Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior - June 1997

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					U.S. Department of Justice                                                                                                              RT
                                                                                                                                             NT OF J


Office of Justice Programs

                                                                                                                                BJ A C E

                                                                                                                                                     G OVC
                                                                                                                                 OF F



                                                                                                                                        O F OJJ D P B RO
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention                                                                                       J US T I C E P

      Shay Bilchik, Administrator                                                                                     June 1997

Gang Members                                                                                   From the Administrator
and Delinquent                                                                                 Until now, no one knew what propor-
                                                                                               tion of all delinquent and criminal

Behavior                                                                                       offenses are committed by gang
                                                                                               members. The findings of the Roch-
                                                                                               ester Youth Development Study
                                                                                               provide us with information related
                                                                                               to that question, which has significant
Terence P. Thornberry and James H. Burch II                                                    implications for how we allocate
                                                                                               juvenile justice resources and re-
    This Bulletin is part of the Office of        are excerpted from The Program of            spond to the growing gang problem.
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention       Research on the Causes and Correlates of
                                                                                               According to the Rochester study,
(OJJDP) Youth Development Series, which           Delinquency Annual Report 1995–1996.
                                                                                               whose findings are summarized here,
presents findings from the Program of Re-
                                                                                               gang members account for a dispro-
search on the Causes and Correlates of
Delinquency. Teams at the University at
                                                  Program of Research                          portionate share of delinquent acts,
                                                                                               particularly the more serious of-
Albany, State University of New York; the         on the Causes and                            fenses. These results clearly demon-
University of Colorado; and the University        Correlates of Delinquency                    strate the importance of not only
of Pittsburgh collaborated extensively in
                                                     OJJDP has been funding the Causes         preventing youth from gang involve-
designing the studies. At study sites in
                                                  and Correlates program for 10 years.         ment, but of intervening with youth
Rochester, New York; Denver, Colorado;
                                                  The three research teams, competitively      who are already gang-involved and
and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the three
                                                  selected in 1986, collaborated extensively   committing a disproportionate share
research teams have interviewed 4,000
                                                  in designing the studies, identifying key    of delinquent and criminal acts.
participants at regular intervals for nearly
                                                  theoretical concepts, and developing
a decade, recording their lives in detail.                                                     This Bulletin also describes OJJDP’s
                                                  common “core” measures for these
Findings to date indicate that preventing                                                      balanced approach to the problem of
                                                  concepts. Content areas addressed in the
delinquency requires accurate identification                                                   gangs, which includes prevention,
                                                  core measures include official and self-
of the risk factors that increase the likeli-                                                  intervention, and suppression. The
                                                  reports of delinquent behavior; self-
hood of delinquent behavior and the pro-                                                       Rochester findings reinforce the need
                                                  reports of drug use; characteristics
tective factors that enhance positive                                                          for such a comprehensive, coordi-
                                                  of the community and neighborhood;
adolescent development.                                                                        nated response if we are to reduce
                                                  demographic characteristics of the
   The purpose of this Bulletin is to                                                          the amount of delinquency and crime
                                                  family; parental attitudes and child-
present the findings from the Rochester                                                        perpetrated by juvenile gang mem-
                                                  rearing practices; youth attitudes,
Youth Development Study (RYDS) con-                                                            bers. This research also reminds us
                                                  school performance, and perceived
cerning what portion of delinquency in                                                         that a solid base of empirical knowl-
                                                  consequences of delinquency; and peer
American society can be attributed to gang                                                     edge is crucial in our efforts to
                                                  delinquency and conventional activities.
members. It also discusses the response                                                        effectively counter the influence of
                                                  These collaborative efforts represent a
of OJJDP to the youth gang problem.                                                            gangs on our young people.
                                                  milestone in criminological research
   RYDS is part of OJJDP’s Program of             because to date they constitute the          Shay Bilchik
Research on the Causes and Correlates of          largest shared-measurement approach          Administrator
Delinquency (Causes and Correlates                achieved in delinquency research. This
program). The findings presented here             research will enable the three teams and
the juvenile justice field to aggregate data    The Rochester Youth                             The data in the bar graph indicate that
across projects and replicate findings                                                       gang members’ delinquencies are not
across sites. In addition to research for       Development Study                            proportionate to their representation in
the common measures, each project also             The RYDS started with a sample of         the larger population. A look at the first
collects unique measurements that add to        1,000 boys and girls in the seventh and      section on general delinquency reveals that,
the findings from each site.                    eighth grades of the Rochester public        during the 4 years covered in this report,
                                                schools. To maximize the number of           65 percent of the delinquent acts were
    The research teams have interviewed
4,000 participants in the 3 cities at regular   serious, violent, and chronic offenders      reported by gang members. Thus, gang
                                                available for the study, the sample          members account for twice as many acts of
intervals during the past 9 years, record-
ing their lives in detail. More is known        includes more youth from high-crime          delinquency as one would expect given
                                                areas and fewer from low-crime areas.        their share in the population. In contrast,
about the delinquency, substance use,
and mental health problems in this group        The entire range of seventh- and eighth-     nonmembers represent 70 percent of the
                                                grade students, however, is represented,     subjects but account for only 35 percent of
of individuals than about any other study
population in the United States. By             and the data reported here are weighted      these delinquent acts.
                                                to represent the total population. Data
supporting the collection and analyses                                                          In the second section of the bar graph,
of these data, the program has effectively      were collected at 6-month intervals from     the indexes are grouped according to the
                                                interviews with students and parents and
created the largest data set currently                                                       seriousness of the delinquent acts. The
available on young individuals growing up       from a variety of Rochester agencies         disproportionate contribution of gang
                                                including the schools, police, courts, and
in inner cities from age six through the                                                     members to delinquency is greater for the
early twenties. The data from the three         social services.                             more serious crimes. While making up
studies make it possible to examine many           For the study of gang members’ share      only one-third of the study group, gang
crucial questions pertaining to the origins     of delinquent and criminal1 behavior, the    members account for 86 percent of all the
of serious delinquency, substance use,          researchers first divided the respondents    serious delinquent acts reported in the
and mental health problems. This Bulletin       into two groups: “gang members” (youth       interviews. They also account for 67
focuses on one of those questions: How          who reported being a gang member at          percent of the acts on the moderate
much of the delinquency in America can          some point prior to the end of high          delinquency index and 59 percent of the
be attributed to gang members?                  school) and “nonmembers” (youth who          acts on the minor delinquency index.
                                                reported no involvement in gangs prior to       The third section presents data by
                                                this time).2 Based on interviews over a
Prior Research on                               4-year period with study participants who
                                                                                             type of offense—violent, property, public
                                                                                             disorder (for example, being loud, rowdy,
Gang Members and                                reported delinquent acts, the researchers    or drunk in public), and drug sales. Gang
Delinquency                                     estimated the total number of delinquent     members are responsible for 69 percent
                                                acts by participants during this period,     of all the self-reported violent acts, 68
   Research has demonstrated that
                                                which covered their high school years.       percent of the property crimes, 60 percent
adolescents who join street gangs are           They then calculated the percentages
more involved in delinquent acts than are                                                    of the public disorder crimes, and 70
                                                reported by gang members and non-            percent of the drug sales. (This does not
adolescents who do not join such gangs.         members. Percentages were calculated
This is especially true for serious and                                                      necessarily contradict other recent
                                                for a general delinquency index contain-     research that suggests a lower level of
violent delinquency. Moreover, the              ing 24 items covering status offenses,
association between gang membership                                                          organized drug sales activity by gangs but
                                                property crimes, and violent offenses. In    does seem to confirm that individual gang
and delinquency has been observed from          addition, percentages were obtained for
the earliest to the most contemporary                                                        members, as opposed to the “gang” as a
                                                subindexes referring to particular types     unit, are involved in drug sales and usage
gang research, including that of the            of offenses.
Causes and Correlates program.                                                               to a large degree.)
   Despite this uniform finding, surpris-       Results                                         Finally, the fourth section of the bar
ingly few estimates exist of the propor-                                                     graph presents information on substance
                                                    The results are displayed in the graph
tion of all delinquent acts for which gang                                                   use. Gang members reported 63 percent
                                                on page 3. The prevalence of gang
members are responsible; that is, al-                                                        of the instances of alcohol use that were
                                                membership in RYDS is 30 percent; that
though it is known that gang members                                                         reported during this 4-year period. They
                                                is, approximately one-third of the sub-
have a higher rate of offending than                                                         also account for 61 percent of the in-
                                                jects reported being a member of a street
nonmembers, the proportion of the total                                                      stances of other drug use.
                                                gang at some point prior to the end of
amount of crime that can be attributed to       high school. In contrast, two-thirds of
them is unknown. This is an important           the subjects (70 percent) reported never     1
                                                                                               Because at the later stages of the study some sub-
issue because, if gang members are              having joined a street gang. If gang mem-    jects were no longer juveniles as defined by the State
responsible for a large proportion of all       bers do not contribute disproportionately
                                                                                             of New York, all references to delinquency should be
offenses, efforts to reduce the overall                                                      read as possibly including acts for which subjects
                                                to the amount of delinquency in society,     could only be charged as criminal offenders.
amount of crime in society will not be          they would be responsible for about          2
successful unless those efforts include                                                        Gang membership is self-reported. In questioning the
                                                one-third of the delinquent acts. In other   subjects, researchers did not define what constituted a
effective gang prevention, intervention,        words, gang members’ share of all            gang. The question asked was, “Are you a member of a
and suppression programs.                       delinquencies should be proportionate        street gang or a posse?”
                                                to their share in the population.

Summary and Implications                                                   are way off base—conceptually mis-                                            An example of such a programmatic
   These results clearly indicate that gang                                guided, poorly implemented, half-                                         effort that in fact has been and is continu-
members account for the lion’s share of                                    heartedly pursued” (Klein, 1995).                                         ously being scientifically tested is the Gang
delinquent acts, especially the more                                       However, as Dr. Irving Spergel, another                                   Violence Reduction Project of the Chicago
serious delinquent acts. While represent-                                  renowned gang researcher, has noted,                                      Police Department (CPD). Since mid-1992,
ing only one-third of the respondents in                                   “What is past is prologue. . . . There are                                CPD’s 10th District neighborhood known as
RYDS, gang members account for 86                                          both continuity and change in the policies                                “Little Village” has served as the proving
percent of the serious delinquent acts, 69                                 and practices that show promise in dealing                                ground for a program model developed
percent of the violent delinquent acts,                                    with gang issues. The challenge is to create                              under the National Youth Gang Suppression
and 70 percent of the drug sales.                                          a new paradigm of action that modifies past                               and Intervention Program, conducted by
                                                                           approaches to make them relevant to                                       the University of Chicago with OJJDP
    The findings of this report present a                                  current and evolving situations.” (Spergel,                               funding support. This program appears to
stark challenge to the American public.                                    1995.) Spergel emphasizes that gang                                       have had success in reducing gang violence
These findings underline the importance                                    prevention and reduction strategies must                                  and positively redirecting youth among the
of establishing effective intervention                                     consider the individual, the family, the                                  target population of Latino youth involved
programs for gang-involved youth because                                   school, peer groups, a variety of organiza-                               in serious gang crime and violence. The
failure to do so may result in a failure to                                tions, and the community—a view that is                                   project’s core team of workers delivers
make substantial progress in the Nation’s                                  consistent with OJJDP’s Comprehensive                                     relevant services, provides opportunities,
efforts to reduce serious, violent, and                                    Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic                                and carries out suppression strategies in a
chronic delinquency. This is a difficult                                   Juvenile Offenders. Moreover, according                                   highly coordinated and integrated manner.
challenge, however, because many past                                      to Spergel, “New institutional cross-                                     This program was developed—and then
efforts to combat street gangs have not                                    agency and cross-jurisdictional arrange-                                  consistently adapted—based on informa-
met with success. Indeed, noted gang                                       ments must evolve, and new policies and                                   tion from continuous planning and research
researcher Dr. Malcolm Klein has con-                                      programs must be developed and then                                       efforts spearheaded by the University of
cluded: “The simple fact is that much of                                   rigorously and widely tested, so that we                                  Chicago. The integration of relevant
our local response and most of our state                                   will know what truly works and what                                       problem assessment and research into the
and federal responses to gang problems                                     does not.” (Spergel, 1995.)                                               program development process is proving to
                                                                                                                                                     be a key ingredient for successful out-
                                                                                                                                                     comes. Positive results include a lower
                                                                                                                                                     level of serious gang violence among the
   Percent of Delinquent Acts Attributable to Gang Members                                                                                           targeted gangs than among comparable
                                                                                                                                                     gangs in the area. There is also noted
   and Prevalence of Gang Membership                                                                                                                 improvement in residents’ perceptions of
                                                                                                                                                     gang crime and police effectiveness in
               100                                                                                                                                   dealing with it. In addition, there were fewer
                       General             Seriousness                                Type of                               Substance
                     Delinquency              Level                                   Offense                                  Use                   arrests for serious gang crimes (especially
                                                                                                                                                     aggravated batteries and aggravated
               80                                                                                                                                    assaults) by members of targeted gangs as
                                                                                                          70                                         compared with control youth from the
                                                      67                    69        68
                                                                                                                                                     same gangs and members of other gangs in
               60                                               59                              60                                                   Little Village. In addition to these findings,
                                                                                                                                                     many of the 200 gang youth involved in the

                                                                                                                                                     program were referred to or provided with
                                                                     41                              40                                         39
                                                                                                                                                     a variety of counseling, crisis intervention,
               40                                                                                                                    37
                                                                                                                                                     job placement, family, school, and special
                                                                                 31        32
                                                                                                               30                                    education programs and services.
                                                                                                                                                        To summarize, the RYDS report and
                                                14                                                                                                   experiences in the field suggest that the
                                                                                                                                                     United States can no longer afford “busi-
                                                                                                                                                     ness as usual” in this arena and that the
                 0                                                                                                                                   research, development, implementation,
                               l           s    te       r                      t        y     r s                                e          e
                           ra           iou era      ino                      en ert rde ale                                    Us         Us        and testing of gang programs is perhaps
                                            o d    M                       iol rop iso g S
                                                                          V P                                            ho
                      G                   M                                              D
                                                                                              u                       co         Dr                  becoming even more essential, given the
                                                                                     lic                            Al
                                                                               P  ub                                                                 proven impact of gang membership on
                                                                                                                                                     delinquency and criminal activity.
                                                                                                                                                     Renewed efforts and resources must be
                                                                                                          Gang members                               directed toward reducing the dominant
                                                     70                                                                                              role that gang-involved youth play in
                                                                                                          Nonmembers                                 serious and violent delinquency.

OJJDP’s Response                                                                            implementors. Training and technical
                                                                                            assistance plans are being developed
to Gangs                                                                                    for each site, and responses are being
   Over the past several years, OJJDP has                                                   coordinated through OJJDP’s Training
placed special emphasis on gang preven-                                                     and Technical Assistance Center.
tion and intervention. Several factors are                                                  Specific training and technical assis-
responsible for this focus:                                                                 tance services are being provided by
x The reported growth in the number of                                                      various OJJDP grantees and contrac-
  gangs.                                                                                    tors, on an as-needed basis, in such
                                                                                            areas as information sharing, commu-
x New funding targeted for gang preven-                                                     nity mobilization, and the gang
  tion and intervention under Title II,                                                     problem assessment process.
  Part D of the Juvenile Justice and De-
  linquency Prevention Act of 1974, as                                                    x Targeted acquisition and dissemina-
  amended (Public Law 93-415).                                                              tion of gang materials. In an effort to
                                                                                            provide relevant and cutting edge
x Interest and concern from the field.                                                      information to program implementors,
x Findings of studies, such as the Causes      Bloomington, Illinois; and San Antonio,      OJJDP’s Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
  and Correlates program and the Gang          Texas), which is building, in part, on       acquires and disseminates youth gang-
  Suppression and Intervention program         the work of the Chicago Gang Violence        related information. As proven with
  of OJJDP, which demonstrate the im-          Reduction Project described above.           the Gang Violence Reduction Project,
  pact that youth gangs can have on            This multiyear effort to implement and       the integration of research with
  communities and that gang member-            test the comprehensive model devel-          program implementation is a key
  ship has on America’s youth, including       oped by Dr. Spergel at the University of     ingredient for success. Examples of
  a higher prevalence of delinquency,          Chicago began in fiscal year (FY) 1995.      information disseminated to date
  substance abuse, and other problem           Initially, the sites undertook the           include youth gang literature reviews;
  behaviors.                                   process of community mobilization,           articles on specific gang issues, such
                                               identifying or assessing the nature          as gang graffiti; analysis of police
   In 1994, OJJDP implemented a compre-
                                               and extent of the gang problem and           suppression tactics; and other materi-
hensive response to gangs, consisting of
                                               planning for program development and         als that are useful to program imple-
five major initiatives:
                                               implementation in a problem-solving          mentors who must be continuously
x Establishment of a National Youth            framework. Shortly thereafter (and in        aware of the evolving gang problem
  Gang Center charged with five major          some limited cases, simultaneously),         locally and nationally.
  tasks:                                       they began implementing appropriate           The Boys & Girls Clubs of America’s
  y Statistical data collection and            interrelated strategies to target gang     (BGCA) Gang Prevention Through
    analysis, including an annual              violence and its causes, while continu-    Targeted Outreach program is another
    national youth gang survey.                ing to reassess the changing nature        key OJJDP gang initiative. Through a
                                               and extent of their gang problems.         referral network that links local clubs
  y Analysis of gang legislation, which
                                               Strategies consist of a combination        with courts, police departments, schools,
    is being carried out in cooperation
                                               of community mobilization, social          social service agencies, and other
    with the National Conference of
                                               intervention and outreach, provision of    agencies and organizations, youth at risk
    State Legislatures.
                                               social and economic opportunities for      of gang involvement are recruited into
  y Gang literature review, which has          youth, suppression or social control,      club programs in a nonstigmatizing way.
    produced several products to date,         and organizational change and devel-       The clubs also recruit youth through
    including a master bibliography on         opment to accommodate these                direct outreach efforts. Once in a Boys &
    youth gangs.                               strategies and help address the needs      Girls Club, youth participate in structured
  y Identification of promising gang           of gang-involved and high-risk youth.      recreational and educational activities
    program strategies, several of which     x An independent evaluation of the           focusing on personal development to
    were featured at OJJDP’s 1996              OJJDP demonstration initiative. The        enhance communication, problem
    National Youth Gang Symposium.             4-year evaluation project, which began     solving, and decisionmaking skills. Case
  y Technical support in the coordina-         in FY 1996, is assisting the five pro-     management is an integral part of the
    tion of gang program development,          gram sites to document program             program. For example, every month, staff
    information exchange, and service          implementation and measure the             document progress on specific goals,
    delivery among Federal, State, and         impact of a variety of gang program        including participation in club activities,
    local agencies through the develop-        strategies. The evaluation is also         school performance, and significant
    ment of a gang consortium.                 providing regular feedback to program      achievements or problems (such as
                                               implementors. The grantee is the           involvement in the juvenile justice
x A demonstration initiative, the Com-         University of Chicago, School of Social    system). The most important aspect of
  prehensive Community-Wide Approach           Services Administration.                   this program is that it gives juveniles an
  to Gang Prevention, Intervention, and                                                   alternative to gang life.
  Suppression Program, implemented in        x Training and technical assistance. To
  five jurisdictions (Mesa, Arizona;           complement the demonstration effort,          Since the beginning of the Targeted
  Tucson, Arizona; Riverside, California;      training and technical assistance are      Outreach effort, many encouraging
                                               being made available to program            findings have been reported. In the early

1990’s, a process evaluation reported that    and policymakers generally agree that           Justice Programs, U.S. Department of
once enrolled in BGCA, 90 percent of the      longitudinal studies are the best way to        Justice, 1997.
youth attended once a week or more, with      gain information on the causes of delin-          Spergel, I. The Youth Gang Problem: A
26 percent attending daily. It was also       quency and on delinquent behavior itself,       Community Approach. New York: Oxford
found that a large percentage of these        thus enabling decisionmakers to act on          University Press, 1995.
youth received recognition for in-club and    a sound foundation of knowledge about
outside civic activities and as many as 48    what does—and does not—work to
percent of the youth showed improvement       reduce serious, violent, and chronic            Resources
in the academic arena. Specifically, more     juvenile offending. OJJDP will continue to      Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
than 33 percent of the youth showed im-       use this knowledge in supporting State          Post Office Box 6000
proved grades, and as many as 33 percent      and local efforts to reduce the negative        Rockville, MD 20849–6000
had better attendance (Feyerherm et al.,      impact of gangs while, at the same time,        800–638–8736
1992). Since this initial evaluation, BGCA    continuing to gather new information and        301–519–5212 (fax)
has increased the number of Targeted          research results for use in future endeavors.   E-mail:
Outreach sites to 157 and is continuing to                                          
document the success of the program.
                                              References                                      National Youth Gang Center
   One of Boys & Girls Clubs of America’s                                                     Institute for Intergovernmental Research
                                                 Burch, J.H., II, and B.M. Chemers. A
Targeted Outreach “intervention” sites in                                                     Post Office Box 12729
                                              Comprehensive Response to America’s
Fort Worth, Texas, has become a major                                                         Tallahassee, FL 32317
                                              Youth Gang Problem. Fact Sheet. Washing-
component of a communitywide ap-                                                              904–385–0600
                                              ton, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and
proach to address gangs and gang                                                              904–386–5356 (fax)
                                              Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice
violence. The City of Fort Worth’s Comin’                                                     E-mail:
                                              Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 1997.
Up Program, which involves the Gang                                                 
Task Force of the Citizen’s Crime Commis-        Comin’ Up Gang Intervention Program.
sion, is designed to fill gaps in interven-   Project Report. Fort Worth, TX: Boys &          Terence P. Thornberry, Ph.D.
tion services for gang-involved youth. The    Girls Clubs of Greater Fort Worth, 1996.        Hindelang Criminal Justice Research
Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Fort Worth                                                       Center
                                                 Comin’ Up Gang Intervention Program          School of Criminal Justice
currently administers the Comin’ Up           Background Information. Press Release.
Program and acts as a bridge between                                                          University at Albany
                                              City of Fort Worth, TX, n.d.                    State University of New York
gang-involved youth and community
services, opportunities, and government          Feyerherm, W., C. Pope, and R. Lovell.       Albany, NY 12222
agencies. The project is supported            Youth Gang Prevention and Early Interven-       Mr. Frank Sanchez
through public and private sector             tion Programs. Final Research Report.           Director of Delinquency Prevention
involvement and funding, which includes       Executive Summary. Portland, OR:                Boys & Girls Clubs of America
more than $90,000 in “in-kind” contribu-      Portland State University, 1992.                1230 West Peachtree Street NW.
tions from the national BGCA. During a           Howell, J.C. Gangs. Fact Sheet. Wash-        Atlanta, GA 30309
4-month period ending in February 1996,       ington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and      404–815–5700
more than 16,500 members and visitors         Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice       404–815–5789 (fax)
participated in the Comin’ Up Program,        Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 1994.     E-mail:
representing an average of 4,140 young           Howell, J.C. (ed.) Guide for Implement-
people receiving services each month          ing the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious,
(Comin’ Up Gang Intervention Program          Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders.
Project Report, 1996; Coming’ Up Gang                                                            Terence P. Thornberry, Ph.D., is the principal
                                              Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice      investigator of OJJDP’s Rochester Youth Devel-
Intervention Program Background Informa-      and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Depart-
tion, n.d.). To learn more about the effec-                                                   opment Study. James H. Burch II is a program
                                              ment of Justice, 1995.                          manager in OJJDP’s Special Emphasis Division.
tiveness of this program approach, OJJDP
will fund an outcome evaluation of BGCA’s         Klein, M.W. The American Street Gang:           The research results in this Bulletin were
Targeted Outreach program in FY 1997.         Its Nature, Prevalence, and Control. New
                                                                                              derived from final reports prepared under grant
                                              York: Oxford University Press, 1995.            number 95–JN–FX–0013 from the Office of Juve-
   OJJDP’s comprehensive, coordinated
response to gangs is an example of pro-          Loeber, R., D. Huizinga, and T.P.            nile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S.
gramming that is built on a solid base        Thornberry, eds. 1996. The Program of           Department of Justice.
of empirical knowledge. In comparison         Research on the Causes and Correlates of           Points of view or opinions expressed in this
with other types of studies, longitudinal     Delinquency Annual Report 1995–1996.
                                                                                              document are those of the author(s) and do not
studies, such as the Causes and Corre-        Prepared for the Office of Juvenile Justice
                                                                                              necessarily represent the official position or poli-
lates program, offer many opportunities       and Delinquency Prevention, Office of
                                                                                              cies of OJJDP or the U.S. Department of Justice.
to more clearly recognize and discrimi-       Justice Programs, U.S. Department of
nate among key factors that lead to           Justice, 1996.
                                                                                                   The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-
delinquent behavior. Additionally,              Office of Juvenile Justice and                 quency Prevention is a component of the Of-
longitudinal studies can play a significant   Delinquency Prevention. 1995 National            fice of Justice Programs, which also includes
role in shaping program efforts, such         Youth Gang Survey. Program Summary.              the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau
as OJJDP’s multifaceted response to           Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice       of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of
America’s gang problem. Social scientists     and Delinquency Prevention, Office of            Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.

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