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PROJECT MANAGEMENT PART III by zwi14607

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									             PROJECT MANAGEMENT
                    PART III
                       TIME MANAGEMENT
                     CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
                       PROJECT PLANNING




Dr. Savas Ozatalay             MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                     Managing Conflicts




Dr. Savas Ozatalay            MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
         Project Manager - Conflict Manager
     • Conflicts are a way of life in a project structure and can generally
       occur at any level of organization, usually as a result of conflicting
       objectives.
     • The ability to handle conflicts requires an understanding of why they
       occur. The following four questions are helpful for handling and may
       be preventing conflicts

         – What are the project objectives and can they be in conflict with
           other projects?
         – Why do conflicts occur?
         – How do we resolve conflicts?
         – Is there any type of preliminary analysis that could identify
           possible conflicts before they occur?



Dr. Savas Ozatalay                        MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                           Project objectives

    In order to minimize risk of conflicts project objectives must be carefully
        stated. They must be:
     Specific, not general
     Not overly complex
     Measurable, tangible, and verifiable
     Appropriate level, challenging
     Realistic and attainable
     Established with resource bounds
     Consistent with resources available or anticipated
     Consistent with organizational plans, policies, and procedures.



Dr. Savas Ozatalay                          MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                     Common conflict types
                      •   Manpower resources
                      •   Equipment and facilities
                      •   Capital expenditures
                      •   Costs
                      •   Technical options and trade-offs
                      •   Priorities
                      •   Administrative procedures
                      •   Scheduling
                      •   Responsibilities
                      •   Personality clashes



Dr. Savas Ozatalay                      MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                 Reasons why conflicts occur

    • The greater the diversity of disciplinary expertise among participants
      of a project team, the greater the potential for conflict to develop
      among members of the team.
    • The lower he project manager’s degree of authority, reward, and
      punishment power over those individuals and organizational units
      supporting his project, the greater the potential for conflict to develop.
    • The less the specific objectives of a project (cost, schedule, and
      technical performance) are understood by the project team members,
      the more likely it is that conflict will develop.
    • The greater the role of ambiguity among the participants of a project
      team, the more likely it is that conflict will develop.



Dr. Savas Ozatalay                           MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                               Continued...
     • The greater the agreement on subordinate goals by project team
       participants, the lower the potential for detrimental conflict.
     • The more the members of functional areas perceive that the
       implementation of a project management system will adversely usurp
       their traditional roles, the greater the potential for conflict.
     • The lower the percent need for independence among organizational
       units supporting a project, the greater the potential of dysfunctional
       conflict.
     • The higher the managerial level within a project or functional area, the
       more likely it is that conflicts will be based upon deep-seated parochial
       resentments. By contrast, at the project or task level, it is more likely
       that cooperation will be facilitated by the task orientation and
       professionalism that a project requires for completion.




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                         MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                 Potential conflict sources
            • Conflict over project priorities
            • Conflict over administrative procedures
            • Conflict over technical opinions and performance trade-
              offs
            • Conflict over manpower resources
            • Conflict over cost
            • Conflict over schedules
            • Personality conflict




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                      MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                 Conflict handling modes
                      •   Withdrawal
                      •   Smoothing
                      •   Compromising
                      •   Forcing
                      •   Confrontation




Dr. Savas Ozatalay               MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
          Project life cycle and conflict sources

Project Formation    Project Built-up             Main Program      Phase-out

Project priorities   Project priorities           Schedules         Schedules
Adm. Procedures      Schedules                    Technical         Personality
Schedules            Adm. Procedures              Manpower          Manpower
Manpower             Technical                    Priorities        Priorities
Cost                 Manpower                     Procedures        Cost
Technical            Personality                  Cost              Technical
Personality          Cost                         Personality       Procedures




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                        MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                         Conflict resolution

    1 The development of company-wide conflict resolution policies and
      procedures.
    2 The establishment of project conflict resolution procedures during the
      early planning activities.
    3 The use of hierarchical referral.
    4 The requirement of direct contact.




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                         MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                      Once a conflict occurs

       The project manager must observe certain preliminaries, including:

     Studying the problem and collecting all available information
     Developing a situational approach or methodology
     Setting the appropriate atmosphere or climate.




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                        MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
             Conflict minimization procedures

    •   Pausing and thinking before reacting
    •   Building trust
    •   Trying to understand the conflict motives
    •   Keeping the meeting under control
    •   Listening to all involved parties
    •   Maintaining a give-and-take attitude
    •   Educating others tactfully on your views
    •   Being willing to say when you are wrong
    •   Not acting as a superman and leveling the discussions only once in a
        while



Dr. Savas Ozatalay                          MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                     Project planning




Dr. Savas Ozatalay           MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
        Project planning is necessary because:

    • If the task is well understood prior to being performed, much of the
      work can be preplanned.
    • If the task is not understood, then during the actual task execution
      more knowledge is gained that, in turn, leads to changes in resource
      allocations, schedules, and priorities.
    • The more uncertain the task, the greater the amount of information that
      must be processed in order to ensure effective performance.




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                         MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                 Reasons for project planning

    •   To eliminate or reduce uncertainty
    •   To improve efficiency of the operation
    •   To obtain a better understanding of the objectives
    •   To provide a basis for monitoring and controlling work




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                         MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
     Major components of the planning phase

                      Objective
                       Program
                      Schedule
                       Budget
                       Forecast
                     Organization
                        Policy
                      Procedure
                      Standard




Dr. Savas Ozatalay           MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                   Strategic project planning

    • Strategic project planning is a job that should be performed by
      managers, not for them.
    • It is extremely important that upper-level management maintain a close
      involvement with project teams, especially during the planning phase.
    • Successful strategic planning must define the authority, responsibility,
      and roles of the strategic planning personnel




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                         MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
        At the functional level planning must
                       include:
                     • Agreement on purpose
                     • Assignment and acceptance of individual
                       responsibilities
                     • Coordination of work activities
                     • Increased commitment to group goals
                     • Lateral communications




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                       MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
         Project level planning must include:
          •   Recognition and resolution of group conflict of goals
          •   Assignment and acceptance of group responsibilities
          •   Increased motivation and commitment to organizational goals
          •   Vertical and lateral communications
          •   Coordination of activities between groups




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                      MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
              Two stages of project planning

     Study Phase - the purpose is to develop and evaluate ways to
      implement the project selected during the conception phase. The goal
      is to produce a study that effectively directs the final design of a
      chosen project.
     Design Phase - the purpose is to develop the details for the working
      plans for the proposed project solution. The goal is to prepare a
      complete set of working plans for the selected design.




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                        MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                     Study phase activities
               1   Organize the study phase work
               2   Devise ground rules for study and design phases
               3   Study solutions to be considered for design
               4   Gather and evaluate information
               5   Select and plan one solution
               6   Document the selected solution
               7   Verify and obtain funding




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                      MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
          1. Organize the study phase work

              •   Review the conception phase effort
              •   Develop the study phase details
              •   Organize team into small groups
              •   Assign each group a set of tasks to investigate




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                        MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
            2. Devise ground rules for study and
                       design phases




Dr. Savas Ozatalay          MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
          3. Study solutions to be considered for
                          design
               • Study potential solutions
               • Determine functions to be included in the solutions
               • Determine risks and trade-offs




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                     MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
         4. Gather and evaluate information
           • Contact potential vendors and customers for their input
           • Evaluate design alternatives and refine estimates




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                      MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
            5. Select and plan one solution
                • Select a solution
                • Plan the design and implementation phases




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                    MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
          6. Document the selected solution
                • Refine the task, schedule, and budget documents
                • Document the proposed solution and the rationale




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                    MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
              7. Verify and obtain funding

                     • Verify actual availability of funding
                     • Obtain design phase funding




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                       MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
                     Design phase activities
               1     Organize the design phase work
               2     Determine the solution to be implemented
               3     Document the design solution
               4     Prepare for implementation phase work
               5     Obtain implementation phase funding




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                       MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
          1. Organize the design phase work
                 • Review the study phase effort
                 • Develop design phase details
                 • Organize teams and assign design tasks




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                    MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
            2. Determine the solution to be
                    implemented
                 • Study potential implementation solutions
                 • Contact vendors and customers for make-
                   or-buy decisions
                 • Determine make-or-buy decisions




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                   MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
           3. Document the design solution
             •   Prepare the production specification
             •   Prepare the working and detail drawings
             •   Refine tasks, schedules, and budgets
             •   Document the design and reasons for its choice




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                      MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
        4. Prepare for implementation phase
                        work
               • Review the design phase results
               • Verify availability of implementation phase
                 funds
               • Plan the implementation phase




Dr. Savas Ozatalay                     MGT 680- Project Management – Part I
       Obtain implementation phase funding




Dr. Savas Ozatalay      MGT 680- Project Management – Part I

								
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