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Engines I & Components The latest generation engines offer emissions compliance, increased fuel efficiency and higher power ratings. By Curt Bennink N on-attainment zones are regions that do not conform to mandates in the Clean Air Act due to excessive levels of one or more regulated pol- It’s important to understand what emissions requirements specific regions are targeting and fit your fleet to those standards. “For example, in “So far, school buses, transit and refuse trucks have had the greatest demand for retrofits. Going for- ward, the technology can be applied to construction lutants. Officials governing non-attainment zones the Northeastern U.S., they are in non-attainment and agricultural equipment, ports, on-road trucks, must develop approved strategies to achieve compli- for particulate matter (PM) and are focused on locomotives, marine applications and so on.” ance, which often means tougher diesel emissions aftertreatment. In Texas, they are focused on NOx The cost for a DPF can range from $2,000 and regulations. As these regional restrictions continue (nitrogen oxide), so they would like to see more up. “The market for off-road retrofit is complex,” to spread, consider the impact while there is time to repowers,” Sears points out. “If a contractor has says Schroer. “There is significant proliferation develop a strategy. picked up a job that requires a special machine only of equipment and engine combinations across all “Contractors who want to bid on work in a non- for a short period, the answer is to rent. It is a great horsepower ranges and applications. Our strategy is attainment zone need to know what mandated local way to get the latest equipment for a short period to use our Tier IV development experience to bring regulations or contract requirements their equip- of time.” products to the off-road market that will satisfy the ment must meet,” says Clint Schroer, off-highway Projects in non-attainment zones have to be BACT requirement and encompass various after- communications for Cummins Inc. examined with all the alternatives in mind. “The treatment technologies.” Many regions have targeted specific solutions. most viable long-term solution is the one that Two DPF technologies currently exist: pas- “The impact on equipment owners in non-attain- allows the contractor to be competitive, and yet sive PM filters and active PM filters. According to ment areas — which includes most major metro- fits with their long-term equipment strategy,” John Bartz, emissions solutions manager, Volvo politan regions across the U.S. — is significant and says Sears. “There is no one solution that fits all. Construction Equipment, the passive technology will require that the engines in their equipment be It will take smart fleet management and combina- can remove 99.9% of PM without creating addition- upgraded to comply with local regulations,” states tions of new, used, rental and retrofit to navigate al nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. However, he Glen Chrusciel, program manager, repower and the future local emissions requirements.” cautions, “While it can cost half the initial purchase retrofit for John Deere Power Systems. “The four price of active filter technology, if a passive filter is primary ways to achieve compliance are: retrofit- DPFs prove cost effective misapplied, it will result in unscheduled downtime ting an existing engine with aftertreatment devices; but complex to swap the plugged filter.” repowering an older piece of equipment with a “Retrofitting existing equipment with verified For the passive filter to work, Bartz notes, an newer engine; purchasing new equipment; or rental aftertreatment devices is a cost-effective solution, exhaust temperature profile must be logged in the but it’s also a complex process,” says Chrusciel. application where the machine is running. The “Retrofit programs typically require duty cycle must be severe enough to generate the retrofit devices to be verified by required exhaust temperatures for a long enough either the EPA or California Air period to regenerate. “If the application changes, Resources Board (CARB).” the system may not work,” he states. This makes it Most regulations focus on necessary to buy an additional filter and swap fil- reduction of PM along with NOx. ters out as they become plugged. According to Chrusciel, “A r
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