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PP504 Principles of Adult Education

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					     DCE5011
Principles of Adult
    Education




  Overview of Section 1
Learning and School Education

   Death


                     Learning –
                     Spectrum
    A
    G               Where school
                    takes a small
                                          S       25 years
    E                                     C
                                          H
                       portion            O
                                          O
                                          L
                                                  6 years
   Birth
           little                       advance
                    Institutionalized
Education and Learning

Look around us
  Where does education take place?
  Where does learning take place?
Ponder on the following statement:
  In all education there is learning but not
   necessarily in all learning there is education
Adult Education and
related concepts

Adult Education -- a process whereby
 persons, whose major social roles are
 characteristics of adult status, undertake
 systematic and sustained learning
 activities for purpose of bringing about
 changes in knowledge, attitudes, values
 or skills. (Darkenwald and Merriam, 1982-
 -pg9)
Purposes of Adult
Education

Cultivation of intellect
individual self-actualization
personal and social improvement
social transformation
organizational effectiveness
Adult Education has been
around for decades

Religious education
Agricultural Extension
Democratization of education
Community Education
Continuing Professional Education
Scope of Adult Education

Varied, includes both formal and non
 formal; private and public sector
4 typologies of adult learning
 opportunities:
  independent ad.edu. Organization
  educational institutions
  quasi educational org. (eg. Library, museum)
  non educational org.(eg. Industry, armed
   forces)
Settings and scope of
ad.edu

There are differences between developed
 and third world countries
major areas in third world:
  literacy
  civil and political education
  health and family life
  agricultural and vocational education
where do you place Malaysia?
What are your understanding of
the following concepts?

andragogy
Continuing education
lifelong education/learning
non formal education
community education
general/university extension
in service training
Categories of Adult
Learners

Adults who are pursuing structured
 learning programmes
Adults who are pursuing non-structured
 learning programmes
Adults who are engaged in other forms of
 learning difference from the above
Adult Education opens the
door to
Pursuing education in specific areas of
 interest
Formulate leraning program to fulfill needs of
 specific group
To further enhance existing skills
Inculcate values
Provide opportunities for study without
 having to leave vocation
Etc.
Importance of Adult
Education
Reasons for continued learning:
  occupational reasons
  new social roles and relationships
  changing interests and attitudes towards changing
   world/surroundigs
Importance of ad.edu may be viewed from:
  demographics (compare M’sia with the west)
  economics(good times vs bad times)
  technology (IT, knowledge 1/2 life, new t.tech)
Impak Pendidikan Dewasa

Sosio-ekonomi (menangani masalah kesihatan
 rakyat, meningkatkan produktiviti pertanian,
 meningkatkan kemahiran)
Psiko-sosial (memupuk perpaduan, kestabilan,
 sedar sivik, amalan keagamaan)
Fizikal, persekitaran dan persaingan global
 (pemantapkan pembangunan mapan, memupuk
 kesedaran alam sekitar, meningkatkan daya
 saing)
KEPENTINGAN
PENDIDIKAN DEWASA

Meningkatkan sosio-ekonomi rakyat
Perubahan pengetahuan, sikap dan
 amalan
Merealisasikan harapan rakyat dan
 matlamat negara
Sebagai laluan kedua bagi yang tidak
 berpeluang untuk mengikuti pendidikan
 formal
How do see Adult
Education?
Age of instant communication
World without economic boundaries
New service society
New age of Leisure
Changing shape of work
Women in leadership
Growing underclass
Active aging of the population
New do-it-yourself boon
Triumph of individual
Discontinuity/ambivalence of values and
 beliefs
Reasons for participation
and non participation

Motivational orientation of learners (goal,
 oriented, and learning orientations)
Barriers to participation (situational,
 institutional, dispositional, informational)
Social perspective (maintenance of social
 system, reproduction of culture, individual
 advancement, legitimation, leisure time
 pursuit)
Sebab mengikuti program
Pendidikan Dewasa

kenaikan pangkat      Maksud sosial
 dalam organisasi      Memenuhi kepuasan
Mengisi masa lapang    sendiri
Satu tuntutan         Tanggungjawab
Menangi masalah        sosial
Mendalami hobi        Banyak lagi . . .
Sebab tidak ambil peluang
Pendidikan Dewasa


    Kewangan         Tiada kesedaran
    Kesempitan       Lokasi yang jauh
     masa             dengan sumber
    Kendiri (tidak   Tidak berpeluang
     berminat,       Faktor kesihatan
     malas, degil)
    Tiada galakkan
Learning Styles (Rogers)

Activist - directly involve in activities
Observers - wait and watch, then act
Theorists - generalize exp. then apply
Experimenters - create and apply

(learning styles vary according to type of
 learning - memorize, acquisition,
 experiment)
Learning Styles

Auditory learners
  Learn by hearing key points
  Learning reinforce through spoken feedback
  Recall best what they hearned
Visual Learners
  Learn thro seeing key words in written form
  Recall best when they read or seen
  Interested in actual work, role play
Learning Styles

Hands-on-learner
  Learn thro actual practice
  Respond well thro gp discussions
  Learn better with first hand experience
Mixture learning style
  Best way to capture all audience
What is Adult Education to
You?
How did you arrive at your philosophy?
What are your notions of the key
 elements of Adult Education?
  Learner
  Content
  Educator/Facilitator
  Environment
  Learning Community
Your futuristic view of Adult Education

				
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posted:6/2/2010
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