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Resilient Forests

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 46

									Resilient Forests

 Managing for Productivity, Health, and
  Resilience in the Face of Pervasive
                Change

        Steven W. Koehn, Director / State Forester
              Maryland DNR Forest Service
      Governor’s Commission on Sustainable Forestry
                     Annapolis, MD
                     July 20, 2005
What We’ll Cover

 State Forester’s vision for forests

 Forest values

 American forests in a global context

 Sustainability and forests

 Different roles for different forests

 The work ahead
The “Whole Forest” View
 All Forests: from urban forests and tree farms to parks and
      wilderness
 All Forest Products: from wood and water to wild things
      and wild places
 All Forest Practices: from preservation and protection to
      restoration and production
 All Forest Uses: from recreation and learning to jobs and
      economic vitality
 All Forest Values: from carbon stores and spiritual retreats
      to sources of life and cultural heritage
SF Vision for Forests …

  Sustain and enrich human well being through
      diverse values, uses, products and services;
  Managed and conserved to meet changing
      needs based on local knowledge plus ever-
      improving science and technologies;
  Serve current and future generations in
      sustaining our communities and rich cultural
      heritage.
Forests that …
  Deliver high quality water
  Sustainably meet domestic needs for forest-based
      resources
  Reward owners/stewards with multiple benefits
  Perpetuate biological and cultural diversity
  Ameliorate impacts of human activities
  Grow in extent, productivity, resilience
  Are managed for distinct local capabilities & values
  Restore human spirit and stewardship ethic
  Bring people together for common purpose
Lands of Many Values

 State Forester’s vision for forests

 Forest values

 American forests in a global context

 Sustainability and forests

 Different roles for different forests

 The work ahead
Forests are Sources of Life

  1.   Clean water and air
  2.   Abundant fish and wildlife
  3.   Cultural heritage
  4.   Climate and carbon
  5.   Recreation and aesthetics
  6.   Wood and fiber
  7.   Non-wood forest products
  8.   Jobs and personal identity
  9.   Wealth and revenues
Global Forest Context

 State Forester’s vision for forests

 Forest values

 American forests in a global context

 Sustainability and forests

 Different roles for different forests

 The work ahead
Global Forces = Change
   Population growth: 6.3 Bil. in 2003 to ~ 8 Bil. in 2050
   Technology breakthroughs: steady advances + surprises
   Political instability: local to global, ballot measures to wars
   Trade issues: barriers/subsidies, free vs fair
   Restructuring in forest sector: global integration, dynamics
        in timberland ownership, ag-land afforestation
   Widening rich-poor gap: happening everywhere
   Raising of “green” consciousness: more than air/water
   Consumption growth: space, water, fossil fuels, food, wood,
        minerals
   Climate change: yes but variable, uncertain regional effects
   Non-native invasive species + explosive natives
Pervasive Change


  Need for continual learning and
            adaptation
Global Forest Trends

  Forest area: ~ 9.6 Billion ac; 50-66% loss since 1600 AD
  Forest loss: ~ 23 Million ac/yr in 1990s
  Population + Economic Growth = Forest Loss
     But not always: - 30 mil ac/yr in tropics, + 7 mil ac/yr in non-tropics

  Demands for forest benefits ever growing
     Water quality, quantity: biggest future forest issue
     Wood use: range = flat near term to < 0.5%/yr long term
     Biodiversity conservation: yes but public still bewildered after 20 years
     Carbon storage: how much, trees + products, market uncertainty
     Recreation, subsistence, cultural uses: highly variable by ownership
Some Global Leaders

          Forest Area = Russia                          22
       Wood Volume = Russia                             23
        Wood Biomass = Brazil                                 27
    Plantation Forests = China                           24
   Solid Wood Produced = US                             22
        Solid Wood Used = US                                       30
      Solid Wood Imports = US                                      30
 Solid Wood Exports = Canada                                        32

                                 0   5   10   15   20    25    30       35


UN FAO 2005: 2000, 2002 data
                                     Percent of World Share
Global Plantation Forests

                                  EU         4.7


 Brazil + Chile + NZ + SA + Australia        5.6


               Russia + US + Japan                       24


                         India + China                              42


                                         0    10    20    30   40        50

                                             Percent of World Share
UN FAO 2005: 2000 data
Global & U.S. Wood Use
 Ind. wood use rose 40% since 1960: ~ 1.6 BM3 but flat over last 20
 Fuel wood use > industrial wood use: ~ 1.8 BM3 and growing
 Ind. wood use could increase < 33% by 2050: from 1.6 - 2.1 BM3
 ~ 75% of global wood and fiber will come from planted forests by
      mid century or earlier (Sedjo and others)
 ~ 31% of global solid wood consumption crosses an international
      boundary from tree to product; most likely to increase
 US imports 30% of solid wood products consumed; exports
      associated jobs & impacts (81% growth since 1991)
 US uses 30% of world’s solid wood products; largest per capita
 US forest and wood choices drive global wood market
UN FAO 2005: 2002 data + Perez-Garcia on future demand
US in Global Context

                 People        4.7
                   Land             7
            Forest Land            5.8
         Reserve Forest                  9
        Plantion Forests                 8.6
 Wood Volume in Forests              8
       Solid Wood Used                                         30
    Solid Wood Imported                                        30

                           0   5         10    15   20   25   30    35


                    Percent of World Share (UN FAO 2005: 2000, 2003 data)
Sustainability

 State Forester’s vision for forests

 Forest values

 American forests in a global context

 Sustainability and forests

 Different roles for different forests

 The work ahead
Sustainability

 Balance among environmental, economic
    and cultural aspirations
 Equity across societal sectors and
    generations
 Engagement of people in social choices
    that affect them
 Adaptability to pervasive change
Sustainable Forestry

  The suite of policies, plans and practices
      that seek to protect, produce, and
     perpetuate forest ecosystems for the
     values, uses, products, and services
   desired by communities and landowners
        for this and future generations
                 NCSSF 2005
Sustainability


   Not possible without continual
       adaptation to change
Fitting Forest to Purpose

 State Forester’s vision for forests

 Forest values

 American forests in a global context

 Sustainability and forests

 Different roles for different forests

 The work ahead
Breadth of Sustainable
Forest Management
               Sustainable forest management
                  varies by forest type,
                  ownership, primary purpose
               Forest purposes:
                   Wood and fiber production

                   Multiple resource values/uses

                   Reserves, nature preservation

                   Urban and community forests
Wood Production Forests
                Most of world’s future wood will
                     come from planted forests:
                   ~ 33% now, ~ 75% by 2050
                   ~ 10% or less of global forest area
                Primary purposes:
                   Grow trees for wood, fiber
                   Increase forest value to owner
                Management challenges:
                   Thrive in global markets
                   Increase wood yield: > 2x over natural
                   Reduce environmental impacts
                   Improve wood quality, consistency
                   Produce high return on investment
                   Maintain social license to operate
Who Owns Prod. Forest?
        Million Acres by Owner
                                                              Site Class in
                                                                Ft3/Ac/Yr
        120
        100                                                     1 = >120
         80                                                     2 = 85-120
         60                                                     3 = 50-85
         40                                                     4 = 20-50
         20                                                     5 = 0-20
          0
               National       Other       Forest    Family
                Forest        Public     Industry   Forests
Source: Powell et al. (1993) Tables 5 and 6
Multi-resource Forests
               Most of the world’s accessible forests
                     have multiple resource purposes
                  ~ 40% of global forest area eventually
               Primary purposes:
                  Meet diverse landowner objectives
                  Increase forest value to owner(s)
               Challenges:
                  Optimize multi-resource outcomes
                  Produce multiple benefits for acceptable
                     costs
                  Differentiate products
                  Finance non-market benefits
                  Finance management
Reserve Forests
                   Parks, wilderness, natural areas:
                      ~ 12% worldwide in 2000
                      ~ 50% of global forest area eventually
                   Primary purposes:
                      Sustain at-risk species, natural
                        processes, “wild” ecosystems
                      Recreation, cultural uses
                   Management challenges:
                      Minimize human impacts
                      Restore, promote wildness, naturalness
                      Ameliorate effects of invasive species,
                         air pollution, explosive natives
                      Achieve goals for least costs
                      Finance management
Urban, Community
Forests

              Where 80% of the people live
              Primary purposes:
                 Attractive communities, neighborhoods
                 Conserve resources: water, energy
                 Increase property values
                 Backyard wildlife habitats
              Management challenges:
                 Safety, infrastructure impacts
                 Minimize sprawl
                 Minimize invasive species escapes
                     Reserve Forests: Mostly
                     federal, some state, tribal,
                     private



Wood Production
Forests: Mostly
industry, family,                                   Multi-resource
some state, tribal                                  Forests: Mostly state,
                           Forest
                        Sustainability              tribal, some family,
                                                    some federal
                     Environmental Benefits



                     Urban, Community
                     Forests: Forests where
                     people live
Ownership Matters

Wood Production               Multi-resource               Reserve

       Industry, TIMO
                                                                  *
            Private, large
                                                                  *
                          Family, NGO
                                    Tribes
                                     State
                                                   Federal

*   Streamside zones, leave trees, habitats as mini or micro reserves
Maryland Forest Owners
     Individual
       51%




                           Public
                           20%


                         Industry
                           1%
        Corporate   Farmer
          18%        10%
Leading the Way

 State Forester’s vision for forests

 Forest values

 American forests in a global context

 Sustainability and forests

 Different roles for different forests

 The work ahead
Challenges
1.   Keep forest lands in forest uses for forest values
        Sustain US forests in face of global forces, urban sprawl
    Meet people’s forest resource needs efficiently
    Improve management and conservation efficiency
    Restore and sustain health of at-risk forests
    Create new knowledge and technologies:
        Sciences and products for progressive sustainability
        Products and practices innovations
    Enhance lifelong learning and extended education
                                 AND
Address Demand --
Consumption Ethic
     Intelligent consumption and production of
  renewable natural resources is key to sustaining
                    quality of life;
Overuse, non-renewable substitutes, transfer effects
         degrade ecosystems somewhere;
 Prudent choices consider full impacts, the future,
       and the entire life cycle of resources –
            Domestic Renewables Win!
Restoration Challenge

  Defining forest health
  Normal stresses
  Choices
  Integrated strategies
  Essentials for success
  Roles for science
  Strategic decision tree
Threats to Forest Health
  Uncharacteristic
      fire
  Invasive species
      and explosive
      natives
  Climate change
      and drought
  Residential
      encroachment
 Healthy Forest?
 Functions as intended according to landowner goals, state
     and/or federal, tribal policies
 Delivers high quality water in quantities and seasons that
      sustain ecosystems and people
 Sustains native fish and wildlife compatible with primary
      purpose(s)
 Resilient to future stresses, e.g., drought, insects, diseases,
     storms, fires, invasive species, explosive natives
 Has community support to produce the array of values, uses,
     products and services desired by owners
Some Stresses are Normal

  Fires, disease, storms, landslides are natural processes;
       vital to renewal of productivity, resilience

  But some watershed conditions exceed range of natural
       processes; impede water quality or create
       unacceptable vulnerability to extreme stresses

  Under what conditions should we intervene to “solve”
       problems, alter ecosystem conditions or trajectory of
       recovery?
What are the Options?
 Let nature take its course
 Intervene to reduce or eliminate stresses
    Stop pollution, stop practices that impede health
 Intervene to restore resilience before extreme stress
    Affect species, stocking, sizes, distributions, understory
 Intervene after events to restore health or influence resilience
       to stress and the trajectory and rate of ecosystem
       recovery
    Remove threats to desired future conditions
    Affect species, stocking, competing vegetation, herbivory
Integrated Strategy
 Assess need for intervention and priorities at site, watershed
      and landscape scales – collaborative, community
      engagement
 Target actions/treatments strategically for highest success,
      lowest failure; lowest cost, highest benefits
 Design actions for learning – adaptive management
 Link restoration actions to complementary goals:
    Water, fish, wildlife, wood yield, aesthetics, recreation, carbon
    Energy, transportation, jobs, wood-based products
 Monitor and research to reduce costs, increase benefits
 Communicate, learn, adapt – close the loop on continual
     learning
What is Needed for Success?
 Ready access to contemporary science, relevant information,
     tools
 Ability to assess and act strategically at landscape/watershed
        scale
 Financial resources, social capital for intervention
 Ability to accomplish multiple objectives and create wealth from
        treatments to cover some costs of restoring health, resilience
 Integration of science with management and local knowledge for
       place-based problem solving, adaptive learning
 Innovation in work processes and new products
 Bias for barrier-busting boldness – risks and costs increase with
      delay; timidity could = failure on goals
Does Science Have All
   the Answers?


          No way!
Can We Get There
Without Science?



       No way!
A Strategic Decision Tree
 Is policy/plan clear on direction for area in question?
    If no, messy gridlock; clarify policy/plan
 Will nature deliver what policy/plan calls for?
    If yes, work is through
 When restoration interventions are needed/warranted
    What kind?
    Where?
    How frequent is the need?
 How to pay for restoration work?
      Public $$ – but state and federal discretionary $$ declining
      Revenues generated from by-products of restoration work
      Savings from reduced emergency spending
      Carbon credits
      Other: conservation incentives, recreation?
The Case for Management
  Wood Production Forests
     Sustain productivity and increase value as forests
         Compete in global markets
         Excellence in commodity woods
         Value-added differentiated wood and wood-based products
     Sustain resilience to drought, insects, disease, fire
  Multi-resource Forests
     Joint resource production
         Diversify revenues to finance management: wood + recreation +
                ecosystem services
         Diversity, resilience to drought, insects, disease, fire
  Reserve Forests
     Restore wildness and natural processes
     Contain human impacts
University Roles …

 Educate a highly skilled forest/mill
 workforce and future forest scientists and
 teachers
 Create a stronger science base for all SFM
 systems; improve regulatory efficiency
Public Forestry Agency
Roles…
  Innovations for improved market and environmental
   performance of all US forests and forest products
  Innovations to increase productivity and
   sustainability of US forest resources and forest
   products
  Educate a more knowledgeable, responsible
   citizenry
  Promote prudent policies, empowered communities
  Advocate for diverse, productive, resilient forests
   and associated economies and human communities
Future Forest Resilience?


 Its up to our generation to choose and act if
    we want to deliver healthy, productive,
 wealthy, and resilient forests to our children
               and grandchildren

								
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