Technical Rescue Past, Present and Future - PowerPoint

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					Technical Rescue
Past, Present and
      Future
       Presented By:
Deputy Chief Brian Rousseau
   NY State Office of Fire
   Prevention & Control
 A look at Technical Rescue operations –
where we have come from and where we are
                  going.

From the smallest local capability to state and
  FEMA teams, the changes in organization,
techniques, tactics and funding has changed
  the face of technical rescue in the United
        States and around the world.

  Whether your organization is involved in
 rescue or not, this program will give you a
 better understanding of what resources are
available to you and what you need to know
about federal and NFPA standards regarding
             rescue capabilities.
                      History
• Some aspects of the technical rescue field have
  been in existence as an organized effort for
  hundreds if not thousands of years.
  – In 46 BC, Roman law established regulations
    requiring assistance to shipwrecked seamen.
  – In 1708, the earliest Chinese life-saving services are
    documented with the formation of the Chinkiang
    Society for the Saving of Life. Detailed rules were
    established for rescues, including a scale of funds to
    be awarded for types of rescues performed and there
    was even punishment set forth for poor performance
    and/or malfeasance.
  – There are numerous cases of specialized rescue
    services being formed in North America and Europe
    in the 18th, 19th and early 20th century but these
    were typically a result of a specific need.
                       History

• Examples of this from over the last
  200 years include:
  – The Massachusetts Humane Society in 1807 built the
    first surf boats and huts of refuge to be used by
    volunteer crews when performing rescues.
  – In the 1930’s, mountain climbing clubs in the British
    Isles joined together to design a rescue stretcher and
    first aid equipment list, with the first civilian teams
    formed in 1947.
                  History

– Modern Urban Search and Rescue (USAR)
  techniques are documented in the United
  States and United Kingdom in the 1930’s, with
  significant knowledge gained in the UK during
  the Blitz of World War II.
  • Much of the training material produced during this
    time was later used to develop “high and heavy
    rescue” training in the United States during the
    cold war era of the 1950’s and 1960’s.
                          History
• Modern technical rescue has not truly been a
  widespread, organized effort until the last half of the 20th
  century. Attempts were made by Congress in 1950 to
  create a national response capability with the passage of
  the Federal Civil Defense Act.
• Organizations and regions have had specialty teams to
  meet specific needs for many years, but few of these
  efforts have been organized and managed on a large
  scale.
   – These organizations are sometimes part of emergency
     management, fire service, police, EMS or industrial
     organizations but many are separate, not-for-profit groups
     formed for the sole purpose of providing these specialized
     rescue services.
   – This is most common in the wilderness and cave environments.
                    History
• More recently, the United States Congress
  adopted the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief
  and Emergency Assistance Act establishing a
  national USAR system.
• Congress also passed legislation allowing for
  the formation of the Emergency Management
  Assistance Compact (EMAC), allowing the
  establishment of a formal state-to-state mutual
  assistance system on a national level.
• Various state and local mutual aid pacts have
  also provided for a more efficient and
  coordinated response to these specialty
  incidents.
FEMA US&R System
• In the early 1980s, the Fairfax County Fire & Rescue and
  Metro-Dade County Fire Department created elite search
  and rescue teams trained for rescue operations in
  collapsed buildings.

• Working with the United States State Department and
  Office of Foreign Disaster Aid, (USAID) these teams
  provided vital search and rescue support for the
  earthquakes in Mexico City, the Philippines and
  Armenia.

• In 1991, the Federal Emergency Management Agency
  (FEMA) incorporated this concept into the Federal
  Response Plan, sponsoring 25 National Urban Search
  and Rescue Task Forces (US&R).

• Today there are 28 national task forces staffed and
  equipped to conduct round-the-clock search and rescue
  operations following earthquakes, tornadoes, floods,
  hurricanes, aircraft accidents, hazardous materials spills
  and catastrophic structure collapses.
State/Local US&R
• In the 1990’s, a few states expanded on the
  FEMA model by providing state level USAR task
  forces:
  – California
  – New York
  – New Jersey


• The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center
  saw the New York and New Jersey state USAR
  teams providing significant resources in rescue
  operations prior to and after the arrival of FEMA
  teams
• After WTC and the infusion of Homeland
  Security funds, a number of other states
  developed state level USAR capabilities.
  – These included task forces, squads as well as
    other combinations.
FEMA US&R System
FEMA TASK FORCE LOCATIONS
   FEMA USAR Task Forces
• Today there are 28 national task forces
  staffed and equipped to conduct round-
  the-clock search-and-rescue operations
  following earthquakes, tornadoes, floods,
  hurricanes, aircraft accidents, hazardous
  materials spills and catastrophic structure
  collapses.
  – These task forces, complete with necessary
    tools and equipment, and required skills and
    techniques, can be deployed by FEMA for the
    rescue of victims of structural collapse.
                 FEMA IST
• The National Urban Search and Rescue (US&R)
  Incident Support Team (IST) provides a group of
  highly qualified specialists readily available for
  rapid assembly and deployment to a disaster
  area. The IST furnishes Federal, State, and local
  officials with technical assistance in acquiring
  and using US&R resources.
• It provides advice, incident command
  assistance, management and coordination of
  US&R task forces, and US&R logistics support.
     For More Information
  More information on the FEMA USAR
         System may be found at:

http://www.fema.gov/emergency/usr/index.shtm
State/Local US&R
    State USAR Task Forces
• Today there a number of state task forces
  staffed and equipped to conduct round-
  the-clock search-and-rescue operations
  following earthquakes, tornadoes, floods,
  hurricanes, aircraft accidents, hazardous
  materials spills and catastrophic structure
  collapses.
• These task forces, are designed to be fast
  reacting and will respond to more localized
  incidents that don’t meet the FEMA
  response criteria.
              State IST
• Some states have formed IST’s to perform
  the same functions as the FEMA IST
  would in the federal system.
• The state IST’s would be used where
  federal USAR resources are not used and
  would work in conjunction with the FEMA
  IST where federal, state, and/or local
  USAR assets are utilized.
            Other Assets
• Many states have local assets that can
  operate as individual squads at small,
  local incidents.
• In some cases, these squads can be
  grouped together to form a USAR Task
  Force.
      For More Information
  • State and local USAR teams and task forces
      from 35 states & Puerto Rico have joined
     together to share training and informational
                       resources.
   • State Urban Search and Rescue (SUSAR)
    Alliance meets on an annual basis as well as
  having ongoing working groups in areas such as
           training, administration, K9, etc.
• More information on SUSAR can be obtained at
                     www.susar.org
Standards
     FEMA USAR Standard
• FEMA USAR Team Readiness Evaluation
  – Composed of 3 parts
    • Self Evaluation – Annual
    • ORE (On-Site Readiness Evaluation) – Bi-Annual
    • Mobilization Exercise - Annual
National USAR K9 Standards
• FEMA K9 Readiness Evaluation
  – Basic certification (Type 2) requires the search animal
    to perform to specific standards under the handler's
    direct supervision and guidance.
  – Advanced certification (Type 1) requires the search
    animal to perform to those standards outside the
    direct supervision and guidance of the handler, and to
    successfully search more difficult rescue simulation
    courses.
• SUSAR K9 Readiness Evaluation
  – Same As FEMA
       International Rescue
            Standards
NFPA 1006 – Technical Rescuer
 Professional Qualifications
NFPA 1670 – Standard on Operations and
 Training for Technical Search and Rescue
 Incidents
United Nations INSARAG Regulations
  Used to regulate teams operating
   internationally under UN auspices.
             NFPA 1006
“Technical Rescuer Professional
             Qualifications”

                   Includes:

  Rope, Confined Space, Trench, Structural
Collapse, Vehicle & Machinery, Surface Water,
Swift Water, Dive, Ice, Surf, Wilderness, Mine &
          Tunnel and Cave Rescue.
      NFPA 1006 - Purpose
“…specify the minimum job performance
  requirements for service as a rescuer in an
  emergency response organization.”

              In other words

The purpose of this standard is to specify
 minimum job performance requirements for
 service as a individual rescuer in an
 emergency response agency.
                NFPA 1006

  This standard requires both knowledge and skills be
    demonstrated in various subject areas to become
   certified as a Technical Rescuer in a given specialty.

The 2008 version has now provided for certification as a
 Level I or II Technical Rescuer in a number of different
                         specialties
           NFPA 1006
         Based on Core + Concept

          Core requirements include:
                 Site Operations
               Victim Management
                Ropes & Rigging
                         +
Level I or II knowledge and skills in a number
               of different specialties
           NFPA 1006
 Structural Collapse Level I JPRs (Job Performance
Requirements) Center on Light Frame Construction and
                        Include:

                     • Sizeup
                 • Victim Locating
      • IAP Development & Implementation
               • Support Operations
                     • Search
     • Light Frame Stabilization and Cribbing
            • Victim Disentanglement
                 • Victim Removal
        • Lifting and Moving Heavy Loads
      • Breaching Light Frame Components
             NFPA 1006
  Structural Collapse Level II JPRs (Job Performance
Requirements) Center on Heavy Construction and Include:

                      • Sizeup
                  • Victim Locating
       • IAP Development & Implementation
                • Support Operations
                      • Search
   • Heavy Construction Stabilization and Cribbing
             • Victim Disentanglement
                  • Victim Removal
         • Lifting and Moving Heavy Loads
    • Breaching Heavy Construction Components
             • Structural Steel Cutting
      • Coordinating Use of Heavy Equipment
                NFPA 1670
     “Standard on Operations and
   Training for Technical Search and
           Rescue Incidents”

                     Includes:

Structural Collapse, Rope, Confined Space, Vehicle,
    Machinery, Water, Wilderness, Trench, Cave,
              Mine/Tunnel and Helicopter

 The final 3 are new additions in the 2009 edition.
     NFPA 1670 – Purpose
“..assist the authority having jurisdiction
(AHJ) in:
• assessing a technical search and rescue
  hazard within the response area,
• to identify the level of operational
  capability,
• and to establish operational criteria.”
        NFPA 1670 – Scope
  “…Identify & establish Levels of functional
capability for conducting operations at technical
   search & rescue incidents while minimizing
               threats to rescuers.”


               In other words

 NFPA 1670 Applies to Organizations That
  Provide Response to Technical Rescue
                Incidents
               NFPA 1670
            Based on Core + Concept

           Core requirements include:
Documentation, SOPs, Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment, Incident Response Planning, Equipment,
         Safety, IMS and NBC Response
                         +
    3 Levels of Capability in a Given Specialty
                 Awareness Level
                 Operations Level
                 Technician Level
             NFPA 1670
Structural Collapse Awareness Level: Size-
    up, Site Control, Scene Management,
   Hazard Identification, Basic Search and
   Removal of Readily Accessible Victims.



  Also Includes Awareness Level Confined
                   Space.
               NFPA 1670
Structural Collapse Operations Level: Rescue from
      Light Frame, Ordinary, Unreinforced and
         Reinforced Masonry Construction.
                    Also Includes:
               Awareness Level Water
               Operations Level Rope
           Operations Level Confined Space
              Operations Level Vehicle
             Operations Level Machinery
               Operations Level Trench
            NFPA 1670
Structural Collapse Technician Level:
Rescue from Concrete Tilt-Up, Reinforced
    Concrete and Steel Construction.
               Also Includes:
          Technician Level Rope
      Technician Level Confined Space
          Technician Level Vehicle
          Technician Level Trench
             Questions ?
1. Why are there 3 levels of capability in
   NFPA 1670 and only 2 in 1006?
2. Why do the levels go by different
   names?
3. Can an organization “Certify” to NFPA
   1670?
4. Do you have any questions?
                Other Standards
• Other standards may impact many teams.
  Examples include:
  – OSHA
     •   Confined Space
     •   Respiratory Protection
     •   HAZWOPER
     •   Bloodborne Pathogens
     •   Head, Eye & Hand Protection
  – ASTM International
     •   F 1847, 1848 & 1879 – K9
     •   F 1879 – Land Search
     •   F 1739 – Water Rescue
     •   F 1993 – Classification of Human S&R Resources
                Other Standards
• International Organization for Standardization
  (ISO)
  – TC 94/SC14/WG5 – Firefighter Personal Equipment/Non-Fire
    Rescue Incidents
• American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  – ANSI itself does not develop standards, it instead helps facilitate
    the development of these standards and lists them for purchase
    and use.
  – Additionally, it promotes the use of US standards internationally.
      • Each standard developed by another organization that is accredited
        by ANSI is then assigned an ANSI standard number.
      • Their listing includes a number of standards developed by NFPA as
        well as many international organizations.
                 OSHA
On September 11, 2007, OSHA submitted
 a request for information in the Federal
 Register (Docket # H-010) to consider
 further addressing emergency response
 and preparedness.
In addition to a number of other subjects,
 rescue was specifically mentioned as an
 item of concern and identified NFPA 1006
 as a standard example that may be used.
         NIMS
(National Incident Management
            System)

      • Resource Typing
        • Credentialing
               Resource Typing
Under the current working version, 13 resource types have
  been identified:
• Canine Search and Rescue Team – Disaster/Structure Collapse
  Live
• Canine Search and Rescue Team – Disaster/Structure Collapse
  Human Remains
• Canine Search and Rescue Team – Land Human Remains
• Canine Search and Rescue Team – Water Human Remains
• Canine Search and Rescue Team – Land Live
• Urban Search and Rescue Task Force
• Mine Search and Rescue Team, Abandoned Mine
• Cave Search and Rescue Team
• Mountain & Technical Search and Rescue Team; Technical Rescue
  Team
• Land Search and Rescue Team
• Structure Collapse Rescue Squad
• Structure Collapse Search Squad
• Swiftwater/Flood Search and Rescue Team
USAR Task Force Typing
                          TYPE 1 Task Force

                                                       TASK FORCE
                                                         LEADER



                                             SAFETY
                                             OFFICER




 SEARCH                        RESCUE                                 HAZMAT      LOGISTICS             MEDICAL
                                              PLANS TEAM
  TEAM                          TEAM                                   TEAM         TEAM                 TEAM
                                               MANAGER
MANAGER                       MANAGER                                MANAGER      MANAGER               MANAGER




       CANINE
       SEARCH       RESCUE              RESCUE          TECHNICAL                         LOGISTICS      MEDICAL
                    SQUAD 2             SQUAD 2                       HAZMAT
      SPECIALIST                                           INFO                          SPECIALISTS   SPECIALISTS
                                                                     SPECIALIST
                                                       SPECIALISTS



      TECHNICAL                                                                            COMM
                    RESCUE          RESCUE             STRUCTURE
       SEARCH                                                                            SPECIALISTS
                    SQUAD 3         SQUAD 4            SPECIALISTS
     SPECIALISTS




                      HEAVY
                     RIGGING
                   SPECIALISTS
TYPE II TASK FORCE
             TYPE III TASK FORCE
                                                           TASK FORCE LEADER



                                          SAFETY OFFICER                   MEDICAL MANAGER



                 SEARCH & RESCUE MNG.                               LOGISTICS MNG.            PLANS MNG.



   CANINE TEAM                          CANINE TEAM                   COMM. SPEC.            TECHNICAL INFO



RESCUE SPECIALIST                  RESCUE SPECIALIST



MEDICAL SPECIALIST                 MEDICAL SPECIALIST



HAZ-MAT SPECIALIST                 HAZ-MAT SPECIALIST



TECH SEARCH SPEC.                  TECH SEARCH SPEC.



STRUCTURES SPEC.                   STRUCTURES SPEC.
Structure Collapse Rescue
          Squad
Swiftwater/Flood
Swiftwater/Flood Cont.
Swiftwater/Flood Cont
                        Credentialing
• Under the current working version, 27 rescue job titles have been
  identified.

   – Canine Search Specialist, Disaster/Structure Collapse Live (Heavy
     (CCSH), Medium (CCSM), Light (CCSL))
   – Canine Search Specialist, Disaster/Structure Collapse Human Remains
     (Heavy (CCRH), Medium (CCRM))
   – Canine Search Specialist, Land Human Remains (Small (CLRS), Large (CLRL))
   – Canine Search Specialist, Water Human Remains (Stillwater (CWST), Swiftwater
     (CWSW))
   – Canine Search Specialist, Land Live (Large (CLAL), Small (CLAS))
   – Search and Rescue Technician, Mountain/Technical (MTNT); Technical Rescue
     Technician (TRT)
   – Search and Rescue (Squad Officer, Mountain/Technical (MTSO)
   – Search and Rescue Strike Team/Task Force Leader, Mountain/Technical (MTTL)
   – Search and Rescue Technician, Land (LANT)
   – Search and Rescue Squad Officer, Land (LASO)
   – Search and Rescue Strike Team/Task Force Leader, Land (LATL)
   –   Structure Collapse Search Technician (SCST)
   –   Structure Collapse Rescue Technician (SCRT)
   –   Structure Collapse Search Squad Officer (SCSO)
   –   Structure Collapse Rescue Squad Officer (SCRO)
           Credentialing Continued
•   Swiftwater/Flood Rescue Technician (SFRT)
•   Swiftwater/Flood Rescue Technician- Boat Bowman (SFBB)
•   Swiftwater/Flood Rescue Technician- Boat Operator (SFBO)
•   Swiftwater/Flood Technician- Animal Rescue (SFAR)
•   Swiftwater/Flood Rescue Squad Leader (SFSL)
•   Swiftwater/Flood Rescue Strike Team/Task Force Leader (SFTM)
•   Swiftwater/Flood Rescue Technical Specialist (Advisor) (SFTS)
•   Helicopter Search and Rescue Technician (HSRT) (Disaster,
    Mountain/Technical, Stillwater, Swiftwater, Land, Urban, et al)
•   Helicopter Search and Rescue Crew Chief (HSRC) (Disaster,
    Mountain/Technical, Stillwater, Swiftwater, Land, Urban, et al)
•   Helicopter Search and Rescue Pilot (HSRP) (Disaster, Mountain/Technical,
    Stillwater, Swiftwater, Land, Urban, et al)
• Search and Rescue Logistics Specialist (SRLS) (Disaster,
  Mountain/Technical, Stillwater, Swiftwater, Land, Urban, et al)
• Search and Rescue Medical Specialist (SRMS) (Disaster,
  Mountain/Technical, Stillwater, Swiftwater, Land, Urban, et al)
       Structure Collapse Rescue
               Technician

– Required Criteria:
  •   NFPA 1006
  •   NFPA 1670 (Technician Level)
  •   OSHA 1910.120(Q)(6)(ii) – HazMat Ops
  •   OSHA 1910.146 – Confined Space Entrant
  •   OSHA 1910.120 and/ot 134(f) Respiratory Protection
  •   EMS Provider
  •   ICS I 100, 200,700
  •   Rescue Technician Certification Required By AHJ
         Structure Collapse Rescue
                 Technician
• Recommended Criteria:
  –   DOJ Emergency Response to Terrorism Basic
  –   GPS
  –   WMD Enhanced Ops
  –   Critical Incident Stress Management
  –   SCT or Equivalent
  –   Heavy Equipment Operations
  –   Criminal Background Check
  –   EMT-Basic
  –   Physical Requirements per NFPA 1582,1583 & 1584
If you would like a copy of this presentation
   or have any questions, please feel free to
                contact me at:
     brian.rousseau@dos.state.ny.us