Income Statement and Related Inf by fjhuangjun

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                                                                                                CHAPTER
                                                                                                                           4
            Income Statement
            and Related Information

                                                                                                LEARNING
            W     hich Income Number?                                                           OBJECTIVES

            Recently, companies have been providing investors a choice in reported              After studying this chapter, you
            income numbers. In addition to income measured according to generally               should be able to:
            accepted accounting principles (GAAP), companies also are reporting an                  Identify the uses and
            income measure that has been adjusted for certain items. Companies make                 limitations of an income
                                                                                                    statement.
            these adjustments because they believe the items are not representative of
            operating results. In some cases these adjustments are quite large. As shown            Prepare a single-step
                                                                                                    income statement.
            in the following table, in a recent quarter the reporting of such “pro forma”
            income measures put a very different spin on operating results. In some cases           Prepare a multiple-step
                                                                                                    income statement.
            (JDS-Uniphase, PMC-Sierra, and Yahoo!), a loss under GAAP
            measurement rules became an operating profit after pro forma adjustments.               Explain how irregular
                                                                                                    items are reported.
                                                     Earnings Per Share
                                                                                                    Explain intraperiod tax
                                    Company        Pro Forma       GAAP
                                                                                                    allocation.
                                    JDS-Uniphase     $0.14        $1.13
                                    Checkfree         0.04         1.17                             Explain where earnings
                                    Amazon.com        0.22         0.66                             per share information is
                                    PMC-Sierra        0.02         0.38                             reported.
                                    Corning           0.29         0.14
                                                                                                    Prepare a retained
                                    Qualcomm          0.29         0.18
                                    Yahoo!            0.01         0.02                             earnings statement.
                                                                                                    Explain how other
            Characteristic of pro forma reporting practices is Amazon.com, which made               comprehensive income is
            adjustments for items such as stock-based compensation, amortization of                 reported.
            goodwill and intangibles, impairment charges, and equity in losses of investees.
            All of these adjustments make pro forma earnings higher than GAAP income. In
            its earnings announcement, Amazon defended its pro forma reporting, saying
            that it gives better insight into the fundamental operations of the business.
            So what’s wrong with focusing investors on the fundamentals of the business?
            According to Ed Jenkins, former chair of the FASB, one problem is that there
            are no standards for the reporting of pro forma numbers. As a result,
            investors will have a hard time comparing Amazon’s pro forma measure with
            that reported by another company, which has a different idea of what is
            fundamental to its business. Also, there is concern that many companies use
            pro forma reporting to deflect investor attention from bad news.
            Rather than relying on management’s choice of the number to focus on,
            GAAP income numbers are subject to the same rules for all companies, are
            audited, and give investors a more complete picture of company profitability,
            not the story preferred by management.1


                1
                  Adapted from David Henry, “The Numbers Game,” Business Week (May 14, 2001),
            pp. 100–110.
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        PREVIEW OF CHAPTER 4
                                As shown in the opening story, investors need complete and comparable information
                                on income and its components to make valid assessments of company profitability. The
                                purpose of this chapter is to examine the many different types of revenues, expenses,
                                gains, and losses that affect the income statement and related information. The content
                                and organization of this chapter are as follows.


                                                                     INCOME STATEMENT AND
                                                                      RELATED INFORMATION




                                                            Format of the                  Reporting                   Special
                            Income Statement
                                                          Income Statement              Irregular Items            Reporting Issues
                            • Usefulness                  • Elements                   • Discontinued              • Intraperiod tax
                            • Limitations                 • Single-step                  operations                  allocation
                            • Quality of                  • Multiple-step              • Extraordinary items       • Earnings per share
                              earnings                    • Condensed income           • Unusual gains and         • Retained earnings
                                                            statements                   losses                      statement
                                                                                       • Changes in                • Comprehensive
                                                                                         accounting principle        income
                                                                                       • Changes in
                                                                                         estimates




                                                INCOME STATEMENT
                                                The income statement, often called the statement of income or statement of earnings,2
            OBJECTIVE                           is the report that measures the success of enterprise operations for a given period of
            Identify the uses and               time. The business and investment community uses this report to determine prof-
            limitations of an                   itability, investment value, and credit worthiness. It provides investors and creditors
            income statement.                   with information that helps them predict the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of
                                                future cash flows.


                                                Usefulness of the Income Statement
                                                The income statement helps users of financial statements predict future cash flows in
                                                a number of ways. For example, investors and creditors can use the information in the
                                                income statement to:
                                                    Evaluate the past performance of the enterprise. By examining revenues and
          DaimlerChrysler            Ford
                                                    expenses, you can tell how the company performed and compare its performance
                                                    to its competitors. For example, the income data provided by DaimlerChrysler can
             Revenues
           – Expenses
             $ Profits
                         <          Revenues
                                  – Expenses
                                    $ Profits
                                                    be used to compare its performance to that of Ford.
                                                    Provide a basis for predicting future performance. Information about past per-
                                                    formance can be used to determine important trends that, if continued, provide
             Which company did better
                    last year?
                                                    2
                                                      Accounting Trends and Techniques—2001 (New York: AICPA) indicates that for the 600 com-
                                                panies surveyed, the term income was employed in the title of 284 income statements. The term
                                                operations was second in acceptance with 198, and the term earnings was used by 108 companies.

          124
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                                                                                                      Income Statement                     •         125

                 information about future performance. For example, General Electric has reported                                 GE Profits
                 consistent increases in revenues in recent years. Although success in the past does                                                ?
                 not necessarily mean the company will be successful in the future, predictions of                                                   ?
                 future revenues, and hence earnings and cash flows, can be made with some con-                                Past    Now Future

                 fidence if a reasonable correlation exists between past and future performance.
                 Help assess the risk or uncertainty of achieving future cash flows. Information
                 on the various components of income—revenues, expenses, gains, and losses—                Hmm....Where am I headed?
                 highlights the relationships among them and can be used to assess the risk of not
                 achieving a particular level of cash flows in the future. For example, segregating                IBM                   Recurring?
                 IBM’s operating performance from other nonrecurring sources of income is useful          Income for Year Ended
                                                                                                               12/31/03
                 because operations are usually the primary means by which revenues and cash are             Revenues
                                                                                                           – Operating expenses
                 generated. Thus, results from continuing operations usually have greater signifi-           Operating income                  Yes
                                                                                                          ± Unusual or
                 cance for predicting future performance than do results from nonrecurring activi-          extraordinary items                No

                 ties and events.                                                                         $ Net Income                          ?

                                                                                                             Recurring items are more
                                                                                                               certain in the future.
            In summary, information in the income statement—revenues, expenses, gains, and
            losses—helps users evaluate past performance and provides insights into achieving a
            particular level of cash flows in the future.



            Limitations of the Income Statement
            Because net income is an estimate and reflects a number of assumptions, income state-
            ment users need to be aware of certain limitations associated with the information con-
            tained in the income statement. Some of these limitations include:

                 Items that cannot be measured reliably are not reported in the income statement.
                 Current practice prohibits recognition of certain items from the determination of                                  Exp Exp
                 income even though the effects of these items arguably affect the performance of                                 Rev Rev Rev
                                                                                                                                         Profits
                 an entity from one point in time to another. For example, unrealized gains and                           Unrealized
                                                                                                                           Earnings
                 losses on certain investment securities may not be recorded in income when there
                                                                                                                             Brand value
                 is uncertainty that the changes in value will ever be realized. In addition, more and         You left something out!
                 more companies, like Cisco Systems and Microsoft, have experienced increases in
                 value due to brand recognition, customer service, and product quality. Presently, a                        Income Using:
                 common framework for identifying and reporting these types of values has not
                 been developed.                                                                                         Straight-line
                                                                                                                         Depreciation
                 Income numbers are affected by the accounting methods employed. For exam-
                 ple, one company may choose to depreciate its plant assets on an accelerated ba-
                                                                                                                         Accelerated
                 sis; another chooses straight-line depreciation. Assuming all other factors are equal,                  Depreciation
                 the income for the first company will be lower, even though the companies are
                                                                                                          Hmm... Is the income the same?
                 essentially the same. In effect, we are comparing apples to oranges.
                 Income measurement involves judgment. For example, one company in good faith
                                                                                                                        Estimates
                 may estimate the useful life of an asset to be 20 years while another company uses               • High useful lives
                                                                                                                  • Low warranty returns
                 a 15-year estimate for the same type of asset. Similarly, some companies may make                • Low bad debts
                 overly optimistic estimates of future warranty returns and bad debt write-offs,
                 which results in lower expense and higher income.
                                                                                                                    $ High Income

            In summary, several limitations of the income statement reduce the usefulness of this              Hey...you might be too
                                                                                                                     optimistic!
            statement for predicting the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of future cash flows.



            Quality of Earnings
            Our discussion to this point has highlighted the importance of information in the in-
            come statement for investment and credit decisions, including the evaluation of the
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        126     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                         company and its managers.3 Companies try to meet or beat Wall Street expectations so
                                         that the market price of their stock and the value of management’s stock options
                                         increase. As a result, companies have incentives to manage income to meet earnings
                                         targets or to make earnings look less risky.
                                             The SEC has expressed concern that the motivations to meet earnings targets may
                                         be overriding good business practices. As a result, the quality of earnings and the qual-
                                         ity of financial reporting are eroding. As indicated by a former SEC chairman,
                                         “Managing may be giving way to manipulation; integrity may be losing out to illu-
                                         sion.”4
                                             What is earnings management? It is often defined as the planned timing of rev-
                                         enues, expenses, gains, and losses to smooth out bumps in earnings. In most cases,
                                         earnings management is used to increase income in the current year at the expense of
                                         income in future years. For example, companies prematurely recognize sales before
                                         they are complete in order to boost earnings. As one commentator noted, “ . . . it’s like
                                         popping a cork in [opening] a bottle of wine before it is ready.”
                                             Earnings management can also be used to decrease current earnings in order to in-
                                         crease income in the future. The classic case is the use of “cookie jar” reserves. These
                                         are established by using unrealistic assumptions to estimate liabilities for such items
                                         as sales returns, loan losses, and warranty returns. These reserves can then be reduced
                                         in the future to increase income.
                                             Such earnings management has a negative effect on the quality of earnings if it
                                         distorts the information in a way that is less useful for predicting future earnings and
                                         cash flows. As indicated in Chapter 1, markets are based on trust, and it is imperative




                                             Manage up, manage down
                                             The quality of earnings is adversely affected whether earnings are managed up or down.
                                             For example, W. R. Grace managed earnings down by taking excess “cookie jar” reserves
                                             in good earnings years. During the early 1990s, Grace was growing fast, with profits in-
        What do the                          creasing 30 percent annually. Analysts’ targets had Grace growing 24 percent each year.
        numbers mean?                        Worried that they could not continue to meet these growth expectations, management
                                             began stashing away excess profits in an all-purpose reserve. In 1995, when profits were
                                             not meeting expectations, Grace wanted to reduce this reserve and so increase income.
                                             The SEC objected, noting that generally accepted accounting principles would be vio-
                                             lated if Grace were to do so.
                                                 More recently, MicroStrategy managed earnings up by booking revenue for future
                                             software upgrades, even though it had not yet delivered on the upgrades. And Rent-
                                             Way, Inc. managed its earnings up by understating some $65 million in expenses re-
                                             lating to such items as automobile maintenance and insurance payments.
                                                 Does the market value accounting quality? Well, each of these companies took a beat-
                                             ing in the marketplace when its earnings management practices were uncovered. For
                                             example, Rent-Way’s stock price plummeted from above $25 per share to below $10 per
                                             share when it announced restatements for its improper expense accounting. So, whether
                                             earnings are managed up or down, companies had better be prepared to pay the price
                                             for poor accounting quality.




                                             3
                                              In support of the usefulness of income information, accounting researchers have docu-
                                         mented that the market prices of companies change when income is reported to the market. See
                                         W. H. Beaver, “The Information Content of Annual Earnings Announcements,” Empirical Research
                                         in Accounting: Selected Studies, Journal of Accounting Research (Supplement 1968), pp. 67–92.
                                             4
                                              A. Levitt, the “Numbers Game.” Remarks to NYU Center for Law and Business, Septem-
                                         ber 28, 1998 (Securities and Exchange Commission, 1998).
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                                                                                            Format of the Income Statement   •   127

            that the bond between shareholders and the company be strong. If investors or others
            lose faith in the numbers reported in the financial statements, U.S. capital markets will
            be damaged. As mentioned in the opening story, heightened scrutiny of income mea-
            surement and reporting is warranted to ensure the quality of earnings and investors’
            confidence in the income statement.


            FORMAT OF THE INCOME STATEMENT
            Elements of the Income Statement
            Net income results from revenue, expense, gain, and loss transactions. These transac-
            tions are summarized in the income statement. This method of income measurement
            is called the transaction approach because it focuses on the income-related activities
            that have occurred during the period.5 Income can be further classified by customer,
            product line, or function or by operating and nonoperating, continuing and discontin-
            ued, and regular and irregular categories.6 More formal definitions of income-related
            items, referred to as the major elements of the income statement, are as follows.



                                      ELEMENTS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

                REVENUES. Inflows or other enhancements of assets of an entity or settlements
                of its liabilities during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering
                services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central
                operations.
                EXPENSES. Outflows or other using-up of assets or incurrences of liabilities dur-
                ing a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or carrying
                out other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central opera-
                tions.
                GAINS. Increases in equity (net assets) from peripheral or incidental transactions
                of an entity except those that result from revenues or investments by owners.
                LOSSES. Decreases in equity (net assets) from peripheral or incidental trans-
                actions of an entity except those that result from expenses or distributions to
                owners.7



                Revenues take many forms, such as sales, fees, interest, dividends, and rents.
            Expenses also take many forms, such as cost of goods sold, depreciation, interest, rent,
            salaries and wages, and taxes. Gains and losses also are of many types, resulting from
            the sale of investments, sale of plant assets, settlement of liabilities, write-offs of assets
            due to obsolescence or casualty, and theft.


                 5
                  The most common alternative to the transaction approach is the capital maintenance ap-
            proach to income measurement. Under this approach, income for the period is determined based
            on the change in equity, after adjusting for capital contributions (e.g., investments by owners) or
            distributions (e.g., dividends). The main drawback associated with the capital maintenance ap-
            proach is that the components of income are not evident in its measurement. The Internal Rev-
            enue Service uses the capital maintenance approach to identify unreported income and refers to
            this approach as the “net worth check.”
                 6
                 The term “irregular” encompasses transactions and other events that are derived from de-
            velopments outside the normal operations of the business.
                 7
                   “Elements of Financial Statements,” Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 6 (Stam-
            ford, Conn.: FASB, 1985), pars. 78–89.
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        128     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                               The distinction between revenues and gains and the distinction between expenses
                                           and losses depend to a great extent on the typical activities of the enterprise. For ex-
                                           ample, when McDonald’s sells a hamburger, the selling price is recorded as revenue.
                                           However, when McDonald’s sells a french-fryer, any excess of the selling price over the
         International                     book value would be recorded as a gain. This difference in treatment results because
         Insight                           the sale of the hamburger is part of McDonald’s regular operations while the sale of
                                           the french-fryer is not.
         For some nations, financial re-
                                               The importance of reporting these elements should not be underestimated. For most
         porting is prepared on the
         same basis as tax returns. In
                                           decision makers, the parts of a financial statement will often be more useful than the
         such cases, companies have        whole. As indicated earlier, investors and creditors are interested in predicting the
         incentives to minimize reported   amounts, timing, and uncertainty of future income and cash flows. Having income
         income.                           statement elements shown in some detail and in comparison form with prior years’
                                           data, decision makers are better able to assess future income and cash flows.


                                           Single-Step Income Statements
                                           In reporting revenues, gains, expenses, and losses, a format known as the single-step
                                           income statement is often used. In the single-step statement, just two groupings exist:
                                           revenues and expenses. Expenses are deducted from revenues to arrive at net income
                                           or loss. The expression “single-step” is derived from the single subtraction necessary
                                           to arrive at net income. Frequently income tax is reported separately as the last item
                                           before net income to indicate its relationship to income before income tax. Illustration
                                           4-1 shows the single-step income statement of Dan Deines Company.


        ILLUSTRATION 4-1
                                                                              DAN DEINES COMPANY
        Single-step Income
                                                                                 INCOME STATEMENT
        Statement                                                      FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004
                                                                     Revenues
                                                                       Net sales                     $2,972,413
                                                                       Dividend revenue                  98,500
                                                                       Rental revenue                    72,910
            OBJECTIVE                                                    Total revenues               3,143,823
            Prepare a single-step                                    Expenses
            income statement.                                          Cost of goods sold             1,982,541
                                                                       Selling expenses                 453,028
                                                                       Administrative expenses          350,771
                                                                       Interest expense                 126,060
                                                                       Income tax expense                66,934
                                                                         Total expenses               2,979,334
                                                                     Net income                      $ 164,489
                                                                     Earnings per common share            $1.74




                                           Because of its simplicity, the single-step income statement is widely used in financial
                                           reporting. In recent years, though, the multiple-step form has become more popular.8
                                               The primary advantage of the single-step format lies in the simplicity of pre-
                                           sentation and the absence of any implication that one type of revenue or expense
                                           item has priority over another. Potential classification problems are thus eliminated.




                                               8
                                                 Accounting Trends and Techniques—2001. Of the 600 companies surveyed by the AICPA, 466
                                           employed the multiple-step form, and 134 employed the single-step income statement format.
                                           This is a reversal from 1983, when 314 used the single-step form and 286 used the multiple-step
                                           form.
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                                                                                    Format of the Income Statement     •   129

            Multiple-Step Income Statements
                                                                                                       OBJECTIVE
            Some contend that including other important revenue and expense classifications makes      Prepare a
            the income statement more useful. These further classifications include:                   multiple-step
                 A separation of operating and nonoperating activities of the company. For exam-       income statement.
                 ple, enterprises often present an income from operations figure and then sections
                 entitled “Other revenues and gains” and “Other expenses and losses.” These other
                 categories include interest revenue and expense, gains or losses from sales of such
                 items as investments and plant assets, and dividends received.
                 A classification of expenses by functions, such as merchandising (cost of goods
                 sold), selling, and administration. This permits immediate comparison with costs
                 of previous years and with other departments in the same year.
                A multiple-step income statement is used to recognize these additional relation-
            ships. This statement recognizes a separation of operating transactions from nonoper-
            ating transactions and matches costs and expenses with related revenues. It highlights
            certain intermediate components of income that are used for the computation of ratios
            used to assess the performance of the enterprise.

            Intermediate Components of the Income Statement
            When a multiple-step income statement is used, some or all of the following sections
            or subsections may be prepared.




                                        INCOME STATEMENT SECTIONS

                   Operating Section. A report of the revenues and expenses of the company’s
                   principal operations.
                   (a) Sales or Revenue Section. A subsection presenting sales, discounts, al-
                        lowances, returns, and other related information. Its purpose is to arrive
                        at the net amount of sales revenue.
                   (b) Cost of Goods Sold Section. A subsection that shows the cost of goods
                        that were sold to produce the sales.
                   (c) Selling Expenses. A subsection that lists expenses resulting from the com-
                       pany’s efforts to make sales.
                   (d) Administrative or General Expenses. A subsection reporting expenses of
                        general administration.
                   Nonoperating Section. A report of revenues and expenses resulting from sec-
                   ondary or auxiliary activities of the company. In addition, special gains and
                   losses that are infrequent or unusual, but not both, are normally reported in
                   this section. Generally these items break down into two main subsections:
                   (a) Other Revenues and Gains. A list of the revenues earned or gains in-
                        curred, generally net of related expenses, from nonoperating transactions.
                   (b) Other Expenses and Losses. A list of the expenses or losses incurred,
                        generally net of any related incomes, from nonoperating transactions.
                   Income Tax. A short section reporting federal and state taxes levied on income
                   from continuing operations.
                   Discontinued Operations. Material gains or losses resulting from the dispo-
                   sition of a segment of the business.
                   Extraordinary Items. Unusual and infrequent material gains and losses.
                   Cumulative Effect of a Change in Accounting Principle.
                   Earnings Per Share.
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        130     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                             Although the content of the operating section is always the same, the organization
                                        of the material need not be as described above. The breakdown above uses a natural
                                        expense classification. It is commonly used for manufacturing concerns and for mer-
                                        chandising companies in the wholesale trade. Another classification of operating
                                        expenses, recommended for retail stores, uses a functional expense classification of
                                        administrative, occupancy, publicity, buying, and selling expenses.
                                             Usually, financial statements that are provided to external users have less detail
                                        than internal management reports. The latter tend to have more expense categories—
                                        usually grouped along lines of responsibility. This detail allows top management
                                        to judge staff performance. Furthermore, irregular transactions such as discontin-
                                        ued operations, extraordinary items, and cumulative effect of changes in accounting
                                        principles should be reported separately, following income from continuing opera-
                                        tions.
                                             To illustrate the multiple-step income statement, Dan Deines Company’s statement
                                        of income is presented in Illustration 4-2. Items 1, 2, 3, and 7 from the list on page 129
                                        are shown in the statement.9 Note that in arriving at net income, three subtotals are
                                        presented:


                                            Net sales revenue
                                            Gross profit
                                            Income from operations


                                             The disclosure of net sales revenue is useful because regular revenues are reported
                                        as a separate item. Irregular or incidental revenues are disclosed elsewhere in the
                                        income statement. As a result, trends in revenue from continuing operations should be
                                        easier to understand and analyze.
                                             Similarly, the reporting of gross profit provides a useful number for evaluating per-
                                        formance and assessing future earnings. A study of the trend in gross profits may show
                                        how successfully a company uses its resources; it may also be a basis for understand-
                                        ing how profit margins have changed as a result of competitive pressure.
                                             Finally, disclosing income from operations highlights the difference between regu-
                                        lar and irregular or incidental activities. This disclosure helps users recognize that in-
                                        cidental or irregular activities are unlikely to continue at the same level. Furthermore,
                                        disclosure of operating earnings may assist in comparing different companies and
                                        assessing operating efficiencies.




                                        Condensed Income Statements
                                        In some cases it is impossible to present in a single income statement of convenient
                                        size all the desired expense detail. This problem is solved by including only the totals
                                        of expense groups in the statement of income and preparing supplementary schedules
                                        to support the totals. With this format, the income statement itself may be reduced to
                                        a few lines on a single sheet. For this reason, readers who wish to study all the reported
                                        data on operations must give their attention to the supporting schedules. The income
                                        statement shown in Illustration 4-3 on page 132 for Dan Deines Company is a con-
                                        densed version of the more detailed multiple-step statement presented earlier and is
                                        more representative of the type found in practice.




                                           9
                                             Earnings per share or net loss per share is required to be included on the face of the in-
                                        come statement.
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                                                                                                Format of the Income Statement   •     131

                                                                                                                ILLUSTRATION 4-2
                                                    DAN DEINES COMPANY
                                                                                                                Multiple-step Income
                                                       INCOME STATEMENT
                                             FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004                               Statement
                Sales Revenue
                  Sales                                                                            $3,053,081
                  Less: Sales discounts                                         $     24,241
                        Sales returns and allowances                                  56,427          80,668
                  Net sales revenue                                                                 2,972,413
                Cost of Goods Sold
                  Merchandise inventory, Jan. 1, 2004                                461,219
                  Purchases                                      $1,989,693
                  Less: Purchase discounts                           19,270
                  Net purchases                                   1,970,423
                  Freight and transportation-in                      40,612         2,011,035
                  Total merchandise available for sale                              2,472,254                      Income Statements
                  Less: Merchandise inventory, Dec. 31, 2004                          489,713                      for Real Companies
                    Cost of goods sold                                                              1,982,541
                  Gross profit on sales                                                              989,872
                Operating Expenses
                Selling expenses
                  Sales salaries and commissions                   202,644
                  Sales office salaries                             59,200
                  Travel and entertainment                          48,940
                  Advertising expense                               38,315
                  Freight and transportation-out                    41,209
                  Shipping supplies and expense                     24,712
                  Postage and stationery                            16,788
            ILLUSTRATION 4-3sales equipment
                  Depreciation of                                    9,005
            Condensed Income Internet expense
                  Telephone and                                     12,215           453,028
            Statement
                 Administrative expenses
                  Officers’ salaries                               186,000
                  Office salaries                                   61,200
                  Legal and professional services                   23,721
                  Utilities expense                                 23,275
                  Insurance expense                                 17,029
                  Depreciation of building                          18,059
                  Depreciation of office equipment                  16,000
                  Stationery, 4-4
            ILLUSTRATIONsupplies, and postage                        2,875
                   Supporting
            SampleMiscellaneous office expenses                      2,612           350,771         803,799
            Schedule
                 Income from operations                                                              186,073
                Other Revenues and Gains
                  Dividend revenue                                                    98,500
                  Rental revenue                                                      72,910         171,410
                                                                                                     357,483
                OBJECTIVE and Losses
                Other Expenses
                Explain how irregular notes
                   Interest on bonds and                                                             126,060
                items are reported. tax
                 Income before income                                                                231,423
                    Income tax                                                                        66,934
                Net income for the year                                                            $ 164,489
                Earnings per common share                                                               $1.74
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        132     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

        ILLUSTRATION 4-3
                                                                          DAN DEINES COMPANY
        Condensed Income
                                                                             INCOME STATEMENT
        Statement                                                  FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004
                                                         Net sales                                          $2,972,413
                                                         Cost of goods sold                                  1,982,541
                                                           Gross profit                                        989,872
                                                         Selling expenses (see Note D)       $453,028
                                                         Administrative expenses              350,771          803,799
                                                           Income from operations                              186,073
                                                         Other revenues and gains                              171,410
                                                                                                               357,483
                                                         Other expenses and losses                             126,060
                                                         Income before income tax                              231,423
                                                           Income tax                                           66,934
                                                         Net income for the year                            $ 164,489
                                                         Earnings per share                                        $1.74




                                             An example of a supporting schedule, cross-referenced as Note D and detailing the
                                        selling expenses, is shown in Illustration 4-4.



        ILLUSTRATION 4-4
                                                               Note D: Selling expenses
        Sample Supporting
                                                                Sales salaries and commissions          $202,644
        Schedule                                                Sales office salaries                     59,200
                                                                Travel and entertainment                  48,940
                                                                Advertising expense                       38,315
                                                                Freight and transportation-out            41,209
                                                                Shipping supplies and expense             24,712
                                                                Postage and stationery                    16,788
                                                                Depreciation of sales equipment            9,005
                                                                Telephone and Internet expense            12,215
                                                                    Total selling expenses              $453,028




                                            How much detail to include in the income statement is always a problem. On the
                                        one hand, we want to present a simple, summarized statement so that a reader can
                                        readily discover important factors. On the other hand, we want to disclose the results
                                        of all activities and to provide more than just a skeleton report. Certain basic elements
                                        are always included, but as we’ll see, they can be presented in various formats.


                                        REPORTING IRREGULAR ITEMS
                                        As illustrated through the use of a multiple-step or condensed income statement, flex-
           OBJECTIVE                    ibility in the presentation of the components of income is permitted. In two important
           Explain how                  areas, however, specific guidelines have been developed. These two areas relate to what
           irregular items are          is included in income and how certain unusual or irregular items are reported.
           reported.                         What should be included in net income has been a controversy for many years. For
                                        example, should irregular gains and losses, and corrections of revenues and expenses
                                        of prior years be closed directly to Retained Earnings and therefore not be reported in
                                        the income statement? Or should they first be presented in the income statement and
                                        then carried to Retained Earnings along with the net income or loss for the period? In
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                                                                                                    Reporting Irregular Items    •     133

            general, income measurement follows an all-inclusive approach. This approach in-
            dicates that most items, even irregular ones, are recorded in income.10
                One exception is errors in prior years’ income measurement. Because these items
            have affected earnings already reported in a prior period, errors from prior periods are
            not included in current income. Rather, these items are recorded as adjustments to
            retained earnings.11
                Currently there is growing debate concerning how irregular items that are part of
            current income should be reported within the income statement. This issue is extremely
            important, because the reporting of irregular items on the income statement is sub-
            stantial. For example, Illustration 4-5 identifies the most common types and number of
            irregular items reported in a survey of 600 large companies.


                                                                                                                 ILLUSTRATION 4-5
                250
                                                                                                                 Number of Irregular
                200                                                                                              Items Reported in a
                150
                                                                                                                 Recent Year by 600
                                                                                                                 Large Companies
                100

                 50

                 0
                            Restructuring                Extraordinary               Discontinued
                              Charges                        Items                    Operations




                As indicated, restructuring charges, which many times contain write-offs and other
            one-time items, were reported by more than one-fourth of the surveyed firms. About
            20 percent of the surveyed firms reported either an extraordinary item or a discontin-
            ued operation charge.12
                As discussed in the opening story, it is important to have consistent and compa-
            rable income reporting practices so that the information that companies disseminate is
            not too promotional. Developing a framework for reporting irregular items is impor-
            tant to ensure that financial statement users have reliable income information.13
                Some users advocate a current operating performance approach to income
            reporting. These analysts argue that the most useful income measure will reflect only
            regular and recurring revenue and expense elements. Irregular items do not reflect an
            enterprise’s future earning power. In contrast, others warn that a focus on operating
            income potentially misses important information about a firm’s performance. Any gain
            or loss experienced by the firm, whether directly or indirectly related to operations,
            contributes to its long-run profitability. As one analyst notes, “write-offs matter. . . .
            They speak to the volatility of (past) earnings.”14 As a result, some nonoperating items



                10
                   As discussed later in this chapter, the FASB has issued a statement of concepts that offers
            some guidance on this topic—“Recognition and Measurement in Financial Statements of Busi-
            ness Enterprises,” Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 5 (Stamford, Conn.: FASB, 1984).
                 11
                   This is referred to as “prior period adjustments.” Other examples that bypass the income
            statement are the gains or losses arising from certain investment securities and pension adjust-
            ments. Both examples are cases where there is uncertainty about the realization of the gains or
            losses. These gains and losses are recorded in owners’ equity until they are realized.
                 12
                   Accounting Trends and Techniques—2001 (New York: AICPA).
                 13
                 The FASB and other international accounting standard setters continue to study the best
            way to report income. See Reporting Financial Performance: A Proposed Approach (Norwalk, Conn.:
            FASB, September 1999).
                14
                   D. McDermott, “Latest Profit Data Stir Old Debate Between Net and Operating Income,”
            Wall Street Journal (May 3, 1999).
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        134     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                         can be used to assess the riskiness of future earnings. Furthermore, determining which
                                         items are operating and which items are irregular requires judgment and could lead to
                                         differences in the treatment of irregular items and to possible manipulation of income
                                         measures.



                                             Are one-time charges bugging you?
                                             Which number, net income or income from operations, should an analyst use in evalu-
                                             ating companies that have unusual items? Some argue that operating income is better
                                             because it is more representative of what will happen in the future. Others note that
        What do the                          special items are often no longer special. For example, one study noted that in 2001,
        numbers mean?                        companies in the Standard & Poors’ 500 index wrote off items totaling $165 billion—
                                             more than in the prior five years combined. And one study by Multex.com and the Wall
                                             Street Journal indicates that these charges should not be ignored. Based on data for com-
                                             panies taking unusual charges from 1996–2001, the study documented that companies
                                             reporting the largest unusual charges had more negative stock price performance in the
                                             period following the charge, compared to companies with smaller charges. Thus, rather
                                             than signaling that the bad times are behind, these unusual charges indicated poorer
                                             future earnings.
                                                Rather than ignoring unusual charges, some analysts use these charges to weed out
                                             stocks that may be headed for a fall. Following the “cockroach theory,” any charge in-
                                             dicating a problem raises the probability of more problems. Thus, investors should be
                                             wary of the increasing use of restructuring and other one-time charges, which may bury
                                             expenses that signal future performance declines.
                                             Source: J. Weil and S. Liesman, “Stock Gurus Disregard Most Big Write-offs, But They Often Hold
                                             Vital Clues to Outlook,” Wall Street Journal Online (December 31, 2001).




                                             So, what to do? The accounting profession has adopted a modified all-inclusive
                                         concept and requires application of this approach in practice. Irregular items are
                                         required to be highlighted so that the reader of financial statements can better deter-
                                         mine the long-run earning power of the enterprise. These items fall into five general
                                         categories:
                                             Discontinued operations.
                                             Extraordinary items.
                                             Unusual gains and losses.
                                             Changes in accounting principle.
                                             Changes in estimates.


                                         Discontinued Operations
                                         As indicated in Illustration 4-5, one of the most common types of irregular items is dis-
                                         continued operations. A discontinued operation occurs when (a) the results of opera-
                                         tions and cash flows of a component of a company have been (or will be) eliminated
                                         from the ongoing operations, and (b) there is no significant continuing involvement in
                                         that component after the disposal transaction. To illustrate a component, S. C. Johnson
                                         manufactures and sells consumer products and has several product groups, each with
                                         different product lines and brands. For S. C. Johnson, a product group is the lowest
                                         level at which operations and cash flows can be clearly distinguished from the rest of
                                         the company’s operations. Therefore each product group is a component of the com-
                                         pany, and if disposed of, would be classified as a discontinued operation.
                                              Here is another example. Assume that Softso Inc. has experienced losses with cer-
                                         tain brands in its beauty-care products group. As a result, Softso decides to sell the
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                                                                                                     Reporting Irregular Items      •   135

            beauty-care business. It will not have any continuing involvement in the product group
            after it is sold. In this case, the operations and the cash flows of the product group are
            eliminated from the ongoing operations of Softso and are reported as a discontinued
            operation. On the other hand, assume Softso decides to remain in the beauty-care busi-
            ness but will discontinue the brands that experienced losses. Because the cash flows
            from the brands cannot be differentiated from the cash flows of the product group as
            a whole, the brands are not considered a component. As a result, any gain or loss on
            the sale of the brands is not classified as a discontinued operation.
                 Discontinued operations are generally reported in a separate income statement cat-
            egory for the gain or loss from disposal of a component of a business. In addition, the
            results of operations of a component that has been or will be disposed of are also
            reported separately from continuing operations. The effects of discontinued operations
            are shown net of tax as a separate category, after continuing operations but before ex-
            traordinary items.15
                 To illustrate, Multiplex Products, Inc., a highly diversified company, decides to dis-
            continue its electronics division. During the current year, the electronics division lost
            $300,000 (net of tax) and was sold at the end of the year at a loss of $500,000 (net of
            tax). The information is shown on the current year’s income statement as follows.



                                                                                                                   ILLUSTRATION 4-6
                    Income from continuing operations                                       $20,000,000            Income Statement
                    Discontinued operations
                                                                                                                   Presentation of
                      Loss from operation of discontinued electronics
                        division (net of tax)                                   $300,000
                                                                                                                   Discontinued Operations
                      Loss from disposal of electronics division (net of tax)    500,000        800,000
                    Net income                                                              $19,200,000




            Note that the phrase “Income from continuing operations” is used only when gains
            or losses on discontinued operations occur.


            Extraordinary Items
            Extraordinary items are defined as nonrecurring material items that differ significantly
            from the entity’s typical business activities. The criteria for extraordinary items are as
            follows.
                 Extraordinary items are events and transactions that are distinguished by their unusual na-
                 ture and by the infrequency of their occurrence. Both of the following criteria must be met
                 to classify an event or transaction as an extraordinary item:
                 (a) Unusual Nature. The underlying event or transaction should possess a high degree of
                     abnormality and be of a type clearly unrelated to, or only incidentally related to, the
                     ordinary and typical activities of the entity, taking into account the environment in which
                     the entity operates.
                 (b) Infrequency of Occurrence. The underlying event or transaction should be of a type
                     that would not reasonably be expected to recur in the foreseeable future, taking into ac-
                     count the environment in which the entity operates.16




                15
                   “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets,” Statement of Financial
            Accounting Standards No. 144 (Norwalk, Conn.: FASB, 2001), par. 4.
               16
                  “Reporting the Results of Operations,” Opinions of the Accounting Principles Board No. 30
            (New York: AICPA, 1973), par. 20.
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        136      •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                                  Under current standards, the following gains and losses are not extraordinary
                                              items.
                                                  (a) Write-down or write-off of receivables, inventories, equipment leased to others, deferred
                                                      research and development costs, or other intangible assets.
                                                  (b) Gains or losses from exchange or translation of foreign currencies, including those re-
                                                      lating to major devaluations and revaluations.
                                                  (c) Gains or losses on disposal of a component of an entity.
                                                  (d) Other gains or losses from sale or abandonment of property, plant, or equipment used
                                                      in the business.
                                                  (e) Effects of a strike, including those against competitors and major suppliers.
                                                  (f) Adjustment of accruals on long-term contracts.17
                                              The items listed above are not considered extraordinary “because they are usual in na-
                                              ture and may be expected to recur as a consequence of customary and continuing busi-
                                              ness activities.”
                                                  Only rarely does an event or transaction clearly meet the criteria for an extraordi-
                                              nary item.18 For example, gains or losses such as (a) and (d) above would be classified
                                              as extraordinary if they are a direct result of a major casualty (such as an earthquake),
                                              an expropriation, or a prohibition under a newly enacted law or regulation. Such cir-
                                              cumstances would clearly meet the criteria of unusual and infrequent. A good exam-
                                              ple of an extraordinary item is the approximately $36 million loss incurred by Weyer-
                                              haeuser Company (forest and lumber) as a result of volcanic activity at Mount St.
         International                        Helens. Standing timber, logs, buildings, equipment, and transportation systems cov-
         Insight                              ering 68,000 acres were destroyed by the volcanic eruption.
                                                  In determining whether an item is extraordinary, the environment in which the
         Classification of items as ex-
                                              entity operates is of primary importance. The environment includes such factors as
         traordinary differs across na-
         tions. Even in countries in
                                              industry characteristics, geographic location, and the nature and extent of govern-
         which the criteria for identifying   mental regulations. Thus, extraordinary item treatment is accorded the loss from hail
         extraordinary items are similar,     damages to a tobacco grower’s crops because severe damage from hailstorms in its
         they are not interpreted identi-     locality is rare. On the other hand, frost damage to a citrus grower’s crop in Florida
         cally. Thus, what is extraordi-      does not qualify as extraordinary because frost damage is normally experienced
         nary in the U.S. is not neces-       every three or four years. In this environment, the criterion of infrequency is not
         sarily extraordinary elsewhere.      met.
                                                  Similarly, when a company sells the only significant security investment it has ever
                                              owned, the gain or loss meets the criteria of an extraordinary item. Another company,
                                              however, that has a portfolio of securities acquired for investment purposes would not
                                              have an extraordinary item. Sale of such securities would be considered part of its or-
                                              dinary and typical activities.19
                                                  In addition, considerable judgment must be exercised in determining whether an
                                              item should be reported as extraordinary. For example, some paper companies have




                                                  17
                                                    Ibid., par. 23, as amended by “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-lived
                                              Assets,” Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144 (Norwalk, Conn.: FASB, 2001).
                                                  18
                                                   Accounting Trends and Techniques—2001 (New York: AICPA) indicates that just 55 of the 600
                                              companies surveyed reported an extraordinary item.
                                                  19
                                                     Debt extinguishments had been the most common reason for companies reporting ex-
                                              traordinary items. In a recent four-year period, just 11 percent of surveyed companies reported
                                              an extraordinary item; over 90 percent of these were related to debt extinguishments (Account-
                                              ing Trends and Techniques—2001, New York: AICPA). Recently the FASB eliminated extraordinary
                                              item treatment for these gains and losses in “Rescission of FASB Statements No. 4, 44, and 64
                                              and Technical Corrections,” Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 145 (Norwalk, Conn.:
                                              FASB, 2002). Thus, reporting an extraordinary item is likely to become an even more rare event
                                              in the future.
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                                                                                                               Reporting Irregular Items   •   137

            had their forest lands condemned by the government for state or national parks or
            forests. Is such an event extraordinary, or is it part of normal operations? Such deter-
            mination is not easy; much depends on the frequency of previous condemnations, the
            expectation of future condemnations, materiality, and the like.20



                                                                                        Extraordinary times
                 No recent event better illustrates the difficulties of determining whether a transaction
                 meets the definition of extraordinary than the financial impacts of the terrorist attacks
                 on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. To many, this event, which resulted
                 in the tragic loss of lives, jobs, and in some cases, entire businesses, clearly meets the              What do the
                 criteria for unusual and infrequent. For example, in the wake of the terrorist attacks that             numbers mean?
                 destroyed the World Trade Center and turned much of lower Manhattan including Wall
                 Street into a war zone, airlines, insurance companies, and other businesses recorded
                 major losses due to property damage, business disruption, and suspension of airline
                 travel and of securities trading. But, to the surprise of many, extraordinary item re-
                 porting was not permitted for losses arising from the terrorist attacks.
                     The reason? After much deliberation, the Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) of the
                 FASB decided that measurement of the possible loss was too difficult. Take the airline
                 industry as an example: What portion of the airlines’ losses after September 11 was re-
                 lated to the terrorist attack, and what portion was due to the ongoing recession? There
                 also was concern that some companies would use the attacks as a reason for reporting
                 as extraordinary some losses that had little direct relationship to the attacks. For ex-
                 ample, shortly after the attacks, energy company AES and shoe retailer Footstar, who
                 both were experiencing profit pressure before 9/11, put some of the blame for their poor
                 performance on the attacks.
                 Source: J. Creswell, “Bad News Bearers Shift the Blame,” Fortune (October 15, 2001), p. 44.




               Extraordinary items are to be shown net of taxes in a separate section in the in-
            come statement, usually just before net income. After listing the usual revenues, costs
            and expenses, and income taxes, the remainder of the statement shows the following.


                                                                                                                         ILLUSTRATION 4-7
                             Income before extraordinary items
                                                                                                                         Income Statement
                             Extraordinary items (less applicable income tax of $__________________)
                             Net income                                                                                  Placement of
                                                                                                                         Extraordinary Items


               For example, the reporting of an extraordinary loss for Keystone Consolidated In-
            dustries, Inc. is shown in Illustration 4-8 on page 138.


            Unusual Gains and Losses
            Because of the restrictive criteria for extraordinary items, financial statement users must
            carefully examine the financial statements for items that are unusual or infrequent but



                 20
                  It is often difficult to determine what is extraordinary, because assessing the materiality of
            individual items requires judgment. However, in making materiality judgments, extraordinary
            items should be considered individually, and not in the aggregate. “Reporting the Results of
            Operations,” op. cit., par. 24.
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        138     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information




        ILLUSTRATION 4-8
        Income Statement                     Keystone Consolidated Industries, Inc.
        Presentation of
                                                                 Income before extraordinary item                $11,638,000
        Extraordinary Items
                                                                 Extraordinary item—flood loss (Note E)            1,216,000
                                                                 Net income                                      $10,422,000

                                          Note E: Extraordinary Item. The Keystone Steel and Wire Division’s Steel Works experienced a
                                          flash flood on June 22. The extraordinary item represents the estimated cost, net of related income
                                          taxes of $1,279,000, to restore the steel works to full operation.




                                        not both. As indicated earlier, items such as write-downs of inventories and transac-
                                        tion gains and losses from fluctuation of foreign exchange are not considered extraor-
                                        dinary items. Thus, these items are sometimes shown with the normal, recurring
                                        revenues, costs, and expenses. If they are not material in amount, they are combined
                                        with other items in the income statement. If they are material, they must be disclosed
                                        separately, but are shown above “Income (loss) before extraordinary items.”
                                             For example, Pepsico, Inc. presented an unusual charge in the following manner
                                        in its income statement.



        ILLUSTRATION 4-9
        Income Statement                     Pepsico, Inc.
        Presentation of                      (in millions)
        Unusual Charges
                                                               Net sales                                              $20,917
                                                               Costs and expenses, net
                                                                 Cost of sales                                          8,525
                                                                 Selling, general, and administrative expenses          9,241
                                                                 Amortization of intangible assets                        199
                                                                 Unusual items (Note 2)                                   290
                                                               Operating income                                       $ 2,662

                                          Note 2 (Restructuring Charge)
                                          Dispose and write down assets                      $183
                                          Improve productivity                                 94
                                          Strengthen the international bottler structure       13
                                          Net loss                                           $290

                                          The net charge to strengthen the international bottler structure includes proceeds of $87 million
                                          associated with a settlement related to a previous Venezuelan bottler agreement, which were partially
                                          offset by related costs.




                                            Restructuring charges, like the one reported by Pepsico, have been common in re-
                                        cent years. A restructuring charge relates to a major reorganization of company affairs,
                                        such as costs associated with employee layoffs, plant closing costs, write-offs of assets,
                                        and so on. There has been a tendency to report unusual items in a separate section
                                        just above “Income from operations before income taxes and Extraordinary items,”
                                        especially when there are multiple unusual items. A restructuring charge should not
                                        be reported as an extraordinary item, because these write-offs are considered part of a
                                        company’s ordinary and typical activities.
                                            For example, when General Electric Company experienced multiple unusual items
                                        in one year, it reported them in a separate “Unusual items” section of the income state-
                                        ment below “Income before unusual items and income taxes.” When a multiple-step
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                                                                                                   Reporting Irregular Items          •   139

            income statement is being prepared for homework purposes, unusual gains and losses
            should be reported in the “Other revenues and gains” or “Other expenses and losses”
            section unless you are instructed to prepare a separate unusual items section.21
                 In dealing with events that are either unusual or nonrecurring but not both, the
            profession attempted to prevent a practice that many believed was misleading. Com-
            panies often reported such transactions on a net-of-tax basis and prominently displayed
            the earnings per share effect of these items. Although not captioned extraordinary items,
            they are presented in the same manner. Some had referred to these as “first cousins”
            to extraordinary items. As a consequence, the Board specifically prohibited a net-of-
            tax treatment for such items, to ensure that users of financial statements can easily dif-
            ferentiate extraordinary items—which are reported net of tax—from material items that
            are unusual or infrequent, but not both.


            Changes in Accounting Principle
            Changes in accounting occur frequently in practice, because important events or con-
            ditions may be in dispute or uncertain at the statement date. One type of accounting
            change, therefore, comprises the normal recurring corrections and adjustments that are
            made by every business enterprise. Another accounting change results when an
            accounting principle is adopted that is different from the one previously used. Changes
                                                                                                                ✷     Underlying
                                                                                                                      Concepts
                                                                                                                Companies can change princi-
                                                                                                                ples, but it must be demon-
                                                                                                                strated that the newly adopted
                                                                                                                principle is preferable to the
            in accounting principle would include a change in the method of inventory pricing                   old one. Such changes mean
            from FIFO to average cost or a change in depreciation from the double-declining to the              that consistency from period to
            straight-line method.22                                                                             period is lost.
                 Changes in accounting principle are recognized by including the cumulative effect
            as of the beginning of the year, net of tax in the current year’s income statement. This
            amount is based on a retroactive computation of changing to a new accounting prin-
            ciple. The effect on net income of adopting the new accounting principle should be
            disclosed as a separate item following extraordinary items in the income statement.
                 To illustrate, Gaubert Inc. decided in March 2004 to change from an accelerated
            method of computing depreciation on its plant assets to the straight-line method. The
            assets originally cost $100,000 in 2002 and have a service life of four years. The data
            assumed for this illustration are as shown in Illustration 4-10.



                                                                                                                ILLUSTRATION 4-10
                                                                               Excess of
                                                                                                                Calculation of a Change
                                                                              Accelerated
                                        Accelerated      Straight-Line     over Straight-Line                   in Accounting Principle
                             Year       Depreciation     Depreciation           Method
                             2002         $40,000          $25,000             $15,000
                             2003          30,000           25,000               5,000
                             Total                                             $20,000




                 21
                  Many companies are reporting “one-time items.” However, some companies have taken
            restructuring charges practically every year. Citicorp (now Citigroup) took restructuring charges
            six years in a row, between 1988 and 1993; Eastman Kodak Co. did so five out of six years in
            1989 to 1994. Recent research on the market reaction to income containing “one-time” items in-
            dicates that the market discounts the earnings of companies that report a series of “nonrecur-
            ring” items. Such evidence supports the contention that these elements reduce the quality of
            earnings. J. Elliott and D. Hanna, “Repeated Accounting Write-offs and the Information Content
            of Earnings,” Journal of Accounting Research (Supplement, 1996).
                 22
                 “Accounting Changes,” Opinions of the Accounting Principles Board No. 20 (New York:
            AICPA, 1971), par. 18. In Chapter 22, we examine in greater detail the problems related to
            accounting changes.
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        140     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                             The information presented in the 2004 financial statements is shown in Illustration
                                         4-11. (The tax rate was 30 percent.)



        ILLUSTRATION 4-11
                                                      Income before extraordinary item and cumulative effect of a
        Income Statement
                                                          change in accounting principle                                 $120,000
        Presentation of a Change                        Extraordinary item—casualty loss (net of $12,000 tax)             (28,000)
        in Accounting Principle                         Cumulative effect on prior years of retroactive application
                                                          of new depreciation method (net of $6,000 tax)                    14,000
                                                      Net income                                                         $106,000




                                         Changes in Estimates
                                         Estimates are inherent in the accounting process. Estimates are made, for example, of
                                         useful lives and salvage values of depreciable assets, of uncollectible receivables, of
                                         inventory obsolescence, and of the number of periods expected to benefit from a par-
                                         ticular expenditure. Not infrequently, as time passes, as circumstances change, or as
                                         additional information is obtained, even estimates originally made in good faith must
                                         be changed. Such changes in estimates are accounted for in the period of change if
                                         they affect only that period, or in the period of change and future periods if the change
                                         affects both.
                                             To illustrate a change in estimate that affects only the period of change, assume
                                         that DuPage Materials Corp. has consistently estimated its bad debt expense at 1 per-
                                         cent of credit sales. In 2003, however, DuPage’s controller determines that the estimate
                                         of bad debts for the current year’s credit sales must be revised upward to 2 percent, or
                                         double the prior years’ percentage. Using 2 percent results in a bad debt charge of
                                         $240,000, or double the amount using the 1 percent estimate for prior years. The 2 per-
                                         cent rate is necessary to reduce accounts receivable to net realizable value. The provi-
                                         sion is recorded at December 31, 2003, as follows.


                                                           Bad Debt Expense                           240,000
                                                             Allowance for Doubtful Accounts                          240,000


                                         The entire change in estimate is included in 2003 income because no future periods
                                         are affected by the change. Changes in estimate are not handled retroactively. That
                                         is, they are not carried back to adjust prior years. (Changes in estimate that affect both




       ✷
                                         the current and future periods are examined in greater detail in Chapter 22.) Changes
                                         in estimate are not considered errors (prior period adjustments) or extraordinary
                                         items.
                Underlying
                Concepts
        The AICPA Special Committee
                                         Summary of Irregular Items
        on Financial Reporting indi-     The modified all-inclusive income concept is accepted in practice. Except for a couple
        cates a company’s core activi-   of items (discussed later in this chapter) that are charged or credited directly to retained
        ties—usual and recurring         earnings, all other irregular gains or losses or nonrecurring items are closed to Income
        events—provide the best his-
                                         Summary and are included in the income statement. Of these, discontinued operations
        torical data from which users
                                         of a component of a business is classified as a separate item in the income statement
        determine trends and relation-
        ships and make their             after continuing operations. The unusual, material, nonrecurring items that are sig-
        predictions about the future.    nificantly different from the typical or customary business activities are shown in a sep-
        Therefore, the effects of core   arate section for “Extraordinary items” below discontinued operations. Other items of
        and non-core activities should   a material amount that are of an unusual or nonrecurring nature and are not consid-
        be separately displayed.         ered extraordinary are separately disclosed. In addition, the cumulative adjustment
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                                                                                                                            Special Reporting Issues               •   141

            that occurs when a change in accounting principles develops is disclosed as a separate
            item just before net income.
                Because of the numerous intermediate income figures that are created by the
            reporting of these irregular items, careful evaluation of earnings information reported
            by the financial press is needed. Illustration 4-12 summarizes the basic concepts pre-
            viously discussed. Although the chart is simplified, it provides a useful framework for
            determining the treatment of special items affecting the income statement.

                                                                                                                                          ILLUSTRATION 4-12
                                                                                                                                          Summary of Irregular
                                                                                                                                          Items in the Income
                                                                                                                                          Statement

                    Type of Situationa                   Criteria                                  Examples                       Placement on Financial Statements
                Discontinued              Disposal of a component of a              Sale by diversified company of               Shown in separate section of the
                  operations                business for which the                    major division that represents only          income statement after continuing
                                            operations and cash flows can             activities in electronics industry.          operations but before
                                            be clearly distinguished from             Food distributor that sells                  extraordinary items. (Shown net of
                                            the rest of the company’s                 wholesale to supermarket chains              tax.)
                                            operations.                               and through fast-food restaurants
                                                                                      decides to discontinue the division
                                                                                      that sells to one of two classes of
                                                                                      customers.
                Extraordinary items       Material, and both unusual and            Gains or losses resulting from               Separate section in the income
                                           infrequent (nonrecurring).                 casualties, an expropriation, or a           statement entitled “Extraordinary
                                                                                      prohibition under a new law.                 items.” (Shown net of tax.)
                Unusual gains or          Material; character typical of the        Write-downs of receivables,                  Separate section in income
                  losses, not              customary business activities;             inventories; adjustments of                  statement above income before
                  considered               unusual or infrequent but not              accrued contract prices; gains or            extraordinary items. Often
                  extraordinary            both.                                      losses from fluctuations of foreign          reported in “Other revenues and
                                                                                      exchange; gains or losses from               gains” or “Other expenses and
                                                                                      sales of assets used in business.            losses” section. (Not shown net of
                                                                                                                                   tax.)
                Changes in                Change from one generally                 Change in the basis of inventory             Cumulative effect of the change is
                  principleb                accepted principle to another.            pricing from FIFO to average cost;           reflected in the income statement
                                                                                      change in the method of                      between the captions
                                                                                      depreciation from accelerated to             “Extraordinary items” and “Net
                                                                                      straight-line.                               income.” (Shown net of tax.)
                Changes in                Normal, recurring corrections             Changes in the realizability of              Change in income statement only in
                  estimates                 and adjustments.                          receivables and inventories;                 the account affected. (Not shown
                                                                                      changes in estimated lives of                net of tax.)
                                                                                      equipment, intangible assets;
                                                                                      changes in estimated liability for
                                                                                      warranty costs, income taxes, and
                                                                                      salary payments.
                a
                 This summary provides only the general rules to be followed in accounting for the various situations described above. Exceptions do exist in some of these
                situations.
                b
                 The general rule per APB Opinion No. 20 is to use the cumulative effect approach. However, recent FASB pronouncements require or permit the retroactive
                method whenever a new standard is adopted for the first time.




            SPECIAL REPORTING ISSUES
            Intraperiod Tax Allocation
                                                                                                                                               OBJECTIVE
            We noted that certain irregular items are shown on the income statement net of tax.                                                Explain intraperiod
            Many believe that the resulting income tax effect should be directly associated with                                               tax allocation.
            that event or item. In other words, the tax expense for the year should be related, where
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        142     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                        possible, to specific items on the income statement to provide a more informative dis-
                                        closure to statement users. This procedure is called intraperiod tax allocation, that is,
                                        allocation within a period. Its main purpose is to relate the income tax expense of the
                                        period to the items that affect the amount of the tax expense. Intraperiod tax allocation
                                        is used for the following items: (1) income from continuing operations, (2) discontin-
                                        ued operations, (3) extraordinary items, and (4) changes in accounting principle. The
                                        general concept is “let the tax follow the income.”
                                            The income tax expense attributable to “income from continuing operations” is
                                        computed by finding the income tax expense related to revenue and to expense trans-
                                        actions used in determining this income. In this tax computation, no effect is given to
                                        the tax consequences of the items excluded from the determination of “income from
                                        continuing operations.” A separate tax effect is then associated with each irregular
                                        item.

                                        Extraordinary Gains
                                        In applying the concept of intraperiod tax allocation, assume that Schindler Co. has
                                        income before income tax and extraordinary item of $250,000 and an extraordinary
                                        gain from the sale of a single stock investment of $100,000. If the income tax rate
                                        is assumed to be 30 percent, the following information is presented on the income
                                        statement.

        ILLUSTRATION 4-13
                                                   Income before income tax and extraordinary item              $250,000
        Intraperiod Tax
                                                   Income tax                                                     75,000
        Allocation, Extraordinary
                                                   Income before extraordinary item                              175,000
        Gain
                                                   Extraordinary gain—sale of investment             $100,000
                                                     Less: Applicable income tax                       30,000     70,000
                                                   Net income                                                   $245,000




                                        The income tax of $75,000 ($250,000 30%) attributable to “Income before income tax
                                        and extraordinary item” is determined from revenue and expense transactions related
                                        to this income. In this income tax computation, the tax consequences of items excluded
                                        from the determination of “Income before income tax and extraordinary item” are not
                                        considered. The “Extraordinary gain—sale of investment” then shows a separate tax
                                        effect of $30,000.

                                        Extraordinary Losses
                                        To illustrate the reporting of an extraordinary loss, assume that Schindler Co. has
                                        income before income tax and extraordinary item of $250,000 and an extraordinary loss
                                        from a major casualty of $100,000. Assuming a 30 percent tax rate, the presentation of
                                        income tax on the income statement would be as shown in Illustration 4-14. In this case,
                                        the loss provides a positive tax benefit of $30,000 and, therefore, is subtracted from the
                                        $100,000 loss.

        ILLUSTRATION 4-14
                                                  Income before income tax and extraordinary item               $250,000
        Intraperiod Tax
                                                  Income tax                                                      75,000
        Allocation, Extraordinary
                                                  Income before extraordinary item                               175,000
        Loss
                                                  Extraordinary item—loss from casualty              $100,000
                                                    Less: Applicable income tax reduction              30,000     70,000
                                                  Net income                                                    $105,000




                                             An extraordinary item may be reported “net of tax” with note disclosure, as shown
                                        in Illustration 4-15.
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                                                                                                             Special Reporting Issues     •   143

                                                                                                                      ILLUSTRATION 4-15
                                  Income before income tax and extraordinary item        $250,000
                                  Income tax                                               75,000
                                                                                                                      Note Disclosure of
                                                                                                                      Intraperiod Tax Allocation
                                  Income before extraordinary item                        175,000
                                  Extraordinary item, less applicable income
                                    tax reduction (Note 1)                                 70,000
                                  Net income                                             $105,000

                Note 1: During the year the Company suffered a major casualty loss of $70,000, net of applicable
                income tax reduction of $30,000.



            Earnings per Share
            The results of a company’s operations are customarily summed up in one important
            figure: net income. As if this condensation were not enough of a simplification, the                         OBJECTIVE
            financial world has widely accepted an even more distilled and compact figure as its                         Explain where
            most significant business indicator—earnings per share (EPS).                                                earnings per share
                The computation of earnings per share is usually straightforward. Net income                             information is reported.
            minus preferred dividends (income available to common stockholders) is divided
            by the weighted average of common shares outstanding to arrive at earnings per
            share.23 To illustrate, assume that Lancer, Inc. reports net income of $350,000 and
            declares and pays preferred dividends of $50,000 for the year. The weighted average
            number of common shares outstanding during the year is 100,000 shares. Earnings per
            share is $3, as computed in Illustration 4-16.

                                                                                                                      ILLUSTRATION 4-16
                                     Net Income    Preferred Dividends                                                Equation Illustrating
                                                                                    Earnings per Share
                              Weighted Average of Common Shares Outstanding                                           Computation of Earnings
                                          $350,000    $50,000                                                         per Share
                                                                  $3
                                                100,000



                 Note that the EPS figure measures the number of dollars earned by each share of
            common stock—not the dollar amount paid to stockholders in the form of dividends.
                 “Net income per share” or “earnings per share” is a ratio commonly used in
            prospectuses, proxy material, and annual reports to stockholders. It is also highlighted
            in the financial press, by statistical services like Standard & Poor’s, and by Wall Street
            securities analysts. Because of its importance, earnings per share is required to be dis-
            closed on the face of the income statement. A company that reports a discontinued
            operation, an extraordinary item, or the cumulative effect of a change in accounting
            principle must report per share amounts for these line items either on the face of the
            income statement or in the notes to the financial statements.24
                 To illustrate the income statement order of presentation and the earnings per share
            data, we present an income statement for Poquito Industries Inc. in Illustration 4-17
            on page 144. Notice the order in which data are shown. In addition, per share infor-
            mation is shown at the bottom. Assume that the company had 100,000 shares out-
            standing for the entire year. The Poquito Industries Inc. income statement, in Illustra-
            tion 4-17, is highly condensed. Items such as “Unusual charge,” “Discontinued
            operations,” “Extraordinary item,” and the “Change in accounting principle” would
            have to be described fully and appropriately in the statement or related notes.
                 Many corporations have simple capital structures that include only common
            stock. For these companies, a presentation such as “earnings per common share” is


                 23
                    In the calculation of earnings per share, preferred dividends are deducted from net income
            if declared or if cumulative though not declared.
                   24
                 “Earnings Per Share,” Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 128 (Norwalk, Conn.:
            FASB, 1996).
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        144     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

        ILLUSTRATION 4-17
                                                                             POQUITO INDUSTRIES INC.
        Income Statement
                                                                                  INCOME STATEMENT
                                                                        FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004
                                           Sales revenue                                                                    $1,480,000
                                           Cost of goods sold                                                                  600,000
                                           Gross profit                                                                       880,000
                                           Selling and administrative expenses                                                320,000
                                           Income from operations                                                             560,000
                                           Other revenues and gains
                                             Interest revenue                                                                  10,000
                                           Other expenses and losses
                                             Loss on disposal of part of Textile Division                       $ (5,000)
                                             Unusual charge—loss on sale of investments                          (45,000)      (50,000)
                                           Income from continuing operations before income tax                                520,000
                                           Income tax                                                                         208,000
                                           Income from continuing operations                                                  312,000
                                           Discontinued operations
                                             Income from operations of Pizza Division, less
                                               applicable income tax of $24,800                                   54,000
                                             Loss on disposal of Pizza Division, less
                                               applicable income tax of $41,000                                  (90,000)      (36,000)
                                           Income before extraordinary item and cumulative
                                             effect of accounting change                                                      276,000
                                           Extraordinary item—loss from earthquake, less
                                             applicable income tax of $23,000                                                  (45,000)
                                           Cumulative effect on prior years of retroactive application of new
                                             depreciation method, less applicable income tax of $30,900                        (60,000)
                                           Net income                                                                       $ 171,000
                                           Per share of common stock
                                             Income from continuing operations                                                   $3.12
                                             Income from operations of discontinued division, net of tax                          0.54
                                             Loss on disposal of discontinued operation, net of tax                              (0.90)
                                             Income before extraordinary item and cumulative effect                               2.76
                                             Extraordinary loss, net of tax                                                      (0.45)
                                             Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle, net of tax                     (0.60)
                                             Net income                                                                          $1.71




                                        appropriate on the income statement. In many instances, however, companies’ earn-
                                        ings per share are subject to dilution (reduction) in the future because existing contin-
                                        gencies permit the issuance of additional common shares.25
                                            In summary, the simplicity and availability of figures for per share earnings lead
                                        inevitably to their widespread use. Because of the undue importance that the public,
                                        even the well-informed public, attaches to earnings per share, the EPS figure must be
                                        made as meaningful as possible.

                                        Retained Earnings Statement
                                        Net income increases retained earnings, and a net loss decreases retained earnings. Both
           OBJECTIVE                    cash and stock dividends decrease retained earnings. Prior period adjustments may ei-
           Prepare a retained           ther increase or decrease retained earnings. A prior period adjustment is a correction
           earnings statement.          of an error in the financial statements of a prior period. Prior period adjustments (net
                                        of tax) are charged or credited to the opening balance of retained earnings, and thus
                                        excluded from the determination of net income for the current period.


                                            25
                                               Ibid. The computational problems involved in accounting for these dilutive securities in
                                        earnings per share computations are discussed in Chapter 16.
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                                                                                                      Special Reporting Issues   •   145

                 Information related to retained earnings may be shown in different ways. For
            example, some companies prepare a separate retained earnings statement, as shown in
            Illustration 4-18.


                                                                                                               ILLUSTRATION 4-18
                                                        TIGER WOODS INC.
                                                                                                               Retained Earnings
                                                    RETAINED EARNINGS STATEMENT
                                               FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004
                                                                                                               Statement

                      Balance, January 1, as reported                                          $1,050,000
                      Correction for understatement of net income in prior period
                        (inventory error)                                                         50,000
                      Balance, January 1, as adjusted                                           1,100,000
                      Add: Net income                                                             360,000
                                                                                                1,460,000
                      Less: Cash dividends                                          $100,000
                            Stock dividends                                          200,000     300,000
                      Balance, December 31                                                     $1,160,000




                The reconciliation of the beginning to the ending balance in retained earnings pro-
            vides information about why net assets increased or decreased during the year. The
            association of dividend distributions with net income for the period indicates what
            management is doing with earnings: It may be “plowing back” into the business part
            or all of the earnings, distributing all current income, or distributing current income
            plus the accumulated earnings of prior years.

            Restrictions of Retained Earnings
            Retained earnings is often restricted in accordance with contractual requirements, board
            of directors’ policy, or the apparent necessity of the moment. The amounts of retained
            earnings restricted are generally disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. In
            some cases, the amount of retained earnings restricted is transferred to Appropriated
            Retained Earnings. The retained earnings section may therefore report two separate
            amounts—(1) retained earnings free (unrestricted) and (2) retained earnings appropri-
            ated (restricted). The total of these two amounts equals the total retained earnings.26


            Comprehensive Income
            As indicated earlier, the all-inclusive income concept is used in determining financial
            performance for a period of time. Under this concept, all revenues, expenses, and gains
            and losses recognized during the period are included in income. However, over time,
            specific exceptions to this general concept have developed. Certain items now bypass
            income and are reported directly in equity.
                 An example of one of these items is unrealized gains and losses on available-for-
            sale securities.27 Why are these gains and losses on available-for-sale securities excluded
            from net income? Because disclosing them separately (1) reduces the volatility of net
            income due to fluctuations in fair value, yet (2) informs the financial statement user of
            the gain or loss that would be incurred if the securities were sold at fair value.


                 26
                    Accounting Trends and Techniques—2001 (New York: AICPA) indicates that most companies
            (577 of 600 surveyed) present changes in retained earnings either within the statement of stock-
            holders’ equity (534 firms) or in a separate statement of retained earnings. Only 10 of the 600
            companies prepare a combined statement of income and retained earnings.
                 27
                  Available-for-sale securities are further discussed in Chapter 17. Other examples of other
            comprehensive items are translation gains and losses on foreign currency, excess of additional
            pension liability over unrecognized prior service cost, and unrealized gains and losses on cer-
            tain hedging transactions.
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        146     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                             Items that bypass the income statement are included under the concept of com-
                                        prehensive income. Comprehensive income includes all changes in equity during a
                                        period except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to own-
                                        ers. Comprehensive income, therefore, includes all revenues and gains, expenses and
                                        losses reported in net income, and in addition it includes gains and losses that bypass
                                        net income but affect stockholders’ equity. These items that bypass the income state-
                                        ment are referred to as other comprehensive income.
                                             The FASB decided that the components of other comprehensive income must be
           OBJECTIVE                    displayed in one of three ways: (1) a second income statement; (2) a combined income
           Explain how other            statement of comprehensive income; or (3) as a part of the statement of stockhold-
           comprehensive income         ers’ equity.28 Regardless of the format used, net income must be added to other com-
           is reported.                 prehensive income to arrive at comprehensive income. Earnings per share information
                                        related to comprehensive income is not required.29
                                             To illustrate these presentation formats, assume that V. Gill Inc. reports the fol-
                                        lowing information for 2004: sales revenue $800,000, cost of goods sold $600,000,
                                        operating expenses $90,000, and an unrealized holding gain on available-for-sale
                                        securities of $30,000, net of tax.

                                        Second Income Statement
                                        The two-income statement format is shown in Illustration 4-19 below. Reporting com-
                                        prehensive income in a separate statement indicates that the gains and losses identi-
                                        fied as other comprehensive income have the same status as traditional gains and losses.
                                        In addition, the relationship of the traditional income statement to the comprehensive
                                        income statement is apparent because net income is the starting point in the compre-
                                        hensive income statement.


        ILLUSTRATION 4-19
                                                                                  V. GILL INC.
        Two-Statement Format:
                                                                               INCOME STATEMENT
        Comprehensive Income                                         FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004
                                                                Sales revenue                           $800,000
                                                                Cost of goods sold                       600,000
                                                                Gross profit                             200,000
                                                                Operating expenses                        90,000
                                                                Net income                              $110,000


                                                                                  V. GILL INC.
                                                                       COMPREHENSIVE INCOME STATEMENT
                                                                     FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004
                                                                Net income                              $110,000
                                                                Other comprehensive income
                                                                  Unrealized holding gain, net of tax     30,000
                                                                Comprehensive income                    $140,000




                                             28
                                                “Reporting Comprehensive Income,” Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 130
                                        (Norwalk, Conn.: FASB, June 1997). Accounting Trends and Techniques—2001 (New York: AICPA)
                                        indicates that for the 600 companies surveyed, 519 report comprehensive income. Most compa-
                                        nies (422 of 497) include comprehensive income as part of the statement of stockholders’ equity.
                                            29
                                               A company is required to display the components of other comprehensive income either
                                        (1) net of related tax effects or (2) before related tax effects with one amount shown for the
                                        aggregate amount of tax related to the total amount of other comprehensive income. Under ei-
                                        ther alternative, each component of other comprehensive income must be shown, net of related
                                        taxes either in the face of the statement or in the notes.
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                                                                                                  Special Reporting Issues   •   147

            Combined Income Statement
            The second approach provides a combined statement of comprehensive income in
            which the traditional net income would be a subtotal, with total comprehensive income
            shown as a final total. The combined statement has the advantage of not requiring the
            creation of a new financial statement. However, burying net income in a subtotal on
            the statement is a disadvantage.


            Statement of Stockholders’ Equity
            A third approach is to report other comprehensive income items in a statement of
            stockholders’ equity (often referred to as statement of changes in stockholders’
            equity). This statement reports the changes in each stockholder’s equity account and
            in total stockholders’ equity during the year. The statement of stockholders’ equity
            is often prepared in columnar form with columns for each account and for total stock-
            holders’ equity.
                 To illustrate its presentation, assume the same information related to V. Gill Inc.
            and that the company had the following stockholder equity account balances at the be-
            ginning of 2004: Common Stock $300,000; Retained Earnings $50,000; and Accumulated
            Other Comprehensive Income $60,000. No changes in the Common Stock account oc-
            curred during the year. A statement of stockholders’ equity for V. Gill Inc. is shown in
            Illustration 4-20.




                                                                                                            ILLUSTRATION 4-20
                                                         V. GILL INC.
                                                                                                            Presentation of
                                             STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
                                            FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004                            Comprehensive Income
                                                                                                            Items in Stockholders’
                                                                                   Accumulated              Equity Statement
                                                                                      Other
                                                        Compre-                      Compre-
                                                        hensive      Retained        hensive     Common
                                             Total      Income       Earnings        Income       Stock
                Beginning balance          $410,000                  $ 50,000        $60,000     $300,000
                Comprehensive income
                  Net income                110,000     $110,000      110,000
                  Other comprehensive
                    income
                    Unrealized holding
                      gain, net of tax       30,000       30,000                      30,000                      Examples of
                Comprehensive income                    $140,000                                              Comprehensive Income
                                                                                                                   Reporting
                Ending balance             $550,000                  $160,000        $90,000     $300,000




                Most companies use the statement of stockholders’ equity approach to provide
            information related to the components of other comprehensive income. Because many
            companies already provide a statement of stockholders’ equity, adding additional
            columns to display information related to comprehensive income is not costly.

            Balance Sheet Presentation
            Regardless of the display format used, the accumulated other comprehensive income
            of $90,000 is reported in the stockholders’ equity section of the balance sheet of V. Gill
            Inc. as shown in Illustration 4-21.
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        148     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

        ILLUSTRATION 4-21
                                                                                   V. GILL INC.
        Presentation of
                                                                                 BALANCE SHEET
        Accumulated Other                                                    AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2004
        Comprehensive Income                                              (STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY SECTION)
        in the Balance Sheet
                                                            Stockholders’ equity
                                                              Common stock                                 $300,000
                                                              Retained earnings                             160,000
                                                              Accumulated other comprehensive income         90,000
                                                            Total stockholders’ equity                     $550,000




                                        By providing information on the components of comprehensive income as well as total
                                        accumulated other comprehensive income, the company communicates information
                                        about all changes in net assets.30 With this information, users will be better able to un-
                                        derstand the quality of the company’s earnings. This information should help users
                                        predict the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of future cash flows.



                                        SUMMARY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES

        KEY TERMS                               Identify the uses and limitations of an income statement. The income statement pro-
        accumulated other                 vides investors and creditors with information that helps them predict the amounts,
            comprehensive                 timing, and uncertainty of future cash flows. Also, the income statement helps users
            income, 147                   determine the risk (level of uncertainty) of not achieving particular cash flows. The
        all-inclusive                     limitations of an income statement are: (1) The statement does not include many items
            approach, 133                 that contribute to general growth and well-being of an enterprise. (2) Income num-
        appropriated retained             bers are often affected by the accounting methods used. (3) Income measures are sub-
            earnings, 145                 ject to estimates.
        capital maintenance                    The transaction approach focuses on the activities that have occurred during a given
            approach, (n), 127            period. Instead of presenting only a net change, it discloses the components of the
        changes in estimate, 140          change. The transaction approach to income measurement requires the use of rev-
        comprehensive                     enue, expense, loss, and gain accounts.
            income, 146
                                               Prepare a single-step income statement. In a single-step income statement, just two
        current operating
                                          groupings exist: revenues and expenses. Expenses are deducted from revenues to
            performance
                                          arrive at net income or loss—a single subtraction. Frequently, income tax is reported
            approach, 133
                                          separately as the last item before net income to indicate its relationship to income
        discontinued
                                          before income tax.
            operation, 134
        earnings                                Prepare a multiple-step income statement. A multiple-step income statement shows
            management, 126               two further classifications: (1) a separation of operating results from those obtained
        earnings per share, 143           through the subordinate or nonoperating activities of the company; and (2) a classi-
        extraordinary items, 135          fication of expenses by functions, such as merchandising or manufacturing, selling,
        income statement, 124             and administration.
        intraperiod tax
            allocation, 142                    Explain how irregular items are reported. Irregular gains or losses or nonrecurring
        irregular items, 134              items are generally closed to Income Summary and are included in the income state-
        modified all-inclusive            ment. These are treated in the income statement as follows: (1) Discontinued opera-
            concept, 134                  tion of a component of a business is classified as a separate item, after continuing op-
        multiple-step income              erations. (2) The unusual, material, nonrecurring items that are significantly different
            statement, 129                from the customary business activities are shown in a separate section for extraordi-
        other comprehensive               nary items, below discontinued operations. (3) Other items of a material amount that
            income, 146
        prior period                        30
                                              Note that prior period adjustments and the cumulative effect of changes in accounting
            adjustments, 144
                                        principle are not considered other comprehensive income items.
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                                                                                                                     Questions     •   149

                are of an unusual or nonrecurring nature and are not considered extraordinary are              quality of earnings, 126
                separately disclosed. (4) The cumulative adjustment that occurs when a change in               restructuring charge, 138
                accounting principles develops is disclosed as a separate item, just before net income.        single-step income
                                                                                                                  statement, 128
                     Explain intraperiod tax allocation. The tax expense for the year should be related,       statement of stockholders’
                where possible, to specific items on the income statement, to provide a more infor-               equity, 147
                mative disclosure to statement users. This procedure is called intraperiod tax alloca-         transaction approach, 127
                tion, that is, allocation within a period. Its main purpose is to relate the income tax
                expense for the fiscal period to the following items that affect the amount of the tax
                provisions: (1) income from continuing operations, (2) discontinued operations, (3)
                extraordinary items, and (4) changes in accounting principle.

                     Explain where earnings per share information is reported. Because of the inherent
                dangers of focusing attention solely on earnings per share, earnings per share must
                be disclosed on the face of the income statement. A company that reports a discon-
                tinued operation, an extraordinary item, or the cumulative effect of a change in ac-
                counting principle must report per share amounts for these line items either on the
                face of the income statement or in the notes to the financial statements.

                     Prepare a retained earnings statement. The retained earnings statement should dis-
                close net income (loss), dividends, prior period adjustments, and restrictions of
                retained earnings.

                     Explain how other comprehensive income is reported. The components of other com-
                prehensive income are reported in a second statement, a combined income statement
                of comprehensive income, or in a statement of stockholders’ equity.




                                                                     QUESTIONS
                1. What kinds of questions about future cash flows do in-         future upgrades to its products. Some contend that
                   vestors and creditors attempt to answer with informa-          MicroStrategy’s quality of earnings is low. What does the
                   tion in the income statement?                                  term “quality of earnings” mean?
                2. How can information based on past transactions be used     10. What is the major distinction (a) between revenues and
                   to predict future cash flows?                                  gains and (b) between expenses and losses?
                3. Identify at least two situations in which important        11. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the
                   changes in value are not reported in the income state-         single-step income statement?
                   ment.                                                      12. What is the basis for distinguishing between operating
                4. Identify at least two situations in which application of       and nonoperating items?
                   different accounting methods or accounting estimates       13. Distinguish between the all-inclusive income statement
                   results in difficulties in comparing companies.                and the current operating performance income state-
                5. Explain the transaction approach to measuring income.          ment. According to present generally accepted account-
                   Why is the transaction approach to income measurement          ing principles, which is recommended? Explain.
                   preferable to other ways of measuring income?              14. How should prior period adjustments be reported in the
                6. What is earnings management?                                   financial statements? Give an example of a prior period
                7. How can earnings management affect the quality of              adjustment.
                   earnings?                                                  15. Discuss the appropriate treatment in the financial state-
                8. Why should caution be exercised in the use of the in-          ments of each of the following.
                   come figure derived in an income statement? What are          (a) An amount of $113,000 realized in excess of the cash
                   the objectives of generally accepted accounting princi-           surrender value of an insurance policy on the life of
                   ples in their application to the income statement?                one of the founders of the company who died dur-
                9. A Wall Street Journal article noted that MicroStrategy            ing the year.
                   reported higher income than its competitors by using          (b) A profit-sharing bonus to employees computed as a
                   a more aggressive policy for recognizing revenue on               percentage of net income.
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        150     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

           (c) Additional depreciation on factory machinery because          single-step income statement because the multiple-step
               of an error in computing depreciation for the previ-          format generally overstates income.” How should you
               ous year.                                                     respond to Rex?
           (d) Rent received from subletting a portion of the office     20. Federov Corporation has eight expense accounts in its
               space.                                                        general ledger which could be classified as selling ex-
           (e) A patent infringement suit, brought 2 years ago               penses. Should Federov report these eight expenses
               against the company by another company, was set-              separately in its income statement or simply report one
               tled this year by a cash payment of $725,000.                 total amount for selling expenses?
           (f) A reduction in the Allowance for Doubtful Accounts        21. Jose DeLeon Investments reported an unusual gain from
               balance, because the account appears to be consider-          the sale of certain assets in its 2004 income statement.
               ably in excess of the probable loss from uncollectible        How does intraperiod tax allocation affect the reporting
               receivables.                                                  of this unusual gain?

        16. Indicate where the following items would ordinarily ap-      22. What effect does intraperiod tax allocation have on re-
            pear on the financial statements of Allepo, Inc. for the         ported net income?
            year 2004.                                                   23. Letterman Company computed earnings per share as
           (a) The service life of certain equipment was changed             follows.
               from 8 to 5 years. If a 5-year life had been used pre-
                                                                                             Net income
               viously, additional depreciation of $425,000 would
               have been charged.                                                 Common shares outstanding at year-end

           (b) In 2004 a flood destroyed a warehouse that had a              Letterman has a simple capital structure. What possible
               book value of $1,600,000. Floods are rare in this lo-         errors might the company have made in the computa-
               cality.                                                       tion? Explain.
           (c) In 2004 the company wrote off $1,000,000 of inven-        24. Maria Shriver Corporation reported 2004 earnings per
               tory that was considered obsolete.                            share of $7.21. In 2005, Maria Shriver reported earnings
           (d) An income tax refund related to the 2001 tax year was         per share as follows.
               received.                                                        On income before extraordinary item     $6.40
           (e) In 2001, a supply warehouse with an expected use-                On extraordinary item                    1.88
               ful life of 7 years was erroneously expensed.                    On net income                           $8.28
           (f) Allepo, Inc. changed its depreciation from double-
               declining to straight-line on machinery in 2004. The          Is the increase in earnings per share from $7.21 to $8.28
               cumulative effect of the change was $925,000 (net of          a favorable trend?
               tax).                                                     25. What is meant by “tax allocation within a period”? What
                                                                             is the justification for such practice?
        17. Give the section of a multiple-step income statement in
            which each of the following is shown.                        26. When does tax allocation within a period become nec-
           (a) Loss on inventory write-down.                                 essary? How should this allocation be handled?

           (b) Loss from strike.                                         27. During 2004, Natsume Sozeki Company earned income
                                                                             of $1,000,000 before income taxes and realized a gain of
           (c) Bad debt expense.
                                                                             $450,000 on a government-forced condemnation sale of
           (d) Loss on disposal of a component of the business.              a division plant facility. The income is subject to income
           (e) Gain on sale of machinery.                                    taxation at the rate of 34%. The gain on the sale of the
           (f) Interest revenue.                                             plant is taxed at 30%. Proper accounting suggests that
                                                                             the unusual gain be reported as an extraordinary item.
           (g) Depreciation expense.
                                                                             Illustrate an appropriate presentation of these items in
           (h) Material write-offs of notes receivable.                      the income statement.
        18. Barry Bonds Land Development, Inc. purchased land for        28. On January 30, 2003, a suit was filed against Pierogi Cor-
            $70,000 and spent $30,000 developing it. It then sold the        poration under the Environmental Protection Act. On
            land for $160,000. Tom Glavine Manufacturing pur-                August 6, 2004, Pierogi Corporation agreed to settle the
            chased land for a future plant site for $100,000. Due to a       action and pay $920,000 in damages to certain current
            change in plans, Glavine later sold the land for $160,000.       and former employees. How should this settlement be
            Should these two companies report the land sales, both           reported in the 2004 financial statements? Discuss.
            at gains of $60,000, in a similar manner?
                                                                         29. Tiger Paper Company decided to close two small pulp
        19. You run into Rex Grossman at a party and begin dis-              mills in Conway, New Hampshire, and Corvallis, Ore-
            cussing financial statements. Rex says, “I prefer the            gon. Would these closings be reported in a separate sec-
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                                                                                                                  Brief Exercises      •   151

                tion entitled “Discontinued operations after income from             income. Explain what accountants do as a practical al-
                continuing operations”? Discuss.                                     ternative.
            30. What major types of items are reported in the retained           33. What is meant by the terms components, elements, and
                earnings statement?                                                  items as they relate to the income statement? Why
            31. Generally accepted accounting principles usually require             might items have to be disclosed in the income state-
                the use of accrual accounting to “fairly present” income.            ment?
                If the cash receipts and disbursements method of ac-             34. What are the three ways that other comprehensive in-
                counting will “clearly reflect” taxable income, why does             come may be displayed (reported)?
                this method not usually also “fairly present” income?            35. How should the disposal of a component of a business
            32. State some of the more serious problems encountered in               be disclosed in the income statement?
                seeking to achieve the ideal measurement of periodic net




                                                               BRIEF EXERCISES
                      BE4-1   Tim Allen Co. had sales revenue of $540,000 in 2004. Other items recorded during the year were:
                                                Cost of goods sold                               $320,000
                                                Wage expense                                      120,000
                                                Income tax expense                                 25,000
                                                Increase in value of company reputation            15,000
                                                Other operating expenses                           10,000
                                                Unrealized gain on value of patents                20,000
                      Prepare a single-step income statement for Allen for 2004. Allen has 100,000 shares of stock outstanding.

                      BE4-2 Turner Corporation had net sales of $2,400,000 and interest revenue of $31,000 during 2004. Ex-
                      penses for 2004 were: cost of goods sold $1,250,000; administrative expenses $212,000; selling expenses
                      $280,000; interest expense $45,000. Turner’s tax rate is 30%. The corporation had 100,000 shares of com-
                      mon stock authorized and 70,000 shares issued and outstanding during 2004. Prepare a single-step in-
                      come statement for the year ended December 31, 2004.

                      BE4-3 Using the information provided in BE4-2, prepare a condensed multiple-step income statement
                      for Turner Corporation.

                      BE4-4 Green Day Corporation had income from continuing operations of $12,600,000 in 2004. During
                      2004, it disposed of its restaurant division at an after-tax loss of $189,000. Prior to disposal, the division
                      operated at a loss of $315,000 (net of tax) in 2004. Green Day had 10,000,000 shares of common stock out-
                      standing during 2004. Prepare a partial income statement for Green Day beginning with income from con-
                      tinuing operations.

                      BE4-5 Boyz II Men Corporation had income before income taxes for 2004 of $7,300,000. In addition, it
                      suffered an unusual and infrequent pretax loss of $770,000 from a volcano eruption. The corporation’s tax
                      rate is 30%. Prepare a partial income statement for Boyz II Men beginning with income before income
                      taxes. The corporation had 5,000,000 shares of common stock outstanding during 2004.

                      BE4-6 Shawn Bradley Company changed from straight-line depreciation to double-declining balance de-
                      preciation at the beginning of 2004. The plant assets originally cost $1,500,000 in 2002. Using straight-line
                      depreciation, depreciation expense is $60,000 per year. Under the double-declining balance method,
                      depreciation expense would be $120,000, $110,400, and $101,568 for 2002, 2003, and 2004. If Bradley’s tax
                      rate is 30%, by what amount would the cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle increase or
                      decrease 2004 net income?

                      BE4-7 Jana Kingston Company has recorded bad debt expense in the past at a rate of 11⁄2% of net sales.
                      In 2004, Kingston decides to increase its estimate to 2%. If the new rate had been used in prior years, cu-
                      mulative bad debt expense would have been $380,000 instead of $285,000. In 2004, bad debt expense will
                      be $120,000 instead of $90,000. If Kingston’s tax rate is 30%, what amount should it report as the cumu-
                      lative effect of changing the estimated bad debt rate?
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        152     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                      BE4-8 In 2004, Kirby Puckett Corporation reported net income of $1,200,000. It declared and paid pre-
                      ferred stock dividends of $250,000. During 2004, Puckett had a weighted average of 190,000 common
                      shares outstanding. Compute Puckett’s 2004 earnings per share.
                      BE4-9 Lincoln Corporation has retained earnings of $675,000 at January 1, 2004. Net income during 2004
                      was $2,400,000, and cash dividends declared and paid during 2004 totaled $75,000. Prepare a retained
                      earnings statement for the year ended December 31, 2004.
                      BE4-10 Using the information from BE4-9, prepare a retained earnings statement for the year ended
                      December 31, 2004. Assume an error was discovered: land costing $80,000 (net of tax) was charged to
                      repairs expense in 2001.
                      BE4-11 On January 1, 2004, Creative Works Inc. had cash and common stock of $60,000. At that date the
                      company had no other asset, liability or equity balances. On January 2, 2004, it purchased for cash $20,000
                      of equity securities that it classified as available-for-sale. It received cash dividends of $3,000 during the
                      year on these securities. In addition, it has an unrealized holding gain on these securities of $5,000 net of
                      tax. Determine the following amounts for 2004: (a) net income; (b) comprehensive income; (c) other com-
                      prehensive income; and (d) accumulated other comprehensive income (end of 2004).




                                                                    EXERCISES
                      E4-1 (Computation of Net Income) Presented below are changes in all the account balances of Fritz
                      Reiner Furniture Co. during the current year, except for retained earnings.

                                                                    Increase                                            Increase
                                                                   (Decrease)                                          (Decrease)
                                    Cash                            $ 79,000        Accounts Payable                    $(51,000)
                                    Accounts Receivable (net)         45,000        Bonds Payable                         82,000
                                    Inventory                        127,000        Common Stock                         125,000
                                    Investments                      (47,000)       Additional Paid-in Capital            13,000

                      Instructions
                      Compute the net income for the current year, assuming that there were no entries in the Retained Earn-
                      ings account except for net income and a dividend declaration of $19,000 which was paid in the current
                      year.

                      E4-2    (Income Statement Items)      Presented below are certain account balances of Paczki Products Co.
                                   Rental revenue                  $  6,500       Sales discounts                $     7,800
                                   Interest expense                  12,700       Selling expenses                    99,400
                                   Beginning retained earnings      114,400       Sales                              390,000
                                   Ending retained earnings         134,000       Income tax                          31,000
                                   Dividend revenue                  71,000       Cost of goods sold                 184,400
                                   Sales returns                     12,400       Administrative expenses             82,500

                      Instructions
                      From the foregoing, compute the following: (a) total net revenue, (b) net income, (c) dividends declared
                      during the current year.

                      E4-3 (Single-step Income Statement) The financial records of LeRoi Jones Inc. were destroyed by fire
                      at the end of 2004. Fortunately the controller had kept certain statistical data related to the income state-
                      ment as presented below.
                         1.   The beginning merchandise inventory was $92,000 and decreased 20% during the current year.
                         2.   Sales discounts amount to $17,000.
                         3.   20,000 shares of common stock were outstanding for the entire year.
                         4.   Interest expense was $20,000.
                         5.   The income tax rate is 30%.
                         6.   Cost of goods sold amounts to $500,000.
                         7.   Administrative expenses are 20% of cost of goods sold but only 8% of gross sales.
                         8.   Four-fifths of the operating expenses relate to sales activities.

                      Instructions
                      From the foregoing information prepare an income statement for the year 2004 in single-step form.
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                                                                                                                           Exercises   •   153

                      E4-4 (Multiple-step and Single-step) Two accountants for the firm of Elwes and Wright are arguing
                      about the merits of presenting an income statement in a multiple-step versus a single-step format. The
                      discussion involves the following 2004 information related to P. Bride Company ($000 omitted).
                                               Administrative expense
                                                 Officers’ salaries                                      $ 4,900
                                                 Depreciation of office furniture and equipment            3,960
                                               Cost of goods sold                                         60,570
                                               Rental revenue                                             17,230
                                               Selling expense
                                                 Transportation-out                                       2,690
                                                 Sales commissions                                        7,980
                                                 Depreciation of sales equipment                          6,480
                                                 Sales                                                   96,500
                                                 Income tax                                               9,070
                                                 Interest expense                                         1,860

                      Instructions
                         (a) Prepare an income statement for the year 2004 using the multiple-step form. Common shares out-
                             standing for 2004 total 40,550 (000 omitted).
                         (b) Prepare an income statement for the year 2004 using the single-step form.
                         (c) Which one do you prefer? Discuss.
                      E4-5 (Multiple-step and Extraordinary Items) The following balances were taken from the books of
                      Maria Conchita Alonzo Corp. on December 31, 2004.
                          Interest revenue                   $   86,000       Accumulated depreciation—equipment         $ 40,000
                          Cash                                   51,000       Accumulated depreciation—building            28,000
                          Sales                               1,380,000       Notes receivable                            155,000
                          Accounts receivable                   150,000       Selling expenses                            194,000
                          Prepaid insurance                      20,000       Accounts payable                            170,000
                          Sales returns and allowances          150,000       Bonds payable                               100,000
                          Allowance for doubtful                              Administrative and general
                             accounts                              7,000         expenses                                 97,000
                          Sales discounts                         45,000      Accrued liabilities                         32,000
                          Land                                   100,000      Interest expense                            60,000
                          Equipment                              200,000      Notes payable                              100,000
                          Building                               140,000      Loss from earthquake damage
                          Cost of goods sold                     621,000         (extraordinary item)                    150,000
                                                                              Common stock                               500,000
                                                                              Retained earnings                           21,000
                          Assume the total effective tax rate on all items is 34%.

                      Instructions
                      Prepare a multiple-step income statement; 100,000 shares of common stock were outstanding during the
                      year.
                      E4-6 (Multiple-step and Single-step) The accountant of Whitney Houston Shoe Co. has compiled the
                      following information from the company’s records as a basis for an income statement for the year ended
                      December 31, 2004.
                                        Rental revenue                                                        $ 29,000
                                        Interest on notes payable                                               18,000
                                        Market appreciation on land above cost                                  31,000
                                        Wages and salaries—sales                                               114,800
                                        Materials and supplies—sales                                            17,600
                                        Income tax                                                              37,400
                                        Wages and salaries—administrative                                      135,900
                                        Other administrative expenses                                           51,700
                                        Cost of goods sold                                                     496,000
                                        Net sales                                                              980,000
                                        Depreciation on plant assets (70% selling, 30% administrative)          65,000
                                        Dividends declared                                                      16,000
                      There were 20,000 shares of common stock outstanding during the year.

                      Instructions
                         (a) Prepare a multiple-step income statement.
                         (b) Prepare a single-step income statement.
                         (c) Which format do you prefer? Discuss.
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        154     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                      E4-7 (Income Statement, EPS) Presented below are selected ledger accounts of Tucker Corporation as
                      of December 31, 2004.
                                             Cash                                                    $ 50,000
                                             Administrative expenses                                  100,000
                                             Selling expenses                                          80,000
                                             Net sales                                                540,000
                                             Cost of goods sold                                       210,000
                                             Cash dividends declared (2004)                            20,000
                                             Cash dividends paid (2004)                                15,000
                                             Discontinued operations (loss before income taxes)        40,000
                                             Depreciation expense, not recorded in 2003                30,000
                                             Retained earnings, December 31, 2003                      90,000
                                             Effective tax rate 30%

                      Instructions
                         (a) Compute net income for 2004.
                         (b) Prepare a partial income statement beginning with income from continuing operations before in-
                             come tax, and including appropriate earnings per share information. Assume 10,000 shares of
                             common stock were outstanding during 2004.

                      E4-8 (Multiple-step Statement with Retained Earnings) Presented below is information related to Ivan
                      Calderon Corp. for the year 2004.
                       Net sales                    $1,300,000       Write-off of inventory due to obsolescence              $ 80,000
                       Cost of goods sold              780,000       Depreciation expense omitted by accident in 2003          55,000
                       Selling expenses                 65,000       Casualty loss (extraordinary item) before taxes           50,000
                       Administrative expenses          48,000       Dividends declared                                        45,000
                       Dividend revenue                 20,000       Retained earnings at December 31, 2003                   980,000
                       Interest revenue                  7,000       Effective tax rate of 34% on all items

                      Instructions
                         (a) Prepare a multiple-step income statement for 2004. Assume that 60,000 shares of common stock
                             are outstanding.
                         (b) Prepare a separate retained earnings statement for 2004.

                      E4-9 (Earnings Per Share) The stockholders’ equity section of Tkachuk Corporation appears below as
                      of December 31, 2004.
                          8% cumulative preferred stock, $50 par value, authorized
                            100,000 shares, outstanding 90,000 shares                                              $      4,500,000
                          Common stock, $1.00 par, authorized and issued 10 million shares                               10,000,000
                            Additional paid-in capital                                                                   20,500,000
                            Retained earnings                                                     $134,000,000
                            Net income                                                              33,000,000          167,000,000
                                                                                                                   $202,000,000

                           Net income for 2004 reflects a total effective tax rate of 34%. Included in the net income figure is a
                      loss of $18,000,000 (before tax) as a result of a major casualty.

                      Instructions
                      Compute earnings per share data as it should appear on the income statement of Tkachuk Corporation.

                      E4-10 (Condensed Income Statement—Periodic Inventory Method) Presented below are selected
                      ledger accounts of Spock Corporation at December 31, 2004.
                              Cash                           $ 185,000        Travel and entertainment             $ 69,000
                              Merchandise inventory             535,000       Accounting and legal services          33,000
                              Sales                           4,275,000       Insurance expense                      24,000
                              Advances from customers           117,000       Advertising                            54,000
                              Purchases                       2,786,000       Transportation-out                     93,000
                              Sales discounts                    34,000       Depreciation of office equipment       48,000
                              Purchase discounts                 27,000       Depreciation of sales equipment        36,000
                              Sales salaries                    284,000       Telephone—sales                        17,000
                              Office salaries                   346,000       Utilities—office                       32,000
                              Purchase returns                   15,000       Miscellaneous office expenses           8,000
                              Sales returns                      79,000       Rental revenue                        240,000
                              Transportation-in                  72,000       Extraordinary loss (before tax)        70,000
                              Accounts receivable               142,500       Interest expense                      176,000
                              Sales commissions                  83,000       Common stock ($10 par)                900,000
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                                                                                                                           Exercises   •   155

                      Spock’s effective tax rate on all items is 34%. A physical inventory indicates that the ending inventory is
                      $686,000.

                      Instructions
                      Prepare a condensed 2004 income statement for Spock Corporation.

                      E4-11 (Retained Earnings Statement) Eddie Zambrano Corporation began operations on January 1,
                      2001. During its first 3 years of operations, Zambrano reported net income and declared dividends as
                      follows.
                                                                 Net income        Dividends declared
                                                      2001        $ 40,000                $ –0–
                                                      2002         125,000                 50,000
                                                      2003         160,000                 50,000
                      The following information relates to 2004.
                             Income before income tax                                                                 $240,000
                             Prior period adjustment: understatement of 2002 depreciation expense (before taxes)      $ 25,000
                             Cumulative decrease in income from change in inventory methods (before taxes)            $ 35,000
                             Dividends declared (of this amount, $25,000 will be paid on Jan. 15, 2005)               $100,000
                             Effective tax rate                                                                           40%

                      Instructions
                         (a) Prepare a 2004 retained earnings statement for Eddie Zambrano Corporation.
                         (b) Assume Eddie Zambrano Corp. restricted retained earnings in the amount of $70,000 on December
                             31, 2004. After this action, what would Zambrano report as total retained earnings in its Decem-
                             ber 31, 2004, balance sheet?

                      E4-12 (Earnings per Share)       At December 31, 2003, Shiga Naoya Corporation had the following stock
                      outstanding.
                                        10% cumulative preferred stock, $100 par, 107,500 shares        $10,750,000
                                        Common stock, $5 par, 4,000,000 shares                           20,000,000

                      During 2004, Shiga Naoya’s only stock transaction was the issuance of 400,000 shares of common on
                      April 1. The following also occurred during 2004.
                                             Income from continuing operations before taxes         $23,650,000
                                             Discontinued operations (loss before taxes)            $ 3,225,000
                                             Preferred dividends declared                           $ 1,075,000
                                             Common dividends declared                              $ 2,200,000
                                             Effective tax rate                                            35%

                      Instructions
                      Compute earnings per share data as it should appear in the 2004 income statement of Shiga Naoya
                      Corporation.

                      E4-13 (Change in Accounting Principle) Tom Kothe Company placed an asset in service on January
                      2, 2002. Its cost was $450,000 with an estimated service life of 6 years. Salvage value was estimated to be
                      $30,000. Using the double-declining-balance method of depreciation, the depreciation for 2002, 2003, and
                      2004 would be $150,000, $100,000, and $66,667 respectively. During 2004 the company’s management
                      decided to change to the straight-line method of depreciation. Assume a 35% tax rate.

                      Instructions
                         (a) How much depreciation expense will be reported in the income from continuing operations of
                             the company’s income statement for 2004? (Hint: Use the new depreciation in the current year.)
                         (b) What amount will be reported as the cumulative effect of the change in accounting principle for
                             2004?

                      E4-14 (Comprehensive Income) Roxanne Carter Corporation reported the following for 2004: net sales
                      $1,200,000; cost of goods sold $750,000; selling and administrative expenses $320,000; and an unrealized
                      holding gain on available-for-sale securities $18,000.

                      Instructions
                      Prepare a statement of comprehensive income, using the two-income statement format. Ignore income
                      taxes and earnings per share.
                      E4-15 (Comprehensive Income) C. Reither Co. reports the following information for 2004: sales rev-
                      enue $700,000; cost of goods sold $500,000; operating expenses $80,000; and an unrealized holding loss
                      on available-for-sale securities for 2004 of $60,000. It declared and paid a cash dividend of $10,000 in 2004.
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        156     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                          C. Reither Co. has January 1, 2004, balances in common stock $350,000; accumulated other compre-
                      hensive income $80,000; and retained earnings $90,000. It issued no stock during 2004.

                      Instructions
                      Prepare a statement of stockholders’ equity.
                      E4-16 (Various Reporting Formats) The following information was taken from the records of Roland
                      Carlson Inc. for the year 2004. Income tax applicable to income from continuing operations $187,000;
                      income tax applicable to loss on discontinued operations $25,500; income tax applicable to extraordinary
                      gain $32,300; income tax applicable to extraordinary loss $20,400; and unrealized holding gain on available-
                      for-sale securities $15,000.
                          Extraordinary gain                     $ 95,000        Cash dividends declared                $ 150,000
                          Loss on discontinued operations          75,000        Retained earnings January 1, 2004         600,000
                          Administrative expenses                 240,000        Cost of goods sold                        850,000
                          Rent revenue                             40,000        Selling expenses                          300,000
                          Extraordinary loss                       60,000        Sales                                   1,900,000
                      Shares outstanding during 2004 were 100,000.

                      Instructions
                         (a) Prepare a single-step income statement for 2004.
                         (b) Prepare a retained earnings statement for 2004.
                         (c) Show how comprehensive income is reported using the second income statement format.




                                                                       PROBLEMS
                      P4-1 (Multi-step Income, Retained Earnings) Presented below is information related to American
                      Horse Company for 2004.
                                        Retained earnings balance, January 1, 2004                       $ 980,000
                                        Sales for the year                                                25,000,000
                                        Cost of goods sold                                                17,000,000
                                        Interest revenue                                                      70,000
                                        Selling and administrative expenses                                4,700,000
                                        Write-off of goodwill (not tax deductible)                           820,000
                                        Income taxes for 2004                                                905,000
                                        Gain on the sale of investments (normal recurring)                   110,000
                                        Loss due to flood damage—extraordinary item (net of tax)             390,000
                                        Loss on the disposition of the wholesale division (net of tax)       440,000
                                        Loss on operations of the wholesale division (net of tax)             90,000
                                        Dividends declared on common stock                                   250,000
                                        Dividends declared on preferred stock                                 70,000

                      Instructions
                      Prepare a multi-step income statement and a retained earnings statement. American Horse Company
                      decided to discontinue its entire wholesale operations and to retain its manufacturing operations. On
                      September 15, American Horse sold the wholesale operations to Rogers Company. During 2004, there
                      were 300,000 shares of common stock outstanding all year.
                      P4-2 (Single-step Income, Retained Earnings, Periodic Inventory) Presented below is the trial bal-
                      ance of Mary J. Blige Corporation at December 31, 2004.



                                                               MARY J. BLIGE CORPORATION
                                                                      TRIAL BALANCE
                                                               YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004
                                                                                           Debits            Credits
                                          Purchase Discounts                                             $     10,000
                                          Cash                                           $ 205,100
                                          Accounts Receivable                              105,000
                                          Rent Revenue                                                      18,000
                                          Retained Earnings                                                260,000
                                          Salaries Payable                                                  18,000
                                          Sales                                                          1,000,000
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                                                                                                                       Problems      •   157

                                           Notes Receivable                           110,000
                                           Accounts Payable                                              49,000
                                           Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment                            28,000
                                           Sales Discounts                              14,500
                                           Sales Returns                                17,500
                                           Notes Payable                                                 70,000
                                           Selling Expenses                           232,000
                                           Administrative Expenses                     99,000
                                           Common Stock                                                 300,000
                                           Income Tax Expense                           38,500
                                           Cash Dividends                               45,000
                                           Allowance for Doubtful Accounts                                5,000
                                           Supplies                                    14,000
                                           Freight-in                                  20,000
                                           Land                                        70,000
                                           Equipment                                  140,000
                                           Bonds Payable                                                100,000
                                           Gain on Sale of Land                                          30,000
                                           Accumulated Depreciation—Building                             19,600
                                           Merchandise Inventory                       89,000
                                           Building                                    98,000
                                           Purchases                                  610,000
                                           Totals                                   $1,907,600       $1,907,600




                      A physical count of inventory on December 31 resulted in an inventory amount of $124,000.

                      Instructions
                      Prepare a single-step income statement and a retained earnings statement. Assume that the only changes
                      in retained earnings during the current year were from net income and dividends. Thirty thousand shares
                      of common stock were outstanding the entire year.

                      P4-3 (Irregular Items) Tony Rich Inc. reported income from continuing operations before taxes during
                      2004 of $790,000. Additional transactions occurring in 2004 but not considered in the $790,000 are as
                      follows.
                          1. The corporation experienced an uninsured flood loss (extraordinary) in the amount of $80,000 dur-
                             ing the year. The tax rate on this item is 46%.
                          2. At the beginning of 2002, the corporation purchased a machine for $54,000 (salvage value of $9,000)
                             that had a useful life of 6 years. The bookkeeper used straight-line depreciation for 2002, 2003, and
                             2004 but failed to deduct the salvage value in computing the depreciation base.
                          3. Sale of securities held as a part of its portfolio resulted in a loss of $57,000 (pretax).
                          4. When its president died, the corporation realized $110,000 from an insurance policy. The cash sur-
                             render value of this policy had been carried on the books as an investment in the amount of $46,000
                             (the gain is nontaxable).
                          5. The corporation disposed of its recreational division at a loss of $115,000 before taxes. Assume that
                             this transaction meets the criteria for discontinued operations.
                          6. The corporation decided to change its method of inventory pricing from average cost to the FIFO
                             method. The effect of this change on prior years is to increase 2002 income by $60,000 and decrease
                             2003 income by $20,000 before taxes. The FIFO method has been used for 2004. The tax rate on
                             these items is 40%.

                      Instructions
                      Prepare an income statement for the year 2004 starting with income from continuing operations before
                      taxes. Compute earnings per share as it should be shown on the face of the income statement. Common
                      shares outstanding for the year are 80,000 shares. (Assume a tax rate of 30% on all items, unless indicated
                      otherwise.)

                      P4-4 (Multiple- and Single-step Income, Retained Earnings) The following account balances were
                      included in the trial balance of J.R. Reid Corporation at June 30, 2004.
                          Sales                                    $1,678,500      Depreciation of office furniture
                          Sales discounts                              31,150        and equipment                      $ 7,250
                          Cost of goods sold                          896,770      Real estate and other local taxes      7,320
                          Sales salaries                               56,260      Bad debt expense—selling               4,850
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        158     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                        Sales commissions                                    97,600     Building expense—prorated
                        Travel expense—salespersons                          28,930       to administration                      9,130
                        Freight-out                                          21,400     Miscellaneous office expenses            6,000
                        Entertainment expense                                14,820     Sales returns                           62,300
                        Telephone and Internet expense—sales                  9,030     Dividends received                      38,000
                        Depreciation of sales equipment                       4,980     Bond interest expense                   18,000
                        Building expense—prorated to sales                    6,200     Income taxes                           133,000
                        Miscellaneous selling expenses                        4,715     Depreciation understatement due
                        Office supplies used                                  3,450       to error—2001 (net of tax)               17,700
                        Telephone and Internet expense—                                 Dividends declared on
                          administration                                      2,820       preferred stock                           9,000
                                                                                        Dividends declared on common
                                                                                          stock                                    32,000
                         The Retained Earnings account had a balance of $337,000 at June 30, 2004, before closing. There are
                      80,000 shares of common stock outstanding.

                      Instructions
                         (a) Using the multiple-step form, prepare an income statement and a retained earnings statement for
                             the year ended June 30, 2004.
                         (b) Using the single-step form, prepare an income statement and a retained earnings statement for
                             the year ended June 30, 2004.
                      P4-5 (Irregular Items) Presented below is a combined single-step income and retained earnings state-
                      ment for Sandy Freewalt Company for 2004.
                                                                                                                   (000 omitted)
                              Net sales                                                                              $640,000
                              Costs and expenses
                                Cost of goods sold                                                                    500,000
                                Selling, general, and administrative expenses                                          66,000
                                Other, net                                                                             17,000
                                                                                                                      583,000
                              Income before income tax                                                                    57,000
                              Income tax                                                                                  19,400
                              Net income                                                                                  37,600
                              Retained earnings at beginning of period, as previously reported      $141,000
                              Adjustment required for correction of error                             (7,000)
                              Retained earnings at beginning of period, as restated                                   134,000
                              Dividends on common stock                                                               (12,200)
                              Retained earnings at end of period                                                     $159,400

                      Additional facts are as follows.
                         1.   “Selling, general, and administrative expenses” for 2004 included a usual but infrequently occur-
                              ring charge of $10,500,000.
                         2.   “Other, net” for 2004 included an extraordinary item (charge) of $9,000,000. If the extraordinary
                              item (charge) had not occurred, income taxes for 2004 would have been $22,400,000 instead of
                              $19,400,000.
                         3.   “Adjustment required for correction of an error” was a result of a change in estimate (useful life
                              of certain assets reduced to 8 years and a catch-up adjustment made).
                         4.   Sandy Freewalt Company disclosed earnings per common share for net income in the notes to the
                              financial statements.

                      Instructions
                      Determine from these additional facts whether the presentation of the facts in the Sandy Freewalt Com-
                      pany income and retained earnings statement is appropriate. If the presentation is not appropriate, describe
                      the appropriate presentation and discuss its theoretical rationale. (Do not prepare a revised statement.)
                      P4-6 (Retained Earnings Statement, Prior Period Adjustment) Below is the retained earnings account
                      for the year 2004 for LeClair Corp.
                                Retained earnings, January 1, 2004                                                  $257,600
                                Add:
                                  Gain on sale of investments (net of tax)                             $41,200
                                  Net income                                                            84,500
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                                                                                                                   Conceptual Cases   •   159

                                   Refund on litigation with government, related to the year 2001
                                     (net of tax)                                                         21,600
                                   Recognition of income earned in 2003, but omitted from income
                                     statement in that year (net of tax)                                  25,400         172,700
                                                                                                                         430,300
                                 Deduct:
                                   Loss on discontinued operations (net of tax)                           25,000
                                   Write-off of goodwill (net of tax)                                     60,000
                                   Cumulative effect on income in changing from straight-line
                                     depreciation to accelerated depreciation in 2004 (net of tax)        18,200
                                   Cash dividends declared                                                32,000         135,200
                                 Retained earnings, December 31, 2004                                                   $295,100

                      Instructions
                         (a) Prepare a corrected retained earnings statement. LeClair Corp. normally sells investments of the
                             type mentioned above.
                         (b) State where the items that do not appear in the corrected retained earnings statement should be
                             shown.
                      P4-7 (Income Statement, Irregular Items) Rap Corp. has 100,000 shares of common stock outstand-
                      ing. In 2004, the company reports income from continuing operations before taxes of $1,210,000. Addi-
                      tional transactions not considered in the $1,210,000 are as follows.
                          1.   In 2004, Rap Corp. sold equipment for $40,000. The machine had originally cost $80,000 and had
                               accumulated depreciation of $36,000. The gain or loss is considered ordinary.
                          2.   The company discontinued operations of one of its subsidiaries during the current year at a loss
                               of $190,000 before taxes. Assume that this transaction meets the criteria for discontinued opera-
                               tions. The loss on operations of the discontinued subsidiary was $90,000 before taxes; the loss from
                               disposal of the subsidiary was $100,000 before taxes.
                          3.   In 2004, the company reviewed its accounts receivable and determined that $26,000 of accounts
                               receivable that had been carried for years appeared unlikely to be collected.
                          4.   An internal audit discovered that amortization of intangible assets was understated by $35,000 (net
                               of tax) in a prior period. The amount was charged against retained earnings.
                          5.   The company sold its only investment in common stock during the year at a gain of $145,000. The
                               gain is taxed at a total effective rate of 40%. Assume that the transaction meets the requirements
                               of an extraordinary item.
                      Instructions
                      Analyze the above information and prepare an income statement for the year 2004, starting with income
                      from continuing operations before income taxes. Compute earnings per share as it should be shown on
                      the face of the income statement. (Assume a total effective tax rate of 38% on all items, unless otherwise
                      indicated.)



                                                                CONCEPTUAL CASES
                      C4-1 (Identification of Income Statement Deficiencies) John Amos Corporation was incorporated and
                      began business on January 1, 2004. It has been successful and now requires a bank loan for additional
                      working capital to finance expansion. The bank has requested an audited income statement for the year
                      2004. The accountant for John Amos Corporation provides you with the following income statement which
                      John Amos plans to submit to the bank.



                                                                  JOHN AMOS CORPORATION
                                                                      INCOME STATEMENT
                                          Sales                                                              $850,000
                                          Dividends                                                            32,300
                                          Gain on recovery of insurance proceeds from
                                            earthquake loss (extraordinary)                                    38,500
                                                                                                              920,800
                                          Less:
                                            Selling expenses                                   $101,100
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        160     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                                          Cost of goods sold                             510,000
                                          Advertising expense                             13,700
                                          Loss on obsolescence of inventories             34,000
                                          Loss on discontinued operations                 48,600
                                          Administrative expense                          73,400         780,800
                                        Income before income tax                                         140,000
                                        Income tax                                                        56,000
                                        Net income                                                      $ 84,000




                      Instructions
                      Indicate the deficiencies in the income statement presented above. Assume that the corporation desires a
                      single-step income statement.
                      C4-2 (Income Reporting Deficiencies) The following represents a recent income statement for Boeing
                      Company.
                                                                                      ($ in millions)

                                                     Sales                               $21,924
                                                     Costs and expenses                   20,773
                                                     Income from operations                  1,151
                                                     Other income                              122
                                                     Interest and debt expense                (130)
                                                     Earnings before income taxes            1,143
                                                     Income taxes                             (287)
                                                     Net income                          $    856

                      It includes only five separate numbers (two of which are in billions of dollars), two subtotals, and the net
                      earnings figure.

                      Instructions
                         (a) Indicate the deficiencies in the income statement.
                         (b) What recommendations would you make to Boeing to improve the usefulness of its income statement?
                      C4-3 (All-inclusive vs. Current Operating) Information concerning the operations of a corporation is
                      presented in an income statement. Some believe that income statements should be prepared on a “current
                      operating performance” basis (earning power concept), whereas others prefer an “all-inclusive” basis (his-
                      torical concept). Proponents of the two types of income statements do not agree upon the proper treat-
                      ment of material nonrecurring charges and credits.

                      Instructions
                         (a) Define “current operating performance” and “all-inclusive” as used above.
                         (b) Explain the differences in content and organization of a “current operating performance” income
                             statement and an “all-inclusive” income statement. Include a discussion of the proper treatment
                             of material nonrecurring charges and credits.
                         (c) Give the principal arguments for the use of the “all-inclusive” income statement and the “current
                             operating performance” income statement.
                                                                                                             (AICPA adapted)
                      C4-4 (Extraordinary Items) Jeff Foxworthy, vice-president of finance for Red Neck Company, has
                      recently been asked to discuss with the company’s division controllers the proper accounting for
                      extraordinary items. Jeff Foxworthy prepared the factual situations presented below as a basis for
                      discussion.
                         1.   An earthquake destroys one of the oil refineries owned by a large multinational oil company. Earth-
                              quakes are rare in this geographical location.
                         2.   A publicly held company has incurred a substantial loss in the unsuccessful registration of a bond
                              issue.
                         3.   A large portion of a cigarette manufacturer’s tobacco crops are destroyed by a hailstorm. Severe
                              damage from hailstorms is rare in this locality.
                         4.   A large diversified company sells a block of shares from its portfolio of securities acquired for
                              investment purposes.
                         5.   A company sells a block of common stock of a publicly traded company. The block of shares, which
                              represents less than 10% of the publicly held company, is the only security investment the com-
                              pany has ever owned.
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                                                                                                              Conceptual Cases        •   161

                          6. A company that operates a chain of warehouses sells the excess land surrounding one of its ware-
                             houses. When the company buys property to establish a new warehouse, it usually buys more land
                             than it expects to use for the warehouse with the expectation that the land will appreciate in value.
                             Twice during the past 5 years the company sold excess land.
                          7. A company experiences a material loss in the repurchase of a large bond issue that has been out-
                             standing for 3 years. The company regularly repurchases bonds of this nature.
                          8. A railroad experiences an unusual flood loss to part of its track system. Flood losses normally occur
                             every 3 or 4 years.
                          9. A machine tool company sells the only land it owns. The land was acquired 10 years ago for future
                             expansion, but shortly thereafter the company abandoned all plans for expansion but decided to
                             hold the land for appreciation.

                      Instructions
                      Determine whether the foregoing items should be classified as extraordinary items. Present a rationale
                      for your position.

                      C4-5 (Earnings Management) Grace Inc. has recently reported steadily increasing income. The com-
                      pany reported income of $20,000 in 2001, $25,000 in 2002, and $30,000 in 2003. A number of market ana-
                      lysts have recommended that investors buy the stock because they expect the steady growth in income
                      to continue. Grace is approaching the end of its fiscal year in 2004, and it again appears to be a good year.
                      However, it has not yet recorded warranty expense.
                         Based on prior experience, this year’s warranty expense should be around $5,000, but some managers
                      have approached the controller to suggest a larger, more conservative warranty expense should be
                      recorded this year. Income before warranty expense is $43,000. Specifically, by recording an $8,000 war-
                      ranty accrual this year, Grace could report an increase in income for this year and still be in a position to
                      cover its warranty costs in future years.

                      Instructions
                         (a) What is earnings management?
                         (b) What is the effect of the proposed accounting in 2004? In 2005? Assume income before warranty
                             expense is $43,000 and that total warranty expense over the 2-year period is $10,000.
                         (c) What is the appropriate accounting in this situation?

                      C4-6 (Earnings Management) Arthur Miller, controller for the Salem Corporation, is preparing the
                      company’s income statement at year-end. He notes that the company lost a considerable sum on the sale
                      of some equipment it had decided to replace. Since the company has sold equipment routinely in the past,
                      Miller knows the losses cannot be reported as extraordinary. He also does not want to highlight it as a
                      material loss since he feels that will reflect poorly on him and the company. He reasons that if the com-
                      pany had recorded more depreciation during the assets’ lives, the losses would not be so great. Since
                      depreciation is included among the company’s operating expenses, he wants to report the losses along
                      with the company’s expenses, where he hopes it will not be noticed.

                      Instructions
                         (a) What are the ethical issues involved?
                         (b) What should Miller do?

                      C4-7 (Income Reporting Items) Woody Allen Corp. is an entertainment firm that derives approxi-
                      mately 30% of its income from the Casino Royale Division, which manages gambling facilities. As audi-
                      tor for Woody Allen Corp., you have recently overheard the following discussion between the controller
                      and financial vice-president.
                          VICE-PRESIDENT: If we sell the Casino Royale Division, it seems ridiculous to segregate the results
                                          of the sale in the income statement. Separate categories tend to be absurd and
                                          confusing to the stockholders. I believe that we should simply report the gain on
                                          the sale as other income or expense without detail.
                          CONTROLLER:     Professional pronouncements would require that we disclose this information
                                          separately in the income statement. If a sale of this type is considered unusual and
                                          infrequent, it must be reported as an extraordinary item.
                          VICE-PRESIDENT: What about the walkout we had last month when employees were upset about
                                          their commission income? Would this situation not also be an extraordinary item?
                          CONTROLLER:     I am not sure whether this item would be reported as extraordinary or not.
                          VICE-PRESIDENT: Oh well, it doesn’t make any difference because the net effect of all these items is
                                          immaterial, so no disclosure is necessary.
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        162     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information

                      Instructions
                         (a) On the basis of the foregoing discussion, answer the following questions: Who is correct about
                             handling the sale? What would be the income statement presentation for the sale of the Casino
                             Royale Division?
                         (b) How should the walkout by the employees be reported?
                         (c) What do you think about the vice-president’s observation on materiality?
                         (d) What are the earnings per share implications of these topics?
                      C4-8 (Identification of Income Statement Weaknesses) The following financial statement was
                      prepared by employees of Cynthia Taylor Corporation.



                                                             CYNTHIA TAYLOR CORPORATION
                                                                    INCOME STATEMENT
                                                              YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2004
                                              Revenues
                                                Gross sales, including sales taxes                  $1,044,300
                                                Less: Returns, allowances, and cash discounts           56,200
                                                   Net sales                                           988,100
                                              Dividends, interest, and purchase discounts               30,250
                                              Recoveries of accounts written off in prior years         13,850
                                                  Total revenues                                      1,032,200
                                              Costs and expenses
                                                Cost of goods sold, including sales taxes              465,900
                                                Salaries and related payroll expenses                   60,500
                                                Rent                                                    19,100
                                                Freight-in and freight-out                               3,400
                                                Bad debt expense                                        27,800
                                                  Total costs and expenses                             576,700
                                              Income before extraordinary items                        455,500
                                              Extraordinary items
                                                Loss on discontinued styles (Note 1)                     71,500
                                                Loss on sale of marketable securities (Note 2)           39,050
                                                Loss on sale of warehouse (Note 3)                       86,350
                                                  Total extraordinary items                            196,900
                                              Net income                                            $ 258,600
                                              Net income per share of common stock                        $2.30

                      Note 1: New styles and rapidly changing consumer preferences resulted in a $71,500 loss on the disposal of
                      discontinued styles and related accessories.
                      Note 2: The corporation sold an investment in marketable securities at a loss of $39,050. The corporation normally
                      sells securities of this nature.
                      Note 3: The corporation sold one of its warehouses at an $86,350 loss.



                      Instructions
                      Identify and discuss the weaknesses in classification and disclosure in the single-step income statement
                      above. You should explain why these treatments are weaknesses and what the proper presentation of the
                      items would be in accordance with recent professional pronouncements.

                      C4-9 (Classification of Income Statement Items) As audit partner for Noriyuki and Morita, you
                      are in charge of reviewing the classification of unusual items that have occurred during the current year.
                      The following material items have come to your attention.
                          1. A merchandising company incorrectly overstated its ending inventory 2 years ago. Inventory for
                             all other periods is correctly computed.
                          2. An automobile dealer sells for $137,000 an extremely rare 1930 S type Invicta which it purchased
                             for $21,000 10 years ago. The Invicta is the only such display item the dealer owns.
                          3. A drilling company during the current year extended the estimated useful life of certain drilling
                             equipment from 9 to 15 years. As a result, depreciation for the current year was materially lowered.
                          4. A retail outlet changed its computation for bad debt expense from 1% to 1⁄2 of 1% of sales because
                             of changes in its customer clientele.
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                                                                                                         Using Your Judgment         •   163

                           5.   A mining concern sells a foreign subsidiary engaged in uranium mining, although it (the seller)
                                continues to engage in uranium mining in other countries.
                           6.   A steel company changes from straight-line depreciation to accelerated depreciation in account-
                                ing for its plant assets.
                           7.   A construction company, at great expense, prepared a major proposal for a government loan. The
                                loan is not approved.
                           8.   A water pump manufacturer has had large losses resulting from a strike by its employees early
                                in the year.
                           9.   Depreciation for a prior period was incorrectly understated by $950,000. The error was discov-
                                ered in the current year.
                          10.   A large sheep rancher suffered a major loss because the state required that all sheep in the state
                                be killed to halt the spread of a rare disease. Such a situation has not occurred in the state for
                                20 years.
                          11.   A food distributor that sells wholesale to supermarket chains and to fast-food restaurants (two
                                distinguishable classes of customers) decides to discontinue the division that sells to one of the
                                two classes of customers.

                      Instructions
                      From the foregoing information, indicate in what section of the income statement or retained earnings
                      statement these items should be classified. Provide a brief rationale for your position.
                      C4-10 (Comprehensive Income) Ferguson Arthur, Jr., controller for Jenkins Corporation, is preparing
                      the company’s financial statements at year-end. Currently, he is focusing on the income statement and
                      determining the format for reporting comprehensive income. During the year, the company earned net
                      income of $400,000 and had unrealized gains on available-for-sale securities of $20,000. In the previous
                      year net income was $410,000, and the company had no unrealized gains or losses.

                      Instructions
                         (a) Show how income and comprehensive income will be reported on a comparative basis for the
                             current and prior years, using the separate income statement format.
                         (b) Show how income and comprehensive income will be reported on a comparative basis for the
                             current and prior years, using the combined income statement format.
                         (c) Which format should Arthur recommend?




            USING YOUR JUDGMENT
                      FINANCIAL REPORTING PROBLEM
                      3M Company
                      The financial statements of 3M are presented in Appendix 5B or can be accessed on the Take Action! CD.

                      Instructions
                      Refer to 3M’s financial statements and the accompanying notes to answer the following questions.
                      (a) What type of income statement format does 3M use? Indicate why this format might be used to pre-
                          sent income statement information.
                      (b) What are 3M’s primary revenue sources?
                      (c) Compute 3M’s gross profit for each of the years 1999–2001. Explain why gross profit declined in
                          2001.
                      (d) Why does 3M make a distinction between operating and nonoperating revenue?
                      (e) What financial ratios did 3M choose to report in its “Financial Summary” section covering the years
                          1991–2001?
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        164     •   Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information




                      FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS CASES
                      Case 1: Bankruptcy Prediction
                      The Z-score bankruptcy prediction model uses balance sheet and income information to arrive at a
                      Z-Score, which can be used to predict financial distress:
                              Working capital                 Retained earnings              EBIT                    Sales
                         Z                         1.2                              1.4                  3.3                     .99
                               Total assets                      Total assets             Total assets            Total assets
                                      MV equity
                                                           0.6
                                    Total liabilities

                      EBIT is earnings before interest and taxes. MV Equity is the market value of common equity, which can
                      be determined by multiplying stock price by shares outstanding.
                          Following extensive testing, it has been shown that companies with Z-scores above 3.0 are unlikely to
                      fail; those with Z-scores below 1.81 are very likely to fail. While the original model was developed for
                      publicly held manufacturing companies, the model has been modified to apply to companies in various
                      industries, emerging companies, and companies not traded in public markets.

                      Instructions
                      (a) Use information in the financial statements of a company like PepsiCo or Coca-Cola to compute the
                          Z-score for the past 2 years.
                      (b) Interpret your result. Where does the company fall in the financial distress range?
                      (c) The Z-score uses EBIT as one of its elements. Why do you think this income measure is used?

                      Case 2: Dresser Industries
                      Dresser Industries provides products and services to oil and natural gas exploration, production, trans-
                      mission and processing companies. A recent income statement is reproduced below. Dollar amounts are
                      in millions.
                                        Sales                                                              $2,697.0
                                        Service revenues                                                    1,933.9
                                        Share of earnings of unconsolidated affiliates                         92.4
                                          Total revenues                                                       4,723.3
                                        Cost of sales                                                          1,722.7
                                        Cost of services                                                       1,799.9
                                          Total costs of sales and services                                    3,522.6
                                        Gross earnings                                                         1,200.7
                                        Selling, engineering, administrative and general expenses               (919.8)
                                        Special charges                                                          (70.0)
                                        Other income (deductions)
                                          Interest expense                                                       (47.4)
                                          Interest earned                                                         19.1
                                          Other, net                                                               4.8
                                          Earnings before income taxes and other items below                    187.4
                                        Income taxes                                                            (79.4)
                                        Minority interest                                                       (10.3)
                                          Earnings from continuing operations                                     97.7
                                        Discontinued operations                                                  (35.3)
                                          Earnings before extraordinary items and accounting changes              62.4
                                        Extraordinary items                                                       (6.3)
                                        Cumulative effect of accounting changes                                 (393.8)
                                        Net earnings (loss)                                                    $(337.7)
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                                                                                                          Using Your Judgment        •   165


                      Instructions
                      Assume that 177,636,000 shares of stock were issued and outstanding. Prepare the per-share portion of
                      the income statement. Remember to begin with “Income from continuing operations.”



                      COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS CASE
                      The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, Inc.
                      Instructions
                      Go to the Take Action! CD and use information found there to answer the following questions related to
                      The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, Inc.
                      (a) What type of income format(s) is used by these two companies? Identify any differences in income
                          statement format between these two companies.
                      (b) What are the gross profits, operating profit, and net income for these two companies over the 3-year
                          period 1999–2001? Which company has had better financial results over this period of time?
                      (c) Identify the irregular items reported by these two companies in their income statements over the
                          3-year period 1999–2001. Do these irregular items appear to be significant?
                      (d) Refer to PepsiCo’s Management Analysis section under “Items Affecting Comparability:” Briefly
                          discuss how these items affect the comparability and consistency of PepsiCo’s income over 1999–2001.




                      RESEARCH CASES
                      Case 1
                      Most libraries maintain the annual reports of large companies on file or on microfiche.

                      Instructions
                      Obtain the 2001 annual reports for UAL Corp. and The Boeing Company, and answer the following ques-
                      tions concerning their income statements. (Note: Larger libraries may have CD-ROM products such as
                      Laser Disclosure or Compact Disclosure. UAL and Boeing are also on the Take Action! CD or can be found
                      online in the SEC EDGAR database.)
                      (a) Describe the major differences between the income statement formats.
                      (b) Identify any irregular items on either of the income statements.
                      (c) UAL includes a separate line for depreciation expense, while Boeing does not. Why is this the case?
                          Does Boeing’s depreciation expense appear on another financial statement?
                      (d) UAL’s income statement includes significantly more detail than Boeing’s. Which presentation do you
                          prefer? Why?

                      Case 2
                      The April 1996 issue of the Journal of Accountancy includes an article by Dennis R. Beresford, L. Todd John-
                      son, and Cheri L. Reither, entitled “Is a Second Income Statement Needed?”

                      Instructions
                      Read the article and answer the following questions.
                      (a) On what basis would the “second income statement” be prepared? Briefly describe this basis.
                      (b) Why is there a perceived need for a second income statement?
                      (c) Identify three alternatives for reporting the proposed measure of income.
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        166     •    Chapter 4 Income Statement and Related Information



                      INTERNATIONAL REPORTING CASE
                      Presented below is the income statement for a British company, Avon Rubber PLC.




                                 Avon Rubber PLC
                                                            Consolidated Profit and Loss Account
                                                                for the year ended 30 September 2000

                                                                                                       2000
                                                                                  Before         Exceptional
                                                                                exceptional        items
                                                                                   items          (note 5)      Total
                                                                                   £’000           £’000        £’000
                                    Turnover                                      277,997             —         277,997
                                      Cost of sales                              (231,842)         (1,984)     (233,826)
                                        Gross profit                               46,155          (1,984)      44,171
                                        Net operating expenses
                                          (including £623,000
                                          goodwill amortisation)                  (30,891)         (4,688)      (35,579)
                                        Share of profits/(losses) of joint
                                          ventures and associates                     161              —           161
                                    Operating profit                               15,425          (6,672)        8,753
                                     Profit on disposal of fixed assets             —                  25            25
                                    Profit on ordinary activities
                                      before interest                              15,425          (6,647)        8,778
                                      Interest receivable                           2,871            —            2,871
                                      Interest payable                             (5,911)           —           (5,911)
                                    Profit on ordinary activities
                                      before taxation                              12,385          (6,647)        5,738
                                      Taxation                                     (4,360)          1,400        (2,960)
                                    Profit on ordinary activities
                                      after taxation                                8,025          (5,247)        2,778
                                      Minority interests                              717            —              717
                                    Profit for the year                             8,742          (5,247)        3,495
                                      Dividends                                    (6,735)           —           (6,735)
                                    (Loss)/retained profit for the year             2,007          (5,247)       (3,240)
                                    Basic earnings per ordinary share                                             12.4p




                      Instructions
                      (a) Review the Avon Rubber income statement and identify at least three differences between the British
                          income statement and an income statement of a U.S. company as presented in the chapter.
                      (b) Identify any irregular items reported by Avon Rubber. Is the reporting of these irregular items in
                          Avon’s income statement similar to reporting of these items in U.S. companies’ income statements?
                          Explain.
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                                                                                                                                     Using Your Judgment   •   167



                           PROFESSIONAL SIMULATION


                                                                           Accounting — Income Statement

                                                      Directions   Situation          Explanation   Measurement   Research   Resources




                                Directions

                                In this simulation, you will be asked to compute various income amounts. Assume a tax rate of 30%
                                and 100,000 shares of common stock outstanding during the year. Prepare responses to all parts.

                                    Situation

                                    Ritter Corporation provides you with the following pre-tax information for the period.

                                                        Sales                                                                $3,200,000
                                                        Cost of goods sold                                                    1,650,000
                                                        Interest revenue                                                         10,000
                                                        Loss from abandonment of plant assets                                    40,000
                                                        Selling expenses                                                        340,000
                                                        Administrative expenses                                                 280,000
                                                        Effect of change from declining-balance
                                                           to straight-line depreciation                                          50,000
                                                        Loss from earthquake (unusual and infrequent)                             40,000
                                                        Gain on disposal of a component of
                                                           Ritter’s business                                                      90,000
                                     Explanation

                                    Explain the proper accounting treatment for loss on abandonment of plant assets and gain on disposal
                                    of a component of a business.

                                       Measurement

                                       Compute the following five items.
                                         (a) Gross profit.
                                         (b) Income from operations.
                                         (c) Income from continuing operations before income taxes.
                                         (d) Net income.
                                         (e) Earnings per share.




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                                                           Remember to check the Take Action! CD
                                                              and the book’s companion Web site
                                                        to find additional resources for this chapter.
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