Green Infrastructure - Landscape by fjhuangjun


									Green Infrastructure:


Annie Coombs FLI
•   Position Statement preparation
•   Origins, Definitions, Chronology
•   Funding
•   Benefits
•   Assets, Resource
•   Functions, Approach, Scale
•   Strategies
     – South Essex & Thurrock’s Green Grid
     – PUSH
• Principles and Approach
• Landscape Profession
• The Mersey Forest / Weaver Valley
Photos throughout illustrate green infrastructure designed,
managed, assessed, studied by landscape architects.
Position Statement
• LI Policy Committee recommended
• GI seen very much as the province
  of the landscape profession
• Small working group
• Call for case studies and comments
  on text from all LI members
• Sub-group met to decide on case
• Edits to text
• Reviewed by Executive Committee
  and “critical friends”
• Launched (May 2009)
• Use (lobbying, consultation
  responses etc)
“Can I congratulate the Landscape Institute
on the position statement for Green
Infrastructure. With so many
simplifications and misunderstandings as
to what GI really offers, this statement is
clear, lacking waffle and usable.”

“My planning colleagues who are currently
preparing the Council’s GI SPD as part of
the Core Strategy think it looks excellent
and would like to use it as part of the
launch and publicity of the Borough's GI

Download or buy from:
Origin of the term GI
Ed McMahon
  “Green space is not an
  amenity, it’s a necessity.”
  This is the phrase that
  underpins his concept of green
  “We coined the term to
  reposition the idea for the
  public,” explaining that the
  idea itself is not a new one.
Definitions (1)
• Explosion of interest doesn’t
  equate to increased understanding
• GI is term that can mean different
  things to different people
• A number of definitions available
• Significant common ground within
  the available definitions:
   – GI involves natural and managed
     green areas in both urban and rural
   – GI is about the strategic connection of
     open green areas and
   – GI should provide multiple benefits for
     people (public benefit).
Definitions (2):
Milton Keynes
 “A planned network of multifunctional
 green-spaces and interconnecting
 links, which is designed, developed
 and managed to meet the
 environmental, social and economic
 needs of communities across the
 sub-region. It is set within, and
 contributes to a high quality natural
 and built environment and is required
 to enhance the quality of life for the
 present and future residents and
 visitors and to deliver liveability for
 sustainable communities.”*
 * Planning Sustainable Communities: A green infrastructure
 guide for Milton Keynes and the South Midlands
Definitions (3):
Natural England
  “Green Infrastructure (GI) is a
  strategically planned and delivered
  network of high quality green
  spaces and other environmental
  features. It should be designed and
  managed as a multifunctional
  resource capable of delivering a
  wide range of environmental and
  quality of life benefits for local
  communities. Green Infrastructure
  includes parks, open spaces,
  playing fields, woodlands,
  allotments and private gardens.”
Definitions (4):
Northwest Region
  “Green Infrastructure is the
  Region’s life support system
  – the network of natural
  environmental components
  and green and blue spaces
  that lies within and between
  the Northwest’s cities, towns
  and villages and which
  provides multiple social,
  economic and environmental
Definitions (5)
  “Green infrastructure is the
  physical environment within and
  between our cities, towns and
  villages. It is a network of multi-
  functional open spaces, including
  formal parks, gardens,
  woodlands, green corridors,
  waterways, street trees and open
  countryside. It comprises all
  environmental resources, and
  thus a green infrastructure
  approach also contributes towards
  sustainable resource
European Landscape
Convention (ELC)
Article 1 of the ELC states:
   “ “Landscape” means an area, as
   perceived by people, whose character is
   the result of the action and interaction of
   natural and/or human factors. The term
   “landscape” is thus defined as a zone or
   area as perceived by local people or
   visitors, whose visual features and
   character are the result of the action of
   natural and/or cultural (that is, human)
   factors. This definition reflects the idea
   that landscapes evolve through time, as
   a result of being acted upon by natural
   forces and human beings. It also
   underlines that a landscape forms a
   whole, whose natural and cultural
   components are taken together, not
GI Chronology
•   Victorian Parks and city fathers
•   Frederick Law Olmstead (Central Park etc)
•   Garden cities movement
•   1947 Acts (green belt, national parks, AONBs)
•   New Towns’ movement
•   Ian McHarg: Design with Nature
•   Regional Parks
•   Groundwork Trust
•   Community forests, National forests
•   Ed McMahon coins the phrase “GI”
•   PPG17, green flag, open space strategies
•   Increasing use of GIS
•   Growth points, ecotowns, city regions
•   European Landscape Convention (ELC)
•   Regional Spatial Strategy policy (NW)
•   Forthcoming planning policy on GI (England)
GI funding
CABE & Natural England:
• call on local and central government
  to set new priorities for funding high-
  quality GI, highlighting the imbalance
  between investment in green & grey
• say towns and cities could be
  transformed if GI receives a fraction
  of the public investment made in
  other areas.
• suggest the government’s green
  stimulus package for low carbon
  housing be extended to incorporate
  GI; as part of a wider move to target
  public expenditure on greening cities.
  GI funding (2)
  “A switch of public spending from
  grey to green infrastructure would
  trigger an environmental revolution.
  At a time when investment in grey
  infrastructure, such as the new road
  building and road improvement
  programmes, runs into billions,
  investment in green infrastructure
  remains tiny. We have to redesign
  our cities in response to the
  imperative of climate change, and
  this means investment in hundreds of
  thousands of green roofs, millions
  more street trees, more parks, and
  new urban greenways.”
Richard Simmons, CABE’s chief executive
Funding: Royal Parks
• 2,000 hectares historical parkland
• Demand-led funding approach
   – Central gov & income generation
• Contribution to environment, society
  & economy
• Multifunctionality brings benefits:
   –   Health & well-being
   –   Tourism & economic value
   –   Formal recreation & play
   –   Community events
   –   Ecology & biodiversity
   –   Water management
   –   Heritage
   –   Climate change adaptation & mitigation
   –   Amenity value
•   Climate change adaptation
•   Climate change mitigation
•   Water management
•   Dealing with waste
•   Food production
•   Biodiversity enhancement
•   Economic value
•   Local distinctiveness
•   Education
•   Health and recreation
•   Stronger communities
 Economic benefits of GI
• Flood alleviation & water
• Economic growth & investment
• Tourism
• Climate change adaptation and
• Quality of place
• Health & well-being
• Land & property values
• Labour productivity
• Recreation and leisure
• Land & biodiversity
• Products from the land
GI assets & resource
• GI assets are:
   – Particular areas of land and water
   – Serve one or more functions of
     public benefit by virtue of:
      • Use
      • Location
      • Intrinsic value
• Multifunctionality
• GI resource is a collective of:
   – open spaces, public places,
     rivers & coast, farmland,
     woodlands, natural elements &
GI functions (the case for GI)
•   Stimulating sport, recreation & play;
•   Improving health;
•   Sustaining biodiversity;
•   Protecting soil, water & natural
•   Buffering extreme weather events
•   Providing a comfortable urban
•   Creating distinctive settings;
•   Improving coast and water quality;
•   Sustaining cultural and historical places;
•   Stimulating business and regeneration;
•   Creating meeting points for cohesive
•   Inspiring community environmental
•   Maintaining productive rural landscapes.
GI approach
• Wide range of functions
• Have a vision
• Unlock maximum # of benefits
• Demand more from the land
• Manage conflicting demands
• Retain single/limited land use
  functions in some areas
• Ecosystem services:
    – Support (necessary for all – soils,
      photosynthesis etc)
    – Provision (food, fuel ..)
    – Regulations (air/water quality, erosion)
    – Culture (aesthetics, heritage, recreation)
GI Scales:            Neighbourhood
                      •   Street Trees / Home Zones
                      •   Roof Gardens (& Green Roofs)
                      •   Pocket Parks
                      •   Collective / Private Gardens
                      •   Urban Plazas
                      •   Village Greens
                      •   Local Rights of Way
                      •   Dedicated Gardens / Cemeteries
                      •   Institutional Open Spaces
                      •   Ponds & small woodlands
                      •   Play Areas
Neighbourhood Scale   •   Local Nature Reserves
   GI Scales: Town/city/district
                              •   City Parks
                              •   Urban Canals & Waterways
                              •   Green Networks
                              •   Multi-user routes
                              •   Urban Commons
                              •   Forest Parks
                              •   Country Parks / Estates
                              •   Continuous waterfront
                              •   Municipal / Cathedral Plazas
                              •   Lakes
                              •   Major recreational spaces
Town / City /District Scale
                              •   Landmarks & Vistas & Gateways
GI Scales: City-region
                      •   Regional Parks
                      •   Rivers & floodplains
                      •   Shoreline & Waterfront
                      •   Strategic & Long-distance Trails
                      •   Major (>100ha) woodlands
                      •   Community Forests
                      •   Open Access Sites
                      •   Landmarks & Vistas
                      •   Reservoirs
                      •   Environmental Management Initiatives
City-regional Scale
                      •   Strategic Corridors & Gateways
GI Scales: Strategic
                   • Coastline Management Planning
                   • Cross-boundary green networks (e.g.
                     South Downs – New Forest linkages
                   • Strategic River Catchment Plans
                   • National Trails & Destinations
                   • Strategic Infrastructure corridors
                   • Sub-regional strategies
                   • National policy statements
                   • Behavioural & Societal Change

 Strategic Scale
GI Strategies
      • Need to operate at
      the relevant scale / level
      • Sub-regional and
      • Embed across a
      range of policies /
      • Robust and flexible
      enough to react to
      political change - Tories
      committed to remove
      the English RDAs and
      wider “bonfire of the
Thames Gateway
South Essex Grid
Thurrock’s Green Grid Strategy
• TGGS developed in the context of the wider South
  Essex Green Grid (SEGG)
• Used its own technical research (biodiversity, green
  infrastructure, landscape and urban capacity, flood risk,
  green belt review and open space) to tackle overarching
  themes and principles laid out in SEGG and other
  strategic plans (the Greening the Gateway plan, Thames
  Gateway interim plan and Essex county plans).
• TGGS provides a finer grain framework than SEGG and
  gives expression to the aspirations of a wide range of
  partners and Thurrock’s own communities via its
  community strategy.
• It will be developed into SPD.
Thurrock’s GI & Green Grid

         +             +

 =                           SPD
 GI Strategy for Urban
 South Hampshire
• PUSH – Partnership for Urban South
  Hampshire identified GI as critical to support
  sub-region’s development
• Polycentric urban region – Portsmouth,
  Southampton, Fareham, Gosport, Eastleigh
  & other settlements
• 1 million existing population - new growth
  point – brownfield, urban infill & greenfield
  needed to deliver 80,000 new homes
• Undertook:
    –   an appreciation of the drivers for change
    – environmental quality and condition assessment
      (including landscape character)
    – Analysis of community attributes
    – Gap analysis of GI strategy with other initiatives
    – Vision and values with stakeholders
    – Threats and opportunities
Public Benefit
• Central to the research was the
  area’s social, environmental and
  economic characteristics
• Potential for GI to address the
  deficits and deliver benefits in
  relation to:
   – Enjoying and protecting the special
     qualities of the environment
   – Restoring/enhancing environments
     degraded, in decline or at risk
   – Community needs and aspirations
   – Economic prosperity
• Used GIS to bring together
  datasets and represent spatially
  the areas in need and the multiple
PUSH: Public Benefit

   High numbers of old, young &

   Moderate numbers of old, young &
Community needs
• Needs are greatest near the
urban areas based on
deprivation, age, risk of adverse
environmental quality etc

• Potential for delivering
community needs is a more
diffuse picture – widespread
opportunity for GI to deliver
PUSH: Functional Strategies
• Stakeholders identified “themes”
  reflecting priorities
• Key quality of life issues for the
  area led to 8 headline themes
• Each comprised a range of GI
• Led to development of functional
   –   Biodiversity;
   –   Coast and Water;
   –   Green Access and Movement;
   –   Parks for the Future;
   –   Working Landscapes;
   –   Landscape Culture and Heritage.
Example of GI principles
• Contribute to management, enhancement,
  conservation of local landscape
• Contribute to protection & conservation of
  historic, archaeological, built heritage
• Maintain and enhance biodiversity
• Provide connectivity, avoid fragmentation
• Be designed to facilitate sustainable long-
  term management
• Create new recreation facilities
• Link town and country
• Take account of natural systems
• Designed to high standards
• Provide for social inclusion, community
  development and life-long learning.
Roles of landscape
• Multidisciplinary approach
• All scales
• Contributing to:
   –   Policy guidance
   –   Strategies
   –   Local Development Frameworks
   –   Character/Sensitivity studies
   –   Development control
   –   Environmental assessment
   –   Masterplanning
   –   Design and implementation
   –   Management
   –   Research
   –   Facilitation & creative engagement
The Mersey Forest
• The North West GI Guide sets out
  a 5-stage process for green
  infrastructure planning:

   1. Partnership and priorities
   2. Data audit and green infrastructure
      resource mapping
   3. Functional assessment
   4. Needs assessment
   5. Intervention plan.
1. Partnership & priorities
The Mersey Forest Delivery Plan 2009 - 2014
• Goals delivered achieve partners
   – Public service agreements
   – Local Area Agreements
   – Local Authority strategies (health,
     education, open space, regeneration..)
   – Regional Forestry Framework
   – Regional Spatial Strategy
   – Regional Climate Change Action Plan
   – Regional Economic Strategy.
• Gross Value Added (GVA)
   – Developing ways to assess Mersey
     Forest achievements against partners
     monitoring targets of outcomes and
2. Resource mapping: Types
 •   general amenity space
 •   outdoor sports facilities
 •   woodland
 •   water courses
 •   water bodies
 •   grassland, heathland & moorland
 •   coastal habitat
 •   agricultural land
 •   allotments, community gardens & urban
 •    cemeteries, churchyards & burial grounds
 •   derelict land
 •   private domestic gardens
 •    trees
 •   institutional grounds
 •   wetlands
 •   other?? (e.g. verges)
 •   orchard street trees
3. GI functions:
(Cheshire sub-region)
•recreation - public    •habitat for wildlife
•recreation - private   •corridor for wildlife
•green travel route     •soil stabilisation
•aesthetic              •heritage
•water storage          •cultural asset
•water interception     •carbon storage
•water infiltration /   •food production
natural drainage        •timber production
•storm protection -     •biofuels
coastal                 production
•shading from sun       •water supply
•evaporative cooling    •wind shelter
•trapping pollutants    •learning
•noise absorption
3.& 4. GI Functions:
definition & need
•recreation – public
   –DEFINITION: area anyone can use
   without having to pay or get keys
   – GREATEST NEED: high population
   density (present & future), low population
   mobility, poor health, much leisure time
•water storage
   –DEFINITION: Stores flood waters.
   –GREATEST NEED: upstream of urban
   areas intersecting flood plains
•shading from sun
   –DEFINITION: Shading of people,
   buildings, and surfaces from solar radiation.
   –GREATEST NEED: high population
   density (present & future), high quality
   agricultural land, schools, shopping areas,
   visitor attractions
3. Functions: Mouth of the Weaver
Mouth of the Weaver
    What you can do....
•   Raise awareness about GI
•   Lobby planning system at all levels
•   Adopt a multi-disciplinary approach
•   Press for vision for the natural
    environment and functions
•   Ignore administrative boundaries –
    promote ELC “landscape” definition
•   Promote advance consideration – GI
    often needed before growth (levies)
•   Make the case for revenue as well as
    capital expenditure
•   Argue for investment in management
•   Communicate the benefits
•   Involve the private sector
•   Provide case studies to the LI library.
Photo credits
•   Giles Barnard
•   Bill Blackledge
•   Cheshire East
•   Cheshire West and Chester
•   Annie Coombs
•   Chris Driver
•   Gillespies
•   Groundwork
•   Gustafsson Porter
•   HED
•   Andy Lane
•   North Lincolnshire Council
•   ODA
•   Place Design + Planning Ltd
•   Mike Roberts
•   TEP
•   Townshend Landscape Architects
•   Karen Wright Photography
Thank you for listening

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