Module 1 - Dropout Matters by fjhuangjun


									A Systematic Framework for Dropout
Prevention and the Tools to Make it
   Building the Future Capacity Building Institute
              May 12-14, 2009
  Tom Barkley, MD Department of Education
        Loujeania W. Bost, NDPC-SD

Engaging State Education Agencies –Creating
            the right conditions

                    Vested priority to
                increase graduation and
                  decrease dropout for
                       ALL Youth

   Increase Capacity                 Facilitate
     to Implement               Implementation of
   Effective Practices          Effective Practices

 Data-Based    Professional   Accountability    Funding and
  Decision     Development                      Interagency
                              Policy Analysis     Support
   Making      and training
                               and Change
      Align State Structures
• Early exposure to post-secondary credits
• Provide mini grants and support for
  model/exemplary programs that can be
  replicated and sustained
• Enhance collaboration across service
• Improve measurement systems
• Ensure federal and state regulations are
      Engaging Local Agencies
• Developing and maintaining an efficient
  infrastructure for collecting and utilizing data to
  identify strengths, needs and priorities;

• Providing a relevant and rigorous curriculum that
  is aligned with state and national standards that
  challenges students and actively engages them in

• Maintaining a safe and orderly school climate
  where students feel welcome and supported;
    Engaging Local Agencies
• Establishing opportunities for
  sustained parental involvement
• Establishing mechanisms for ongoing
  professional development.
• Establishing community partnerships
  that support students and schools
  during non-school hours
    Engaging Local Agencies
• Establishing routine, year-round
  monitoring of attendance (at school
  and work), suspensions, and
  academic credits

• Review and alter marginal policies
  that are counterproductive to school

• Promote greater inter/intra agency
    Engaging Local Agencies
• Support and enrichment to improve
  academic performance
• Improve students’ classroom
  behavior and social skills.
• Multiple pathway strategies for
  community and work-based learning
• Provide learning scaffolds that are
  comparable to expectations
  Adopt and Support the Implementation
       of Evidence-based Practices
Focus on Interventions That Work!
• Interventions that are strength
  based and involve a variety of
• Strategies focused on engagement
• Interventions that occur over time
• Interventions that involves a family
  or parent component


Provide discretionary grants, technical
assistance, and support for model/exemplary
programs that can be replicated and sustained.

Enhance collaboration with partner public

Ensure federal and state regulations are met
 Maintains an efficient infrastructure for
  collecting and utilizing data to identify
  strengths, needs, and priorities.

 Maintains mechanisms for ongoing
  professional development.

 Promotes greater interagency collaboration.

 Reviews and alters marginal policies that are
  counterproductive to school completion.

1. Establish opportunities for ongoing professional development.
2. Establish opportunities for sustained parental involvement.
3. Establish community partnerships that support students and
   schools during non school hours.
4. Maintain a safe and orderly school climate where students feel
   welcome and supported.
5. Establish routine, year-round monitoring and sharing of
   attendance, suspensions, and academic credit data.
NDPC-SD + SEA + LSS = Progress

     NDPC-SD, Maryland State Department of
    Education, and Cecil County Public Schools
   collaboration results in a significant reduction
      in the dropout rate at local high schools
Why Data-Based Decision Making?
• Helps us authenticate and validate our
• See trends or patterns to identify causes
  and to focus TA efforts
• Target school and student risk factors
• Monitor progress and evaluate efforts
• Strengthens accountability
    “Without data it’s just another opinion”

 NDPC-SD Dropout Prevention
Intervention Framework (DPIF)
 Knowledge transfer and utilization of dropout-
  prevention research
  Proven practices that work
  Policies and procedures that support school
  Implementation of evidence-based practices
  within a contextual fit.
   NPCD-SD’s framework provides a structured
  process by which SEA or LEA teams can gain
  sufficient knowledge to develop, sustain and
  expand efforts in data analysis to:

(1) Identify risk and protective factors
(2) Identify priority areas for intervention
(3) Identify and select evidence-based practices
   to address needs
(4) Develop and implement effective programs
   in dropout prevention
Dropout Prevention/ Intervention

Dropout Prevention Framework
• What is working?                                    • Who drops out and
• What do I need to                                     Why?
• Did I reach my

                      and Evaluate    Data Analysis

                       and Develop
                       Action Plan
• What EBPs best
  address the need?                                   • What are the
                                                        critical gaps
• What is my plan
                                                        to address?
  of action?

Assessing the Root Cause

Making Data Driven Decisions
      Phase 1: Analyze Data
 District and school demographics
 Student performance (graduation,
 dropout, course completion, AYP)
 District/school infrastructure
 Assessment, curriculum, and
  instructional systems
 Current initiatives and partnerships
 Professional development
 Parent/family engagement
Look for signs in
the data available
     to you!

Guiding Questions to Promote Regular
         School Attendance
• How much do we know about the whole picture of attendance in
  our school?
   – What data do we have and use?
   – What data do we need?
   – What electronic reports do we have/use?
   – How do students contribute to our knowledge about attendance?

• How regularly is whole school data analyzed?
   –   Once a year
   –   Each semester
   –   Each marking period
   –   Monthly
   – Weekly
   – Daily
Guiding Questions to Promote Regular
         School Attendance
• What are the attendance trends and specific
  attendance issues for our school?
   – What is the attendance rate for each grade? (absence of >10
     to 18% of the instructional time indicates a serious risk of
     dropping out)
   – Has the rate changed over time?
   – How are individual students identified? How many are of
   – At what stage is a students absence considered a concern (set
     # of days, unexcused days, skipping, tardiness)?
   – What protective factors can we consider for these students?
   – Does the district or school have targets for attendance rates?

Guiding Questions to Promote Regular
         School Attendance
• Is there a consistent understanding and use of
  absence codes in our school?
• How well do existing procedures work?
  Consider the following:
  – How are absences followed up?
  – What is currently done about late comers?
  – How is per period attendance recorded/ reported?
  – Is there consistent follow up by teachers?
  – How are parents communicated with about
Guiding Questions to Promote Regular
         School Attendance
• How do we follow up on poor attendance with
  students/, their parents?
  – Discuss reasons, contact families, make agency
    referrals, interagency involvement (e.g.,
    wraparound, RSA)
  – Use case management, monitors, adult mentors,
  – Establish contracts
• How do we document interventions for
  individuals, schools, groups of students?
  – Pen and paper, electronically, checklists, external
 Guiding Questions to Promote Academic

• What are the course-completion rates for core
• Do there appear to be “problem” classes?
• Are Sp Ed students completing academic courses at
  comparable rates to their non-disabled peers?
• What % of seniors didn’t earn enough credits to
  graduate last year?
• Are students able to take courses when they need
• Are credit requirements preventing many students
  from graduating in 4 years?
      Guiding Questions to Promote
           Prosocial Behavior

• Does your school have behavior supports
  in place?
• Does every E/BD student in your school
  have a behavior support plan?
• Are behavior support plans based on a
  functional behavior assessment (FBA)?
• Who conducts the FBAs?

   Guiding Questions to Promote
        Prosocial Behavior
• What percentage of students received
  in-school suspensions?
• What percentage of students received
  out-of-school suspensions?
• What percentage of students were
• How many office referrals were there?
• Are the data consistent between all
  students and students with disabilities?   27
       Phase 2: Identify Target
        Areas for Intervention
 Academic content and instruction (reading,
  math, science, writing)
 Behavior (classroom management,
  behavior support)
 Attendance and truancy prevention
 School climate
 Self management (self determination,
  problem solving)
 Mentoring (employment, service learning)
 Family engagement                          28
               Phase 3:
      Develop Improvement Plan
 Select evidence-based practices (e.g., Check
  & Connect, Positive Behavior Support,
  Cognitive Behavior Interventions, Content
 Determine level of intensity (Universal,
  Selected, Targeted)
 Contextualize to setting
 Establish timelines
 Train relevant staff members
 Focus on factors linked to dropout
   Influenced by educators
     Academic performance
     Student engagement
     Adult/peer interactions
     Safe school environment
     Evaluate policies and procedures regarding
 Implementation of evidence-based
  strategies/interventions                         30
Phase 4: Implement, Monitor, and
 Conduct baseline measures
 Implement strategies: on-site coaching,
  consultation & feedback, progress
   monitoring, fidelity checks
 Measure results
 Evaluate outcomes
 Celebrate success!
 Disseminate
  Dropout Prevention/
Intervention Framework

   Dropout Prevention
At North East High School

            Action Plan
                  PUSH                                      PULL

Retention ( High School and Lower         Completion from GED programs
                                          Friends and family dropping out
Inclusion Practices                       Pregnancy

Low Reading/Math skills in 9th grade      Poor family support

Lack of student attachment/lack of buy-   Incarceration
in to school, Alienation
                                          Poor attendance
Poor transition practices
                                          Family Illness (marriage,
Disengagement (Suspensions, Absences)     employment, child care)
Failing Grades
                                          Drug/Alcohol problem
Standard of 26 credits for graduation
          Influencing Alterable Variables
    Alterable variables can be transformed in to targeted goals that will inform selected
    strategies or interventions that affect student outcomes (Covington – Smith, 2007)

         Variable                   Goal                   Strategy              Desired outcome

   Inclusion teacher       Increase time spent     Schedule more            Decrease loss of
pulled from class too      with standards by        carefully around         special education
                           inclusion teacher        teacher’s planning       teacher in the

     Too many                Meeting                  Schedule              Higher success for
inclusion students         accommodations of        students into co-lab     students
outside of co-lab          students                 classes
   Regular and               Effectively             Scheduling              Higher success
Special Education          implementing                                      rate and consistency
teachers should have       accommodations
common planning

  Attendance –               Increase student      Attendance on line      Students get to
excessive absences         attendance               like GO per period       school on time
and truancy                                          Rewards                 Students stay in
                                                     Local businesses       school all day
                                                    not support kids          Higher passing rate
                                                    during school hours       Higher student
                                    Administrative Team, Instructional Cabinet,
NEHS                                  Guidance, PPW, Special Education BC,
                                    Behavioral Specialist, Teachers, and School
Dropout Prevention                              Improvement Team

Action Plan
                                                 Strategic Planning (Goals &
    Student, Stakeholder & Market                         Measures)
                 Focus                      Bring dropout rate to within state limits
    At risk students                        by 2010
    Parents ,Teachers                       Establish standards                             Performance Results
    Community members                       Implement school-wide intervention                 Strategic Results
    Businesses (BPAC),                      programs                                    Short term effectiveness
    Administrators                          Implement after-school programs
    Guidance Counselors                     Implement transition programs
                                                                                        Dropout Rates
    Special Education Students              Connect-ed communication
                                                                                        Graduation Rates
    Case managers                           Reduce tardiness to school/class
                                            Implement case manager program
                                                                                        Increased 9th grade passing
                                            Improve aesthetics/climate                  rate, Reduction in tardiness
                                            Implement mentorship program                to school/class

     Human Resource – Faculty &                    Process Management                   Still to be determined after
             Staff Focus                      Professional Development                  implementation of our
    Dropout Prevention Team                   Data Collection                           Action Plan
    Administrators                            Investigate funding sources
    Counselors                                Develop strategies for                    Teen Talk has been
    Behavioral Specialists                    implementation
    Special Education Building                                                          successful with 35 students
                                              Utilize staff members                     this year.
    Coordinator                               expertise
    PPW                                                                                 Teen pregnancy after-
                                              Monitor Academic progress                 school has 7 students.
    Case Managers

                                  Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management

                             Dropout Rate, Graduation Rate, Attendance
                             Discipline referrals and suspension data
                             Set up intervention tools
                        Action Plan
                   North East High School

To improve our graduation rates, lower our dropout
rates and prepare our graduates for successful entry
into higher education and/or the workforce.

Performance Indicator: We will increase our graduation
rate by 3% in each of the next three years to meet the
graduation standard.

Improvement Strategy: We will reduce our dropout rate in
North East High School, thereby increasing our graduation
                Action Plan
     North East High School 2008-2009

• To provide additional support for special
  education students participating in inclusive
• To have better communication with parents
  concerning students

             Action Plan
  North East High School 2008-2009

• Implement evidence based strategies to
increase student attendance rates

• Create a positive school atmosphere

•Decrease out of school suspensions

•Survey dropouts to inform improvement
         NEHS Dropout Prevention
1.   Intervention Room
2.   After-School Planning
3.   Positive Referrals/Incentives
4.   Teen Talk (HMI grant)
5.   Attendance Breakfast
6.   Unit Organizer (grant)
7.   L to J (Lee Jenkins training)
8.   Peer Tutor (HSA grant)
       NEHS Dropout Prevention
9. Displaying of Student work/ Show cases
10. Student of the Month
11. Staff Breakfast
12. Building Aesthetics
13. Data
14. Communication
15. Exit Conferences
Northeast High School
    Outcome Data

Northeast High School
    Outcome Data

             Contact Information:
            Sandra Covington Smith, PhD
Project Coordinator, Technical Assistance and Training

                 Clemson University
                  209 Martin Street
                 Clemson, SC 29640


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