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American Architecture - PowerPoint

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									Styles of Architecture
     What is Architecture?
 Architecture is the art and profession of
  designing buildings.
 The word Architecture (Greek) has a
  historical meaning:
   May refer to a building style of a particular
    culture or to an artistic movement such as
    Greek, Gothic, and Renaissance
    architecture.
      What is Architecture?
 Architecture has many artistic qualities but
  must also satisfy practical considerations.
 Example: Office Buildings
    A building cannot just be aesthetically
     pleasing.
    Needs to accompany the comfort and
     efficiency levels for people in it.
    If the building does not fulfill comfort, it fails
     architecturally.
        Architectural Style
 Architectural style is a way of classifying
  architecture largely by morphological
  characteristics:
    Form
    Techniques
    Materials
 Architectural style is a way of classifying
  architecture that gives emphasis to
  characteristic features of design, leading to a
  terminology such as “Gothic” style.
      Neolithic Architecture
 Also known as “Stone-Age” architecture contains
  some of the oldest known structures made by
  mankind.
 Distinguishable by Paleolithic and Mesolithic
  making and use of stone tools.
 Neolithic cultures have been shown to have
  existed in southwest Asia as early as 8000 B.C.
  to 6000 B.C.
 The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific
  region remained at the Neolithic level up until
  the time of European contact.
     Neolithic Architecture
 Neolithic Architects were great builders who
  used mainly mud-brick to construct houses
  and villages.
 Houses were plastered and painted with
  ancient scenes of humans and animals.
 Many of the more famous Neolithic structures
  were remarkably made by enormous stones.
Stonehenge
     Egyptian Architecture
 Due to lack of wood most Egyptian
  architecture was made with mud-brick and
  stone.
 Minerals included sandstone, limestone, and
  granite, which were generally used for tombs
  and temples.
 Most ancient Egyptian towns have been lost
  because they were situated in the cultivated
  and flooded area of the Nile Valley.
     Egyptian Architecture
 Temples and tombs have survived:
   Built on ground unaffected by the Nile flood
   Constructed of stone.
 Egyptian architecture is based mainly on its
  religious monuments such as Pyramids.
 All monumental buildings are post and lintel
  constructions, with flat roofs constructed of
  huge stone blocks supported by the external
  walls and the closely spaced columns.
Temple of Ramesses II
  Neoclassical Architecture
 Neoclassical style produced by the
  neoclassical movement during the 18th
  century.
 Neoclassical, or "new" classical,
  architecture describes buildings that are
  inspired by the classical architecture of
  ancient Greece and Rome.
  Neoclassical Architecture
 A Neoclassical building is likely to have some
  (but not necessarily all) of these features:
     Symmetrical shape
     Tall columns that rise the full height of the building
     Triangular Pediment
     Domed roof
 Examples: U.S. Capitol Building, White
  House, Slave plantations
        Roman Architecture
 Adopted from Greek classical architecture.
 Constructed new structural principles based on
  the development of the arch and a new building
  material, concrete.
 First to utilize two forms of roof design, the arch
  and vault.
 Vault is an arched roof or ceiling (dome).
 Eliminated use for columns to support roofs.
 Columns used mainly for sculptural decoration.
      Roman Architecture
 Romans built more kinds of structures
  than any earlier civilization.
 In addition to houses, temples, and
  palaces, Romans constructed
  aqueducts, public baths, shops,
  theaters, and outdoor arenas.
Colosseum
Pont du Gard
       Gothic Architecture
 Mainly flourished in western Europe from the
  1100’s to 1400’s.
 New systems of construction allowed for
  architects to design churches with thinner
  walls and lighter piers.
 Piers extended several stories high and into
  the roof area making individual columns like
  ribs on an open umbrella.
 Ribbed vaults are most distinguishable
  characteristic of Gothic architecture.
        Gothic Architecture
 Other styles included pointed arches, stained-
  glass windows, flying buttresses.
 Flying buttresses were brick or stone arched
  supports built along outside walls.
 Emphasizes vertically and a skeletal stone
  structure.
 Pointed arch was introduced for both visual and
  structural reasons. Channels weight onto the
  bearing piers or columns at a steep angle.
 Gothic cathedrals could be highly decorated
  with statues and paintings.
  Renaissance Architecture
 Beginning between the early 15th and the
  early 17th centuries in different regions of
  Europe.
 The Renaissance style places emphasis on
  symmetry, proportion, geometry and the
  regularity of parts
 Orderly arrangement of arches, niches
  replaced the more complex proportional view
  of medieval buildings.
 Renaissance buildings have a square,
  symmetrical, planned appearance.
   Renaissance Architecture
 Facades (front of building) are symmetrical around
  their vertical axis.
 The columns and windows show a progression
  towards the center.
 Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a
  cornice.
 Windows may be paired and set within a semi-
  circular arch.
 Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They
  are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They
  are frequently painted or decorated.
St. Peter’s
        Modern Architecture
 Building styles with similar characteristics, primarily
  the simplification of form and the elimination of
  ornament.
 Dominant architectural style, particularly for
  institutional and corporate building, for several
  decades in the 20th century.
 Use materials such as iron, steel, concrete, and
  glass.
 The most commonly used materials are glass for
  the facade, steel for exterior support.
 Modern architecture seen in most skyscrapers.
      Modern Architecture
 Modern architecture is usually characterized
  by:▪
   a rejection of historical styles as a source of
    architectural form (historicism)
   an adoption of the principle that the materials and
    functional requirements determine the result
   an adoption of the machine aesthetic
   a rejection of ornament
   a simplification of form and elimination of
    "unnecessary detail"
      Art Deco Architecture
 Popular design movement from 1920 until 1939.
 Popular themes in art deco were trapezoidal,
  zigzagged, geometric, and jumbled shapes,
  which can be seen in many early pieces.
 materials such as aluminum, stainless steel,
  lacquer, etc.
 Bold use of stepped forms, and sweeping curves,
  symmetry and repetition,.
 Art Deco style celebrates the Machine Age
  through explicit use of man-made materials
  (particularly glass and stainless steel)
  Post-Modern Architecture
 Began as American style whose first
  examples are generally cited as being from
  the 1960s
 Diverse aesthetics, styles collide.
 Postmodernists feel buildings fail to meet the
  human need for comfort both for body and for
  the eye.
 Most post-modernists works are small
  buildings such as houses and stores.
 BASICALLY, ANYTHING GOES!
   African Architecture
   Chinese Architecture
   Indian Architecture
   Islamic Architecture
   Japanese Architecture
   Persian Architecture
   Spanish Architecture
   Canadian Architecture
   Indonesian Architecture
   Mesoamerican Architecture

								
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