Psychoanalytic Theory - PowerPoint by fjhuangjun

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Key Names are Freud and
 Personality Theory vs Developmental
   Developmental theory is focused on change
    over the lifespan
   For Freud the key period of development is
    the first 5 years.
   Personality theory shows the underlying
    processes of personality which then shape
    the way an individual goes through the
    developmental stages.
        Personality Theory
 The driving forces of personality are sex
  and aggression
 Personality is divided into three parts:
 Id
   The center of desire
   The demanding part of personality
   “gimme!”
 Superego
   The conscience
   The abuser
   “You must not!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!”
 Ego
   The negotiator between id and reality
   Reasonable
   Non judgmental
   Fragile and easily overwhelmed by anxiety
    caused by conflicts between superego and
     Defense Mechanisms
 Serve to protect the ego from being
  overwhelmed by anxiety
 Are universally applied.
 Which defense mechanisms are you
  most likely to use?
   Repression: pushing anxiety arousing
    material out of consciousness
      Manifested by amnesia for painful events
 Denial: refusing to acknowledge anxiety
  arousing experience.
   E.g. child says he wasn’t stealing a cookie
    although his hand was in the cookie jar
 Rationalization: coming up with social
  acceptable reasons for behavior. May
  cause self deception.
   E.g. I only lost the tennis match because I
    had a new racquet.
 Intellectualization: making cognitive
  distance between self and the emotion
  arousing experience.
   E.g. Go to a sad movie and focus on how it
    was made
 Reaction formation: substituting opposite
  attitudes and behaviors for what you
  really feel
   E.g. being super friendly with someone you
 Projection: attributing your feelings to
  another person
    “You’re mad at me” when actually you are
     the one who is angry.
 Regression: going back to an earlier,
  less anxiety arousing period
    Child begins bed wetting again when the
     new sibling comes home
 What is conscious is a tiny part of the
  human mind. Tip of the iceberg
 Immediately below consciousness is
  preconsciousness--material which is
  recently repressed or just bubbling into
 Largest portion of the mind is
  unconscious. This is the seat of early
  memories which have been repressed
      To become mentally
 Freudian treatment is called
   Bringing unconscious material to
    consciousness in order to work on it
   Done through dream analysis and free
   A long, slow process to bring material
    forward which will not overwhelm the ego
    and incapacitate the individual.
     Developmental Theory
 Development relates to the experience
  of pleasure in different zones of the
  body. These are temporal erogenous
 Development occurs in 5 stages
 Neo-Freudians believe in different
  stages, but minimize the role of sexual
                 Stage 1
 The oral stage Birth - 18 months
   Erogenous zone is the mouth
   Pleasure derived in sucking
   Passing through this stage requires the baby
    getting oral needs met so as not to be fixated
   Later life issues if fixated
                 Stage 2
 The anal stage: 18 months to 3 years
   Erogenous zone is the anus
   Toilet training is the activity
   Some children may withhold feces, others
    may play with feces
   Personality types which develop with fixation
    are anal retentive and anal expulsive
   Later life manifestations of fixation are…
                   Stage 3
 Phallic Stage--3-5 or 6 years
   Center of pleasure are the genitals
   See opposite sex parent as the love object
      Oedipus Complex for boys
      Electra Complex for girls
   Identification with opposite sex parent gives
    gender identity
      Fails to consider issues of single parent families
      Inadequately explains homosexuality
 The basic dynamics of personality are
  fixed by the end of the phallic stage.

This is a theory which focuses on stability
  rather than discontinuity of personality.
  Do you agree or disagree?
                Stage 4

Latency Stage--6 years to puberty
  Sexual interest is sublimated into work
  Focus is outside of the self, on school
    and social relationships

    This is a time of relative quiet for the
                 Stage 5
 Genital Stage: Puberty…
   Erogenous areas are as generally known
   Interest is in sexual pleasure with someone
    outside of the family
   Any unresolved conflicts with parents are
    resolved allowing for the development of a
    love relationship.
   Again, no mention of homosexuality
             Erik Erikson
 A disciple of Freud who broke with him
  because of overemphasis on sexual
   “Psychosexual stages”
 Believed that we develop based on
  social impulses.
   “Psychosocial stages”
          Similarities and
          Differences of
 Time stages in early life are the same
 Relationship between the developing
  child and parents is the same
 Erikson covers the entire life span so he
  sees development as continuous
 Erikson sees each stage as a dichotomy
  which must be resolved
   Birth-18 months      F=oral stage      E=trust vs. mistrust

   18 mos-3 years       F=anal stage      E=autonomy vs shame and

   3-5 years            F=phallic stage E=initiative vs. guilt

   6 yrs-puberty        F=latency stage E=industry vs. inferiority

   Adolescence          F=genital stage    E=identity vs identity
   Young adulthood                     E=intimacy vs isolation
   Middle adulthood            E=generativity vs stagnation
   Late adulthood                        E=integrity vs despair

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