Political Concepts of Power and Authority by gzy18727

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									Political Concepts of
Power and Authority


   Alternative Perspectives
       Steven Lukes on Power: An
        Alternative Look at Power
   Steven Lukes provides a different viewpoint of
    power and authority to Max Weber’s three types
    of authority.
   Luke identifies three face of power
              Decision Making
              Non Decision Making

              Shaping Desires

   Luke claims that Weber was only addressing the
    first face of power- decision making
            Decision Making
   The power to make and implement
    decisions
   Non Decision Making
   The power to set agendas and therefore
    limit what is being discussed – certain
    issues are stopped by the powerful never
    reaching the point where decisions are
    made.
    How does non Decision Making
           Power Work?

   The powerful can ignore the demands of
    the weak by delay, avoidance, or mass
    bureaucracy, or inconclusive inquiries.

   Issues are avoided that the powerful
    anticipate will cause opposition.
        Shaping Desired (Ideological
                 Power)
   The power to manipulate what people think they
    want- powerful groups can make people think
    they want or consent to something which is
    actually harmful to their interests.
       E.g.. Nuclear proliferation based on the idea that if
        we have more they (our perceived enemies) will not
        attack.
   Ideological power is exerted through ideological
    institutions such as political parties and religion.
Other Competing Models of Power
   Functionalists:
       Functionalist writers use a consensus model of
        society.
       The norms and values of society are generally
        agreed.
       Value consensus ensures shared values and collective
        goals; consequently, the more a society is able to
        meet collective goals, the more power it has.
       Thus, a variable-sum model of power is proposed. In
        the functionalist model, power is held by society as a
        whole. It is a social resource.
                        Marxists
   Marxists believe that particular groups for their own
    benefit, and at the expense of others - hold power in
    society a zero-sum model of power.
   The dominant group uses power to further its own
    interests, which conflict with the rest of society.
   In the Marxist model, power lies in the economic
    infrastructure, which is owned and controlled by a
    minority for its own interests. This minority constitutes a
    ruling class.
   The acceptance of ruling class dominance is an aspect of
    false consciousness and ideological hegemony.
    The inequalities that stem from the relation to the
    means of production extend into other areas of social life
    - this unequal relationship is reflected in the legal
    system, the medical system and education, for example.
The End

								
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