RET Screen simulation software results were generated for each collector type at one location. This is a
much simpler program, giving an order of magnitude estimate of solar production. It was used to gauge
whether the TRNSYS results were reasonable.



SOLAR RADIATION DATA FOR NEW YORK STATE


The climatological irradiance data used as an input to the simulations consist of TMY-2 data (NREL,
1994) which have been adjusted to account for the high-resolution spatial distribution of solar resource
derived from geostationary satellites which have recently been incorporated in the updated National Solar
Radiation Data Base (Wilcox, S. et al., 2007). The time series generator (Perez, 2000) was used to process
original TMY-2 data by adjusting each month’s clearness index to reflect the recent satellite observations.
The same procedure was also used to extrapolate TMY-2 data at any nearby locations. This methodology
was used to generate updated TMY data at the original seven TMY-2 locations -- Albany, Binghamton,
Buffalo, Massena, New York, Rochester and Syracuse -- and to generate extrapolated TMY data for Islip,
Elmira, Plattsburgh, Jamestown, Watertown and Utica.


TRNSYS MODEL


Specifically, in this assessment, all components were modeled using the standard TRNSYS and TESS
libraries (TESS, 2007). Annual simulations were performed using a one-hour time step. The
climatalogical data set was created in TMY2 format using the aforementioned methodology.




                                                    6-1
                          Figure 11. Typical Simulation Input (System ID 100)


COLLECTOR MODEL
The collector model used for flat plate, evacuated tube, and building integrated collectors was the Generic
Type 1. This Type uses the quadratic curve of collector efficiency as a function of temperature difference
between the collector and the environment and three user-specified coefficients of the function that control
the performance of the collector. Performance data were taken from SRCC ratings and collectors were
arranged in series.


SYSTEM TYPES
These pumped, closed-loop systems uses the TRNSYS pump model with a controller to turn the pump on
and off and used TRNSYS tank models that included heat exchanger(s).


TANK ARRANGEMENTS
The three tank arrangements were modeled as follows:
    1.   Single tank arrangements (x3x, x4x) were modeled as one TRNSYS tank with two heat
         exchangers. From an energy perspective, this simulation treats as equals solar tanks with two heat
         exchangers (e.g., top and bottom of tank) and solar tanks with an upper electric element and one
         heat exchanger (e.g., bottom of tank).




                                                    6-2
     2.   Two tank arrangements (x0x, x2x) used a TRNSYS tank with single heat exchanger to model a
          single heat exchanger solar pre-heat tank and used a TRNSYS gas or electric heated primary tank
          downstream from the solar pre-heat tank.
     3.   Solar tank plus instantaneous hot water heater models (x1x) used a TRNSYS tank with a single
          heat exchanger to model single heat exchanger solar pre-heat tank and used a TRNSYS
          instantaneous DHW type to model auxiliary heater.


COMPONENTS OF THE TRNSYS MODEL
The forcing function (Type 14) was used to prescribe the hot water draw profile, per ASHRAE (see Figure
5). The TMY2 Reader (Type15) provided weather-related inputs to the solar collectors, including the
mains water temperature model, which was used to determine the temperature of the cold water source
(TESS, 2007). Detailed Thermal Storage, (Type 60) is the model for all tanks modeled in the assessment –
including solar, electric, gas-fired, oil-fired, and propane-fired. The modeled parameters were changed to
account for each tank type.


The Fluid Pump (Type3) model was used to simulate the circulation pumps of the SDHW systems. This
component models the pumping power using a simple polynomial relationship between power and mass
flow rate. In this study all pumps were based on a typical pump using 90 watts of power at a peak flow rate
of 9.5 GPM (0.59 l/s). A linear relationship was used to predict the pumping power used at part load 18 .


The Differential Controller (Type2) used was a simple on/off controller, programmed to turn on when the
differential temperature between the collectors and storage tank rose above a specified setpoint and turn off
when the differential temperature became sufficiently small. The setpoint at which the controller turns on
and off varied by the manufacturer’s recommendations and can be seen in APPENDIX 2.


Inlet pipe (TYPE 31) and outlet pipe (TYPE 31) lengths were based on typical residential construction of
15 ft (4.6 m) of indoor pipe and 10 ft (3 m) of outdoor pipe. This was modeled to account for heat losses in
fluid transmission between the storage tank and solar collector. The pipe was modeled as 1 inch (2.54 cm)
in diameter with 1 inch (2.54 cm) of polyethylene insulation.




18
  A cubic or squared relationship would have been more accurate in predicting pumping power, but due to
limited information from the manufacturers, and the relatively minor role of pumping energy in the energy
balance of the SDHW systems, a linear relationship was used. An interesting follow up to this study would
be to model pumping energy more precisely.


                                                     6-3
RESULTS - SIMULATION OUTPUTS



DHW baseline loads
Simulation results show that the baseline load varies depending on system type. As noted above, each
baseline system corresponds to one or more SDHW systems – baseline systems are created to match the
auxiliary tank designs of the SDHW systems.


All results are presented in “site” energy usage. Since electric resistance tanks have higher levels of
insulation according to ASHRAE minimums, electric tanks are more efficient with site energy than the
natural gas, propane, and oil tanks. The gas instantaneous heater is the second most efficient system, due to
its low level of radiative heat loss.


The lower levels of energy usage by the electric tanks allow SDHW systems using electric backup to
achieve higher levels of solar fraction than systems backed up by other fuel types.


The baseline systems were simulated at each of the 13 locations across New York State. For each given
baseline system, the difference in energy usage across locales is due to the difference in “Mains Water
Temperature” as simulated in TRNSYS. The energy use by each baseline system (E_aux) at each location
is presented in APPENDIX 5. The consumption of each baseline system in Albany – a relatively average
location in the State in terms of baseline water consumption – is presented below in Table 23.

                              Table 23. Baseline System Energy Use in Albany
                                                         Energy
                                            System        Usage
                                              ID         (kBTU)
                                           000-40          24,466
                                           000-80          27,416
                                           001-40          16,147
                                           001-80          16,928
                                           001-120         17,709
                                           002-40          24,466
                                           002-80          27,416
                                           010             17,613
                                           043-105         19,926
                                           043-80          20,520

It is worth noting that the 043-80 gallon tank uses more energy than the 043-105 gallon tank; this is the
only instance in which a smaller tank uses more energy than a larger tank of the same class. This curiosity
was investigated and has basis in physical reality. The main factor appears to be the geometry of the tanks:
the particular 043-105 gallon tank studied has a surface area that is only slightly larger than the 043-80
gallon tank. The larger volume of the 105 gallon tank and the larger surface area of the heat exchanger


                                                     6-4
inside the 105 gallon tank allow for a greater difference in temperature across the heating coil and thus
more efficient heat transfer into the tank. Also, for this assessment, the hot water draw profile is identical
for both tanks.




Comparison of the SDHW Systems - Energy Performance
Simulation results of the SDHW Systems are presented in this section. Table 24 shows the annual
performance of all analyzed systems in Albany, a relatively average location in the state in terms of solar
radiation and temperature. The following are definitions of the variables listed in the table:
    ƒ    E_aux represents the auxiliary energy used to heat domestic hot water in addition to solar energy.
         E_aux was calculated by the energy model and is exclusive of pumping energy (analyzed
         separately).
    ƒ    E_disp represents the amount of energy displaced by the SDHW system – e.g., the amount of
         energy contributed to the tank from solar energy. E_disp was calculated by taking the difference
         between SDHW E_aux and Baseline E_aux. E_disp is exclusive of pumping energy.
    ƒ    Solar Fraction (SF) is calculated as E_disp divided by baseline E_aux. Pump Energy is excluded
         from the SF calculation because electricity uses a variable amount of “source energy” at the power
         plant depending on fuel source, which varies across the State.
    ƒ    Pump Energy is based on modeled pump runtimes, and the associated electric consumption (kWh)
         is included as a cost in the economic analysis of each SDHW system.

                        Table 24. SDHW Annual Energy Performance in Albany

                                      E_aux       Pump Energy (kBTU)            E_disp
          Collector      Sys ID      (kBTU)        Solar     Boiler             (kBTU)         SF
                          100          8668         382         0                15798        65%
                          101          4007         380         0                12140        75%
              Flat A




                          102          8668         382         0                15798        65%
                          110          4517         380         0                13096        74%
                          143          7560         348         55               12312        62%
                          200          8950         453         0                15517        63%
              Evac A




                          201          4069         453         0                12077        75%
                          202          8950         453         0                15517        63%
                          243          7270         413         53               13198        64%
                          300         10415         359         0                14051        57%
                          301          5033         359         0                11113        69%
                          302         10415         359         0                14051        57%
              Evac B




                          310          5706         359         0                11907        68%
                          330         19784         930         0                 7632        28%
                          331          7789         626         0                 9140        54%
                          332         19784         930         0                 7632        28%



                                                      6-5
                                     E_aux     Pump Energy (kBTU)            E_disp
         Collector       Sys ID     (kBTU)      Solar     Boiler             (kBTU)      SF
                          343         8170       376         59               12292     60%
                          520        13430       630         0                11036     45%
                          521         7587       630         0                8559      53%
              Flat B      522        13430       630         0                11036     45%
                          530        20995       776         0                6421      23%
                          531         7818       626         0                9110      54%
                          532        20995       776         0                6421      23%
                          610         7888       392         0                9725      55%
            Evac
             C




                          641         8295       340         0                9414      53%
                          700        16464       201         0                8002      33%
              Bldg Int




                          701         9778       211         0                6369      39%
                          702        16464       201         0                8002      33%

Table 25 shows the performance of two-tank, natural gas fired systems at all simulated locations. When
x00 systems were not offered by the manufacturer, the next most relevant system was included or the
results were extrapolated – see note below Table 25.



 Table 25. Annual Solar Fraction of selected SDHW systems for two tank arrangement co-fired with
                                             natural gas
                         Location         System identification Number
                                       100 200 300 520 600 19 700
                         Albany        65% 63% 57% 45% 47% 33%
                         Binghamton    60% 59% 52% 41% 42% 30%
                         Buffalo       61% 60% 54% 43% 44% 31%
                         Elmira        62% 61% 54% 42% 43% 30%
                         Islip         71% 70% 64% 50% 52% 34%
                         Jamestown     59% 59% 52% 41% 43% 30%
                         Massena       60% 59% 53% 41% 43% 31%
                         New York      69% 67% 61% 48% 50% 33%
                         City
                         Plattsburgh   62%     61%         56%   44%   46%    31%
                         Rochester     61%     61%         54%   43%   45%    32%
                         Syracuse      61%     59%         54%   42%   44%    32%
                         Utica         60%     59%         53%   42%   43%    31%
                         Watertown     61%     60%         54%   43%   44%    32%
                         NYS           62%     61%         55%   43%   45%    32%
                         Average
                                                       *

19
   The 600 system is not offered by the manufacturer. For purposes of levelized comparison in this table,
Solar Fraction of system 600 was estimated by the following equation:
Equation 3. SF600 = SF300 * SF610 / SF310


                                                   6-6
              Table 26. Annual Solar Fraction of selected SDHW systems per square foot
   Location                                       System identification Number
                            100          200         300         520          19                700
                                                                           600
   Albany                  3.1%         3.5%        3.2%        3.0%       3.8%                0.18%
   Binghamton              2.8%         3.3%        2.9%        2.7%       3.4%                0.16%
   Buffalo                 2.9%         3.4%        3.0%        2.9%       3.6%                0.17%
   Elmira                  2.9%         3.4%        3.0%        2.8%       3.5%                0.16%
   Islip                   3.4%         3.9%        3.6%        3.3%       4.2%                0.19%
   Jamestown               2.8%         3.3%        2.9%        2.7%       3.5%                0.16%
   Massena                 2.8%         3.3%        3.0%        2.7%       3.5%                0.17%
   New York City           3.3%         3.8%        3.4%        3.2%       4.1%                0.18%
   Plattsburgh             2.9%         3.4%        3.1%        2.9%       3.7%                0.17%
   Rochester               2.9%         3.4%        3.0%        2.9%       3.7%                0.17%
   Syracuse                2.9%         3.3%        3.0%        2.8%       3.6%                0.17%
   Utica                   2.8%         3.3%        3.0%        2.8%       3.5%                0.17%
   Watertown               2.9%         3.4%        3.0%        2.9%       3.6%                0.17%
   NYS Average             2.9%         3.4%        3.1%        2.9%       3.7%                0.17%


Table 26 displays the annual solar fraction divided by the net aperture area, providing a metric for
efficiency of collection. The building integrated system shows the lowest performance of 0.16 – 0.19% per
ft2, flat plate systems (100, 520) range from 2.8%-3.4% per ft2 while evacuated tube systems (200, 300,
600*) show 3.4%-4.2% per ft2. Of the two flat-plate systems, system 100 has roughly 50% more collector
area than system 520, yet they show very similar performance on an area normalized basis. Evacuated tube
systems appear to be the most efficient at collecting solar radiation. Not surprisingly, the 600 ft2 building
integrated system draws in roughly 5% of the solar radiation per unit area, but compensates for this
inefficiency by spreading out across the entire roof.



Geographical Renderings of Energy Performance
On the following pages are selected statewide geographical renderings of system performance in terms of
solar fraction. A full display of simulation outputs is located at http://sdhw.brightpower.biz. Matrices of
the results can be seen in APPENDIX 3.




                                                        6-7
In Figure 12, the best performing system for each fuel type is displayed. The first row (left to right)
displays the best performing SDHW system with natural gas fired backup (System ID 110) and with
electric backup (System ID 101). The second row (left to right) displays the best performing SDHW
system with propane fired backup (System ID 102) and with oil backup (System ID 243). The first three
systems displayed are Flat Plate Model “A” and the other is Evacuated Tube Model “A”.




            Figure 12. Statewide Renderings of Highest Solar Fraction for each Fuel Type




                                                     6-8
In Figure 13, the best performing system for each technology type is displayed. The tank type and fuel type
are held constant in these plots; systems with the most common tank arrangement (solar preheat tank with
conventional backup tank) and fuel type (natural gas) are displayed. The first row (left to right) displays
the best performing Flat Plate system (System ID 100), and the best performing Evacuated Tube system
(System ID 200). The second row displays the only building integrated system analyzed in the assessment
(System ID 700).




                                                                                                     20
         Figure 13. Statewide Renderings of Highest Solar Fraction for each Technology Type




20
     For two tank systems co-fired with natural gas backup


                                                     6-9
In Figure 14 and Figure 15, renderings of the systems with the most and least variability in system
performance across the state are displayed. Systems 110 and 143 (Flat Plate Mode “A”) displayed the most
variability, and Systems 700 and 702 (Building Integrated) displayed the least variability across the State.




           Figure 14. Rendering of System with Most Statewide Variability in Solar Fraction 21




           Figure 15. Rendering of System with Least Statewide Variability in Solar Fraction 22



21
     Equal range of variability as System ID 110, pictured previously
22
     Equal range of variability as System ID 700, pictured previously


                                                     6-10
In Figure 16, geographical renderings of the solar fraction of all analyzed systems are presented in
thumbnail format. Full size renderings are available at http://sdhw.brightpower.biz.




               Figure 16. Renderings of Solar Fraction for all analyzed SDHW Systems




                                                    6-11
ANALYSIS OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE RESULTS


Immediately visible on viewing Table 25 and the geographical renderings in Figure 12 through Figure 16
is that climate is an important factor in determining the solar fraction achieved by any system. The coastal
areas of New York City and Long Island (Islip) outperform Western and Northern New York areas by 9-
12% nominal, while Albany and the Hudson Valley fall between the two extremes.


A solar supplied pre-heat tank coupled with an instantaneous water heater appears to be the optimal tank
configuration (see Figure 12). Systems using electricity as the auxiliary fuel source (xx1) realize the
highest solar fraction 23 . Systems using instantaeous gas-fired backup water heaters realize a solar fraction
that is nearly as high as the electric systems, yet would cost a fraction of the amount to operate. The
instantaneous configuration is optimal because the pre-heat tank is able to maintain thermal stratification
and the instantaneous water heater provides the remaining heat on-demand, without standby losses.


For a common fuel type, the flat plate systems analyzed in this assessment display the highest solar
fraction, edging evacuated tube systems by a few percentage points in terms of solar fraction. Evacuated
tubes are customarily thought to be more efficient, and this discrepency is likely due to the Flat Plate Model
“A” system being more appropriately sized for New York State by the manufacturer. Building integrated
systems display less than half the solar fraction of the other technologies, but are warranteed for over twice
as long, allowing the system additional years of solar collection.


Systems 1xx and 5xx are both flat-plate collectors, but 5xx exhibits much lower solar fraction. This can be
attributed to a larger net aperture (collector area) as shown in Table 5. System 520 has a 28.5% smaller
collector aperture and 30.4% lower solar fraction than system 100. Systems 6xx similarly realize lower
solar fractions than the other evacuated tube systems 2xx and 3xx, However, system 600 (see Table 25)
has a 31% smaller aperture and a 24% lower solar fraction when compared to system 200, and only a 15%
lower solar fraction when compared to system 300.


Single tank external heat exchanger systems (x3x) vary according to the fuel source beyond the
aforementioned nominal 10% difference. Tank configurations x30 and x32 realize some of the lowest
performance in Table 24 and Figure 16, while x31 systems perform relatively higher. For example, 531
outperforms 530 and 532 by 54% vs. 23% Solar Fraction, or thirty-one nominal percentage points. There is
a physical explanation for this. In systems 530 and 532, the position of the natural gas or propane heating


23
  This is not surprising, because these simulations results are presented in terms of site energy usage – if
the analysis were instead performed in terms of “source” energy usage, the electric systems (xx1) would
instead be the worst performers in the chart. By this metric, electric systems typically outperform other
fuel sources by roughly 10 nominal percentage points, while in fact these systems are usually the most
expensive to operate.


                                                    6-12
element at the bottom of the tank is in close proximity to the heat exchanger carrying the solar heated
antifreeze solution. Since the lower portion of the tank is already heated by natural gas or propane, there is
a lower difference in temperature between the heat exchanger and the tank water, allowing much less heat
transfer. On the other hand, the electric element in system 532 is located in the upper area of the tank. This
allows thermal stratification across the vertical dimension of the tank. This thermal stratification in the
tank leaves the lower portion of the tank at a much lower temperature, allowing for good heat exchange
between the solar fluid and the tank water.


If an external heat exchanger system is to be used with a conventional natural gas or propane tank, it is
clear that a two tank arrangement is preferable. This is visible by comparing the performance of 530 and
520. The thermal stratification of the preheat tank in this arrangement allows for good heat transfer in the
solar preheat tank, before that water is transferred to the second tank (see Figure 8 for tank diagram).


If an external heat exchanger is to be used with a conventional electric tank, it appears that for the system
size simulated in this assessment, consolidatation into a single tank arrangement does not harm system
performance. This is visible by comparing systems 531 and 521. Again, this is because the electric
element is generally located near the top of the tank, which keeps the bottom of the tank relatively cold and
allows heat exchange between the hot solar fluid and the cold tank water.


The Building Integrated/Unglazed SDHW systems (7xx) demonstrate less variability in solar fraction
across the state, perhaps because they are well insulated by the roof (See Figure 15). These systems have a
nominal range of 4.9% in solar fraction across the State. The Flat Plate Model “A” system with oil-fired
boiler backup displays the greatest variabiity across the state, with a nominal range of 13.3% in solar
fraction across the State. Flat plate and evacuated tube systems exhibit a much greater spread in solar
fraction, indicating that building integrated systems may be particularly well suited for cold climates. It is
worth noting that the unglazed building-integrated collectors show the lowest performance in solar fraction
but have the longest system life, which allows savings to accrue over a longer period.


Also, note that the 3xx and 2xx evacuated tube systems are from the same manufacturer. The manufacturer
touted 3xx system as the better performer, but these “premium” tubes underperformed the less expensive
2xx in this climate region.




Simulation Result Comparison – TRNSYS vs. RETScreen
In order to roughly check the results of the TRNSYS simulations, a more simple analysis was performed in
Renewable Energy Tecnology Screen (RETScreen), a software product developed by the United Nations,
the Canadian Government, and others for “pre-feasibility” analysis. As described on the RETScreen




                                                     6-13
website 24 : “The RETScreen International Clean Energy Project Analysis Software is a unique decision
support tool developed with the contribution of numerous experts from government, industry, and
academia. The software, provided free-of-charge, can be used worldwide to evaluate energy production
and savings.” As such, it is used to gain a sense for order of magnitude production that can be expected
from a Solar Hot Water System at a given location.


As a software tool, RETScreen has considerably less flexibility than TRNSYS – tank efficiency in
RETScreen is defined by a single number: Water Heating System Seasonal Efficiency, whereas TRNSYS
can account for the effects of thermal stratification, differeing levels of insulation, and different fuels for
heating the water. In the nomenclature of this assessment, RETScreen fixes the second digit of the system
number as a “0” – corresponding to a natural gas fired tank. Additionally, RETScreen runs on monthly
weather data, as opposed to TRNSYS which runs on hourly weather data. This increases the accuracy of
TRNSYS simulations considerably. Another major difference between the two programs is their prediction
of household hot water energy consumption. For a household using 66.4 gallons of 125 ºF hot water per
day, TRNSYS predicts 24,466 kBTU per year of DHW associated energy, whereas RETScreen predicts
15,720 kBTU per year of DHW associated energy. As a baseline for comparison, the US DOE Energy
Information Administration (EIA) states that the average household using natural gas as the primary hot
water heating fuel used 18,100 kBTU per year for an average family size of 2.5 people 25 .


Table 27 and Table 28 display the simulation results of TRNSYS and RETScreen, respectively. The Hot
Water (HW) Energy use numbers are not in close agreement, as discussed above. The displaced energy,
however is reasonably close; one would not expect them to match perfectly due to the increased precision
of TRNSYS. The higher production values predicted by TRNSYS are due in part to the higher HW Energy
Use; if there is more energy used to heat water, there is a greater potential for a SDHW system to contribute
additional energy. As such, the Solar Fraction, the quotient of Displaced Energy and HW Energy Use is in
reasonably close agreement as well.

     Table 27. TRNSYS modeled performance in Albany of systems with common tank and fuel type
 Sys ID                                 100            200           300           520               19           700
                                                                                                 600
 HW Energy Use (kBTU)
                                      24,466         24,466        24,466         24,466        24,466       24,466
 Displaced Energy (kBTU)
                                      15,798         15,517        14,051         11,036         7,942        8,002

24
   “RETScreen International Overview,” Natural Resources Canada,
http://www.retscreen.net/ang/centre.php
25
    If an ASHRAE “Typical Family” was composed of 4 people, that would easily explain the discrepency
with the EIA data, which has an average family size of 2.5 people. If RETScreen hot water energy
estimates are exclusive of tank losses and fuel efficiency, this could also account for the discrepency. Since
ASHRAE does not provide information about family size, RETScreen gives no information on the assumed
tank efficiency, and EIA does not provide the volume of hot water used, it is not possible to compare the
assumptions of these three baselines. NOTE: This assessment used RET Screen version 3.1.


                                                      6-14
 Solar Fraction                              65%             63%       57%           45%           47%            33%


 Table 28. RETScreen modeled performance in Albany of systems with common tank and fuel type
 Sys ID                                   100           200          300           520              19       700
                                                                                               600
 HW Energy Use (kBTU)                                                                                        N/A
                                       15,720         15,720       15,720        15,720        15,720
 Displaced Energy (kBTU)                                                                                     N/A
                                          12,291        10,796       10,117       10,346          8,350
 Solar Fraction                             78%           69%          64%          66%            53%       N/A



ENERGY PERFORMANCE – CONCLUSION

At a typical home in New York State, a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system is capable of providing
over half of the energy needed to heat water. In the most favorable locations – New York City and Long
Island – certain SDHW systems are capable of providing nearly three-quarters of household water heating
energy for a typical family. Computer simulations in TRNSYS show the following range of solar fractions
in Islip, Long Island: 50%-70% for flat plate technologies, 52%-71% for evacuated tube systems, and 34%
for building integrated systems. Jamestown, New York was the least efficient in terms of solar fraction;
computer simulations show the following range of solar fractions in Jamestown: 41%-59% for flat plate,
43%-59% for evacuated tube, and 30% for building integrated.


It can be seen that SDHW system performance varies by climate, but also by a combination of the interplay
between collector type, tank configuration, and auxiliary heating fuel. A few key conclusions:

    ƒ       Evacuated tube collectors provide the best performance per unit area, flat plate the shortest
            payback, building integrated the longest life.

    ƒ       A solar supplied pre-heat tank coupled with an instantaneous water heater appears to be the
            optimal tank configuration.

    ƒ       Manufacturer specified system designs are not necessarily optimally sized; obtaining performance
            data specific to a given climate and system is key.

    ƒ       An external heat exchanger coupled with a single fossil-fuel fired tank does not perform well.

    ƒ       Similar technologies of collectors, especially with evacuated tubes, can perform quite differently.

    ƒ       Unglazed building-integrated collectors have more consisent performance throughout the different
            climate zones analyzed herein.

Optimal solar fraction for the State appears to be 75%, which corresponds to a summer solar fraction of
100%. Economically speaking, a solar fraction below 50% for a single family home is challenging to
justify in terms of cost, due to high fixed cost and relatively low marginal cost for additional panel and tank
capacity.



                                                       6-15
                                                        SECTION 7
                       ECONOMIC BENEFITS AND COSTS OF SDHW SYSTEMS


LOCAL FUEL COSTS


The costs used for the analysis are presented in Figure 17 below. Electricity is the most expensive fuel per
unit of “site” energy, followed by propane, oil, and natural gas. Fuel costs used in the analysis are city-
specific and current to 2007. New York State average prices are as follows: $1.27 / therm natural gas,
$0.138 / kWh electricity, $4.04 / gallon propane, $2.56/gallon oil. See APPENDIX 4 for additional
information.




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                                     Electricity** (cents/kbtu)              Oil* (cents/kbtu)
                                     Natural Gas** (cents/kbtu)              Propane* (cents/kbtu)


                  Figure 17 Levelized Residential Cost of Site Energy, in Cents per kBTU


ESTIMATED ECONOMIC BENEFITS
Economic Benefit Matrices are displayed in APPENDIX 5


GEOGRAPHICAL RENDERINGS OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE
On the following pages are selected statewide geographical renderings of economic performance in terms
of annual savings and simple payback. A full display of over 70 color maps is available at
http://sdhw.brightpower.biz. Matrices of the results can be seen in APPENDIX 5.




                                                             7-1
In Figure 18, the systems generating the highest annual savings for each fuel type are displayed. The first
row (left to right) displays the best performing SDHW system with natural gas fired backup (System ID
100) and with electric backup (System ID 101). The second row (left to right) displays the best performing
SDHW system with propane fired backup (System ID 102) and with oil backup (system ID 143). All four
systems displayed are Flat Plate Model “A”.




Figure 18. Statewide Renderings of Highest Annual Savings for each Fuel Type




                                                    7-2
In Figure 19, the systems with the shortest simple payback time (years to recoup investment based solely
on fuel bill savings) are displayed. The first row (left to right) displays the best performing SDHW system
with natural gas fired backup (System ID 100) and with electric backup (System ID 101). The second row
(left to right) displays the best performing SDHW system with propane fired backup (System ID 102) and
with oil backup (system ID 143). All four systems displayed are Flat Plate Model “A”.




           Figure 19. Statewide Renderings of Shortest Payback Time for each Fuel Type




                                                    7-3
In Figure 20, the highest annual savings for each technology type is displayed. The tank type and fuel type
are held constant in these plots; systems with the most common tank arrangement (solar preheat tank with
conventional backup tank) and fuel type (natural gas) are displayed. The first row (left to right) displays
the best performing Flat Plate system (System ID 100), and the best performing Evacuated Tube system
(System ID 200). The second row displays the only building integrated system analyzed in the assessment
(System ID 700).




                                                                                                     26
         Figure 20. Statewide Renderings of Highest Annual Savings for each Technology Type




26
     For two tank systems co-fired with natural gas backup


                                                     7-4
In Figure 21, the shortest payback for each technology type is displayed. The tank type and fuel type are
held constant in these plots; systems with the most common tank arrangement (solar preheat tank with
conventional backup tank) and fuel type (natural gas) are displayed. The first row (left to right) displays
the best performing Flat Plate system (System ID 100), and the best performing Evacuated Tube system
(System ID 200). The second row displays the only building integrated system analyzed in the assessment
                   28
(System ID 700) .




                                                                                                   27, 28
        Figure 21. Statewide Renderings of Shortest Payback Time for each Technology Type




27
     For two tank systems co-fired with natural gas backup
28
     The rendering of Payback for System ID 700 is the only rendering with a different scale.


                                                      7-5
ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS


Economic analysis of the SDHW Systems is presented in this section. Figure 18 and Figure 19 along with
Table 29 and Table 30 display the effect of fuel type upon economic performance. Since electricity is the
most expensive fuel in terms of cost per on-site unit of energy, SDHW systems with electric backup have
the fastest payback and the greatest annual savings. Propane is the second most costly fuel, followed by
oil, and natural gas, and the savings and payback presented below correspond to these costs. These results
indicate that homeowners using electricity to heat water are most likely to consider an SDHW system 29 .


The systems with the lowest overall annual operating costs are SDHW systems co-fired with natural gas
because this is the lowest cost fuel available. System ID 110 realizes the lowest annual operating costs of
any system analyzed, due to the particular efficiency of instantaneous water heating.



     Table 29. Range of Year 1 Fuel Bill Savings – All Locations, All Systems except 33x, 53x, 7xx
                               Year 1 Fuel Bill Savings - All Locations
                       Fuel Type Natural Gas Electric Propane                   Oil
                       Minimum         $73           $204        $207           $181
                       Maximum         $248          $710        $416           $240



         Table 30. Range of Simple Payback – All Locations, All Systems except 33x, 53x, 7xx
                                Simple Payback (yrs.) - All Locations
                       Fuel Type Natural Gas        Electric Propane              Oil
                       Shortest          24              8         14             25
                       Longest           67             31         30             37



The Net Present Value (NPV) for each technology type is displayed in Table 31. None of the twenty-eight
systems analyzed (System ID 100) had a positive Net Present Value when compared against a conventional
gas-fired hot water tank. Unless additional incentives are provided, solar domestic hot water technology is
not likely to be an attractive economic investment to the average homeowner. Table 31 presents
information on Net Present Value for SDHW Systems across the State.




29
  As discussed above, systems 33x and 55x are non-optimal tank configurations that should not be used in
homes; they have been omitted from the below table. The building integrated systems (7xx) have been
omitted because their longer payback and lower annual savings would skew the results since an oil-fired
building integrated system was not analyzed.


                                                    7-6
            Table 31. NPV for single family SDHW systems (New York State Average) 30, 31

SDHW Tech:                   Flat Plate               Evacuated Tube              Building Integrated
Backup Fuel          Best-in-class Average         Best-in-class  Average        Best-in-class Average
Natural Gas                 (2,211)     (2,935)          ($2,901) ($3,377)           ($5,198)       N/A
Electric                      2,580         720            $1,892     $901                 $36      N/A
Propane                         657       (570)             ($67)   ($449)           ($2,158)      N/A
Oil                         (1,921)         N/A          ($2,297) ($2,554)                 N/A      N/A

Table 32 shows the annual performance of all analyzed systems in Albany, a relatively average location in
the State in terms of solar radiation and temperature.

                      Table 32. SDHW Annual Economic Performance in Albany
                  Collector       Sys ID    Year 1 Savings      Simple Payback (yrs)
                                    100            $171                     33
                                    101            $464                     12
                      Flat A




                                    102            $392                     15
                                    110            $139                     41
                                    143            $212                     27
                                    200            $164                     39
                      Evac A




                                    201            $459                     14
                                    202            $382                     17
                                    243            $226                     29
                                    300            $151                     44
                                    301            $424                     16
                                    302            $348                     19
                      Evac B




                                    310            $126                     53
                                    330             $53                    121
                                    331            $336                     19
                                    332            $160                     40
                                    343            $210                     32
                                    520            $105                     60
                                    521            $313                     20
                      Flat B




                                    522            $260                     24
                                    530             $45                    137
                                    531            $335                     18
                                    532            $135                     45
                                    610             $99                     57
                     Evac
                      C




                                    641            $358                     16
                      Bldg Int.




                                    700             $86                    105
                                    701            $243                     37
                                    702            $198                     45


30
   Net Present Value was calculated with a discount rate of 4.38% (20-year U.S. Treasury Bill as of January
2008), assumed an energy escalation rate of 3%, was exclusive of maintenance cost, and taken over a time
horizon equal to twice the warrantee period of the collectors. For all collectors except building integrated
(50 year time horizon), the time horizon was 20 years. Parentheses indicate negative numbers.
31
   The averages in this table are based upon the twenty-eight system types analyzed in this assessment,
excluding sub-optimal tank types x31 and x32. “N/A” is used when only one relevant system is analyzed.


                                                     7-7
Flat Plate Model “A” (Sys ID 100) realizes the highest annual savings and shortest payback for a common
tank and fuel type. Within Evacuated Tube collectors, Model “A” is most cost effective, and trails Flat
Plate Model “A” only slightly. Figure 20 and Figure 21 along with Table 33 and Table 34 display the
economic performance of solar collectors for a common tank and fuel type. With the exception of building
integrated systems (7xx systems), there is a strong correlation between the net aperture area of each system
and the economic performance, similar to the correlation between solar fraction and net aperture area
presented in Table 26. Evacuated tube systems perform somewhat better than flat plate systems, by one to
three dollars per square foot. The building integrated system analyzed realizes a lower overall and per
square foot fuel bill savings. However, it is important to remember that the building integrated system has
an estimated system life of 50 years, while the other systems have a life of 20 years.


     Table 33. Annual Fuel Bill Savings of selected SDHW systems for two tank arrangement co-fired
                                              with natural gas
                  Sys ID              100       200      300   520     600 32   700
                  Albany              $171 $164 $151 $105 $119                   $86
                  Binghamton          $130 $125 $113            $75      $86     $64
                  Buffalo             $183 $178 $162 $115 $129                   $92
                  Elmira              $186 $181 $162 $113 $126                   $91
                  Islip               $219 $211 $195 $131 $153 $105
                  Jamestown           $179 $174 $157 $112 $124                   $90
                  Massena             $169 $164 $149 $103 $117                   $86
                  New York City       $248 $237 $218 $150 $171 $119
                  Plattsburgh         $197 $191 $176 $125 $140                   $99
                  Rochester           $159 $155 $141 $103 $113                   $83
                  Syracuse            $161 $154 $141            $99 $112         $84
                  Utica               $159 $152 $139            $97 $109         $83
                  Watertown           $161 $154 $141            $99 $112         $84
                  NYS Average         $179 $172 $157 $110 $124                   $90


       Table 34. Annual Fuel Bill Savings per square foot of selected SDHW systems for two tank
                                arrangement co-fired with natural gas
                                       100       200        300     520         32        700
                  Sys ID                                                    600
                  Albany              $2.47     $2.82      $2.57   $2.12    $2.94        $0.14
                  Binghamton          $1.88     $2.14      $1.92   $1.52    $2.12        $0.11
                  Buffalo             $2.65     $3.05      $2.77   $2.33    $3.19        $0.15
                  Elmira              $2.70     $3.09      $2.77   $2.28    $3.12        $0.15
                  Islip               $3.17     $3.61      $3.32   $2.65    $3.78        $0.17
                  Jamestown           $2.59     $2.97      $2.68   $2.26    $3.08        $0.15
                  Massena             $2.44     $2.80      $2.54   $2.08    $2.89        $0.14

32
  The System 600 is not offered by the manufacturer. For purposes of levelized comparison in this table,
Annual Fuel Bill Savings of system 600 was estimated by the following formula:
                        Equation 4. Savings600 = Savings300 * Savings610 / Savings310



                                                     7-8
                  New York City      $3.58 $4.06 $3.71 $3.04 $4.23                    $0.20
                  Plattsburgh        $2.85 $3.27 $2.99 $2.52 $3.46                    $0.16
                  Rochester          $2.30 $2.66 $2.40 $2.08 $2.80                    $0.14
                  Syracuse           $2.33 $2.64 $2.41 $2.01 $2.77                    $0.14
                  Utica              $2.30 $2.60 $2.36 $1.97 $2.69                    $0.14
                  Watertown          $2.32 $2.64 $2.41 $2.01 $2.77                    $0.14
                  NYS Average        $2.58 $2.95 $2.68 $2.22 $3.06                    $0.15
                           * Estimated Savings, see Equation 4 below Table 33

Table 35 displays the annual fuel bill savings for a common tank and fuel type. It is interesting to note that
while larger systems cost more to install, they also recoup the initial investment more quickly. This is
because the marginal cost of installing the additional capacity is smaller than the fixed cost of completeing
a smaller installation.


Table 35. Simple Payback of selected SDHW systems for two tank arrangement co-fired with natural
                                              gas
                     Sys ID            100 200 300 520 600 33 700
                     Albany             33   39    44    60      47   105
                     Binghamton         37   42    48    67      55   123
                     Buffalo            31   36    40    54      43    97
                     Elmira             26   29    34    45      38    86
                     Islip              27   32    36    50      38    89
                     Jamestown          32   36    42    55      45    99
                     Massena            31   36    41    55      45    99
                     New York City      24   28    32    43      34    78
                     Plattsburgh        27   31    35    46      37    86
                     Rochester          36   41    47    61      49   109
                     Syracuse           34   39    45    59      48   103
                     Utica              35   41    46    62      50   106
                     Watertown          33   38    43    57      46   101
                     NYS Average        31   36    41    55      44    99



ECONOMIC BENEFITS - CONCLUSIONS


According to this analysis, “flat plate” technology is the most cost-effective collector technology. This is
true across all fuel types. A flat plate collector system (System ID 101) installed in New York City with
electric resistance backup heating, yielded a simple payback net of tax credits of 8 to 19 years and Net
Present Value (NPV) of negative $400 to positive $6,400 over the course of system life. Shortly behind
that in terms of cost effectiveness was Evacuated Tube Model A (System 2xx), followed by Evacuated
Tube Model B (System 3xx), Evacuated Tube Model C (System 6xx), Flat Plate Model B (System 5xx),

33
   Since only 641 and 610 systems are offered by the manufacturer, for purposes of levelized comparison
in this table, the Simple Payback of system 600 was estimated by the following formula:
                        Equation 5. Payback600 = Payback300 x Payback610 / Payback310


                                                     7-9
and the Building Integrated System (7xx). It is important to remember that the building integrated system
has an estimated system life that is over twice as long as the other systems, allowing the system more time
to recoup the initial investment. Perhaps, as important as choosing the right collector model, is making
sure that it is sized correctly. Generally speaking, the most cost effective systems were those that
maximized net aperture area with the constraint that peak summer production that did not exceed the
coincident summer domestic hot water load.


The above tables indicate that energy cost is at least as important as system type in determining the
economic performance of SDHW systems. In terms of payback, the best-in-class systems range from 8
years to 25 years 34 . Similarly, the payback of natural gas systems at the “best” location of New York City
ranges from 24 years to 43 years.


The payback times displayed above are exclusive of maintenance costs and inclusive of tax credits – in
other words they are as “optimistic” as possible 35 . Yet, only in the case of SDHW systems backed up with
electricity does payback drop below 10 years, and even then only in locations with ample natural gas
supply unlikely to have expensive electric backup heat. This indicates that the payback time for almost all
systems is longer than the manufacturer’s collector warranty.


SDHW systems with natural gas as a backup fuel display a negative Net Present Value, regardless of
technology type. This indicates that current government incentives are insufficient to bring the cost of
SDHW technology to a level that most consumers would consider cost effective. Consumers using
electricity or propane for water heating, who have a tolerance for long term investments, may find some
systems to be attractive investments. Most homeowners, however, use natural gas to heat water in New
York State.


There is significant variability in system performance within a technology type. Payback time ranged by
about 20 years between the best-in-class and worst-in-class performers for both flat plate and evacuated
tube technologies. This indicates that consumers should shop around to obtain a system that is well
designed for their home. The best performing systems used cost-effective collectors, thermally optimal tank
configurations (with stratification), and were designed to meet 100% of the average summer load. The
worst performing systems analyzed in this assessment were either undersized or had sub-optimal tank
configurations. Such non-optimal tank configurations include those in which an external heat exchanger is
directly attached to a conventional natural gas or propane hot water heater.




34
     displayed in the “shortest” row of Table 30
35
     Note that payback net of maintenance costs was calculated for each system. See APPENDIX 5.


                                                    7-10
New York City appears to be the most favorable market in New York State for SDHW on single family
homes, due to relatively high energy costs and levels of solar irradiation. For systems with natural gas
providing backup heat, the simple payback against a conventional natural gas tank baseline is 24-43 years
for flat plate systems, 28-42 years for evacuated tube systems, and 78 years for building integrated systems.
The low natural gas costs and lack of solar resource make Binghamton the least favorable market in the
State with a simple payback of 37-67 years for flat plate, 42-55 years for evacuated tube, and 123 years for
building integrated systems with natural gas fired backup.




                                                   7-11
                                                SECTION 8
      BARRIERS TO THE SDHW INDUSTRY AND STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE SUCCESS




METHODOLOGY
Manufacturers, distributors, and installers were interviewed over the phone and asked to identify major
barriers to SDHW proliferation in New York. The purpose of the interview was to identify the major
barriers to SDHW proliferation, and the results are qualitative, rather than quantitative. The primary
question posed was: “In your experience, what are three major barriers to the proliferation of SDHW in
New York State?”


Follow up questions were used to clarify interviewee responses. However, the interviewer was careful not
to influence the opinions of the interviewee. While participant comments varied greatly, those with similar
underlying themes have been grouped and summarized in the paragraphs below. A separate section
contains the author’s opinions regarding the major barriers to SDHW proliferation, based on their
experiences installing SDHW systems in the New York Metropolitan area.


The responses presented in this section represent the opinions of manufacturers/distributors and installers
and are based on experience and personal opinions. Survey participant involvement in the SDHW
marketplace varies greatly, from 2 - 3 installations total to 60 – 120 installations per year. For the purposes
of this qualitative survey, responses from more active participants were weighted equally with responses
from less active participants.




MARKET OVERVIEW
Before interview responses are summarized, a brief market overview is presented. There were 499,000 sq.
ft. of solar collectors delivered to New York State in 2005, corresponding to 3% of the U.S. market 36 ..
Nationally, the solar collector market was 94% for Pool Heating and 4% Hot Water heating. The hot water
heating market is further segmented to 75% Flat Plate, 21% ICS/Thermosiphon, and 3% Evacuated Tube 37 .
While similar information could not be located for New York State, if the New York State solar thermal
market corresponded to the national market, then 4% of solar thermal installations would have been for hot
water. This would be the equivalent of roughly 20,000 square feet of solar collectors, corresponding to 289


36
   “Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors Ranked by Origin and Destination,” US Department of Energy,
Energy Information Administration,
http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarreport/table2_5.html
37
    “Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Market Sector, End Use, and Type,” US Department of
Energy, Energy Information Administration,
http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarreport/table2_10.html


                                                     8-1
three panel Flat Plate A systems or 404 two panel Flat Plate B systems. This analysis indicates that there
were probably roughly 300-400 installations completed in 2005 for SDHW in New York State 38 .




SDHW BARRIERS


System Costs
The costs associated with the purchase and installation of a SDHW system far exceed those associated with
the purchase and installation of a conventional hot water heater, often leaving interested customers with
“sticker shock.” The installed cost of a SDHW system can often be orders of magnitude greater than a
conventional hot water heater, making a SDHW system sale very difficult, even with the reduced annual
operating expenses. The low initial cost of a conventional hot water heater relative to the high initial cost
of a SDHW system creates a significant obstacle to the cost-conscious homeowner.


Energy Costs
The cost of energy has a direct impact on SDHW proliferation. Although energy costs have been rapidly
escalating, they have yet to reach the level necessary to drive the SDHW market. Cost-conscious
customers interested in purchasing a SDHW system have a difficult time justifying the purchase of a
SDHW system relative to their annual hot water energy costs. This is compounded by the continued costs
associated with operating a conventional backup water heater and the limited solar fraction attainable
during winter months in even the warmest parts of the state. As energy prices continue to escalate,
installing a SDHW system will become a more cost-effective solution to reducing a customer’s energy bill.
However, present day sales of SDHW systems in New York State remain low due to high SDHW system
costs relative to statewide energy costs. A long payback period for the installation of a SDHW system is a
major deterrent to the proliferation of SDHW in New York State.


Financial Incentives
In New York State today, federal and state tax credits are the only financial incentives available to
customers interested in purchasing a SDHW system. For residential customers, there is a federal tax credit
for 30% of the installed system cost, up to a maximum of $2,000, and a New York State tax credit of 25%,
up to a maximum of $5,000. For commercial customers, there is a federal tax credit for 30% of the
installed system cost, with no maximum, and no New York State tax credit. There is no cash incentive
available for SDHW systems through New York State. Conversely, the State offers an incentive of up to



38
  If the NYS Solar thermal market was 40% hot water instead of 4%, that number would be 3000-4000
installations in 2005. On the other hand, if large-scale commercial installations were more common, the
total number of installations completed would be fewer. Without more information regarding the end uses
of collectors, a definitive number is not attainable.


                                                     8-2
$4.00 per watt of installed capacity, or approximately 50% of the installed system cost, for solar PV
systems.


While helpful, tax credits are “credits” that are deducted from a customer’s tax liability at the end of the
fiscal calendar year and are a less effective sales tool than the NYSERDA incentives available to New York
State solar PV customers. Additionally, for residential customers, the tax credit maximums limit the
amount of tax credits that can be claimed.


Of the manufacturer/distributors and installers who participated in the interview, there is no consensus
regarding SDHW financial incentives. A majority believe that without an incentive for SDHW systems,
customers are more apprehensive about SDHW as a viable solar technology. Others feel that the lack of
financial endorsement is undermining the legitimacy of a proven solar technology. Customers interested in
a SDHW system may be tempted to change to a solar PV system because of the lucrative financial
incentives; consumers like receiving discounts. If New York State is willing to offer financial incentives
for solar PV, why not offer financial incentives for SDHW? This opinion, however, is not shared by all
manufacturers/distributors and installers. A minority think that the SDHW industry is better off without
financial incentives. Financial incentives can increase the administrative costs involved with the
installation of SDHW systems. There is concern that a New York State funded SDHW incentive program
will create bureaucratic obstacles and red tape, making it difficult for SDHW installers to keep their costs
low.




Customer Education and Awareness
Because SDHW technology has limited market penetration, it is a technology that is often misunderstood
by the average homeowner. As solar power begins to take center stage in the public eye, there is confusion
surrounding the difference between solar photovoltaic technology and solar hot water technology. Many
customers are unaware of the differentiating factors that make these two technologies distinct.
Misinformed customers with high expectations are sometimes disappointed after learning of the limitations
of a SDHW system. Some common misconceptions include:


       ƒ   A SDHW system entirely replaces a conventional hot water heater
       ƒ   A SDHW system generates electricity
       ƒ   A SDHW system can be used to heat conditioned spaces


Furthermore, SDHW technologies have garnered a poor reputation from installations that resulted from the
1979 energy crisis. The previous nascent industry shrank considerably after financial incentives for the
technology were repealed. Existing installations were often not maintained, and very few repairmen




                                                      8-3
possessed the necessary skills, resulting in SDHW systems in disrepair. While the reputation of SDHW has
improved significantly since that time, the lingering sentiment is a barrier to the proliferation of SDHW
technology.




Installer Competency
Due to the limited number of experienced SDHW installers and the recent increase in homeowner demand
for this technology, there are unqualified installers entering the SDHW marketplace. In general, skilled
installers make a concerted effort to ensure a well trained field crew comfortable with the technology and
the equipment. Conversely, unproven installers have little to no experience with SDHW systems and rely
upon on-the-job training and trial and error. Installations such as these can produce mixed results, and in
the worst instances, a poorly installed SDHW system. While some training exists through manufacturers
and distributors, it is insufficient for the growing demand for SDHW installations.




The Author’s Experience
Based on the installations undertaken in the New York Metropolitan area, the authors of this report noticed
a number of obstacles. Local codes and ordinances vary widely throughout the state of New York. In
certain areas, the construction code requires a licensed plumber to install a SDHW system. Since plumbers
are expensive, this results in increased labor costs. In New York City, plumbers are almost always busy,
especially the more experienced and well qualified plumbers; they have little financial motivation to learn
the intricacies involved with SDHW technology installations.


In addition to requiring a licensed plumber, planned SDHW installations on landmark buildings are subject
to review by The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. The Landmarks Preservation
Commission is the New York City agency that is responsible for regulating changes to the City's landmarks
and the buildings in the City's historic districts. A similar commission exists for many municipalities
across New York State. A proposed SDHW system installation on a landmark building is generally viewed
as incongruent with the visual character of a historic district, and many proposed installations are denied.




                                                     8-4
SDHW STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE SUCCESS




System Costs, Energy Costs, and Financial Incentives
Survey responses identified three factors that drive the economics of SDHW throughout New York State:
SDHW installation costs, energy costs, and SDHW financial incentives. A combination of lower SDHW
customer costs, higher energy prices, and better financial incentives would help jumpstart the SDHW
industry in New York State.


Of the three economic components addressed, financial incentives are the most pivotal to the success of
SDHW. While energy costs are projected to increase in the coming years, higher energy costs alone will
not drive the SDHW industry. Furthermore, energy costs are determined by the free market and cannot be
readily controlled. Because SDHW technology has yet to obtain a solid foothold in New York State,
SDHW installation costs remain high. Manufacturers/distributors and installers are limited in their ability
to lower costs due to volume constraints. Increased sales volume can drive down the cost of a SDHW
system, thereby leveraging incentive dollars to create additional value.


Financial incentives would help to bolster the New York State SDHW industry by bringing SDHW
technology within reach of cost-conscious homeowners and businesses. A financial incentive would
improve the economics of a SDHW system by reducing the payback period and easing the financial burden
for interested customers. The NYSERDA-funded solar PV incentive program has been successful at
bolstering the solar PV market throughout New York State. A similar incentive program could grow the
market for SDHW technology in the State.


The results of this assessment could be used to craft a policy on incentives that would at least create a
positive NPV for SDHW systems backed up with natural gas water heating. According to this analysis, an
additional incentive of $2,000 per system would accomplish this. A second issue is reducing the payback
time – the best-in-class flat plate system has a simple payback of 31 years for an average location in New
York State. Each $150 - $200 in incentive would reduce the payback by 1 year; therefore to achieve a
payback within the typical warantee period of 10 years an incentive of roughly $4,000 per system would be
required. This incentive would be in addition to the federal and State tax credits available in 2008.


Many renewable energy incentive programs are moving toward performance-based incentives. These
incentives are particularly well suited when the value of the commodity produced fluctuates throughout the
day, as in the case of electricity. This strategy seems less viable for SDHW technology due to the relatively
low system cost and the absence of electricity grid interaction for most SDHW systems. Additionally,




                                                     8-5
performance based incentives are expensive to implement due to the high cost of monitoring. As an
alternative, incentives proportional to capacity reported by Solar Rating and Certification Corporation
(SRCC) ratings 39 could be implemented. Reductions in efficiency due to shading and non-optimal
orientation could also be accounted for in calculating any incentive by requiring an on-site shading study.
A capacity based incentive for SDHW could effectively add value to an SDHW system, while keeping
administrative costs to a minimum.


In addition to the monetary benefits, financial incentives can also have a positive psychological impact on
interested customers. A financial incentive funded by the State of New York works to legitimize SDHW
technology. With the backing of the State of New York, customers will likely be reassured of the benefits
of SDHW.




Customer Education and Awareness
Responses recorded from survey participants pinpointed education and awareness as a key component to
the success of the SDHW industry. An educated public will better understand the strengths and weaknesses
of SDHW systems, curbing unrealistic expectations and the spread of misinformation. Effective public
campaigns funded by NYSERDA, such as “ENERGY STAR® Products and Marketing (ESPM) Program
and the Stay Cool!® Program, were designed to influence decisions regarding electricity use and reduce
households’ energy bills. Successful programs such as these can be used as a model for effectively
promoting SDHW technology.




Installer Competency
SDHW technology requires competent installers who can specify, install, and maintain SDHW hot water
systems. While typical system installations draw upon basic plumbing skills, field installers need to be
familiarized with the technology-specific installation procedures. Some manufacturers and/or distributors
are already offering limited installation training for their installers. By offering additional training
seminars, installers can get hands-on training in a controlled setting, rather than at a customer’s facility.
Experienced installers with adequate training will help to build consumer confidence in SDHW technology
by ensuring a properly installed system.


The North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) is an organization that could help
certify qualified installers. NABCEP is a volunteer board of renewable energy stakeholder representatives.
Their mission is to support and work with the renewable energy and energy-efficiency industries,
professionals, and stakeholders to develop and implement quality credentialing and certification programs

39
     SRCC is an organization that publishes performance ratings for solar collectors and systems.


                                                      8-6
for practitioners. While certification is not a guarantee of quality, it does indicate that the installer has met
established standards and requirements. Since it is voluntary, an installer awarded the NABCEP credential
demonstrates a high level of dedication and commitment to the profession.


If financial incentives for SDHW systems become available in New York State, one way to increase quality
would be to allow only a short list of eligible installers to have access to the available funds. As with
NYSERDA PON 1050, The Solar Electric Incentive Program, eligibility could be determined by adequate
experience and insurance policies. Creating a short list of eligible installers keeps the quality of the
installation high and limits the possible abuse of funding. Augmenting this list by indicating which
installers are NABCEP certified would further help in differentiating between the experienced and the
inexperienced.




                                                       8-7
                                                SECTION 9
                     BENEFITS OF A SDHW MARKET TO NEW YORK STATE



The benefits of a robust SDHW market to New York State include an increase in jobs, a reduction in non-
renewable energy use, and the potential for reduced energy costs. Assuming that 1.2 million households 40
in New York State will be able to reduce their fossil fuel consumption for DHW by 50% by using SDHW
systems, this would yield energy savings of 171 million kWh of electricity, 6.5 billion cubic feet of natural
gas and 25 million gallons of fuel oil annually 41 . Furthermore, a blossoming SDHW industry would create
jobs. Estimates of hours per system are provided in Table 36 below. Contracting and back office work is
excluded from job growth figures, although such job growth may be substantial.



                Table 36. Estimated time to install & maintain a typical SDHW system
                         Labor Type                                          hours
                         Plumbing                                            30
                         SDHW Tech – install collectors on roof              90
                         SDHW Tech – maintain over life of system            25


Given the estimates in Table 36, estimated jobs created at different SDHW market penetration levels are
shown in Table 37 below.

      Table 37. Job years created in New York State at various levels of market penetration6, 42
                    Market Penetration Level:              0.1%        0.5%        2.5%
                    Systems Installed                      1167        5833       29167
                      Plumbing                                18          88        438
                      SDHW Tech - install                     53        263        1313
                      SDHW Tech - maintain                    15          73        365
                      TOTAL                                   92        458        2290


Even at relatively low levels of market penetration, a significant number of new jobs would be created by
the proliferation of SDHW systems across the state. This would involve a combination of a new “green
collar” workforce of SDHW Techs as well as an expansion of the existing trades of plumbing and
contracting.




40
   Due to shading, inadequate load, or other reasons, only 1.2 million of the 7 million households in New
York State are assumed to be eligible homes.
41
   Based on 2001 water heating data referenced earlier, assuming the proportional distribution of electricity,
gas and oil fired water heating as in the 2001 EIA data
42
   Percentages given are of homes eligible to receive installations in New York State.


                                                     9-1
Consumers are apt to choose the lowest cost option for water heating, which is presently conventional
natural gas water heating. An appropriately sized incentive could change this picture, by making the
effective cost to heat water with an SDHW system less than that of natural gas. Then, this would grow
demand for the technology, which should allow economies of scale to reduce prices. This idea is presented
graphically in Figure 3.
          Effective Cost to Heat Water




                                                                                      Electricity
                                                                                      Natural Gas
                                                                                      SDHW




                                         2007 Sales   Volum e of SDHW Sales




   Figure 22. Effective Cost to Heat Water with Solar, Electricity, and Natural Gas (hypothetical)


Incentive levels could be tapered as the price of SDHW systems decreases. Depending upon the scale of
the SDHW market, a robust SDHW market in New York State could reduce the cost for heating water to all
New Yorkers. A robust SDHW market is also a hedge against the rising prices of electricity, natural gas,
propane, and oil – SDHW systems represent energy indendence which corresponds to energy security.




                                                                       9-2
                                              BIBLIOGRAPHY

ASHRAE. “Service Water Heating.” In HVAC Applications Handbook of 2003, Chapter 49. Atlanta:
    ASHRAE Publications, 2003.

Biaou, A., Bernier, M. Domestic Hot Water Heating in Zero Net Energy Homes. Montreal: Department de
    Genie Mecanique, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, 2005.

Builders Websource. “Tankless Water Heaters,” Builders Websource.
    http://www.builderswebsource.com/techbriefs/tankless.htm (accessed 2007).

Burch, Jay, Jim Salasovich, and Tim Hillman. “An Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water
    Heaters.” Presented at the annual conference for the American Solar Energy Society 2005, Orlando,
    Florida, August 6-12, 2005.

de Winter, Francis. "Solar Water Heating With Backup Heating: A Review". Presented at the annual
    conference for the American Solar Energy Society 2005, Orlando, Florida, August 6-12, 2005.

Energy Information Administration. “Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Market Sector, End Use,
    and Type.” US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration.
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarreport/table2_10.html (accessed 2007).

Energy Information Administration. “Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors Ranked by Top 5 Origins and
    Destinations.” US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration.
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarreport/table2_4.html (accessed 2007).

Energy Information Administration. “Table CE1-7c. Total Energy Consumption in U.S. Households by
    Four Most Populated States, 2001.” U.S. Department of Energy.
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/ce_pdf/enduse/ce1-7c_4popstates2001.pdf (accessed
    2007).

Energy Information Administration. “Table CE4-7c. Water-Heating Energy Consumption in U.S.
    Households by Four Most Populated States, 2001.” U.S. Department of Energy.
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/ce_pdf/waterheat/ce4-7c_4popstates2001.pdf (accessed
    2007)

FAFCO. “How FAFCO Solar Hot Water Systems Work.” Chico, CA: FAFCO.
    http://fafco.com/SolarHotWater/How-FAFCO-Solar-Products-Work.html (accessed 2007).

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat Plate and
    Concentrating Collectors. Report NREL/TP-463-5607, 1994,
    http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/pubs/redbook/HTML/ (accessed 2007).

Natural Resources Canada. “RETScreen International Overview.” Natural Resources Canada.
    http://www.retscreen.net/ang/centre.php (accessed 2007).




                                                  B-1
New York State Department of Labor. “Captial District Workforce and Industry Data.” New York State
    Department of Labor. http://www.labor.state.ny.us/workforceindustrydata/index.asp?reg=cap
    (accessed 2007).

New York State Department or Labor. “Prevailing Wage Rates for 07/01/2007 – 06/30/2008.” New York
    State Department of Labor, 2008.
    http://wpp.labor.state.ny.us/wpp/viewPrevailingWageSchedule.do?county=87 (accessed 2008).

Perez, R. “A Time Series Generator. Technical Status Report No.3.” National Renewable Energy
    Laboratory (NREL) subcontract AXE-0-30070-01. Golden: NREL, 2000.

Schuco. "Solar Tank 80 HE-2 / 105 HE-2 Operation and Installation Manual." Newington, CT: Schuco,
    2006.

Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC). “Directory of SRCC Certified Solar Collector
    Ratings.” Cocoa, Florida: 2007.

Thermal Energy System Specialists (TESS). http://www.tess-inc.com (accessed 2007).

The Weather Channel. Data for Old Forge, NY & Massena, NY. The Weather Channel.
    http://www.weather.com (accessed 2007).

US Department of Energy. “EERE Consumer’s Guide: Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems.”
    US Department Of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
    http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12930 (accessed
    2007).

U.S Department of Labor. “Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.” U.S. Department of Labor,
    Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/outside.jsp?survey=en (accessed 2007).

Wilcox, S., M. Anderberg, R. George, W. Marion, D.l Myers, D. Renné, N. Lott, T. Whitehurst., C.
    Gueymard, R. Perez, P. Stackhouse and F. Vignola. Completing Production Of The Updated National
    Solar Radiation Database For The United States. Boulder, CO: American Solar Energy Society, 2007.




                                                  B-2
APPENDIX 1 – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON DESIGN FACTORS

     Collector Type
     In addition to the flat plate and evacuated tube collectors mentioned in the solicitation, we
     recommend one more:


              Building-integrated SDHW (Bi-SDHW)
              Building integration of solar photovoltaics (PV) has been popular for some time. Solar
              thermal building-integrated solutions are somewhat less common. Bi-SDHW systems
              can use a specially-constructed metal or slate roof as an unglazed solar thermal collector.
              Bi-SDHW systems should be represented in the assessment because they are
              commercialized, achieve longer lifetimes through installation behind the envelope with
              durable cross-linked polyethylene tubing, and overcome the aesthetic concerns that could
              otherwise hinder the implementation of SDHW in New York State.


     Tank Type/Arrangement
     We recommend adding two variations to the modeled tank types to more accurately reflect the
     diversity of water heating appliances and configurations in use in New York State. Since tank
     arrangements are specific to certain manufacturer design, the only tank types analyzed for a given
     manufacturer will be those they offer on the market.



          x   Single Tank – Electric or Boiler-fed; internal or external heat exchanger
          x   Two Tank – with conventional tank or instantaneous (tankless) hot water
              heater; internal or external heat exchanger, drainback or closed-loop system.


     There are a number of nuances to the way in which hot water heating is typically performed in
     New York State homes. While the majority of homes, both existing and constructed, heat their
     water with a stand-alone gas-fired hot water tank, the other water heating types are also worth
     modeling because they either:



         x    are achieving greater market share than in the past
         x    are uniquely compatible with SDHW systems
         x    significantly alter the economics of installation and running costs


     The tank types recommended for inclusion are further explained below:




                                                A1-1
                   A. Fossil Fuel-Fired Hot Water tanks
                   Common in much of the State, these conventional tanks are usually fired with natural gas,
                   and, less often, with propane or oil. They can be integrated into an SDHW system in a
                   two-tank arrangement only, with the solar tank acting as a preheat for the conventional
                   tank.


                   B. Electric Hot Water tanks
                   These tanks contain an electric element to heat hot water. They can be integrated into a
                   SDHW system either in a two-tank arrangement, or, the existing electric tank can be
                   replaced with a special SDHW storage tank with electric element that contains both a
                   heat exchanger for the solar loop and an electric element for auxiliary heating.


                   C. Instantaneous Hot Water Heaters
                   This is a newer, more fuel efficient water heating option that replaces the tank entirely.
                   They are typically fired by natural gas but are also available in electric versions. Specific
                   instantaneous hot water heaters are designed to work with SDHW systems, in place of the
                   second (conventional) tank.


                   D. Indirect-Fired Hot Water tanks
                   Primarily in urban areas, many homes use boilers instead of furnaces to supply their heat.
                   The same boilers are often used to supply hot water, either via a tankless coil in the boiler
                   or via a tank that uses the boiler’s hot water, pumped through a heat exchanger in the
                   tank, to supply DHW (called an indirect-fired hot water tank). Special solar two heat-
                   exchanger (2HX) tanks allow for a single indirect-fired tank that supplies all the DHW
                   needs for a home by using the lower heat-exchanger to capture the solar energy and the
                   upper heat exchanger to capture the boiler heat when the solar irradiance is insufficient,
                   as seen below in Figure 23.




            Figure 23. A two heat exchanger solar tank for installation with a heating boiler (Schüco) 43

43
     Schüco. Solar Tank 80 HE-2 / 105 HE-2 Operation and Installation Manual, May 2006


                                                     A1-2
                E. External Heat Exchanger Tanks 44
                Shell-and-tube: The heat exchanger is separate from (external to) the storage tank. It has
                two separate fluid loops inside a case or shell. The fluids flow in opposite directions to
                each other through the heat exchanger, maximizing heat transfer. In one loop, the fluid to
                be heated (such as potable water) circulates through the inner tubes. In the second loop,
                the heat-transfer fluid flows between the shell and the tubes of water. The tubes and shell
                should be made of the same material. When the collector or heat-transfer fluid is toxic,
                double-wall tubes are used, and a non-toxic intermediary transfer fluid is placed between
                the outer and inner walls of the tubes.




44
  “EERE Consumer’s Guide: Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems,” US Department Of
Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,
http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12930


                                                  A1-3
                 F. Drainback System Design




Figure 24. Drainback system "off"                       Figure 25: Drainback system "on"



        Drainback systems are those systems designed to be drained of fluid. The two potential states of
        the drainback system can be seen in the above diagrams: charged when there is sufficient solar
        resource and drained when there is insufficient solar resource. 45 This design feature also offers
        some measure of freeze protection as cold temperatures cause the system to drain of fluid. In order
        to prevent freezing care must be taken to ensure the pipes are negatively pitched at all points
        running from the collectors to the tank so that fluid is not trapped in the pipes. Drainback systems
        usually consist of two pumps, one for charging the system and one for moving the fluid once the
        system is charged – additional pumping energy will be included in the energy model. The systems
        also consist of two tanks – a small tank for the working fluid and heat exchange, and a larger
        conventional water heater.

        Any drainback system included in this assessment must meet the following criteria:
            x    Suitable for all of New York State, defined as those systems having a Freeze Tolerance
                                                                                             46
                 Limit below the record low temperature for New York State of -48 F
            x    Only systems that offer off-the-shelf components will be considered. Custom fabrication
                 is difficult to model, difficult to price, and difficult to fabricate at scale.
            x    Only panels with well-established durability will be considered. This is defined as
                 greater than five years in the marketplace.

45
   “How FAFCO Solar Hot Water Systems Work,” FAFCO, http://fafco.com/SolarHotWater/How-
FAFCO-Solar-Products-Work.html.
46
   Data for Old Forge, NY & Massena, NY, The Weather Channel, http://www.weather.com


                                                     A1-4
        Even though drainback systems are not well-established in the New York market, or the national
        market, OG-300 systems suitable for New York State do exist, and therefore if one of the below
        designs meet the above criteria and the manufacturer is willing to participate, their system will be
        included. Eight drainback systems have obtained an OG-300 rating from the Solar Rating and
        Certification Corporation (SRCC) as seen in Table 38 below.

                                                                                      Freeze Tolerance
  Manufacturer                           System Model                                     Limit (ºF)
  Bobcat & Sun Inc                       Sun-Pak                                             -60
  Morley Manufacturing                   High Sierra Drainback                               -60
  Radco Products, Inc                    Drainback Heat Exchanger                            -60
  Synergy Solar                          Drainback Stainless HX                              -50
  Alternate Energy Technologies          EagleSun                                            -20
  Fafco                                  Polymer Drainback                                   -20
  Solar Energy, Inc                      Duro-Drainback                                      -20
  Solene                                 Solene/Chromagen Drain Back                         -10
                         Table 38. SRCC OG-300 certified Drainback systems

Roof Type & Orientation

        A. Flat Roof
        Installing on a flat roof instead of a roof that is sloped to the south should not impact system
        performance as much as installation cost. Flat roof installations must still be angled towards the
        south, and thus incur additional material and labor costs. We do not recommend performing
        additional energy models based on roof type, but we will investigate the effect of flat-roof
        installation cost in the economic analysis.


        B. Roofs Sloped Other than Towards Due South
        Orientation of roof affects orientation of solar collectors, which, in turn, affects SDHW system
        output at different times of the day (e.g. collectors oriented to the West will generate more hot
        water towards the end of the day than collectors oriented due South). Rigorous analysis of every
        SDHW system at multiple orientations and multiple locations is outside the scope of this project,
        however at least three representative systems will be simulated at different orientations at a single
        location (e.g. Albany).


Explored but Not Recommended

Below are design factors considered, but excluded from the assessment.


        A. Glazed vs. Unglazed collector panels
        Unglazed collectors are the most commonly used collectors in the United States, due to their
        success in the pool heating market. An analysis by Jay Burch, Jim Salasovich, and Tim Hillman
        indicates that when collector costs comprise a large portion of system installation, usually through



                                                      A1-5
        reduced labor costs, and roof area is available to house the less efficient unglazed collectors,
        unglazed collectors can be more cost-effective than glazed collectors 47 . The scenarios under
        which unglazed collectors are more cost-effective are well documented in this report. Bright
        Power’s report will expand upon this analysis by analyzing an unglazed, building-integrated
        system from Bldg. Int. Solar.


        B. Alternative two-tank configuration
        Francis de Winter advocates for the following tank design based on: “a modified, heavily insulated
        ‘two-tank’ design, in which the backup tank is mounted above the solar tank, and the tanks are
        coupled with a natural convection thermal diode. The solar tank is about 30% larger than the
        average daily hot water usage, and an efficient backup heater is used; if the temperatures are
        controlled properly, it can get solar fractions of above 90% (25-27), as shown by lab tests, a field
        test, and computer runs. This design does not require costly features; it just requires useful design
        and control ideas.” 48 After reviewing commercially available technology, Bright Power was
        unable to find manufacturers implementing this technique in a product. Bright Power will consult
        with our manufacturers to see if it is a system design they could provide.


        C. Direct vs. Indirect systems
        We considered including direct SDHW systems (e.g. thermosiphon and direct-pumped systems) –
        those which pump water directly to the collectors to be heated instead of using a heat-transfer fluid
        such as a glycol/water mixture. However, our research leads us to believe that this will not be a
        viable system worth modeling due to New York’s winter freezing climate.


        D. Solar Fraction
        We considered including solar fraction, the percent of domestic hot water generated from solar, as
        a design factor. In order for the studied systems to most accurately reflect the types of systems
        customers will likely purchase, we will allow manufacturers to design systems as they would in
        the marketplace, to the solar fraction they think most cost-effective.




47
   Jay Burch, Jim Salasovich, and Tim Hillman. “An Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water
Heaters” (paper presented at the annual conference of the American Solar Energy Society, Orlando,
Florida, August 6-12, 2005).
48
   de Winter, Francis. “Solar Water Heating With Backup Heating: A Review.” (paper presented at the
annual conference of the American Solar Energy Society, Orlando, Florida, August 6-12, 2005).


                                                   A1-6
                               APPENDIX 2 – DEFINITION OF EACH SYSTEM TYPE AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS

                                            Table 39. Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for the Assessment

                                                       System      Collector   Tank
                                             Delta T   Pumping       Low       High
                                System ID                                                              Description
                                              (ºF)       Rate       Limit      Limit
                                                        (GPM)        (ºF)      (ºF)
                                                                                       This configuration will have a single heat
                                                                                       exchanger solar fed tank acting as the pre-
                                100         12/8       1.5         N/A         170
                                                                                       heat for a natural gas, and 3 collectors with
                                                                                       HE-1 105 gallon single heat exchanger tank.
                                101         12/8       1.5         N/A         170     As above with electric resistance backup
  Flat A - Flat Plate




                                102         12/8       1.5         N/A         170     As above with propane backup
                                                                                       As above with tankless water heater Takagi
                                110         12/8       1.5         N/A         170     FLASH Model T-K1 49 in place of the
                                                                                       conventional tank.
                                                                                       This configuration will have a double heat
                                                                                       exchanger tank with the lower heat
                                                                                       exchanger fed by the solar loop and the
                                143         12/8       1.5         N/A         170     upper heat exchanger fed by a boiler with an
                                                                                       80% combustion efficiency, and 3 collectors
                                                                                       with HE-2 105 gallon double heat exchanger
                                                                                       tank.
                                                                                       Twenty four tube Seido 1/80 gallon single
                                                                                       heat    exchanger     pre-heat     tank  with
                                200         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175
                                                                                       conventional natural gas fired hot water
                                                                                       heater
                                201         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     As above with electric resistance backup
                                202         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     As above with propane backup
                                                                                       Twenty four tube Seido 1/80 gallon double
                                243         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175
  Evac A&B - Evac. Tube




                                                                                       heat exchanger tank
                                                                                       Twenty four tube Seido 5/80 gallon
                                330         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     conventional natural gas fired tank with
                                                                                       external heat exchanger
                                331         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     As above with electric resistance backup
                                332         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     As above with propane backup
                                                                                       Twenty four tube Seido 5/80 gallon single
                                310         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     heat exchanger tank with instantaneous hot
                                                                                       water heater
                                                                                       Twenty four tube Seido 5/80 gallon single
                                300         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     heat exchanger pre-heat tank with natural
                                                                                       gas fired conventional hot water heater
                                301         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     As above with electric resistance backup
                                302         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175     As above with propane backup
                                                                                       Twenty four tube Seido 5/80 gallon double
                                343         13.5/5.5   1.5         N/A         175
                                                                                       heat exchanger tank
Flat Plate




                                                                                       Two Gobi 3366 Flat Plate/ 2 tank
 Flat B -




                                                                                       configuration: 80 gallon solar preheat
                                520         18/5       1.5         80          160
                                                                                       (external heat exchanger), natural gas fired
                                                                                       conventional

                          49
                            “Tankless Water Heaters,” Builders Websource,
                          http://www.builderswebsource.com/techbriefs/tankless.htm


                                                                         A2-1
                                            System       Collector    Tank
                                 Delta T    Pumping        Low        High
                 System ID                                                                        Description
                                  (ºF)        Rate        Limit       Limit
                                             (GPM)         (ºF)       (ºF)
                521              18/5       1.5          80           160     As above with electric resistance backup
                522              18/5       1.5          80           160     As above with propane backup
                                                                              Two Gobi 3366 Flat Plate/ 1 tank
                                                                              configuration: 80 gallon conventional natural
                530              18/5       1.5          80           160
                                                                              gas fired with external heat exchanger
                                                                              attached.
                531              18/5       1.5          80           160     As above with electric resistance backup
                532              18/5       1.5          80           160     As above with propane backup
                                                                              Thirty tubes/ 120 gallon Sepco storage tank
Evac C




                641              13.5/5.5   1.5          N/A          175
                                                                              with electric element
                                                                              Thirty tubes/ 120 gallon storage tank coupled
                610              13.5/5.6   2.5          N/A          175
                                                                              with instantaneous gas hot water heater.
                                                                              Six hundred sf building integrated collector
Bldg. Int.




                700              12         2.5          N/A          N/A     under metal roof/ 120 gallon single heat
                                                                              exchanger tank & 40 gallon conventional tank
                701              12         2.5          N/A          N/A     As above with electric resistance backup
                702              12         2.5          N/A          N/A     As above with propane backup

             Notes on Table 39: The Delta T is defined as the difference between the collector and solar tank
             temperatures. It is comprised of two numbers, the first indicates the Delta T at which the system pump
             turns on, and the second is the Delta T at which the system pump turns off. For example the Flat A Delta T
             setting is 12/8 – when the difference between collector and tank temperature is 12°F, the pump turns on
             and will continue to run until the Delta T drops to 8 °F. When the system is on, it runs at the “system
             pumping rate”. Additionally, the system pump will not turn on when the collector temperature is below the
             “collector low-limit” or when the tank temperature is above the “tank high limit”. Several systems do not
             have a collector low limit specified – however it is important to remember that there is an effective
             “collector low-limit” of minimum tank temperature plus Delta T. For example, since the tanks rarely fall
             below 60 °F, and Delta T is rarely set below 10 °, there is an effective collector low-limit of 70 °. Numbers
             in red indicate assumptions to be confirmed by the manufacturer. It is worth noting that Evac A&B does
             not have SRCC ratings for its flat plate collector and is not releasing system designs at this time.
             Therefore, Evac A&B flat plate collectors (Systems would be labeled with 4 as the first digit, e.g., 4XX) are
             not shown in Table 39.




                                                                A2-2
                                                                                                             APPENDIX 3 - DATA MATRICES OF ESTIMATED ENERGY PERFORMANCE

                                                                                                                                                                  ANNUAL DATA - ALBANY
SYSTEM ID #      000-40   000-80   001-40   001-80   001-120   002-40   002-80    010     043-105   043-80      100       101     102     110     143     200     201     202     243     300     301     302     310     330      331     332      343     520     521     522     530      531     532      610     641     700     701      702
T1mean (F         124.0    123.7    125.1    125.0    125.0     124.0    123.7    125.1    125.3     125.4     116.6     116.7   116.6   116.7   139.6   115.2   115.2   115.2    141    108.6   108.2   108.6   108.2   127.6     128    127.6    138.7   97.4    97.4    97.4     127     128.2    127     93.5    128.6   84.3     84.1    84.3
T1min (F          118.5    118.3    124.0    123.7    122.1     118.5    118.3    125.1    123.9     123.8      53.9     53.6    53.9    53.4    122.3   54.7    54.7    54.7    121.5   52.4    52.3    52.4    52.3    117.8    119.6   117.8    121.3   49.9    49.9    49.9     118     119.3    118      53     121.4   46.1     46.1    46.1
T1max (F          125.0    125.1    125.2    125.2    125.2     125.0    125.1    125.1    127.3     126.5     171.2     171.6   171.2   171.3   171.2   170.9   170.9   170.9   170.9   170.2   170.2   170.2   170.2   163.4    159.2   163.4    170.6   165.8   165.8   165.8   162.7    161.5   162.7     141     150    133.6   133.2    133.6
T2mean (F                                                                                                       124      128.4    124     135     NA     123.4    127    123.4    NA      123    125.3    123    131.2    NA       NA      NA       NA     122.9   125.3   122.9    NA       NA      NA      125.6    NA     123.3   124.5    123.3
T2min (F                                                                                                        116      115.3    116    125.1    NA      116    115.3    116     NA     116.1   115.3   116.1   125.1    NA       NA      NA       NA      116    116.1    116     NA       NA      NA      125.1    NA     116.1    116     116.1
T2max (F                                                                                                       138.3      155    138.3   171.3    NA     136.7   152.9   136.7    NA     136.6   152.4   136.6   170.2    NA       NA      NA       NA     129.8   141.9   129.8    NA       NA      NA       141     NA      125    125.2     125
Eaux (kBtu       24466    27416    16147    16928    17709     24466    27416    17613    19926     20520      8668      4007    8668    4517    7560    8950    4069    8950    7270    10415   5033    10415   5706    19784    7789    19784    8170    13430   7587    13430   20995    7818    20995    7888    8295    16464   9778     16464
Esol (kBtu                                                                                                     13446     13483   13446   13467   11555   12826   12826   12826   7783    10843   10873   10843   10873   9224     9857    9224     6869    10091   10091   10091   7841     9955    7841     8517    6951    6217    6254     6217
E_Spump (kBtu                                                                                                   382       380     382     380     348     453     453     453     413     359     359     359     359     930      626     930      376     630     630     630     776      626     776      392     340     201     211      201
E_Bpump (kBtu                                                                                                   NA        NA      NA      NA      55      NA      NA      NA      53      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA       NA      NA       59      NA      NA      NA      NA       NA      NA       NA      NA      NA      NA       NA
E_disp (kBtu                                                                                                   15798     12140   15798   13096   12312   15517   12077   15517   13198   14051   11113   14051   11907   7632     9140    7632     12292   11036   8559    11036   6421     9110    6421     9725    9414    8002    6369     8002
__SF__ (                                                                                                       0.646     0.752   0.646   0.744   0.618   0.634   0.748   0.634   0.643   0.574   0.688   0.574   0.676   0.278    0.54    0.278    0.599   0.451   0.53    0.451   0.234    0.538   0.234    0.552   0.532   0.327   0.394    0.327
V_H2O_tot (gal   24236    24236    24236    24236    24236     24236    24236    24236    24236     24236     24235.8    24236   24236   24236   24236   24236   24236   24236   24236   24236   24236   24236   24236   24236    24236   24236    24236   24236   24236   24236   24236    24236   24236    24236   24236   24236   24236    24236
V_H2O_sol (gal                                                                                                15869.61   18447   15870   18276   15206   15563   18333   15563   15786   14116   16905   14116   16639   6879.5   13276   6879.5   14713   11130   13129   11130   5846.9   13280   5846.9   13661   13041   8173    9935.8   8173




                                                                                                                                                                          A3-1
Annual Data - All systems, All Locations
                                                                                                                                                          SOLAR PUMP ENERGY USAGE (KBTU)
SYSTEM ID #          000-40   000-80   001-40   001-80   001-120   002-40   002-80   010   043-105   043-80    100     101     102     110     143     200     201     202     243     300     301     302     310    330     331     332      343     520    521      522    530     531     532      610    641     700      701     702
Albany                                                                                                         382     380     382     380     348     453     453     453     413     359     359     359     359    930     626     930      376     630    630      630    776     626     776      392    340     201      211     201
Binghamton                                                                                                     378     378     378     377     340     451     451     451     409     353     354     353     354    877     604     877      368     604    604      604    720     594     720      385    328     192      201     192
Buffalo                                                                                                        371     370     371     369     334     446     446     446     403     351     351     351     351    902     616     902      365     608    608      608    737     600     737      382    330     186      194     186
Elmira                                                                                                         386     385     386     384     348     457     457     457     416     357     358     357     358    894     608     894      376     612    612      612    745     604     745      390    333     195      205     195
Islip                                                                                                          397     394     397     394     373     463     463     463     429     374     374     374     374    993     646     993      394     651    651      651    859     642     859      406    352     211      221     211
Jamestown                                                                                                      367     365     367     365     328     443     443     443     397     345     345     345     345    880     609     880      359     598    598      598    700     590     700      377    328     184      193     184
Massena                                                                                                        374     374     374     373     335     445     445     445     401     351     351     351     351    857     602     857      363     602    602      602    722     595     722      385    326     201      211     201
New York City                                                                                                  381     379     381     379     357     450     450     450     414     362     362     362     362    979     637     979      381     629    629      629    826     626     826      390    342     195      204     195
Plattsburgh                                                                                                    376     375     376     374     340     448     448     448     405     354     355     354     355    887     622     887      366     617    617      617    739     611     739      387    337     195      204     195
Rochester                                                                                                      372     370     372     369     334     443     443     443     404     350     351     350     351    900     614     900      368     611    611      611    748     608     748      381    332     189      198     189
Syracuse                                                                                                       365     363     365     363     328     436     436     436     394     346     346     346     346    863     611     863      356     596    596      596    727     593     727      376    328     191      200     191
Utica                                                                                                          362     361     362     360     324     435     435     435     393     343     344     343     344    868     608     868      355     596    596      596    708     592     708      375    327     188      196     188
Watertown                                                                                                      367     365     367     365     330     438     438     438     398     346     346     346     346    874     610     874      360     601    601      601    733     597     733      379    329     191      199     191


E_Bpump (kBTU)                                                                                                                                            BOILER PUMP ENERGY USAGE (KBTU)
SYSTEM ID #          000-40   000-80   001-40   001-80   001-120   002-40   002-80   010   043-105   043-80    100     101     102     110     143     200     201     202     243     300     301     302     310    330     331     332      343     520    521      522    530     531     532      610    641     700      701     702
Albany                                                                                                         NA      NA      NA      NA      55      NA      NA      NA      53      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      59      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Binghamton                                                                                                     NA      NA      NA      NA      63      NA      NA      NA      61      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      68      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Buffalo                                                                                                        NA      NA      NA      NA      59      NA      NA      NA      57      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      63      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Elmira                                                                                                         NA      NA      NA      NA      62      NA      NA      NA      59      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      66      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Islip                                                                                                          NA      NA      NA      NA      42      NA      NA      NA      42      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      49      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Jamestown                                                                                                      NA      NA      NA      NA      62      NA      NA      NA      59      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      66      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Massena                                                                                                        NA      NA      NA      NA      64      NA      NA      NA      63      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      69      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
New York City                                                                                                  NA      NA      NA      NA      44      NA      NA      NA      45      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      51      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Plattsburgh                                                                                                    NA      NA      NA      NA      60      NA      NA      NA      58      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      65      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Rochester                                                                                                      NA      NA      NA      NA      59      NA      NA      NA      56      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      62      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Syracuse                                                                                                       NA      NA      NA      NA      60      NA      NA      NA      59      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      65      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Utica                                                                                                          NA      NA      NA      NA      62      NA      NA      NA      60      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      66      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA
Watertown                                                                                                      NA      NA      NA      NA      60      NA      NA      NA      59      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      64      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA




E_disp (kBTU)                                                                                                                                         ENERGY DISPLACED BY SOLAR SYSTEM (KBTU)
SYSTEM ID #          000-40   000-80   001-40   001-80   001-120   002-40   002-80   010   043-105   043-80    100     101     102     110     143     200     201     202     243     300     301     302     310    330     331     332      343     520    521      522    530     531     532      610    641     700      701     702
Albany                                                                                                        15798   12140   15798   13096   12312   15517   12077   15517   13198   14051   11113   14051   11907   7632    9140    7632    12292   11036   8559    11036   6421    9110    6421    9725    9414    8002    6369    8002
Binghamton                                                                                                    15030   11826   15030   12724   11554   14776   11755   14776   12487   13099   10669   13099   11383   6831    8515    6831    11560   10165   7974    10165   5675    8560    5675    9103    8922    7384    5860    7384
Buffalo                                                                                                       14807   11419   14807   12190   11548   14619   11400   14619   12451   13182   10464   13182   11097   6956    8572    6956    11534   10310   7993    10310   5929    8529    5929    9086    8949    7441    5907    7441
Elmira                                                                                                        15402   12097   15402   13030   11766   15178   12035   15178   12809   13489   10913   13489   11687   7107    8687    7107    11782   10401   8152    10401   5891    8734    5891    9376    9069    7551    6000    7551
Islip                                                                                                         16693   12572   16693   13572   13252   16367   12428   16367   13685   14904   11568   14904   12402   8501    9498    8501    12637   11606   8973    11606   7274    9445    7274    10179   9746    8046    6395    8046
Jamestown                                                                                                     14457   11245   14457   11990   11115   14266   11195   14266   12135   12757   10228   12757   10811   6597    8335    6597    11279   10027   7805    10027   5559    8349    5559    8836    8752    7292    5785    7292
Massena                                                                                                       15246   11926   15246   12813   11872   15014   11885   15014   12789   13526   10939   13526   11657   7067    8817    7067    11903   10480   8204    10480   6053    8793    6053    9460    9113    7785    6191    7785
New York City                                                                                                 15731   11888   15731   12761   12456   15358   11721   15358   12796   13933   10844   13933   11558   7847    8948    7847    11909   10969   8441    10969   6612    8934    6612    9435    9318    7578    6016    7578
Plattsburgh                                                                                                   15653   12074   15653   13006   12088   15394   12011   15394   13063   13992   11132   13992   11898   7293    9164    7293    12055   10958   8533    10958   6144    9054    6144    9746    9362    7842    6228    7842
Rochester                                                                                                     14778   11373   14778   12170   11485   14642   11372   14642   12487   13160   10427   13160   11045   7076    8570    7076    11691   10424   8038    10424   6084    8612    6084    9082    8996    7686    6115    7686
Syracuse                                                                                                      14893   11479   14893   12295   11521   14546   11381   14546   12383   13146   10479   13146   11100   6902    8613    6902    11447   10394   8076    10394   5993    8612    5993    9115    8991    7795    6196    7795
Utica                                                                                                         14691   11404   14691   12202   11280   14354   11312   14354   12182   12921   10361   12921   10970   6715    8518    6715    11356   10239   7960    10239   5765    8526    5765    8945    8891    7680    6095    7680
Watertown                                                                                                     14868   11478   14868   12293   11511   14565   11408   14565   12403   13150   10465   13150   11108   6903    8604    6903    11608   10409   8070    10409   5929    8609    5929    9137    8987    7755    6164    7755




Solar Fraction                                                                                                                                                   SOLAR FRACTION (%)
SYSTEM ID #          000-40   000-80   001-40   001-80   001-120   002-40   002-80   010   043-105   043-80    100     101     102     110     143     200     201     202     243     300     301     302     310    330     331     332      343     520    521      522    530     531     532      610    641     700      701     702
Albany                                                                                                        64.6%   75.2%   64.6%   74.4%   61.8%   63.4%   74.8%   63.4%   64.3%   57.4%   68.8%   57.4%   67.6%   27.8%   54.0%   27.8%   59.9%   45.1%   53.0%   45.1%   23.4%   53.8%   23.4%   55.2%   53.2%   32.7%   39.4%   32.7%
Binghamton                                                                                                    60.1%   71.4%   60.1%   70.2%   56.8%   59.1%   70.9%   59.1%   59.4%   52.4%   64.4%   52.4%   62.8%   24.4%   49.1%   24.4%   55.0%   40.7%   48.1%   40.7%   20.3%   49.3%   20.3%   50.2%   49.3%   29.5%   35.4%   29.5%
Buffalo                                                                                                       61.0%   71.4%   61.0%   69.9%   58.5%   60.2%   71.3%   60.2%   61.2%   54.3%   65.4%   54.3%   63.7%   25.5%   51.1%   25.5%   56.7%   42.5%   50.0%   42.5%   21.8%   50.8%   21.8%   52.1%   50.9%   30.7%   36.9%   30.7%
Elmira                                                                                                        61.6%   73.0%   61.6%   71.9%   57.9%   60.7%   72.6%   60.7%   60.9%   54.0%   65.8%   54.0%   64.5%   25.4%   50.0%   25.4%   56.1%   41.6%   49.2%   41.6%   21.1%   50.3%   21.1%   51.7%   50.1%   30.2%   36.2%   30.2%
Islip                                                                                                         71.4%   82.3%   71.4%   81.9%   69.6%   70.0%   81.3%   70.0%   70.2%   63.7%   75.7%   63.7%   74.9%   32.3%   59.1%   32.3%   64.8%   49.6%   58.7%   49.6%   27.6%   58.8%   27.6%   61.5%   57.7%   34.4%   41.8%   34.4%
Jamestown                                                                                                     59.4%   70.1%   59.4%   68.6%   56.3%   58.7%   69.8%   58.7%   59.5%   52.4%   63.8%   52.4%   61.9%   24.2%   49.6%   24.2%   55.3%   41.2%   48.7%   41.2%   20.4%   49.6%   20.4%   50.6%   49.7%   30.0%   36.1%   30.0%
Massena                                                                                                       59.8%   70.2%   59.8%   68.8%   57.0%   58.9%   70.0%   58.9%   59.5%   53.0%   64.4%   53.0%   62.6%   24.8%   49.6%   24.8%   55.4%   41.1%   48.3%   41.1%   21.3%   49.5%   21.3%   50.8%   49.2%   30.5%   36.5%   30.5%
New York City                                                                                                 68.8%   80.0%   68.8%   79.5%   66.9%   67.2%   78.9%   67.2%   67.4%   60.9%   73.0%   60.9%   72.0%   30.4%   57.2%   30.4%   62.7%   48.0%   56.8%   48.0%   25.6%   57.1%   25.6%   58.8%   56.5%   33.1%   40.5%   33.1%
Plattsburgh                                                                                                   62.4%   72.5%   62.4%   71.4%   59.2%   61.4%   72.2%   61.4%   61.9%   55.8%   66.9%   55.8%   65.3%   26.0%   52.6%   26.0%   57.1%   43.7%   51.3%   43.7%   21.9%   51.9%   21.9%   53.5%   51.5%   31.3%   37.4%   31.3%
Rochester                                                                                                     61.0%   71.3%   61.0%   70.1%   58.4%   60.5%   71.3%   60.5%   61.6%   54.3%   65.4%   54.3%   63.6%   26.0%   51.2%   26.0%   57.6%   43.0%   50.4%   43.0%   22.4%   51.5%   22.4%   52.3%   51.3%   31.7%   38.3%   31.7%
Syracuse                                                                                                      60.8%   71.0%   60.8%   69.7%   57.9%   59.4%   70.4%   59.4%   60.3%   53.7%   64.8%   53.7%   62.9%   25.2%   50.8%   25.2%   55.7%   42.4%   50.0%   42.4%   21.8%   50.8%   21.8%   51.7%   50.7%   31.8%   38.3%   31.8%
Utica                                                                                                         60.0%   70.5%   60.0%   69.2%   56.6%   58.6%   70.0%   58.6%   59.3%   52.8%   64.1%   52.8%   62.2%   24.5%   50.3%   24.5%   55.3%   41.8%   49.2%   41.8%   21.0%   50.3%   21.0%   50.7%   50.1%   31.4%   37.7%   31.4%
Watertown                                                                                                     60.7%   71.0%   60.7%   69.7%   57.8%   59.5%   70.6%   59.5%   60.4%   53.7%   64.7%   53.7%   63.0%   25.2%   50.8%   25.2%   56.5%   42.5%   49.9%   42.5%   21.6%   50.8%   21.6%   51.8%   50.7%   31.7%   38.1%   31.7%




                                                                                                                                                                       A3-2
                              APPENDIX 4 – RESIDENTIAL ENERGY COSTS


                                    Table 40. Residential Cost of Energy
                                                   Natural
              Electricity**         Oil*            Gas**          Propane*        Utility
Location      (cents/kWh)      (cents/gallon)   (cents/therm)    (cents/gallon)    (Electric)   Utility (Gas)
                                                                                   National
                                                                                   Grid
                                                                                   (Capital
Albany                13.5             257.2            117.5              246.4   Region)      National Grid
                                                                                                NYSEG
Binghamton            12.9             257.2              96.2             216.5   NYSEG        (Binghamton)
                                                                                   National
                                                                                   Grid
                                                                                   (Frontier    National Fuel
Buffalo               12.1             243.9            132.7              217.1   Region)      Gas
                                                                                                NYSEG
Elmira                12.9             243.9            130.5              217.1   NYSEG        (Elmira Area)
Islip                 19.9             271.9            145.3              251.4   LIPA         Keyspan
                                                                                   National
                                                                                   Grid
                                                                                   (Frontier    National Fuel
Jamestown             12.1             243.9            132.7              217.1   Region)***   Gas
                                                                                   National
                                                                                   Grid
                                                                                   (Utica       St. Lawrence
Massena               13.1             258.4            120.3              233.1   Region)      Gas
New York                                                                           Con
City                  21.1             275.8            172.4    -                 Edison       Con Edison
                                                                                                NYSEG
                                                                                                (Combined
Plattsburgh           12.9             258.4            135.1              233.1   NYSEG        Area)
                                                                                   Rochester    Rochester
                                                                                   Gas &        Gas &
Rochester              9.4             243.9            114.5              217.1   Electric     Electric
                                                                                   National
                                                                                   Grid
                                                                                   (Central
Syracuse              13.1             257.2            117.5              216.5   Region)      National Grid
                                                                                   National
                                                                                   Grid
                                                                                   (Utica
Utica                 13.1             257.2            117.5              216.5   Region)      National Grid
                                                                                   National
                                                                                   Grid
                                                                                   (Utica
Watertown             13.1             258.4            117.5              233.1   Region)      National Grid




                                                   A4-1
                                                                                                                                   APPENDIX 5 - ECONOMIC MATRICES

                                                                                                                                                     SDHW MATERIALS COST
SYSTEM ID #      100       101        102      110        143       200       201        202       243       300       301        302       310         330        331        332       343      520        521        522       530       531        532       610        641       700       701        702
Materials Cost    $5,684   $5,684     $5,684    $5,684    $5,834    $5,441    $5,441     $5,441    $5,610    $5,759    $5,759     $5,759    $5,759       $5,494    $5,494     $5,494    $5,959    $4,953    $4,953     $4,953    $4,794    $4,794      $4,794    $5,950    $5,950    $9,000    $9,000     $9,000


                                                                                                                                                     INSTALLATION COSTS
SYSTEM ID #      100       101        102      110        143       200       201        202       243       300       301        302       310         330        331        332       343      520        521        522       530       531        532       610        641       700       701        702
Albany            $4,593   $4,593     $4,593    $4,593    $4,593    $5,729    $5,729     $5,729    $5,729    $5,729    $5,729     $5,729    $5,729       $5,729    $5,729     $5,729    $5,729    $6,044    $6,044     $6,044    $6,044    $6,044      $6,044    $4,163    $4,163    $5,688    $5,688     $5,688
Binghamton        $3,357   $3,357     $3,357    $3,357    $3,357    $4,187    $4,187     $4,187    $4,187    $4,187    $4,187     $4,187    $4,187       $4,187    $4,187     $4,187    $4,187    $4,417    $4,417     $4,417    $4,417    $4,417      $4,417    $3,042    $3,042    $4,157    $4,157     $4,157
Buffalo           $4,541   $4,541     $4,541    $4,541    $4,541    $5,663    $5,663     $5,663    $5,663    $5,663    $5,663     $5,663    $5,663       $5,663    $5,663     $5,663    $5,663    $5,975    $5,975     $5,975    $5,975    $5,975      $5,975    $4,115    $4,115    $5,623    $5,623     $5,623
Elmira            $3,357   $3,357     $3,357    $3,357    $3,357    $4,187    $4,187     $4,187    $4,187    $4,187    $4,187     $4,187    $4,187       $4,187    $4,187     $4,187    $4,187    $4,417    $4,417     $4,417    $4,417    $4,417      $4,417    $3,042    $3,042    $4,157    $4,157     $4,157
Islip             $4,932   $4,932     $4,932    $4,932    $4,932    $6,151    $6,151     $6,151    $6,151    $6,151    $6,151     $6,151    $6,151       $6,151    $6,151     $6,151    $6,151    $6,490    $6,490     $6,490    $6,490    $6,490      $6,490    $4,470    $4,470    $6,107    $6,107     $6,107
Jamestown         $4,541   $4,541     $4,541    $4,541    $4,541    $5,663    $5,663     $5,663    $5,663    $5,663    $5,663     $5,663    $5,663       $5,663    $5,663     $5,663    $5,663    $5,975    $5,975     $5,975    $5,975    $5,975      $5,975    $4,115    $4,115    $5,623    $5,623     $5,623
Massena           $4,023   $4,023     $4,023    $4,023    $4,023    $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017    $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017       $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017    $5,293    $5,293     $5,293    $5,293    $5,293      $5,293    $3,646    $3,646    $4,981    $4,981     $4,981
New York City     $4,864   $4,864   4,863.70    $4,864    $4,864    $6,066    $6,066   6,066.05    $6,066    $6,066    $6,066   6,066.05    $6,066       $6,066    $6,066   6,066.05    $6,066    $6,400    $6,400   6,400.21    $6,400    $6,400    6,400.21    $4,408    $4,408    $6,023    $6,023   6,023.11
Plattsburgh       $4,023   $4,023     $4,023    $4,023    $4,023    $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017    $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017       $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017    $5,293    $5,293     $5,293    $5,293    $5,293      $5,293    $3,646    $3,646    $4,981    $4,981     $4,981
Rochester         $4,594   $4,594     $4,594    $4,594    $4,594    $5,729    $5,729     $5,729    $5,729    $5,729    $5,729     $5,729    $5,729       $5,729    $5,729     $5,729    $5,729    $6,045    $6,045     $6,045    $6,045    $6,045      $6,045    $4,164    $4,164    $5,689    $5,689     $5,689
Syracuse          $4,242   $4,242     $4,242    $4,242    $4,242    $5,290    $5,290     $5,290    $5,290    $5,290    $5,290     $5,290    $5,290       $5,290    $5,290     $5,290    $5,290    $5,582    $5,582     $5,582    $5,582    $5,582      $5,582    $3,845    $3,845    $5,253    $5,253     $5,253
Utica            $4,380    $4,380     $4,380    $4,380    $4,380    $5,462    $5,462     $5,462    $5,462    $5,462    $5,462     $5,462    $5,462       $5,462    $5,462     $5,462    $5,462    $5,763    $5,763     $5,763    $5,763    $5,763      $5,763    $3,969    $3,969    $5,424    $5,424     $5,424
Watertown        $4,023    $4,023     $4,023    $4,023    $4,023    $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017    $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017       $5,017    $5,017     $5,017    $5,017    $5,293    $5,293     $5,293    $5,293    $5,293      $5,293    $3,646    $3,646    $4,981    $4,981     $4,981


                                                                                                                                                  FULLY INSTALLED COSTS
SYSTEM ID #      100       101        102      110        143       200       201        202       243       300       301        302       310         330        331        332       343      520        521        522       530       531        532       610        641       700       701        702
Albany           $10,277 $10,277    $10,277    $10,277   $10,427   $11,170   $11,170   $11,170    $11,339   $11,488   $11,488   $11,488    $11,488      $11,223   $11,223   $11,223    $11,688   $10,997   $10,997   $10,997    $10,838   $10,838     $10,838   $10,113   $10,113   $14,688   $14,688   $14,688
Binghamton        $9,041   $9,041     $9,041    $9,041    $9,191    $9,628    $9,628     $9,628    $9,797    $9,946    $9,946     $9,946    $9,946       $9,681    $9,681     $9,681   $10,146    $9,370    $9,370     $9,370    $9,211    $9,211      $9,211    $8,992    $8,992   $13,157   $13,157   $13,157
Buffalo          $10,225 $10,225    $10,225    $10,225   $10,375   $11,104   $11,104   $11,104    $11,273   $11,422   $11,422   $11,422    $11,422      $11,157   $11,157   $11,157    $11,622   $10,928   $10,928   $10,928    $10,769   $10,769     $10,769   $10,065   $10,065   $14,623   $14,623   $14,623
Elmira            $9,041   $9,041     $9,041    $9,041    $9,191    $9,628    $9,628     $9,628    $9,797    $9,946    $9,946     $9,946    $9,946       $9,681    $9,681     $9,681   $10,146    $9,370    $9,370     $9,370    $9,211    $9,211      $9,211    $8,992    $8,992   $13,157   $13,157   $13,157
Islip            $10,616 $10,616    $10,616    $10,616   $10,766   $11,592   $11,592   $11,592    $11,761   $11,910   $11,910   $11,910    $11,910      $11,645   $11,645   $11,645    $12,110   $11,443   $11,443   $11,443    $11,284   $11,284     $11,284   $10,420   $10,420   $15,107   $15,107   $15,107
Jamestown        $10,225 $10,225    $10,225    $10,225   $10,375   $11,104   $11,104   $11,104    $11,273   $11,422   $11,422   $11,422    $11,422      $11,157   $11,157   $11,157    $11,622   $10,928   $10,928   $10,928    $10,769   $10,769     $10,769   $10,065   $10,065   $14,623   $14,623   $14,623
Massena           $9,707   $9,707     $9,707    $9,707    $9,857   $10,458   $10,458   $10,458    $10,627   $10,776   $10,776   $10,776    $10,776      $10,511   $10,511   $10,511    $10,976   $10,246   $10,246   $10,246    $10,087   $10,087     $10,087    $9,596    $9,596   $13,981   $13,981   $13,981
New York City    $10,548 $10,548 ########      $10,548   $10,698   $11,507   $11,507 ########     $11,676   $11,825   $11,825 ########     $11,825      $11,560   $11,560 ########     $12,025   $11,353   $11,353 ########     $11,194   $11,194   11,194.21   $10,358   $10,358   $15,023   $15,023 ########
Plattsburgh       $9,707   $9,707     $9,707    $9,707    $9,857   $10,458   $10,458   $10,458    $10,627   $10,776   $10,776   $10,776    $10,776      $10,511   $10,511   $10,511    $10,976   $10,246   $10,246   $10,246    $10,087   $10,087     $10,087    $9,596    $9,596   $13,981   $13,981   $13,981
Rochester        $10,278 $10,278    $10,278    $10,278   $10,428   $11,170   $11,170   $11,170    $11,339   $11,488   $11,488   $11,488    $11,488      $11,223   $11,223   $11,223    $11,688   $10,998   $10,998   $10,998    $10,839   $10,839     $10,839   $10,114   $10,114   $14,689   $14,689   $14,689
Syracuse          $9,926   $9,926     $9,926    $9,926   $10,076   $10,731   $10,731   $10,731    $10,900   $11,049   $11,049   $11,049    $11,049      $10,784   $10,784   $10,784    $11,249   $10,535   $10,535   $10,535    $10,376   $10,376     $10,376    $9,795    $9,795   $14,253   $14,253   $14,253
Utica            $10,064 $10,064    $10,064    $10,064   $10,214   $10,903   $10,903   $10,903    $11,072   $11,221   $11,221   $11,221    $11,221      $10,956   $10,956   $10,956    $11,421   $10,716   $10,716   $10,716    $10,557   $10,557     $10,557    $9,919    $9,919   $14,424   $14,424   $14,424
Watertown         $9,707   $9,707     $9,707    $9,707    $9,857   $10,458   $10,458   $10,458    $10,627   $10,776   $10,776   $10,776    $10,776      $10,511   $10,511   $10,511    $10,976   $10,246   $10,246   $10,246    $10,087   $10,087     $10,087    $9,596    $9,596   $13,981   $13,981   $13,981




                                                                                                                                                        A5-1
                                                                                                                            SDHW MATERIALS MAINTENANCE COST
SYSTEM ID #      100         101     102      110         143     200     201     202      243     300     301     302       310     330         331     332     343     520         521     522      530     531     532         610     641     700        701        702
Materials Cost     $112       $112     $112     $112       $120    $103    $103     $103    $113    $103    $103     $103     $103         $50     $50     $50    $113         $88     $88      $88     $50     $50         $50     $85     $85     $35        $35        $35


                                                                                                                            ANNUAL LABOR MAINTENANCE COSTS
SYSTEM ID #      100         101     102      110         143     200     201     202      243     300     301     302       310     330         331     332     343     520         521     522      530     531     532         610     641     700        701        702
Albany                 $18     $18      $18         $18     $18     $18     $18      $18     $18     $18     $18      $18      $18         $16     $16     $16     $18         $18     $18      $18     $16     $16         $16     $18     $18     $14        $14        $14
Binghamton             $12     $12      $12         $12     $12     $12     $12      $12     $12     $12     $12      $12      $12         $11     $11     $11     $12         $12     $12      $12     $11     $11         $11     $12     $12         $9         $9         $9
Buffalo                $18     $18      $18         $18     $18     $18     $18      $18     $18     $18     $18      $18      $18         $16     $16     $16     $18         $18     $18      $18     $16     $16         $16     $18     $18     $13        $13        $13
Elmira                 $12     $12      $12         $12     $12     $12     $12      $12     $12     $12     $12      $12      $12         $11     $11     $11     $12         $12     $12      $12     $11     $11         $11     $12     $12         $9         $9         $9
Islip                  $19     $19      $19         $19     $19     $19     $19      $19     $19     $19     $19      $19      $19         $17     $17     $17     $19         $19     $19      $19     $17     $17         $17     $19     $19     $14        $14        $14
Jamestown              $18     $18      $18         $18     $18     $18     $18      $18     $18     $18     $18      $18      $18         $16     $16     $16     $18         $18     $18      $18     $16     $16         $16     $18     $18     $13        $13        $13
Massena                $16     $16      $16         $16     $16     $16     $16      $16     $16     $16     $16      $16      $16         $14     $14     $14     $16         $16     $16      $16     $14     $14         $14     $16     $16     $12        $12        $12
New York City          $19     $19    18.71         $19     $19     $19     $19    18.71     $19     $19     $19    18.71      $19         $16     $16   16.45     $19         $19     $19    18.71     $16     $16    16.45        $19     $19     $14        $14      14.19
Plattsburgh            $16     $16      $16         $16     $16     $16     $16      $16     $16     $16     $16      $16      $16         $14     $14     $14     $16         $16     $16      $16     $14     $14         $14     $16     $16     $12        $12        $12
Rochester              $18     $18      $18         $18     $18     $18     $18      $18     $18     $18     $18      $18      $18         $16     $16     $16     $18         $18     $18      $18     $16     $16         $16     $18     $18     $14        $14        $14
Syracuse               $17     $17      $17         $17     $17     $17     $17      $17     $17     $17     $17      $17      $17         $15     $15     $15     $17         $17     $17      $17     $15     $15         $15     $17     $17     $13        $13        $13
Utica                  $17     $17      $17         $17     $17     $17     $17      $17     $17     $17     $17      $17      $17         $15     $15     $15     $17         $17     $17      $17     $15     $15         $15     $17     $17     $13        $13        $13
Watertown              $16     $16      $16         $16     $16     $16     $16      $16     $16     $16     $16      $16      $16         $14     $14     $14     $16         $16     $16      $16     $14     $14         $14     $16     $16     $12        $12        $12


                                                                                                                            ANNUAL TOTAL MAINTENANCE COSTS
SYSTEM ID #      100         101     102      110         143     200     201     202      243     300     301     302       310     330         331     332     343     520         521     522      530     531     532         610     641     700        701        702
Albany             $130       $130     $130     $130       $138    $121    $121     $121    $131    $121    $121     $121     $121         $66     $66     $66    $131     $106       $106     $106     $66     $66         $66    $103    $103     $49        $49        $49
Binghamton         $124       $124     $124     $124       $132    $115    $115     $115    $125    $115    $115     $115     $115         $61     $61     $61    $125     $100       $100     $100     $61     $61         $61     $97     $97     $44        $44        $44
Buffalo            $130       $130     $130     $130       $138    $120    $120     $120    $130    $120    $120     $120     $120         $66     $66     $66    $130     $106       $106     $106     $66     $66         $66    $103    $103     $48        $48        $48
Elmira             $124       $124     $124     $124       $132    $115    $115     $115    $125    $115    $115     $115     $115         $61     $61     $61    $125     $100       $100     $100     $61     $61         $61     $97     $97     $44        $44        $44
Islip              $131       $131     $131     $131       $139    $121    $121     $121    $131    $121    $121     $121     $121         $67     $67     $67    $131     $107       $107     $107     $67     $67         $67    $104    $104     $49        $49        $49
Jamestown          $130       $130     $130     $130       $138    $120    $120     $120    $130    $120    $120     $120     $120         $66     $66     $66    $130     $106       $106     $106     $66     $66         $66    $103    $103     $48        $48        $48
Massena            $128       $128     $128     $128       $136    $118    $118     $118    $128    $118    $118     $118     $118         $64     $64     $64    $128     $103       $103     $103     $64     $64         $64    $101    $101     $47        $47        $47
New York City      $131       $131   130.71     $131       $139    $121    $121   121.21    $131    $121    $121   121.21     $121         $66     $66   66.45    $131     $107       $107   106.66     $66     $66    66.45       $104    $104     $49        $49      49.19
Plattsburgh        $128       $128     $128     $128       $136    $118    $118     $118    $128    $118    $118     $118     $118         $64     $64     $64    $128     $103       $103     $103     $64     $64         $64    $101    $101     $47        $47        $47
Rochester          $130       $130     $130     $130       $138    $120    $120     $120    $130    $120    $120     $120     $120         $66     $66     $66    $130     $106       $106     $106     $66     $66         $66    $103    $103     $49        $49        $49
Syracuse           $129       $129     $129     $129       $137    $119    $119     $119    $129    $119    $119     $119     $119         $65     $65     $65    $129     $105       $105     $105     $65     $65         $65    $102    $102     $48        $48        $48
Utica              $129       $129     $129     $129       $137    $120    $120     $120    $130    $120    $120     $120     $120         $65     $65     $65    $130     $105       $105     $105     $65     $65         $65    $102    $102     $48        $48        $48
Watertown          $128       $128     $128     $128       $136    $118    $118     $118    $128    $118    $118     $118     $118         $64     $64     $64    $128     $103       $103     $103     $64     $64         $64    $101    $101     $47        $47        $47




                                                                                                                                     A5-2
                                                                                                                   SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER USAGE (GALLONS)
SYSTEM ID #      100      101      102      110      143      200      201      202      243      300      301      302      310     330      331     332      343      520      521      522     530      531     532      610      641     700      701     702
Albany          15,656   18,225   15,656   18,032   14,978   15,366   18,129   15,366   15,584   13,911   16,674   13,911   16,384   6,738   13,087   6,738   14,517   10,930   12,845   10,930   5,671   13,039   5,671   13,378   12,894   7,925   9,549    7,925
Binghamton      14,566   17,305   14,566   17,014   13,766   14,323   17,183   14,323   14,396   12,700   15,608   12,700   15,220   5,914   11,900   5,914   13,330   9,864    11,658   9,864    4,920   11,948   4,920   12,166   11,948   7,150   8,580    7,150
Buffalo         14,784   17,305   14,784   16,941   14,178   14,590   17,280   14,590   14,832   13,160   15,850   13,160   15,438   6,180   12,385   6,180   13,742   10,300   12,118   10,300   5,283   12,312   5,283   12,627   12,336   7,440   8,943    7,440
Elmira          14,929   17,692   14,929   17,426   14,033   14,711   17,595   14,711   14,760   13,087   15,947   13,087   15,632   6,156   12,118   6,156   13,596   10,082   11,924   10,082   5,114   12,191   5,114   12,530   12,142   7,319   8,773    7,319
Islip           17,305   19,946   17,305   19,849   16,868   16,965   19,704   16,965   17,014   15,438   18,347   15,438   18,153   7,828   14,323   7,828   15,705   12,021   14,227   12,021   6,689   14,251   6,689   14,905   13,984   8,337   10,131   8,337
Jamestown       14,396   16,989   14,396   16,626   13,645   14,227   16,917   14,227   14,420   12,700   15,463   12,700   15,002   5,865   12,021   5,865   13,403   9,985    11,803   9,985    4,944   12,021   4,944   12,263   12,045   7,271   8,749    7,271
Massena         14,493   17,014   14,493   16,674   13,815   14,275   16,965   14,275   14,420   12,845   15,608   12,845   15,172   6,011   12,021   6,011   13,427   9,961    11,706   9,961    5,162   11,997   5,162   12,312   11,924   7,392   8,846    7,392
New York City   16,674   19,389   16,674   19,268   16,214   16,287   19,122   16,287   16,335   14,760   17,692   14,760   17,450   7,368   13,863   7,368   15,196   11,633   13,766   11,633   6,204   13,839   6,204   14,251   13,693   8,022   9,816    8,022
Plattsburgh     15,123   17,571   15,123   17,305   14,348   14,881   17,498   14,881   15,002   13,524   16,214   13,524   15,826   6,301   12,748   6,301   13,839   10,591   12,433   10,591   5,308   12,578   5,308   12,966   12,482   7,586   9,064    7,586
Rochester       14,784   17,280   14,784   16,989   14,154   14,663   17,280   14,663   14,929   13,160   15,850   13,160   15,414   6,301   12,409   6,301   13,960   10,421   12,215   10,421   5,429   12,482   5,429   12,675   12,433   7,683   9,282    7,683
Syracuse        14,735   17,208   14,735   16,892   14,033   14,396   17,062   14,396   14,614   13,015   15,705   13,015   15,244   6,107   12,312   6,107   13,499   10,276   12,118   10,276   5,283   12,312   5,283   12,530   12,288   7,707   9,282    7,707
Utica           14,542   17,086   14,542   16,771   13,718   14,202   16,965   14,202   14,372   12,797   15,535   12,797   15,075   5,938   12,191   5,938   13,403   10,131   11,924   10,131   5,090   12,191   5,090   12,288   12,142   7,610   9,137    7,610
Watertown       14,711   17,208   14,711   16,892   14,008   14,420   17,111   14,420   14,639   13,015   15,681   13,015   15,269   6,107   12,312   6,107   13,693   10,300   12,094   10,300   5,235   12,312   5,235   12,554   12,288   7,683   9,234    7,683




                                                                                                                                      A5-3
Fuel Savings. Savings indicated as positive numbers
                                                                                                                         FUEL SAVINGS - NATURAL GAS (THERMS)
SYSTEM ID #                 100        101        102    110    143    200    201     202    243    300    301     302       310     330    331     332       343   520    521     522    530    531     532    610    641     700   701     702
Albany                      158                          131           155                          141                      119     76                             110                   64                    97             80
Binghamton                  150                          127           148                          131                      114     68                             102                   57                    91             74
Buffalo                     148                          122           146                          132                      111     70                             103                   59                    91             74
Elmira                      154                          130           152                          135                      117     71                             104                   59                    94             76
Islip                       167                          136           164                          149                      124     85                             116                   73                    102            80
Jamestown                   145                          120           143                          128                      108     66                             100                   56                    88             73
Massena                     152                          128           150                          135                      117     71                             105                   61                    95             78
New York City               157                          128           154                          139                      116     78                             110                   66                    94             76
Plattsburgh                 157                          130           154                          140                      119     73                             110                   61                    97             78
Rochester                   148                          122           146                          132                      110     71                             104                   61                    91             77
Syracuse                    149                          123           145                          131                      111     69                             104                   60                    91             78
Utica                       147                          122           144                          129                      110     67                             102                   58                    89             77
Watertown                   149                          123           146                          132                      111     69                             104                   59                    91             78


                                                                                                                          FUEL SAVINGS - ELECTRICITY (KWH)
SYSTEM ID #                 100        101        102    110    143    200    201     202    243    300    301     302       310     330    331     332       343   520    521     522    530    531     532    610    641     700   701     702
Albany                      -112      3,446       -112   -111   -118   -133   3,406   -133   -137   -105   3,151   -105      -105   -272    2,495   -272     -127   -185   2,323   -185   -227   2,486   -227   -115   2,659   -59   1,804   -59
Binghamton                  -111      3,354       -111   -110   -118   -132   3,312   -132   -138   -103   3,022   -103      -104   -257    2,318   -257     -128   -177   2,159   -177   -211   2,334   -211   -113   2,518   -56   1,658   -56
Buffalo                     -109      3,237       -109   -108   -115   -131   3,209   -131   -135   -103   2,963   -103      -103   -264    2,331   -264     -125   -178   2,164   -178   -216   2,323   -216   -112   2,525   -54   1,674   -54
Elmira                      -113      3,432       -113   -113   -120   -134   3,392   -134   -139   -105   3,093   -105      -105   -262    2,367   -262     -130   -179   2,209   -179   -218   2,382   -218   -114   2,560   -57   1,698   -57
Islip                       -116      3,568       -116   -115   -122   -136   3,506   -136   -138   -110   3,280   -110      -110   -291    2,594   -291     -130   -191   2,438   -191   -252   2,579   -252   -119   2,752   -62   1,809   -62
Jamestown                   -108      3,188       -108   -107   -114   -130   3,150   -130   -134   -101   2,896   -101      -101   -258    2,264   -258     -125   -175   2,112   -175   -205   2,273   -205   -110   2,468   -54   1,638   -54
Massena                     -110      3,385       -110   -109   -117   -130   3,352   -130   -136   -103   3,102   -103      -103   -251    2,407   -251     -127   -176   2,227   -176   -212   2,402   -212   -113   2,575   -59   1,752   -59
New York City               -112      3,372       -112   -111   -117   -132   3,302   -132   -134   -106   3,071   -106      -106   -287    2,435   -287     -127   -184   2,289   -184   -242   2,434   -242   -114   2,630   -57   1,703   -57
Plattsburgh                 -110      3,428       -110   -110   -117   -131   3,388   -131   -136   -104   3,158   -104      -104   -260    2,503   -260     -126   -181   2,319   -181   -217   2,474   -217   -113   2,644   -57   1,765   -57
Rochester                   -109      3,224       -109   -108   -115   -130   3,202   -130   -135   -103   2,952   -103      -103   -264    2,331   -264     -126   -179   2,176   -179   -219   2,345   -219   -112   2,539   -55   1,734   -55
Syracuse                    -107      3,257       -107   -106   -114   -128   3,207   -128   -133   -101   2,969   -101      -101   -253    2,345   -253     -123   -175   2,192   -175   -213   2,350   -213   -110   2,538   -56   1,757   -56
Utica                       -106      3,236       -106   -105   -113   -127   3,187   -127   -133   -100   2,935   -100      -101    -254   2,318   -254     -123   -175   2,158   -175   -207   2,325   -207   -110   2,509   -55   1,728   -55
Watertown                   -108      3,256       -108   -107   -114   -128   3,214   -128   -134   -101   2,965   -101      -101    -256   2,342   -256     -124   -176   2,188   -176   -215   2,347   -215   -111   2,537   -56   1,748   -56



                                                                                                                          FUEL SAVINGS - PROPANE (GALLONS)
SYSTEM ID #                 100        101        102    110    143    200    201     202    243    300    301     302       310     330    331     332       343   520    521     522    530    531     532    610    641     700   701     702
Albany                                            165                                 162                          147                              80                             116                   67                                  84
Binghamton                                        157                                 155                          137                              72                             106                   59                                  77
Buffalo                                           155                                 153                          138                              73                             108                   62                                  78
Elmira                                            161                                 159                          141                              74                             109                   62                                  79
Islip                                             175                                 171                          156                              89                             122                   76                                  84
Jamestown                                         151                                 149                          134                              69                             105                   58                                  76
Massena                                           160                                 157                          142                              74                             110                   63                                  82
New York City                                     165                                 161                          146                              82                             115                   69                                  79
Plattsburgh                                       164                                 161                          147                              76                             115                   64                                  82
Rochester                                         155                                 153                          138                              74                             109                   64                                  80
Syracuse                                          156                                 152                          138                              72                             109                   63                                  82
Utica                                             154                                 150                          135                              70                             107                   60                                  80
Watertown                                         156                                 153                          138                              72                             109                   62                                  81



                                                                                                                          FUEL SAVINGS - FUEL OIL (GALLONS)
SYSTEM ID #                 100        101        102    110    143    200    201     202    243    300    301     302       310     330    331     332       343   520    521     522    530    531     532    610    641     700   701     702
Albany                                                          89                           95                                                               89
Binghamton                                                      83                           90                                                               83
Buffalo                                                         83                           90                                                               83
Elmira                                                          85                           92                                                               85
Islip                                                           95                           99                                                               91
Jamestown                                                       80                           87                                                               81
Massena                                                         85                           92                                                               86
New York City                                                   90                           92                                                               86
Plattsburgh                                                     87                           94                                                               87
Rochester                                                       83                           90                                                               84
Syracuse                                                        83                           89                                                               82
Utica                                                           81                           88                                                               82
Watertown                                                       83                           89                                                               84




                                                                                                                                     A5-4
                                                                                                                          INSTALLED COST WITHOUT TAX CREDITS ($)
SYSTEM ID #     100      101        102      110      143      200      201        202      243      300      301        302       310      330      331        332      343      520      521        522      530      531        532       610      641      700      701        702
Albany          10,277   10,277    10,277    10,277   10,427   11,170   11,170    11,170    11,339   11,488   11,488    11,488     11,488   11,223   11,223    11,223    11,688   10,997   10,997    10,997    10,838   10,838     10,838    10,113   10,113   14,688   14,688    14,688
Binghamton       9,041    9,041     9,041     9,041    9,191    9,628    9,628     9,628     9,797    9,946    9,946     9,946      9,946    9,681    9,681     9,681    10,146    9,370    9,370     9,370     9,211    9,211       9,211    8,992    8,992   13,157   13,157    13,157
Buffalo         10,225   10,225    10,225    10,225   10,375   11,104   11,104    11,104    11,273   11,422   11,422    11,422     11,422   11,157   11,157    11,157    11,622   10,928   10,928    10,928    10,769   10,769     10,769    10,065   10,065   14,623   14,623    14,623
Elmira           9,041    9,041     9,041     9,041    9,191    9,628    9,628     9,628     9,797    9,946    9,946     9,946      9,946    9,681    9,681     9,681    10,146    9,370    9,370     9,370     9,211    9,211       9,211    8,992    8,992   13,157   13,157    13,157
Islip           10,616   10,616    10,616    10,616   10,766   11,592   11,592    11,592    11,761   11,910   11,910    11,910     11,910   11,645   11,645    11,645    12,110   11,443   11,443    11,443    11,284   11,284     11,284    10,420   10,420   15,107   15,107    15,107
Jamestown       10,225   10,225    10,225    10,225   10,375   11,104   11,104    11,104    11,273   11,422   11,422    11,422     11,422   11,157   11,157    11,157    11,622   10,928   10,928    10,928    10,769   10,769     10,769    10,065   10,065   14,623   14,623    14,623
Massena          9,707    9,707     9,707     9,707    9,857   10,458   10,458    10,458    10,627   10,776   10,776    10,776     10,776   10,511   10,511    10,511    10,976   10,246   10,246    10,246    10,087   10,087     10,087     9,596    9,596   13,981   13,981    13,981
New York City   10,548   10,548   ########   10,548   10,698   11,507   11,507   ########   11,676   11,825   11,825   ########    11,825   11,560   11,560   ########   12,025   11,353   11,353   ########   11,194   11,194   11,194.21   10,358   10,358   15,023   15,023   ########
Plattsburgh      9,707    9,707     9,707     9,707    9,857   10,458   10,458    10,458    10,627   10,776   10,776    10,776     10,776   10,511   10,511    10,511    10,976   10,246   10,246    10,246    10,087   10,087     10,087     9,596    9,596   13,981   13,981    13,981
Rochester       10,278   10,278    10,278    10,278   10,428   11,170   11,170    11,170    11,339   11,488   11,488    11,488     11,488   11,223   11,223    11,223    11,688   10,998   10,998    10,998    10,839   10,839     10,839    10,114   10,114   14,689   14,689    14,689
Syracuse         9,926    9,926     9,926     9,926   10,076   10,731   10,731    10,731    10,900   11,049   11,049    11,049     11,049   10,784   10,784    10,784    11,249   10,535   10,535    10,535    10,376   10,376     10,376     9,795    9,795   14,253   14,253    14,253
Utica           10,064   10,064    10,064    10,064   10,214   10,903   10,903    10,903    11,072   11,221   11,221    11,221     11,221   10,956   10,956    10,956    11,421   10,716   10,716    10,716    10,557   10,557     10,557     9,919    9,919   14,424   14,424    14,424
Watertown        9,707    9,707     9,707     9,707    9,857   10,458   10,458    10,458    10,627   10,776   10,776    10,776     10,776   10,511   10,511    10,511    10,976   10,246   10,246    10,246    10,087   10,087     10,087     9,596    9,596   13,981   13,981    13,981


                                                                                                                                  NEW YORK STATE TAX CREDIT ($)
SYSTEM ID #     100      101        102      110      143      200      201        202      243      300      301        302       310      330      331        332      343      520      521        522      530      531        532       610      641      700      701        702
Albany           2,569    2,569     2,569     2,569    2,607    2,792    2,792     2,792     2,835    2,872    2,872     2,872      2,872    2,806    2,806     2,806     2,922    2,749    2,749     2,749     2,710    2,710       2,710    2,528    2,528    3,672    3,672     3,672
Binghamton       2,260    2,260     2,260     2,260    2,298    2,407    2,407     2,407     2,449    2,486    2,486     2,486      2,486    2,420    2,420     2,420     2,536    2,343    2,343     2,343     2,303    2,303       2,303    2,248    2,248    3,289    3,289     3,289
Buffalo          2,556    2,556     2,556     2,556    2,594    2,776    2,776     2,776     2,818    2,856    2,856     2,856      2,856    2,789    2,789     2,789     2,906    2,732    2,732     2,732     2,692    2,692       2,692    2,516    2,516    3,656    3,656     3,656
Elmira           2,260    2,260     2,260     2,260    2,298    2,407    2,407     2,407     2,449    2,486    2,486     2,486      2,486    2,420    2,420     2,420     2,536    2,343    2,343     2,343     2,303    2,303       2,303    2,248    2,248    3,289    3,289     3,289
Islip            2,654    2,654     2,654     2,654    2,691    2,898    2,898     2,898     2,940    2,977    2,977     2,977      2,977    2,911    2,911     2,911     3,027    2,861    2,861     2,861     2,821    2,821       2,821    2,605    2,605    3,777    3,777     3,777
Jamestown        2,556    2,556     2,556     2,556    2,594    2,776    2,776     2,776     2,818    2,856    2,856     2,856      2,856    2,789    2,789     2,789     2,906    2,732    2,732     2,732     2,692    2,692       2,692    2,516    2,516    3,656    3,656     3,656
Massena          2,427    2,427     2,427     2,427    2,464    2,614    2,614     2,614     2,657    2,694    2,694     2,694      2,694    2,628    2,628     2,628     2,744    2,562    2,562     2,562     2,522    2,522       2,522    2,399    2,399    3,495    3,495     3,495
New York City    2,637    2,637   2,636.93    2,637    2,674    2,877    2,877   2,876.76    2,919    2,956    2,956   2,956.26     2,956    2,890    2,890   2,890.01    3,006    2,838    2,838   2,838.30    2,799    2,799    2,798.55    2,590    2,590    3,756    3,756   3,755.78
Plattsburgh      2,427    2,427     2,427     2,427    2,464    2,614    2,614     2,614     2,657    2,694    2,694     2,694      2,694    2,628    2,628     2,628     2,744    2,562    2,562     2,562     2,522    2,522       2,522    2,399    2,399    3,495    3,495     3,495
Rochester        2,569    2,569     2,569     2,569    2,607    2,793    2,793     2,793     2,835    2,872    2,872     2,872      2,872    2,806    2,806     2,806     2,922    2,750    2,750     2,750     2,710    2,710       2,710    2,528    2,528    3,672    3,672     3,672
Syracuse         2,481    2,481     2,481     2,481    2,519    2,683    2,683     2,683     2,725    2,762    2,762     2,762      2,762    2,696    2,696     2,696     2,812    2,634    2,634     2,634     2,594    2,594       2,594    2,449    2,449    3,563    3,563     3,563
Utica            2,516    2,516     2,516     2,516    2,553    2,726    2,726     2,726     2,768    2,805    2,805     2,805      2,805    2,739    2,739     2,739     2,855    2,679    2,679     2,679     2,639    2,639       2,639    2,480    2,480    3,606    3,606     3,606
Watertown        2,427    2,427     2,427     2,427    2,464    2,614    2,614     2,614     2,657    2,694    2,694     2,694      2,694    2,628    2,628     2,628     2,744    2,562    2,562     2,562     2,522    2,522       2,522    2,399    2,399    3,495    3,495     3,495


                                                                                                                                      FEDERAL TAX CREDIT ($)
SYSTEM ID #     100      101        102      110      143      200      201        202      243      300      301        302       310      330      331        332      343      520      521        522      530      531        532       610      641      700      701        702
Albany           2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Binghamton       2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Buffalo          2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Elmira           2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Islip            2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Jamestown        2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Massena          2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
New York City    2,000    2,000   2,000.00    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000   2,000.00    2,000    2,000    2,000   2,000.00     2,000    2,000    2,000   2,000.00    2,000    2,000    2,000   2,000.00    2,000    2,000    2,000.00    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000   2,000.00
Plattsburgh      2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Rochester        2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Syracuse         2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Utica            2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000
Watertown        2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000      2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000     2,000    2,000       2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000    2,000     2,000


                                                                                                                                  NET COST - AFTER TAX CREDITS
SYSTEM ID #     100      101        102      110      143      200      201        202      243      300      301        302       310      330      331        332      343      520      521        522      530      531        532       610      641      700      701        702
Albany           5,708    5,708     5,708     5,708    5,820    6,377    6,377     6,377     6,504    6,616    6,616     6,616      6,616    6,417    6,417     6,417     6,766    6,248    6,248     6,248     6,129    6,129       6,129    5,585    5,585    9,016    9,016     9,016
Binghamton       4,781    4,781     4,781     4,781    4,893    5,221    5,221     5,221     5,348    5,459    5,459     5,459      5,459    5,261    5,261     5,261     5,609    5,028    5,028     5,028     4,908    4,908       4,908    4,744    4,744    7,868    7,868     7,868
Buffalo          5,669    5,669     5,669     5,669    5,781    6,328    6,328     6,328     6,455    6,567    6,567     6,567      6,567    6,368    6,368     6,368     6,717    6,196    6,196     6,196     6,077    6,077       6,077    5,549    5,549    8,967    8,967     8,967
Elmira           4,781    4,781     4,781     4,781    4,893    5,221    5,221     5,221     5,348    5,459    5,459     5,459      5,459    5,261    5,261     5,261     5,609    5,028    5,028     5,028     4,908    4,908       4,908    4,744    4,744    7,868    7,868     7,868
Islip            5,962    5,962     5,962     5,962    6,074    6,694    6,694     6,694     6,821    6,932    6,932     6,932      6,932    6,734    6,734     6,734     7,082    6,582    6,582     6,582     6,463    6,463       6,463    5,815    5,815    9,330    9,330     9,330
Jamestown        5,669    5,669     5,669     5,669    5,781    6,328    6,328     6,328     6,455    6,567    6,567     6,567      6,567    6,368    6,368     6,368     6,717    6,196    6,196     6,196     6,077    6,077       6,077    5,549    5,549    8,967    8,967     8,967
Massena          5,280    5,280     5,280     5,280    5,392    5,843    5,843     5,843     5,970    6,082    6,082     6,082      6,082    5,883    5,883     5,883     6,232    5,685    5,685     5,685     5,566    5,566       5,566    5,197    5,197    8,486    8,486     8,486
New York City    5,911    5,911   5,910.78    5,911    6,023    6,630    6,630   6,630.29    6,757    6,869    6,869   6,868.79     6,869    6,670    6,670   6,670.04    7,019    6,515    6,515   6,514.90    6,396    6,396    6,395.65    5,769    5,769    9,267    9,267   9,267.33
Plattsburgh      5,280    5,280     5,280     5,280    5,392    5,843    5,843     5,843     5,970    6,082    6,082     6,082      6,082    5,883    5,883     5,883     6,232    5,685    5,685     5,685     5,566    5,566       5,566    5,197    5,197    8,486    8,486     8,486
Rochester        5,708    5,708     5,708     5,708    5,821    6,378    6,378     6,378     6,505    6,616    6,616     6,616      6,616    6,418    6,418     6,418     6,766    6,249    6,249     6,249     6,129    6,129       6,129    5,585    5,585    9,017    9,017     9,017
Syracuse         5,444    5,444     5,444     5,444    5,557    6,049    6,049     6,049     6,175    6,287    6,287     6,287      6,287    6,088    6,088     6,088     6,437    5,901    5,901     5,901     5,782    5,782       5,782    5,346    5,346    8,690    8,690     8,690
Utica            5,548    5,548     5,548     5,548    5,660    6,177    6,177     6,177     6,304    6,416    6,416     6,416      6,416    6,217    6,217     6,217     6,566    6,037    6,037     6,037     5,918    5,918       5,918    5,439    5,439    8,818    8,818     8,818
Watertown        5,280    5,280     5,280     5,280    5,392    5,843    5,843     5,843     5,970    6,082    6,082     6,082      6,082    5,883    5,883     5,883     6,232    5,685    5,685     5,685     5,566    5,566       5,566    5,197    5,197    8,486    8,486     8,486




                                                                                                                                            A5-5
                                                                                                                                             FIRST YEAR ENERGY BILL SAVINGS
SYSTEM ID #     100        101     102       110          143        200        201      202       243        300         301      302         310         330          331         332        343        520          521         522       530         531        532        610         641        700        701        702
Albany            171       464      392       139          212        164        459      382       226        151         424      348         126             53       336         160        210            105      313         260           45      335         135           99      358            86     243        198
Binghamton        130       433      326       108          199        125        428      318       213        113         390      284             96          33       299         122        198             75      279         208           27      301         101           73      325            64     214        160
Buffalo           183       392      323       149          189        178        388      317       202        162         359      287         135             60       282         126        187            115      262         213           53      281         109       107         306            92     203        163
Elmira            186       443      336       155          191        181        438      328       207        162         399      293         139             59       306         128        190            113      285         213           49      308         106       108         331            91     219        164
Islip             219       710      416       174          235        211        697      404       240        195         652      371         158             66       516         166        222            131      485         268           56      513         141       124         547        105        360        200
Jamestown         179       386      316       146          181        174        381      309       197        157         350      278         131             56       274         119        183            112      255         207           49      275         102       104         299            90     198        159
Massena           169       444      358       140          206        164        439      349       220        149         407      317         127             52       316         140        205            103      292         233           45      315         120           99      338            86     230        182
New York City     248       710    (23.51)     197          223        237        696    (27.77)     226        218         647    (22.34)       177             75       513       (60.42)      210            150      482       (38.82)         63      513       (50.98)     139         554        119        359      (12.03)
Plattsburgh       197       443      368       162          210        191        438      359       226        176         408      328         147             65       323         144        208            125      300         244           55      320         122       117         342            99     228        184
Rochester         159       302      326       129          191        155        300      321       207        141         276      290         117             56       218         136        193            103      204         220           49      219         118           94      237            83     162        170
Syracuse          161       426      324       131          198        154        420      313       212        141         389      285         117             48       307         123        196             99      287         213           43      308         108           93      332            84     230        169
Utica             159       424      319       130          194        152        418      309       208        139         385      280         116             46       304         119        194             97      283         209           41      305         103           91      329            83     227        167
Watertown         161       427      349       130          199        154        421      339       213        141         389      308         117             48       307         135        200             99      287         231           42      308         117           93      333            84     229        182


                                                                                                                                             FIRST YEAR MAINTENANCE COSTS
SYSTEM ID #     100        101     102       110          143        200        201      202       243        300         301      302         310         330          331         332        343        520          521         522       530         531        532        610         641        700        701        702
Albany            130       130      130       130          138        121        121      121       131        121         121      121         121             66           66          66     131            106      106         106           66          66         66     103         103            49         49         49
Binghamton        124       124      124       124          132        115        115      115       125        115         115      115         115             61           61          61     125            100      100         100           61          61         61         97          97         44         44         44
Buffalo           130       130      130       130          138        120        120      120       130        120         120      120         120             66           66          66     130            106      106         106           66          66         66     103         103            48         48         48
Elmira            124       124      124       124          132        115        115      115       125        115         115      115         115             61           61          61     125            100      100         100           61          61         61         97          97         44         44         44
Islip             131       131      131       131          139        121        121      121       131        121         121      121         121             67           67          67     131            107      107         107           67          67         67     104         104            49         49         49
Jamestown         130       130      130       130          138        120        120      120       130        120         120      120         120             66           66          66     130            106      106         106           66          66         66     103         103            48         48         48
Massena           128       128      128       128          136        118        118      118       128        118         118      118         118             64           64          64     128            103      103         103           64          64         64     101         101            47         47         47
New York City     131       131   130.71       131          139        121        121   121.21       131        121         121   121.21         121             66           66     66.45       131            107      107      106.66           66          66     66.45      104         104            49         49   49.19
Plattsburgh       128       128      128       128          136        118        118      118       128        118         118      118         118             64           64          64     128            103      103         103           64          64         64     101         101            47         47         47
Rochester         130       130      130       130          138        120        120      120       130        120         120      120         120             66           66          66     130            106      106         106           66          66         66     103         103            49         49         49
Syracuse          129       129      129       129          137        119        119      119       129        119         119      119         119             65           65          65     129            105      105         105           65          65         65     102         102            48         48         48
Utica             129       129      129       129          137        120        120      120       130        120         120      120         120             65           65          65     130            105      105         105           65          65         65     102         102            48         48         48
Watertown         128       128      128       128          136        118        118      118       128        118         118      118         118             64           64          64     128            103      103         103           64          64         64     101         101            47         47         47


                                                                                                                                                 FIRST YEAR NET SAVINGS
SYSTEM ID #     100        101     102       110          143        200        201      202       243        300         301      302         310         330          331         332        343        520          521         522       530         531        532        610         641        700        701        702
Albany                40    334      262             9          74         44     338      262           95         30      304      228              5          (13)     270             94         80          (1)     207         154       (21)        269            69         (4)     255            37     194        150
Binghamton             6    309      202           (16)         66         10     313      203           89         (2)     276      169         (19)            (28)     239             61         73         (25)     179         107       (33)        241            41     (24)        228            20     170        116
Buffalo               54    262      194           19           51         58     268      196           72         42      238      167             15           (5)     217             61         57          10      156         107       (13)        216            43          4      203            44     154        114
Elmira                62    319      211           31           59         66     323      213           82         48      285      178             24           (2)     245             67         65          12      185         113       (12)        247            45         10      233            47     175        120
Islip                 89    579      286           43           96         90     576      283       109            73      531      249             37           (1)     449             99         90          24      378         161       (11)        447            75         20      444            55     311        150
Jamestown             49    256      186           16           44         53     261      188           67         37      230      158             11           (9)     208             53         53           6      150         101       (17)        210            36          1      196            42     150        111
Massena               42    316      230           12           70         45     321      231           92         31      289      199              9          (12)     252             76         77          (1)     189         129       (19)        251            56         (2)     237            39     183        135
New York City     117       580   (154.23)         66           84     116        574   (148.98)         95         97      526   (143.55)           56            8      446      (126.87)          79          44      375      (145.48)         (3)     446      (117.43)         35      450            69     309      (61.22)
Plattsburgh           70    315      240           34           74         73     320      241           98         58      290      210             29            1      260             81         80          21      196         141           (9)     256            58         17      241            52     181        137
Rochester             29    172      196            (1)         53         35     179      200           76         21      156      169             (4)         (10)     152             70         63          (3)         98      114       (17)        154            52         (9)     134            34     113        121
Syracuse              32    298      195             2          61         35     300      194           82         22      269      165             (2)         (17)     242             58         66          (6)     182         108       (22)        243            43         (9)     230            36     182        121
Utica                 29    295      190             0          57         32     298      189           78         19      265      160             (4)         (20)     238             53         64          (8)     178         104       (25)        239            38     (12)        227            35     178        119
Watertown             33    299      221             3          64         36     303      221           85         23      271      190             (1)         (16)     243             71         72          (4)     183         127       (22)        244            53         (8)     232            37     182        135




                                                                                                                                                           A5-6
                                                                                                     PAYBACK TIME NET OF MAINTENANCE COSTS
SYSTEM ID #     100   101    102        110      143   200   201    202       243    300      301    302        310       330      331    332       343     520      521    522        530      531   532         610      641   700   701    702
Albany          141   17     22         649      79    145   19     24        68     218      22     29        1,284     (494)     24     68        85    (5,103)    30     41        (290)     23    89         (1,301)   22    242   46     60
Binghamton      796   15     24         (296)    74    507   17     26        60    (2,571)   20     32        (292)     (187)     22     86        77     (199)     28     47        (147)     20    121        (195)     21    401   46     68
Buffalo         106   22     29         299      113   109   24     32        89     155      28     39         449      (1,218)   29    105        117    644       40     58        (467)     28    141        1,275     27    205   58     79
Elmira          77    15     23         153      83    79    16     25        65     114      19     31         226      (2,894)   21     78        86     408       27     44        (408)     20    109         461      20    167   45     65
Islip           67    10     21         137      63    75    12     24        62     94       13     28         187      (7,933)   15     68        78     275       17     41        (595)     14    86          284      13    168   30     62
Jamestown       115   22     30         344      132   119   24     34        97     178      29     42         595      (691)     31    120        127    995       41     61        (366)     29    169        4,580     28    215   60     81
Massena         127   17     23         430      77    128   18     25        65     195      21     31         698      (509)     23     78        81    (10,597)   30     44        (300)     22    99         (3,420)   22    217   46     63
New York City   51    10     (38.33)    90       72    57    12     (44.50)   71     71       13     (47.85)    123       795      15     (52.57)   89     149       17     (44.78)   (1,850)   14     (54.46)    166      13    134   30    (151.37)
Plattsburgh     76    17     22         155      73    80    18     24        61     106      21     29         207      4,442     23     73        78     268       29     40        (647)     22    95          315      22    164   47     62
Rochester       197   33     29        (7,247)   110   182   36     32        85     322      43     39        (1,801)   (674)     42     91        107   (1,861)    64     55        (367)     40    118        (590)     42    265   79     75
Syracuse        170   18     28        3,343     90    174   20     31        75     289      23     38        (2,777)   (359)     25    104        97    (1,053)    32     55        (258)     24    134        (578)     23    239   48     72
Utica           189   19     29        38,231    100   193   21     33        81     342      24     40        (1,520)   (314)     26    116        102    (760)     34     58        (238)     25    155        (464)     24    254   49     74
Watertown       159   18     24        1,797     85    161   19     26        70     262      22     32        (8,017)   (366)     24     83        87    (1,347)    31     45        (252)     23    105        (676)     22    229   47     63


                                                                                                    PAYBACK TIME WITHOUT MAINTENANCE COSTS
SYSTEM ID #     100   101    102        110      143   200   201    202       243    300      301    302        310       330      331    332       343     520      521    522        530      531   532         610      641   700   701    702
Albany          33    12     15         41       27    39    14     17        29     44       16     19         53        121      19     40        32      60       20     24         137      18    45          57       16    105   37     45
Binghamton      37    11     15         44       25    42    12     16        25     48       14     19         57        162      18     43        28      67       18     24         180      16    48          65       15    123   37     49
Buffalo         31    14     18         38       31    36    16     20        32     40       18     23         49        106      23     50        36      54       24     29         116      22    56          52       18    97    44     55
Elmira          26    11     14         31       26    29    12     16        26     34       14     19         39        89       17     41        29      45       18     24         101      16    46          44       14    86    36     48
Islip           27    8      14         34       26    32    10     17        28     36       11     19         44        103      13     41        32      50       14     25         116      13    46          47       11    89    26     47
Jamestown       32    15     18         39       32    36    17     21        33     42       19     24         50        113      23     54        37      55       24     30         124      22    60          53       19    99    45     56
Massena         31    12     15         38       26    36    13     17        27     41       15     19         48        113      19     42        30      55       19     24         123      18    46          52       15    99    37     47
New York City   24    8     (251.38)    30       27    28    10    (238.75)   30     32       11    (307.46)    39        89       13    (110.40)   33      43       14    (167.83)    102      12    (125.46)    42       10    78    26    (770.08)
Plattsburgh     27    12     14         33       26    31    13     16        26     35       15     19         41        91       18     41        30      46       19     23         101      17    46          44       15    86    37     46
Rochester       36    19     18         44       30    41    21     20        31     47       24     23         57        114      29     47        35      61       31     28         125      28    52          60       24    109   56     53
Syracuse        34    13     17         42       28    39    14     19        29     45       16     22         54        127      20     49        33      59       21     28         136      19    54          58       16    103   38     51
Utica           35    13     17         43       29    41    15     20        30     46       17     23         55        136      20     52        34      62       21     29         146      19    57          60       17    106   39     53
Watertown       33    12     15         40       27    38    14     17        28     43       16     20         52        124      19     44        31      57       20     25         134      18    48          56       16    101   37     47
NYS AVERAGE     31    12     16         38       28    36    14     18        29     41       16     21         49        114      19     45        32      55       20     26         126      18    50          53       16    99    38     50




                                                                                                                          A5-7
                                                                                                                      NET PRESENT VALUE WITHOUT MAINTENANCE COSTS - DISCOUNT RATE = 4.39%
SYSTEM ID #          100       101       102         110       143       200       201          202         243       300       301          302       310       330       331           332       343       520       521            522       530       531           532        610       641       700       701            702
System Life (term)   20         20       20          20        20        20        20           20          20         20       20           20        20        20        20            20        20        20        20             20        20        20            20         20        20        50        50             50
Albany               (2,582)   2,382     1,172       (3,117)   (1,987)   (3,326)   1,650          361       (2,406)   (3,783)     841         (445)    (4,210)   (5,250)    (464)        (3,437)   (2,920)   (4,211)    (693)         (1,589)   (5,112)    (208)         (3,587)   (3,678)     707     (5,611)    (100)         (1,662)
Binghamton           (2,375)   2,751       943       (2,750)   (1,326)   (2,885)   2,237          377       (1,512)   (3,324)   1,375         (432)    (3,604)   (4,489)         26      (2,981)   (2,031)   (3,549)        (97)      (1,304)   (4,239)     399          (2,986)   (3,310)     958     (5,296)        (11)      (1,910)
Buffalo              (2,330)   1,197           42    (2,916)   (2,343)   (3,049)     508         (707)      (2,761)   (3,543)    (225)       (1,431)   (4,011)   (5,080)   (1,328)       (3,966)   (3,264)   (3,986)   (1,506)        (2,335)   (4,933)   (1,066)        (3,983)   (3,506)    (146)    (5,354)   (1,474)        (2,878)
Elmira               (1,427)   2,920     1,097       (1,949)   (1,455)   (1,943)   2,412          544       (1,622)   (2,481)   1,529         (270)    (2,879)   (4,043)     134         (2,878)   (2,156)   (2,912)         12       (1,208)   (3,879)     504          (2,913)   (2,725)   1,049     (4,334)     170          (1,765)
Islip                (1,999)   6,296     1,332       (2,763)   (1,839)   (2,845)   5,385          421       (2,466)   (3,346)   4,396         (372)    (3,961)   (5,340)   2,278         (3,643)   (3,036)   (4,094)   1,900          (1,778)   (5,250)   2,489          (3,798)   (3,468)   3,692     (5,262)   3,705          (1,928)
Jamestown            (2,406)   1,095          (90)   (2,958)   (2,470)   (3,126)     387         (841)      (2,852)   (3,634)    (363)       (1,591)   (4,071)   (5,147)   (1,466)       (4,091)   (3,338)   (4,044)   (1,613)        (2,438)   (4,994)   (1,168)        (4,103)   (3,559)    (263)    (5,421)   (1,625)        (2,995)
Massena              (2,198)   2,450       994       (2,693)   (1,688)   (2,832)   1,838          312       (1,995)   (3,302)   1,055         (470)    (3,682)   (4,755)    (297)        (3,275)   (2,504)   (3,704)    (505)         (1,510)   (4,569)         (3)      (3,302)   (3,303)     733     (5,110)        (57)      (1,725)
New York City        (1,472)   6,354     (6,060)     (2,337)   (2,004)   (2,343)   5,417     (6,821.31)     (2,653)   (2,895)   4,364     (6,957.90)   (3,587)   (5,123)   2,288      (7,411.72)   (3,174)   (3,699)   1,916       (6,897.67)   (5,061)   2,548       (6,989.13)   (3,182)   3,846     (4,711)   3,726       (9,300.46)
Plattsburgh          (1,720)   2,433     1,164       (2,324)   (1,616)   (2,365)   1,806          471       (1,903)   (2,854)   1,074         (276)    (3,334)   (4,537)    (166)        (3,193)   (2,451)   (3,336)    (377)         (1,317)   (4,400)         75       (3,268)   (2,998)     800     (4,665)    (118)         (1,664)
Rochester            (2,779)    (366)          43    (3,282)   (2,346)   (3,479)   (1,042)       (684)      (2,735)   (3,952)   (1,666)      (1,439)   (4,362)   (5,195)   (2,459)       (3,844)   (3,208)   (4,250)   (2,542)        (2,260)   (5,040)   (2,160)        (3,878)   (3,768)   (1,333)   (5,728)   (2,939)        (2,680)
Syracuse             (2,491)   2,000       260       (3,006)   (1,966)   (3,185)   1,310         (498)      (2,330)   (3,633)     554        (1,205)   (4,040)   (5,020)    (638)        (3,745)   (2,854)   (3,973)    (798)         (2,053)   (4,819)    (334)         (3,712)   (3,553)     502     (5,363)    (241)         (2,372)
Utica                (2,628)   1,863           85    (3,122)   (2,139)   (3,346)   1,152         (695)      (2,517)   (3,800)     364        (1,413)   (4,188)   (5,185)    (815)        (3,944)   (3,006)   (4,135)    (997)         (2,243)   (4,983)    (512)         (3,918)   (3,676)     355     (5,529)    (484)         (2,583)
Watertown            (2,340)   2,165       842       (2,851)   (1,795)   (2,986)   1,532          131       (2,112)   (3,436)     750         (622)    (3,842)   (4,831)    (440)        (3,354)   (2,591)   (3,767)    (591)         (1,539)   (4,629)    (124)         (3,360)   (3,408)     649     (5,184)        (77)      (1,737)
NYS AVERAGE          (2,211)   2,580       657       (2,774)   (1,921)   (2,901)   1,892             (67)   (2,297)   (3,383)   1,081         (831)    (3,828)   (4,923)    (258)        (3,529)   (2,810)   (3,820)    (453)         (1,798)   (4,762)         34       (3,567)   (3,395)     888     (5,198)         36       (2,158)


                                                                                                                       NET PRESENT VALUE NET OF MAINTENANCE COSTS - DISCOUNT RATE = 4.39%
SYSTEM ID #          100       101       102         110       143       200       201          202         243       300       301          302       310       330       331           332       343       520       521            522       530       531           532        610       641       700       701            702
System Life (term)   20         20       20          20        20        20        20           20          20         20       20           20        20        20        20            20        20        20        20             20        20        20            20         20        20        50        50             50
Albany               (4,783)     180     (1,030)     (5,319)   (4,324)   (5,367)    (391)       (1,680)     (4,616)   (5,824)   (1,200)      (2,486)   (6,250)   (6,367)   (1,581)       (4,554)   (5,130)   (6,006)   (2,487)        (3,384)   (6,229)   (1,324)        (4,703)   (5,422)   (1,038)   (7,328)   (1,817)        (3,379)
Binghamton           (4,478)     648     (1,160)     (4,853)   (3,564)   (4,827)     295        (1,565)     (3,623)   (5,266)    (567)       (2,373)   (5,546)   (5,516)   (1,001)       (4,008)   (4,142)   (5,244)   (1,793)        (3,000)   (5,267)    (629)         (4,014)   (4,956)    (688)    (6,848)   (1,563)        (3,462)
Buffalo              (4,523)    (997)    (2,151)     (5,109)   (4,672)   (5,081)   (1,525)      (2,739)     (4,962)   (5,575)   (2,258)      (3,464)   (6,043)   (6,189)   (2,437)       (5,074)   (5,466)   (5,773)   (3,293)        (4,121)   (6,041)   (2,174)        (5,092)   (5,242)   (1,883)   (7,055)   (3,175)        (4,579)
Elmira               (3,529)     817     (1,006)     (4,052)   (3,692)   (3,885)     470        (1,398)     (3,733)   (4,422)    (413)       (2,212)   (4,821)   (5,070)    (893)        (3,906)   (4,267)   (4,608)   (1,684)        (2,904)   (4,906)    (524)         (3,941)   (4,370)    (597)    (5,886)   (1,382)        (3,316)
Islip                (4,212)   4,083      (881)      (4,976)   (4,187)   (4,897)   3,333        (1,632)     (4,687)   (5,398)   2,344        (2,424)   (6,013)   (6,465)   1,152         (4,769)   (5,257)   (5,900)         94       (3,584)   (6,375)   1,364          (4,923)   (5,224)   1,936     (6,991)   1,976          (3,657)
Jamestown            (4,599)   (1,098)   (2,283)     (5,151)   (4,798)   (5,159)   (1,646)      (2,873)     (5,054)   (5,667)   (2,396)      (3,623)   (6,104)   (6,256)   (2,575)       (5,199)   (5,540)   (5,830)   (3,399)        (4,224)   (6,102)   (2,276)        (5,212)   (5,295)   (2,000)   (7,122)   (3,326)        (4,696)
Massena              (4,356)     293     (1,164)     (4,850)   (3,980)   (4,828)    (159)       (1,685)     (4,161)   (5,298)    (941)       (2,467)   (5,679)   (5,831)   (1,373)       (4,352)   (4,670)   (5,455)   (2,255)        (3,261)   (5,646)   (1,080)        (4,378)   (5,004)    (968)    (6,754)   (1,701)        (3,369)
New York City        (3,684)   4,143     (8,271)     (4,548)   (4,351)   (4,393)   3,366                    (4,873)   (4,945)   2,314                  (5,638)   (6,248)   1,164                   (5,394)   (5,503)     111                    (6,185)   1,423                    (4,936)   2,091     (6,439)   1,997
Plattsburgh          (3,878)     276      (993)      (4,482)   (3,909)   (4,362)    (191)       (1,526)     (4,069)   (4,851)    (922)       (2,273)   (5,330)   (5,613)   (1,243)       (4,270)   (4,617)   (5,086)   (2,128)        (3,067)   (5,477)   (1,002)        (4,345)   (4,699)    (900)    (6,309)   (1,762)        (3,308)
Rochester            (4,978)   (2,566)   (2,156)     (5,482)   (4,681)   (5,518)   (3,081)      (2,722)     (4,943)   (5,990)   (3,705)      (3,478)   (6,400)   (6,309)   (3,573)       (4,958)   (5,416)   (6,043)   (4,334)        (4,052)   (6,154)   (3,274)        (4,993)   (5,510)   (3,075)   (7,440)   (4,651)        (4,392)
Syracuse             (4,673)    (182)    (1,922)     (5,188)   (4,283)   (5,206)    (711)       (2,519)     (4,520)   (5,654)   (1,466)      (3,226)   (6,061)   (6,119)   (1,738)       (4,845)   (5,044)   (5,748)   (2,573)        (3,828)   (5,918)   (1,433)        (4,811)   (5,277)   (1,223)   (7,049)   (1,928)        (4,059)
Utica                (4,818)    (327)    (2,105)     (5,312)   (4,464)   (5,375)    (877)       (2,724)     (4,715)   (5,829)   (1,665)      (3,442)   (6,217)   (6,291)   (1,921)       (5,051)   (5,204)   (5,918)   (2,780)        (4,026)   (6,089)   (1,619)        (5,024)   (5,409)   (1,378)   (7,228)   (2,183)        (4,282)
Watertown            (4,390)   2,765       664       (5,201)   (4,088)   (4,983)    (465)       (1,866)     (4,278)   (5,433)   (1,246)      (2,619)   (5,839)   (5,908)   (1,517)       (4,431)   (4,757)   (5,517)   (2,342)        (3,289)   (5,706)   (1,201)        (4,437)   (5,108)   (1,052)   (6,828)   (1,721)        (3,381)




                                                                                                                                                                 A5-8
      For information on other
    NYSERDA reports, contact:

New York State Energy Research
    and Development Authority
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SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER TECHNOLOGIES ASSESSMENT
FINAL REPORT 08-09

STATE OF NEW YORK
DAVID A PATERSON, GOVERNOR

NEW YORK STATE ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
VINCENT A. DEIORIO, ESQ., CHAIRMAN

								
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