Dada and Surrealism

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					Dada and Surrealism
   Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zurich Switzerland during
    the First World War and peaked from 1916 to 1922.
   The movement involved visual arts , poetry, literature, art manifestoes, theater and
    graphic design. The movement follows anti-war politics through rejection of the
    prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural work.
   Dada was an informal international movement, with participants in Europe and North
    America. The beginnings of Dada correspond to the outbreak of World War I. For
    many participants, the movement was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist and
    colonist interests which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, and
    against the cultural and intellectual conformity — in art and more broadly in society
    — that corresponded to the war.
   According to its proponents, Dada was not art, it was ―anti-art." For everything that
    art stood for, Dada was to represent the opposite. Where art was concerned with
    traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities,
    Dada was intended to offend. Through their rejection of traditional culture and
    aesthetics the Dadaists hoped to destroy traditional culture and aesthetics.
                              DADA (contd)

   Dada movement was born in neutral Switzerland in 1916 from group of artist who
    wanted to show their anti-war position. Hugo Ball, Emmy Henning, Tristan
    Tzara, Jean Arp, Marcel Janco , Richard Huelsenbeck, Sophie Tauber; along
    with others immigrants living in Switzerland during the war created Dada movement.
    They were performing in Cabaret Voltaire. After the end of the war these artist came
    back in their countries spreading Dada outside Switzerland.
   In the cities pf Berlin , Cologne , Paris , Zurich Dadaists gathered together
    maintained Dada style of art. Groups as well published magazines and works oriented
    in the movement style. With greater importance and magnitude were cities of Zurich
    and New York, to lessen degree Berlin. However Dada face was not the same in each
    of these place, sometimes there were differences. European Dada and New York
    Dada were not the same. New York Dada lacked the disillusionment of European
    Dada and was instead driven by a sense of irony and humor. Moreover Dada in Berlin
    was used in political and social way and there artist were not so anti-art.
                    Dada and Theatre
Tristan Tzara - was an avant-garde poet, essayist and
    performance-artist. Also active as a journalist, playwright,
    literary and art critic, composer and film director. He created
    several plays , some of them are:
   The Gas Heart – use peculiar verbal strategy and is build on
    a dialogue between characters called Ear, Mouth, Eye, Nose,
    Neck, and Eyebrow. They seem unwilling to actually
    communicate to each other and their reliance on proverbs
    and idiotisms willingly creates confusion between
    metaphorical and literal speech. The play ends with a dance
    performance that recalls similar devices used by the proto
    Dadaist Alfred Jarry.
   Handkerchief of Clouds - the play was written in 1924
    and explores the relation between perception , subconscious
    and memory. Largely through exchanges between
    commentators who act as third parties, the text presents the
    tribulations of a love triangle (a poet, a bored woman, and
    her banker husband, whose character traits borrow the
    clichés of conventional drama), and in part reproduces
    settings and lines from Hamlet.Tzara mocks classical theater,
    which demands from characters to be inspiring, believable,
    and to function as a whole: Handkerchief of Cloudsrequires
    actors in the role of commentators to address each other by
    their real names,and their lines include dismissive comments
    on the play itself, while the protagonist, who in the end dies,
    is not assigned any name.
             Founders of Dada

Richard Huelsenbeck, Tristan Tzara, Jean Arp, Marcel Janco and Sophie Tauber-Arp.
Dada apart from theatre
Cabaret Voltaire

Surrealism is cultural movement that began in early 1920s. Surrealist works feature
the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and absurd logic. Surrealist artists
and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first
and foremost, with the works being an artifact.
Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most
important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s on, the movement
spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and
music, of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice,
and philosophy and social theory. Leading figure in Surrealism movement was Andre
Breton. Under Breton's direction, surrealism became a European movement that
influenced all domains of art, and called into question the origin of human
understanding and human perceptions of things and events.

      In The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs
          Magnétiques), a collaboration with
          Soupault, he put the principle of
          automatic writing into practice. He
          published the Surrealist Manifesto
          in 1924, and was editor of La
          Revolution Surrealist from 1924.
          A group coalesced around him —
          Philippe Sopault,Louis Aragon,Paul
          Eluard, and others
   Surrealism and Theatre
Surrealist theater depicts the subconscious experience, moody tone and disjointed
structure, sometimes imposing a unifying idea Surrealists reject Western Theater
traditions. Antonin Arnaud for example thought theater should be mystical and
religious experience. Endeavouring to create a new theatrical form that would be
immediate and direct, linking the unconscious minds of performers and spectators, a
sort of ritual event, Artaud created the Theater of Cruelty where emotions,
feelings, and the metaphysical were expressed not through text or dialogue but
physically, creating a mythological, archetypal, allegorical vision, closely related to the
world of dreams. These sentiment lead to creation of the Theater of Absurd .
Theater of Cruelty
        Theater of Cruelty is concept of Antonin Arnaud.
           According to him the theater is not possible
           without cruelty as basis and cruelty have to
           be the root of every spectacle. The term
           cruelty does not mean to use sadism or
           causing pain but rather a violent, physical
           determination to shatter the false reality
           which, he said, "lies like a shroud over our
           percept perceptions. Cruelty not in a sense
           of being violent, but the cruelty it takes for
           actors to completely strip away their masks
           and show an audience a truth that they do
           not want to see. He believed that text had
           been a tyrant over meaning, and advocated,
           instead, for a theatre made up of a unique
           language that lay halfway between thought
           and gesture. Artaud described the spiritual
           in physical terms, and believed that all
           expression is physical expression in space.
           Theater of Absurd
Though the label "Theatre of the Absurd" covers a wide variety of playwrights with
differing styles, they do have some common stylistic precursors.The mode of most
―absurd‖ plays is tragicomedy similarly to first play writer who used tragicomedy-
William Shakespeare. Though layered with a significant amount of tragedy, the
Theatre of Absurd echoes other great forms of comedic performance from Commedia
dell’ arte to Vaudeville. As an experimental form of theatre, Theatre of the Absurd
employs techniques borrowed from earlier innovators. Writers and techniques
frequently mentioned in relation to the Theatre of the Absurd include the 19th
century nonsense poets, Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear.
Theatre of Absurd. Some of the famous play writers are : Jean Genet, Jean Tardieu,
Boris Vien and others
Surrealism apart from

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