Anti-mite Modified Polypropylene

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Anti-mite Modified Polypropylene Powered By Docstoc
					         Antoni Niekraszewicz,
              Jolanta Lebioda,
                                                       Anti-mite Modified Polypropylene Fibres
               Jerzy Hoffman*,                         and Bedding Inserts Containing Such
        Kazimierz Ruszkowski*,
            Henryk Struszczyk

              Institute of Chemical Fibres, Lodz       Abstract
                      ul. Skłodowskiej-Curie 19/27,    Research has been conducted in the Institute of Chemical Fibres with the aim of preparing
                               90-570 Łódź, Poland     synthetic fibres which can inhibit the growth of house dust mites thus limiting or eliminating
                    e-mail:,     a cause of allergy. The physical-mechanical properties of anti-mite polypropylene fibres
                            and needle-punched nonwovens containing such fibres are presented. The anti-mite activity
                    *Institute for Terotechnology,     was tested according to the French standard NF G 39-011. A nonwoven containing modified
                        Textile Machinery Branch       polypropylene staple fibres was used to prepare bedding inserts, which were then tested
             ul.Hipoteczna 6, 91-335 Łódź, Poland      with regard to their anti-allergic usefulness. It was found that the material causes a very
                      e-mail:   distinct reduction in mite guanine concentration, and the bedding insert largely contributes
                                                       to a much more comfortable feeling for the patients. The anti-mite nonwoven in the form of
                                                       bedding inserts was approved by the Office of Registration for Medicinal Products, Medical
                                                       Devices and Biocidal Products, as well as by the Ministry of Health.

                                                       Key words: house- dust- mites, allergy, anti-mite fibres, non-woven, bedding inserts.

n Introduction                                         increased mite and fungi population and              The use of a proper biocidic agent as an
                                                       enhanced allergenic action, notably unnat-           additive to fibres extinguishes Aspergilus
Allergic pathological states such as rhini-            ural microclimates such as increased air             repens, and in consequence inhibits the
tis and asthma bronchiales, particularly               humidity and lack of natural ventilation.            growth of mites.
in the upper airways, are an ever-increas-
ing problem for humans today. House                    Well-known means to prevent the                      Acordis Co (UK) has put two such fibres
dust is the most common inhalatory                     growth of mites are barrier textiles such            on the market: Amicor Plus, an anti-mi-
allergen [1]. About 100 million people                 as coverlets, mattress and pillowcases               crobial, polyacrylonitrile fibre, and an
world-wide are estimated to suffer from                impenetrable to mites, their excrements              anti-mite fibre called Amicor Pure [9].
house dust mite atopy [2]. The mite’s                  and allergenic particles [5]. However,               The acaracide is introduced into the spin-
secretion constitutes the main allergen.               barrier textiles are insufficient protec-            ning bath during the manufacture of the
Although the mites themselves are harm-                tion against mites and allergens, as they            fibre. The acaracide is steadily extricated
less to humans, their excrement, in tiny               can only be used in bedclothes. Quite a              during the laundering and use of the
nubs of 10-40 microns in size, contain                 number of other materials, such as floor             fabrics containing the Amicor fibres, and
antigens which may trigger an allergic                 coverings, carpets, upholstery and deco-             replenished by its migration from the in-
reaction when inhaled to the airways.                  rative fabrics also constitute an abode for          terior to the fibre surface [6].
Small, mucus-covered excrement parti-                  these pests.
cles stick easily to various home textiles.                                                                 The polyvinylchloride anti-mite fibre
Therefore, upholstery furniture, carpets               The growth process of house dust mites,              Rhovyl AS, containing benzyl benzoate
and bedclothes foster the accumulation                 its impact upon asthmatic ailments, and              as the acaracide, is produced by the
of the allergen. It is assumed that living             the role which anti-microbial fibres may             French company Rhovyl [10].
in houses in which the concentration of                play in these phenomena have been
the mite antigen exceeds 2 µg/g of the                 investigated at Nottingham University                The Austrian Asota GmbH manufactures
dust (equivalent to 100 single mites in                and the Entomology Department at Cam-                the anti-microbe polypropylene fibre
1 gram of dust) essentially increases the              bridge University. Exfoliated skin cells             called Asota Sanitized, designed for blend-
risk of various allergy-related diseases of            cannot serve as a medium for the mites,              ing with other synthetic and natural fibres.
the airways.                                           as they are usually too dry and contain              Another fibre made by the same company
                                                       much fat. Under certain conditions, ex-              is the anti-mite Asota AM Plus, which
When contemplating the causes of al-                   foliated skin can be degraded by the ac-             bears biocides under the trade-names of
lergy, it may be concluded that the main               tion of Aspergilus repens fungi, and thus            MB P 96-60 and MB E 97-65 [11].
threat comes from mites that have their                serve as nourishment for the mites [6-8].
abode in dust, upholstery furniture and,                                                                    Another idea for inhibiting the growth of
in particular, bedding. The most frequent                                                                   mites is proposed by the Sanitized com-
mite species that appear in houses are                                                                      pany, which offers its Actigard AM 87-12
Dermatophagides pteronyssinus Dp and                                                                        for use in the modification of textile
Dermatoiphgoides farinae Df, and, in                                                                        surfaces by coating, dipping or spray-
rooms at lower temperatures, Acarus                                                                         ing [12]. The disadvantage of such fin-
siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Figure 1)                                                                   ishing is a certain instability and decreas-
and Glycyphagus domesticus [3].                                                                             ing biological activity during the use of
                                                                                                            the textiles.
Most patients suffering from bronchitis,
rhinitis and dermatitis react to house                                                                      In the pursuit of methods to defeat pests,
dust [4]. Changing ways of life and mod-                                                                    interest has risen in the possibility of dis-
ern house interiors may also contribute to             Figure 1. Tyrophagus putrescentiae.                  turbing chitin accretion. Protocuticule,

24                                                                                        FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe January / December 2005, Vol. 13, No. 6 (54)
a constituent of arthropod cuticule, is                          Based on the manufactured amount of          Industrial staple fibre line composed
built up from tiny chitin fibres depos-                          modified polypropylene staple fibres         of a feeding system, extruder [diameter
ited in a protein matrix. It was found                           and polyester filling fibres, a prototype    120 mm], spinning head with 8 spinnerets,
that synthetic derivatives of asymmetric                         charge of nonwoven, suitable for bed         drawing system, stabilisation-relaxation
benzarylureas are capable of effectively                         linen, has been devised and produced         chamber, crimper, cutter and baler: in-
disturbing chitin accretion [13]. Sub-                           [21]. The nonwoven was made by nee-          stalled at Viola-Multitex Co.
stances that inhibit chitin synthesis are                        dle-punching. Inserts for pillows, quilts
well known and used in plant protection.                         and bed sheets were made from the            Industrial nonwoven pilot plant com-
The Colorado beetle insecticides may be                          nonwoven. The inserts are interposed         posed of a blender-opener, volumetric
shown as a typical example. They usu-                            between the pillow and case, quilt and       feeder, roller card, fleece laying machine
ally appear in the form of chitin synthesis                      case, sheet and mattress. In such uses,      and needling machine: installed in the
inhibitors under various trade-names                             they must meet certain requirements of       Institute for Terotechnology.
like Andalin 250 DC, Ekos 100 EC,                                strength and usability. The prepared sets
Mat 050 EC, Nomolt 150 EC [14]. It                               of the bed-clothes were tested in respect    Analytical Methods
may be concluded that such compounds                             of strength and anti-mite & anti-allergic    The physical-mechanical properties were
are able to limit the mite population                            action. It is expected that the prepared     measured according to the following
effectively, particularly at their early                         inserts will be used by patients suffering   standards:
procreation stage. However, application                          from house dust mite allergy.                n Linear density: PN-ISO 1973;1997
examples of typical insect chitin inhibi-                                                                     n Breaking force and elongation of sta-
tors used in the modification of chemical                                                                        ple fibres: PN-EN ISO 5079;1999
fibres are as yet unknown.                                       n Experimental                               n Fibre thickness: PN-EN ISO 9073-
                                                                 Raw materials                                   2;2002
In the Institute of Chemical Fibres, inves-                                                                   n Breaking force and elongation of non-
tigations have been under way for many                           Polypropylene:
                                                                 n Daplen RT 581 made by Borealis Bel-           woven: PN-EN 29073-1
years to select substances and prepare
                                                                    gium, melt flow index =35g/10 min,        n The anti-mite activity was tested
fibres for slow-release actions using
                                                                 n Malen P S 702 made by PKN Orlen               according to the French standard
natural and synthetic carriers. Research
                                                                    Poland, melt flow index = 11-16g/10          NF G 39-011
has been focused on preparing antifungal
and antibacterial polyamide [15] and                                min.
                                                                 The melt flow index was measured at          The research and development works
polypropylene [16] fibres, and recently,
                                                                 230 °C and a load of 2.16 kg, with a spin-   devoted to the preparation of anti-mite
also on synthetic fibres modified with
                                                                 neret of 2.09 mm in diameter.                nonwoven products were carried out in
anti-mite additives [17, 18]. The biologi-
                                                                                                              three stages:
cally active substance deposited in the
                                                                 Spin finish: Fasavin 2830 – 8% emul-         1. Preparation of anti-mite polypropyl-
synthetic fibres prepared by the Institute
                                                                 sion, manufactured by Zschimmer and             ene staple fibres;
is control-released in sufficient quantities
                                                                 Schwarz.                                     2. Preparation of the anti-mite needle-
to sustain optimal anti-microbial activ-
                                                                                                                 punched        polypropylene/polyester
ity. In case of the anti-mite fibres, the
                                                                 Anti-mite agent: The commercial prod-           nonwoven;
extricated biologically active substances
                                                                 uct AM 92223 made by Wells Plastics          3. Confectioning of the bedding inserts.
inhibit the growth of house dust mites by
direct action on the mites or their host,                        UK was used as the anti-mite agent. It
                                                                 is a blend (concentrate) of polypropylene
i e. Aspergilus repens. The following                                                                            Preparation of anti-mite
                                                                 and the active substance CeramiteTM in
substances have been used as fibre-modi-                                                                         polypropylene staple fibres
fying active agents [19]:                                        50/50 proportions. The concentrate re-
n fungicides from the family of imida-                           sists temperatures up to 350 °C, is odour-   The method prepared for manufactur-
    zol and triazol derivatives approved                         less, does not contain neurotoxins and is    ing the polypropylene (PP) fibres active
    for use in contact with humans and                           harmless to humans and the environment.      against house dust mites consists in add-
    animals. These inhibit the growth of                         CeramiteTM is an inorganic compound          ing an active agent to the polymer melt
    Aspergilus repens, which constitutes                         encapsulated in a ceramic coat.              and depositing it in the structure of the
    a bridge in the mites’ feed chain, and                                                                    spun fibres. Based on earlier investiga-
n acaracides, for example from the                               Polyester filling fibre: cut length 38 mm,   tions [20], the concentrate AM 92223
    group of organic and inorganic acids                         titre 3.3 dtx, made by Elana SA, Poland.     was selected for the modification of
    that display direct action on the mites.                                                                  fibres.
                                                                 Enforcing cotton net: symbol BTG,
In the Institute, we prepared bioactive                          mesh 10×5 mm, surface density ~ 40g/m2       The investigation focused on finding a
polypropylene fibres that inhibit the                            made by PPH Pabianitex of Pabianice,         concentration of the biomodifying agent
growth of house dust mites and so limit                          Poland.                                      in the PP fibres that would provide anti-
or eliminate the cause of allergies [19,                                                                      mite activity in both the fibres and textile
20]. In the technology as elaborated,                            Equipment                                    products containing modified and other
the acaricide is introduced into the fibre                       Extruder spinning plant Barmag, ex-          fibres. It was necessary to ensure that the
in the course of melt spinning. Textiles                         truder [diameter 20 mm]. installed at the    additive used did not cause any distur-
made of such fibres as air filters, carpets,                     Institute of Chemical Fibres.                bance in either the fibre-forming or fibre-
floor covering, bedclothes, upholstery                                                                        drawing processes. It was also essential
and decorative fabrics constitute protec-                        Draw-twister Barmag type SZ-16,              to attain physical-mechanical parameters
tion against house dust mite allergens                           installed at the Institute of Chemical       of the fibres that would guarantee the
throughout the life of the fabrics.                              Fibres.                                      useful properties of the final products.

FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe January / December 2005, Vol. 13, No. 6 (54)                                                                        25
Table 1. Impact of CeramiteTM content upon       designed for the preparation of bedding
the PP fibres activity against house-dust-mite   inserts (Table 2).                                                                                        a)

     Content of active    Decrease of mite           Preparation of needle-punched
     substance, % wt       population, %
                                                     anti-mite polypropylene/
            0                    0
                                                     polyester nonwovens
           0,25                  3
           0,50                  2               The anti-mite nonwoven was manufac-
           0,75                 100              tured in the Institute of Terotechnology
           1,00                 100              using the needle-punch technique. The PP
           1,50                 100              fibres made in the Viola company were
                                                 used as the active component, and staple
                                                 polyester (PES) fibres with 38 mm cut                                                                     b)
The spinning conditions resembled                length and 3.3 dtex staple as filling fibres.
those applied in the forming of standard         The latter manifest a higher moisture ab-
PP fibres. The active substance [a.s.].          sorbency and elasticity in comparison to
content in the modified PP fibres was            PP fibres. In the blend, they provide for
varied in the range of 0.25 to 2.5% wt.          softness and fluffiness of the products;
A reference trial without the agent was          they also ease the manufacturing of the
also made.                                       nonwoven. The nonwoven designed for
                                                 inserts under bed sheets was additionally
The formed fibres with varying Ce-               enforced with a cotton net (BT6-100).
ramiteTM content were tested for biological      In optimising the proportions of the raw
activity. The testing was carried out in the     materials, the nonwovens were made with              Figure 2. SEM surface of standard PP
Institute’s Acarology Laboratory according                                                            and 1 % wt a.s. Ceramite- modified fibres.
                                                 contents of 12.5%, 25% and 50% of the                Magnification 2000×; a) PP standard,
to the French standard NF G 39-011. The          modified PP fibres, with a surface den-              b) PP 1% wt a.s. Ceramite.
testing results are presented in Table 1.        sity in the range of 160 to 200 g/m2. PES
                                                 fibres were the remaining component
Up to 0.5% wt content of the active              (87.5, 75.0, 50.0%).
substance, the modified PP fibres do                                                                                                                       a)
not manifest any anti-acaracide activity.        The nonwovens were analysed in respect
In the range of 0.75 to 1.5% wt content,         to their physical-mechanical and anti-
the decrease of the mite population was          mite activity (see Table 3).
100%. Based on the results, the amount
of 1.0% wt active substance (equivalent          Amongst the tested nonwovens, the ma-
to 2.0% of the AM 02223 concentrate)             terial containing 50% PP fibresmanifest-
was assumed to be the optimum. This              ed good anti-mite activity, completely
level content imposes sufficient anti-mite       extinguishing the mite population, while
activity not only upon the fibres them-          with lower PP fibre contents, the activity
selves but also on blends of modified and        was either lacking (12.5% of PP fibres) or
unmodified fibres (Figures 2 and 3).             insufficient (70% at 25% PP content).                                                                     b)

The SEM inspection of the appearance
of the CeramiteTM-modified fibres shows              Bedding inserts made
that the biomodificator particles are quite          of nonwoven
uniformly distributed over the entire            Based on the results obtained, we de-
cross-section of the fibre, and fairly well      cided to select nonwovens with 150-
on its surface.                                  200g/m2 surface density, containing 50%
                                                 of staple PP fibre with the addition of
Modified staple PP fibres with 1.0% wt           1.0% wt of CeramiteTM, for the prepa-
content of active CeramiteTM were pre-           ration of bedclothes inserts [21]. At the            Figure 3. SEM – cross-section of standard
pared for the manufacture of a nonwoven          Institute for Terotechnology in Łódź, a              PP and 1 % wt a.s. Ceramite- modified
                                                                                                      fibres Magnification – 2000 × ; a) PP
to be tested in respect of anti-allergy          trial batch of the nonwoven was made                 standard, b) PP 1% wt a.s. Ceramite.
usefulness.                                      which was used for sewing bed-clothes
                                                 inserts. These were also tested for anti-
PP fibres with titre 4.6-5.0 dtex and a cut      mite activity according to standard                  by fluffiness and good tear and deforma-
length of 32 mm were manufactured at             NF 6.39-011. The products have shown                 tion resistance; thus it responds well to
the Viola-Multitex company on the spin-          the ability to entirely inhibit the growth           the quality requirements of bedclothes.
ning line (see Equipment).                       of house dust mites.
                                                                                                      The bedclothes inserts were sewn as fol-
Malen P type S-702 granulate from Orlen          In Table 4 some properties of the anti-              lows:
Co was used as raw material.                     mite nonwoven are compiled.                          n for bed sheets, 2000 × 1400 mm
                                                                                                      n for quilts, 2000 × 1400 mm
The fibres obtained met the require-             Thanks to the use of rather short bioac-             n for pillows, 700 × 800 mm
ments of the processing into nonwovens           tive fibres, the nonwoven is characterised

26                                                                                  FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe January / December 2005, Vol. 13, No. 6 (54)
Table 2. Physical-mechanical properties and activity against house-dust-mites of CeramiteTM
- modified PP fibres produced on industrial pilot scale.                                                                Acknowledgments
                                                                                                                        n The authors would like to express their
                                  Ant-mite activity                     Physical-mechanical properties
                                                                                                                          thanks to the allergology team headed by
                                                                                                                          Professor Krzysztof Buczyłko PhD., DSc.
    Type         of active          decrease of                 Cut           Linear
                                                                                             Tenacity,    Elongation,     for their help in performing this project.
   of trial     substance,        mite population,            length,        density,
                   % wt                  %                      mm             dtex
                                                                                              cN/tex          %         n This work has been carried out as part
                                                                                                                          of the Task Project ‘Implementing the
 Standard             0                      0                  32,0               4,65        38,6           160         production of an anti-allergic nonwoven’
                                                                                                                          No. 6T082003 C/06102, co-financed by
  Modified            1                     100                 32,0               5,03        26,1           168
                                                                                                                          the Ministry of Science and Information

Table 3. Physical-mechanical properties and anti-mite activity of non-wovens containing
anti-mite fibres.                                                                                                       References
                                                                                                                         1. Fain A., Guerin B., Hart B.J. 1990. Mites
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The anti-mite bed inserts were positively                        able statistical decrease in mite guanine                  19-23, [2004].
evaluated by the Office of Registration                          concentration, and largely contribute to               10. Bohringer A., Rupp J., Yonenaga A. ‘An-
                                                                                                                            timicrobial textiles’, International Textile
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and Biocidal Products (Poland), and ap-                                                                                 11. Schobesberger C.P. [Asota GmbH].,
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                                                                                                                            394-396, 1998.
Health (approval no. 217/05).                                                                                           12.Schmidt O., BU Textilchemikalien Clariant,
                                                                 1. Technological       conditions     were                 seminar materials, Mikorzyn, 2000.
                                                                    elaborated for manufacturing poly-
    Assessment of the inserts’                                      propylene staple fibres with anti-mite
                                                                                                                        13. Sobótka W., ‘Inhibitory biosyntezy chityny
                                                                                                                            owadów’, Postęp w chemii i zastosowaniu
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propylene fibre content were given to                               ing substance was established, based                    K., 1997. ‘Stonka ziemniaczana – zalecenia
medical institutions for testing. Inserts                           on biological testing in accordance                     zwalczania.’ Ochrona Roślin, 6: 4-6, 1997.
                                                                    with standard NF G 39-11.                           15. Polish Pat. Appl. P-332396
without the bioactive components were                                                                                   16. Polish Pat. Appl. P-332398
also handed over as reference. The objec-                        3. Inserts were prepared from needle-                  17. Struszczyk H., Niekraszewicz A., Lebioda
tives of the testing were to assess the in-                         punched nonwoven anti-mite bed-                         J., Brzoza K. ‘Bioactive Synthetic Fibres’,
                                                                    clothes which met the usefulness                        Vlákna a Textil 8[2]. 176-177 [2001].
serts’ anti-mite action and their ability to                                                                            18. Struszczyk H., Lebioda J., Twarowska-
soothe allergic reaction. The testing was                           requirements.                                           Schmidt K., Niekraszewicz A., ‘New
carried out on patients in the Department                        4. Medical testing confirmed that the                      Bioactive Synthetic Fibres Developed in
of Allergology and Respiration Rehabili-                            inserts cause a remarkable decrease                     the Institute of Chemical Fibres’, Fibres
                                                                    of mite guanine concentration, and                      & Textiles in Eastern Europe vol. 11, No
tation of the Medical University, Łódź                                                                                      2 [41]., pp 96-99[2003].
and the Centre for Allergology in Łódź.                             soothe patients’ allergic reactions.                19. Struszczyk H., Research Project nr. 7
For the tested material, the certificate of                      5. The anti-mite nonwoven in the form                      T09B 00620
                                                                    of bedclothes inserts, were positively              20. Hoffman J., Niekraszewicz A., Lebioda J.,
approval no. RNN/277/04/KB was is-                                                                                          Struszczyk H., ‘Antiallergic nonwovens’ Prze-
sued by the Commission of Bioethics of                              assessed by the Administration of                       gląd Włókienniczy, nr 9, pp. 41 – 44, 2005.
the Medical University, Łódź.                                       Medical Devices, Drugs and Biocidal                 21. Task Project ‘Implementation of the pro-
                                                                    Materials, and given approval for sale                  duction of anti-allergic nonwovens’, No.
                                                                    by the Polish Ministry of Health.                       6T082003 C/06102.
The tests in both medical units revealed
that the bedding inserts cause a remark-                                                                                    Received 06.09.2005     Reviewed 24.10.2005

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