Disproportionate Minority Confinement 1997 update - September 1998

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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention                                                                                                       J US T I C E P




      Shay Bilchik, Administrator                                                                                              September 1998




Disproportionate                                                                                             From the Administrator
Minority Confinement:                                                                                        A prerequisite of an effective juvenile
                                                                                                             justice system is to treat every offender

1997 Update                                                                                                  as an individual and provide needed
                                                                                                             services to all. There are troubling
                                                                                                             indications that the system is not
                                                                                                             meeting this standard. As one reflec-
                                                                                                             tion of this problem, we find that the
Heidi M. Hsia, Ph.D., and Donna Hamparian
                                                                                                             percentage of minority youth in secure
    The disparate treatment of minorities         68 percent of the juvenile population in                   confinement is more than double their
in America’s juvenile justice systems, as         secure detention and 68 percent of those in                representation in the general juvenile
evidenced by the disproportionate con-            secure institutional environments such as                  population—comprising nearly 7 out
finement of minority juveniles in secure          training schools (Sickmund, Snyder, and                    of 10 juveniles in such environments.
facilities, was brought to national atten-        Poe-Yamagata, 1997). These figures reflect                 As part of its overall mission, the Office
tion by the Coalition for Juvenile Justice        significant increases over 1983, when                      of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
(formerly the National Coalition of State         minority youth represented 53 percent                      Prevention provides leadership and
Juvenile Justice Advisory Groups) in its          of the detention population and 56 per-                    resources to our Nation’s efforts to
1988 annual report to Congress, A Delicate        cent of the secure juvenile corrections                    address disproportionate minority
Balance (Coalition for Juvenile Justice,          population. Additional research has                        confinement (DMC). This Bulletin offers
1988). In the 1988 amendments to the              consistently substantiated that minority                   an overview of the status of the DMC
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preven-          overrepresentation has not been limited                    initiative and describes one State’s
tion (JJDP) Act of 1974 (Pub. L. 93–415,          to confinement in secure facilities; it also               efforts to meet the needs of minority
42 U.S.C. 5601 et seq.), Congress required        is significant at each of the major decision               youth served by its juvenile justice
that States address disproportionate              points in the juvenile justice system proc-                system. Pennsylvania’s multiyear,
minority confinement (DMC) in their               ess (e.g., arrest, detention, prosecution,                 systematic approach demonstrates
State plans. In the 1992 amendments to            adjudication, transfer to adult court, and                 how important it is to have sound data
the JJDP Act, DMC was elevated to a core          commitment to secure facilities). This                     as a basis for raising public awareness,
requirement, with future funding eligibil-        holds true in most States and the District                 mobilizing support and resources, and
ity tied to State compliance. Prevalence          of Columbia. Thus, the term “minority                      planning and implementing an effective
studies to examine the likelihood of juve-        overrepresentation” has been used to de-                   DMC strategy.
niles being incarcerated in a juvenile            scribe the phenomenon of disproportion-
corrections facility before the age of 18         ately large numbers of minority youth                      All youth who come into contact with
were subsequently conducted in 16 States          who come into contact with the juvenile                    the juvenile justice system must receive
(DeComo, 1993). These studies showed              justice system at various stages, including,               an appropriate response, including the
that African-American youth had the               but not limited to, secure confinement.1                   treatment they need. We have not yet
highest prevalence rates of all segments          During the past decade, the Office of Juve-                reached that goal, but this Bulletin tells
of the population in 15 of the 16 States.         nile Justice and Delinquency Prevention                    us that the DMC initiative is bringing
In 2 States, it was estimated that 1 in 7                                                                    about change and focusing attention
African-American males (compared with             1
                                                                                                             on a problem that must be addressed.
                                                   In this Bulletin, the term “DMC” refers to the impact
approximately 1 in 125 white males)               of minority overrepresentation across the juvenile         Shay Bilchik
would be incarcerated before the age of           justice system because nearly all local, State, and Fed-
                                                                                                             Administrator
18. Although minority youth constituted           eral efforts to address DMC include the examination of
about 32 percent of the youth population          minority overrepresentation at multiple points of juve-
                                                  nile justice system processing.
in the country in 1995, they represented
(OJJDP) has assumed a leadership role,
calling on the Nation to address the DMC
issue in a deliberate and systematic man-
ner that includes the following:
x DMC as a core requirement of the
  JJDP Act Formula Grants Program.
  OJJDP administers the Formula Grants
  Program under Title II, part B, of the
  JJDP Act. Under the Formula Grants
  Program, each State must address
  efforts to reduce the proportion of
  youth detained or confined in secure
  detention facilities, secure correctional
  facilities, jails, and lockups who are
  members of minority groups if it ex-
  ceeds the proportion of such groups
  in the general population.2 For purposes
  of this requirement, OJJDP has defined
  minority populations as African-
  Americans, American Indians,3 Asians,                       technical assistance manual was pro-        x National Innovations to Reduce DMC.
  Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics (OJJDP                     duced in 1990 by OJJDP, in conjunction        This discretionary grants program
  Formula Grants Regulation, 28 C.F.R.                        with CRA, to provide State juvenile jus-      is also known as the Deborah Ann
  Part 31). Because addressing DMC is                         tice specialists and State advisory           Wysinger Memorial Program in memory
  one of the core requirements of the                         group members with a step-by-step             of a deceased OJJDP staff person who
  JJDP Act, States failing to meet the                        blueprint for systematically addressing       spearheaded OJJDP’s DMC efforts.
  DMC plan requirement are ineligible                         DMC. This manual is currently being           Grants have been awarded under the
  to receive 25 percent of their annual                       updated. Portland State University also       program to States, local units of gov-
  formula grant allocation.4                                  was contracted to provide training and        ernment, private not-for-profit organi-
x DMC training and technical assis-                           technical assistance to five competi-         zations, and American Indian tribes
  tance. Publications such as the OJJDP                       tively selected pilot States (Arizona,        to develop interventions that address
  Fact Sheet Disproportionate Minority                        Florida, Iowa, North Carolina, and Or-        DMC. The program’s goals are to refine
  Confinement (Roscoe and Morton, 1994)                       egon) in their efforts to address DMC.        previous assessment findings and
  and the DMC national reports cited in                       The DMC Initiative in the five pilot          improve data systems, develop new
  footnote 4 have been disseminated                           States is described below.                    interventions to reduce DMC, develop
  widely as technical assistance tools.                     x The DMC Initiative. To enhance States’        model DMC programs, and encourage
  OJJDP also has sponsored a variety                          ability to comply with the DMC re-            multidisciplinary collaborations at the
  of national and regional training ses-                      quirement, test various approaches to         community level to reduce DMC. In
  sions for juvenile justice practitioners,                   assessing DMC, and experiment with            fiscal years 1995 and 1996, 11 DMC dis-
  researchers, and policymakers. To                           approaches to reducing DMC, OJJDP             cretionary grants were awarded (one
  further assist States, OJJDP contracted                     established the Disproportionate Mi-          program was given a 2-year grant).6
  with Community Research Associates                          nority Confinement Initiative in 1991.        The awards included research, train-
  (CRA), Inc., in Champaign, IL, to pro-                      Over the next 3 years, five competi-          ing and technical assistance, and
  vide training and technical assistance                      tively selected pilot States aggressively     demonstrations to test innovative
  upon request on all aspects of this                         assessed the extent of DMC in their           interventions designed by States and
  core requirement. In addition, a                            juvenile justice systems, designed            local communities. Grants to 10 of the
                                                              comprehensive strategies, and imple-          projects have been completed, with
                                                              mented interventions to address the           the remaining project to be completed
2
 See § 223(a)(23) of the Juvenile Justice and Delin-                                                        in September 1998.
quency Prevention Act of 1974, as amended.                    problems identified. OJJDP’s national
3
                                                              management evaluation contractor,
 In practice, this category has been interpreted to
include American Indians, Eskimos, Aleutians, and
                                                              Caliber Associates, Inc., provided all      5
                                                                                                            In 1996, Caliber Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA, pub-
others (Hamparian and Leiber, 1997).                          five States with technical assistance       lished the following reports: Evaluation of the Dispro-
                                                              and design support to develop a proc-       portionate Minority Confinement (DMC) Initiative:
4
 For a detailed historical account of DMC as a “core                                                      Arizona Final Report, Evaluation of the Disproportionate
requirement” of the Formula Grants Program; descrip-
                                                              ess and/or impact evaluation, evaluate
                                                                                                          Minority Confinement (DMC) Initiative: Florida Final
tions of the identification, assessment, and intervention     their efforts, and share relevant infor-    Report, Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority
phases of DMC that States are required to address in          mation nationwide. Five final reports       Confinement (DMC) Initiative: Iowa Final Report, Evalu-
their State plans; and States’ DMC activities in these        (one on each of the pilot States), pro-     ation of the Disproportionate Minority Confinement
phases, see The Status of the States: A Review of State       duced under the DMC Initiative, were        (DMC) Initiative: North Carolina Final Report, Evaluation
Materials Regarding Overrepresentation of Minority                                                        of the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC)
                                                              products of this effort.5 An OJJDP
Youth in the Juvenile Justice System (Feyerherm, 1993)                                                    Initiative: Oregon Final Report. These reports are avail-
and Disproportionate Confinement of Minority Juveniles
                                                              Bulletin focusing on lessons learned
                                                                                                          able from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse by calling
in Secure Facilities: 1996 National Report (Hamparian         from this initiative is in preparation      800–638–8736 ($15 each, $39 for all five).
and Leiber, 1997).                                            (Devine, Coolbaugh, and Jenkins, in
                                                              press).


                                                                                2
x National DMC training, technical                         address the DMC issue in three phases:                     Pennsylvania’s Process
  assistance, and information dissemi-                     (1) identification (identify the extent to
  nation initiative. In 1997, recognizing                  which DMC exists); (2) assessment (as-
                                                                                                                      as an Example of a
  the need to foster development and                       sess the reasons for DMC if it exists); and                Systematic DMC
  documentation of effective strategies                    (3) intervention (develop an intervention                  Approach
  nationwide using training, technical                     plan to address these identified reasons).
  assistance, information dissemination,                   Progress is reported by each State and                     Description of the
  practical and targeted resource tools,                   territory in its comprehensive JJDP 3-year                 Pennsylvania Model
  and public education, OJJDP launched                     plan and subsequent plan updates (in
  a 3-year national initiative. Through                    compliance with Section 223(a)(23)).                          Pennsylvania’s DMC efforts began in
  an OJJDP cooperative agreement with                      OJJDP reviews the plan updates annually.                   1986, 2 years prior to the inclusion of
  Cygnus Corp., interested jurisdictions                   The status of State compliance with the                    DMC as a Formula Grants Program plan
  will be provided with information                        DMC core requirement based on the                          requirement. During that year, the Penn-
  designed to enable them to success-                      States’ 1997 plans is summarized below.                    sylvania Commission on Crime and Delin-
  fully address those factors that con-                    Readers desiring additional information                    quency (PCCD) and the State advisory
  tribute to DMC. Cygnus will review                       concerning individual States are encour-                   group, the Juvenile Advisory Committee
  and synthesize current State and local                   aged to contact the State’s juvenile justice               (JAC), recognized the problem of minority
  practices and policies; develop and                      specialist.8                                               overrepresentation. In 1990, JAC estab-
  deliver training to grantees, personnel                                                                             lished the Minority Confinement Subcom-
                                                              Based on OJJDP’s review of FY 1997                      mittee to focus on the DMC issue.9 The
  involved with the juvenile justice sys-                  State plans, 39 States have completed the
  tem, policymakers, and others regard-                                                                               subcommittee’s analysis of 1988 juvenile
                                                           identification and assessment phases and                   justice data for detention and other secure
  ing effective interventions; and identify                are implementing the intervention phase
  effective approaches for improving                                                                                  holding programs revealed that, although
                                                           of DMC. Three States have completed the                    representing just 12 percent of the juvenile
  States’ DMC efforts.                                     identification and assessment phases and                   population, minority juveniles accounted
                                                           are formulating their intervention plans.                  for 70 percent of secure placements state-
Update on State Compliance                                 These States are making a concerted ef-                    wide. To help determine which decision
With the DMC Core                                          fort to address the factors that contribute                points in the juvenile justice system and
Requirement                                                to minority overrepresentation in the                      which jurisdiction(s) the State’s DMC
    As noted, the 1992 reauthorization of                  juvenile justice system. However, DMC                      efforts should target, further analysis was
the JJDP Act substantially strengthened                    remains a serious concern, requiring an                    conducted using 1989 data both statewide
the national effort to address DMC by                      ongoing and continuous effort. Recom-                      and in the 18 counties with the highest
elevating it to a “core requirement” of                    mendations for future action discussed in                  minority populations. Statewide Pennsyl-
the Formula Grants Program along with                      the 1996 National Report (Hamparian and                    vania data indicated that minority juveniles
deinstitutionalization of status offenders,                Leiber, 1997), including the need for com-                 represented 27 percent of all juveniles
removal of juveniles from adult jails and                  prehensive data collection and analysis,                   arrested and 48 percent of all juveniles
lockups, and sight and sound separation                    the development of research- and data-                     formally charged in juvenile court. All
of juvenile offenders from adults in secure                based State intervention plans, and the                    of the State’s counties showed minority
institutions.7 States participating in the                 strategic importance of prevention and                     overrepresentation, which was amplified
Formula Grants Program are required to                     early intervention, remain valid actions                   as cases moved through the system. In
                                                           for States in refining and improving their                 response to these preliminary analyses,
                                                           approaches to reducing DMC.                                the subcommittee funded outside research
6
 The following programs were awarded discretionary            This Bulletin provides the updated                      to identify causes and develop options to
grants: TeenCourt Youth Diversion Program (Lummi           status—as of December 1997—of compli-                      address the problem while simultaneously
Indian Nation, Bellingham, WA); Interventions to Re-                                                                  implementing prevention and interven-
                                                           ance with the DMC core requirement
duce Disproportionate Minority Confinement (Acad-
emy, Inc., Columbus, OH); Disproportionate Minority        among the jurisdictions participating in                   tion programs. This two-pronged approach
Confinement (New Jersey Superior Court Probation           the JJDP Formula Grants Program (48                        has guided the subsequent State DMC
Division, Patterson, NJ); Comprehensive Intensive          States, 6 territories, and the District of                 strategy.
Aftercare for Incarcerated African American Youth          Columbia). However, unlike previous na-
(Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections,    tional reports, which highlighted DMC                      Target Area #1: Dauphin
Baton Rouge, LA); Interventions to Reduce Dispropor-
tionate Minority Confinement (Washoe Tribe of Nevada
                                                           activities undertaken by various States in                 County
and California, Gardnerville, NV); Disproportionate        the identification, assessment, and inter-                     Dauphin County, including the State
Minority Confinement (Pima County Juvenile Court           vention phases, this Bulletin provides an                  capital, Harrisburg, was selected as the
Center, Tucson, AZ); Community Alternatives to Deten-      indepth description of how Pennsylvania                    first target site because it showed the
tion (Chatham-Savannah Youth Futures Authority,            moved from one DMC phase to the next in
Savannah, GA); Disproportionate Minority Confinement
                                                                                                                      greatest difference between the proportion
                                                           a systematic, data-driven, and targeted                    of minorities arrested (50 percent) and
(Wayne County Neighborhood Legal Services, Detroit,
                                                           effort to comprehensively address DMC.                     the proportion of minorities (22 percent)
MI); Interventions to Reduce Disproportionate Minor-
ity Confinement (Project Heavy West, Los Angeles, CA);
and Disproportionate Minority Confinement: A Time
                                                           8
for Change (American Correctional Association,              A directory of State juvenile justice specialists is
                                                                                                                      9
Lanham, MD).                                               available by contacting OJJDP. See “For Further Informa-    The Minority Confinement Subcommittee reports to
                                                           tion.”                                                     JAC, which reports to PCCD. JAC submits an annual
7
 See § 223(c)(3) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency                                                              report to the Governor on juvenile justice and delin-
Prevention Act of 1974, as amended.                                                                                   quency prevention issues and activities.



                                                                                      3
Summary of State Compliance With DMC Core Requirement1
(as of December 1997)
        x States that have completed the identification and assessment phases and are implementing the intervention phase:
                       Alaska                                             Kansas                 North Dakota
                       Arizona                                            Maryland               Ohio
                       Arkansas                                           Massachusetts          Oklahoma
                       California                                         Michigan               Oregon
                       Colorado                                           Minnesota              Pennsylvania
                       Connecticut                                        Mississippi            Rhode Island
                       Florida                                            Missouri               South Carolina
                       Georgia                                            Montana                Tennessee
                       Hawaii                                             Nevada                 Texas
                       Idaho                                              New Jersey             Virginia
                       Illinois                                           New Mexico             Washington
                       Indiana                                            New York               Wisconsin
                       Iowa                                               North Carolina         Utah
        x States that have completed the identification and assessment phases and are formulating a time-limited plan of
          action for completing the intervention phase:
                       Alabama                                            West Virginia
                       South Dakota
        x States (and the District of Columbia) that have completed the identification phase, submitted a time-limited plan of
          action for the assessment phase, and agreed to submit a time-limited plan for addressing the intervention phase:
                       Delaware                                           Louisiana
                       District of Columbia                               Nebraska
        x Territories that have completed the identification phase (it has been determined that minority juveniles are not
          disproportionately arrested or detained in the following territories):
                       American Samoa                                     Republic of Palau
                       Guam                                               Virgin Islands
                       Northern Mariana Islands
        x States that have completed the identification phase and are exempt from the DMC requirement because the minority
          juvenile population in the State does not exceed 1 percent of the total juvenile population:
                       Maine
                       Vermont
        x State that has now reached 1 percent minority population (statewide) and will begin conducting the identification
          phase:
                       New Hampshire
        x Territory that is exempt from complying with the DMC requirement (as it has been exempted by the U.S. Census
          Bureau from reporting racial statistics due to the homogeneity of the population):
                       Puerto Rico
        x States that were not participating in the Formula Grants Program in FY 1997:
                       Kentucky
                       Wyoming

1
    Pursuant to Section 31.303(j) of the OJJDP Formula Grants Regulation (28 C.F.R. Part 31).




                                                                                       4
in the at-risk population (ages 10 to 17            The community-based organizations of     concentration of minorities. The Dauphin
years). The subcommittee convened local        Dauphin County continued to meet monthly      County CTC program includes economic
community-based organizations serving          with the directors and staff of the funded    empowerment, family support, community
minorities along with Dauphin County           programs. Through these repeated inter-       mobilization against violence and drugs,
Juvenile Probation, the Harrisburg Bureau      actions, and as the group became aware        and youth advisory council components.
of Police, the Harrisburg School District,     of the advantages of working together, the
and other community representatives to         Youth Enhancement Services (YES) coali-       Target Area #2—
discuss the problem.                           tion was formally established in 1993.        Philadelphia
    In 1991, PCCD provided subgrant funds      PCCD, based on a recommendation of
                                                                                                 After gaining experience with the coali-
to initiate five prevention and intervention   JAC, funded YES’ executive director posi-     tion model in Dauphin County, the JAC
programs in Harrisburg for a period of 30      tion. Despite a sometimes fluid member-
                                                                                             subcommittee identified a second target
months:                                        ship, the coalition model has continued       area in 1992. Based on the original data
                                               to encourage the networking of resources
x The Business Entrepreneur Club. This                                                       analysis, which identified Philadelphia as
                                               and support services and has successfully     having the highest number and percent-
  program helps young minority females         driven the local planning process. A sub-
  learn work and life skills.                                                                age of minority juvenile arrests statewide
                                               sequent evaluation showed that these          (65.9 percent), further analysis of data
x Targeted Outreach. This program helps        community-based DMC programs achieved
                                                                                             from all 23 police districts was conducted
  identify and recruit minority youth          levels of service provision and funding       to identify the police district in which the
  within its service area to take advantage    enhancement that would not have been
                                                                                             DMC effort could have the greatest pos-
  of the educational, physical, social,        possible without the YES coalition. For       sible impact. The 25th Police District was
  and vocational programs available            example, after the PCCD seed money
                                                                                             chosen because of its high number of ju-
  through the Boys & Girls Club of             expired in March 1994, the programs col-      venile offenses, high rate of juvenile crime
  Harrisburg.                                  lectively increased their funding level by
                                                                                             per 100,000 population (the total number
                                               2 1/2 times the original funding by expand-   of offenses divided by the total juvenile
x Positive Choice. This program, previ-
                                               ing their funding sources and contracting
  ously known as Teens Together, pro-                                                        population), high percentage of drug-
                                               with county and State youth services          related offenses, and diverse racial popu-
  vides minority juveniles with tutoring,
                                               agencies, such as Dauphin County Chil-
  homework assistance, and special                                                           lation (40 percent African-American, 35
                                               dren and Youth Services (Clouser, 1994).      percent Hispanic, 23 percent white, and 2
  classes with speakers who address
  topics of interest and also helps youth          Moreover, the DMC community assess-       percent Asian-American).10 Like Dauphin
  make positive choices for their future.      ment evaluation information was utilized      County’s coalition model, the formative
                                               extensively for the development of Dauphin    meeting of the Philadelphia coalition in-
x Project Connect. This program, now
                                               County’s application for a grant under the    volved police; probation officers; school
  part of the Boys & Girls Club, prevents
                                               JJDP Act’s Title V Community Prevention       personnel; city, State, and Federal repre-
  youth from dropping out of school by
                                               Grants Program. Through the Title V Pro-      sentatives; and citywide youth-serving
  improving school attendance and aca-
                                               gram, which assesses risks and resources      agencies. This group, now known as the
  demic achievement and addressing
                                               in the community, school, family, and per-    East Division Coalition, has held monthly
  other social and familial needs.
                                               sonal domains, Dauphin County developed       meetings since 1992. A director was hired
x Hispanic Center After-School Program.        a delinquency and violence prevention         in 1994 with seed subgrant funds provided
  This program helps at-risk Hispanic          program based on the Communities That         by PCCD per JAC’s recommendation.
  students improve their school perfor-        Care (CTC) process in the same neighbor-
                                                                                                Programs implemented in Philadelphia
  mance, reducing the rate of school fail-     hoods as the minority programs, thus          include:
  ure and dropping out among Hispanic          expanding and enhancing the prevention
  youth.                                       efforts in targeted areas with a high         x Dreams of Tomorrow. This program
                                                                                               provides educational and social sup-
                                                                                               port to minority juveniles who have
                                                                                               had or are at risk of having minor in-
                                                                                               volvement with the juvenile justice
                                                                                               system.
                                                                                             x Project Youthlead. This project helps
                                                                                               minority juveniles develop and attain
                                                                                               positive goals for their future.
                                                                                             x Checkmate. Checkmate decreases the
                                                                                               delinquency rate and increases the
                                                                                               level of school retention and success
                                                                                               among targeted youth through life skills
                                                                                               workshops, tutoring and homework


                                                                                             10
                                                                                                Although there are 23 police districts in Philadelphia,
                                                                                             some police districts have maintained their numerical
                                                                                             designations from a time when there were more than
                                                                                             23 districts in the city.




                                                                   5
   assistance, physical fitness and sports,                                                   based minority prevention and interven-
   community service projects, and                                                            tion programs serving primarily Hispanic
   monthly parent group meetings.                                                             youth in the Lehigh Valley (Lehigh and
x Youth Self-Empowerment Project.                                                             Northampton Counties). These two coun-
  This project empowers youth to lead                                                         ties are among the top four in reported ju-
  drug-free, crime-free, peaceful, and                                                        venile arrests of Hispanic youth: 753 ar-
  productive lives through training,                                                          rests in Lehigh County and 483 arrests in
  tutoring, community service, recre-                                                         Northampton County. Lehigh and
  ational activities, and special outings.                                                    Northampton Counties are located in an
                                                                                              area of the State that has not previously
x Student Anti-Violence Education                                                             been served by this program. The director
  (SAVE). SAVE focuses on preadoles-                                                          of the Governor’s Advisory Commission
  cents by offering conflict resolution                                                       on Latino Affairs has joined the subcom-
  and impulse control training for juve-                                                      mittee to ensure that the perspectives
  niles and adults in addition to positive                                                    of the Latino community are taken into
  discipline strategies.                                                                      consideration and to help identify existing
x Truancy and Dropout Prevention                                                              programs in the focus area. The subcom-
  Project. This program provides staff                                                        mittee anticipates holding meetings with
  intervention and family support in                                                          Latino service providers and representa-
  working with schools and courts.                                                            tives from the police department, proba-
                                                                                              tion department, and local schools. A
   Encouraged by the success of these
                                                                                              significant portion of the State’s 1998 allo-
programs and the effectiveness of the
                                                                                              cation of Formula Grants Program funds
East Division Coalition, the Philadelphia
                                                                                              for DMC will be subgranted to support
Department of Human Services has as-
                                                                                              programs developed in the Lehigh Valley.
sumed the responsibility of providing
funding for these programs.                        ment, educational support, career          Evaluation of DMC Efforts
                                                   guidance, socialization, and cultural      in the Target Areas
Target Area #3—Allegheny                           enrichment.
County                                                                                            An integral element of Pennsylvania’s
                                                x Project Africa and Operation Hammer.        approach is the incorporation of evalua-
   In 1995, a similar process to address          This program offers tutoring, mentoring,    tion from the very beginning. In the first
DMC issues began in Allegheny County,             community services (e.g., gardening         year of implementation, the National Cen-
the third target area. A local analysis of        and trash removal), job readiness as-       ter for Juvenile Justice Training and Re-
minority crime and an identification of           sistance, nonviolent conflict resolution    search (the Center) at Shippensburg State
community-based youth and family pro-             skills training, healthy recreation, and    University was contracted to perform the
grams were completed in 1995. Minority            a youth crime prevention program with       first-year evaluation of the Harrisburg
neighborhoods in and adjacent to the east         community police.                           programs. Through this evaluation, the
end of Pittsburgh were identified as hav-
                                                x Targeted School-Based Outreach              Center found that of the 200 adolescent
ing high numbers of minority juvenile ar-
                                                  Worker’s Program. This program              clients referred to the coalition during its
rests and were selected as the focus in
                                                  offers life skills classes, tutoring, job   first year of operation, 169 satisfied a
Allegheny County. This focus was affirmed
                                                  readiness assistance, job referrals,        minimum attendance criterion. While 50
by the Allegheny County Youth Crime
                                                  counseling, pregnancy prevention in-        percent of the coalition clients had prior
Prevention Council’s representatives from
                                                  formation, recreational activities, and     involvement with the juvenile justice
the Pittsburgh mayor’s office, the Allegheny
                                                  educational trips.                          system, just 20 percent were referred to
County Human Services Department, and
                                                   After considerable negotiation among       juvenile probation subsequent to their
the U.S. Attorney for the western region
                                                                                              involvement with the coalition. Further,
of the State. The Allegheny County Youth        the programs, Allegheny County’s Youth
                                                Coalition of Western Pennsylvania was         involvement in coalition programs was
Crime Prevention Council serves as the
                                                                                              associated with significantly lower levels
coordinating body for prevention and            formed and the position of director was
                                                funded in July 1996 through the same          of truancy and suspension and with slight
intervention programs, which include
                                                                                              improvements in academic performance.
both the Title V Delinquency Prevention/        mechanism as in the first two target ar-
CTC and DMC programs. Additionally,             eas. Subsequently, the coalition decided          As the model expanded to Philadelphia
across the State, 10 of the 14 Title V/CTC      to use a consultant rather than a director    in the second year, a more comprehensive
sites (including 2 in Allegheny County)         to assist with program development and        study was commissioned in 1993 through
focus on minority neighborhoods, thus           support. The 30 months of DMC funding         Temple University to evaluate nine
beginning prevention work at an early           will be completed in October 1998.            funded programs in the two minority
stage in the lives of at-risk children.                                                       overrepresentation initiatives (five in Har-
  Three DMC programs began in Allegheny
                                                Target Area #4 (A New                         risburg and four in Philadelphia).11 The
County in April 1996:                           Direction)—Lehigh and
                                                Northampton Counties
x Great Start Program. Great Start pro-                                                       11
                                                                                                 SAVE and the Truancy and Dropout Prevention
  vides juveniles with basic skills training,      Based on a review of State DMC data,       project, the other two Philadelphia programs, started
  participatory sports, part-time employ-       the Minority Confinement Subcommittee is      more recently and were not included in the Temple
                                                exploring the development of community-       evaluation.



                                                                     6
evaluation consisted of three parts:                tive and more evaluable, were subse-                 judges and probation staff on managing
a community assessment of the target                quently suggested (see table). In terms of           cultural diversity. In 1992, JCJC’s annual
areas, which included social, economic,             outcome evaluation, the most positive                statewide training conference had as its
and crime indicators; an evaluability as-           outcome reported was for the 1992–93                 theme Crime, Kids, and Color: The Issue
sessment (i.e., ability to be evaluated)            Harrisburg target site. The rate of recidi-          of Race and Juvenile Justice. The first
and process evaluation, which included              vism over a 3-year period for the high-              DMC-related conference, Crisis of Minor-
clarification of program goals, activities,         attendance group (25.8 percent) was                  ity Overrepresentation, was held in Phila-
and objectives and an examination of ser-           impressive, especially considering that              delphia in January 1993. A second confer-
vice delivery; and an outcome evaluation            nearly half of the clients had arrests prior         ence, Promising Approaches: Prevention
of client performance both during and               to their referral. In contrast, the low-             and Intervention Services for Minority
after participation in the programs through         attendance control group had a recidivism            Youth, was held in Harrisburg in May
a review of police, juvenile justice, and           rate of 53 percent for the same period.              1997. This was recently followed by a
school records from 1992 to 1995. The                                                                    third conference, Promising Approaches
evaluation strategy is an interactive               The Training and Education                           II: Building Blocks for Prevention and In-
model in that the programs and coalition            Component                                            tervention Services for Minority Youth, in
receive feedback from the evaluators                   To provide relevant information on                Pittsburgh in May 1998. The goal of the
regarding areas of success and difficulty,                                                               most recent conferences was to highlight
                                                    DMC to juvenile justice practitioners,
which is used on an ongoing basis to im-            youth workers, public officials, and the             the proactive approach Pennsylvania has
prove the programs. For example, certain                                                                 taken on the DMC issue, focus on effective
                                                    general public, a number of training and
program implementation issues were                  educational opportunities have been                  use of media, and feature both the pre-
noted as impeding successful interven-                                                                   vention and intervention programs and
                                                    developed that create awareness of the
tion and valid evaluation (Welsh, Harris,           issue and focus attention on possible so-            coalitions funded by PCCD and the many
and Jenkins, 1995). Ways to rectify these                                                                other State programs that have an impact
                                                    lutions. The Juvenile Court Judges’ Com-
issues, rendering the programs more effec-          mission (JCJC) offers periodic training for          on minority delinquency.



  Program Implementation Issues That Affect Program Effectiveness and Evaluability*
  Program Implementation Issues                                       Suggested Actions
  Target selection procedure                                          Clearly define characteristics of intended clients and regularly
                                                                      monitor client population.
  Client participation and completion of program                      Develop incentives for participation.
                                                                      Provide outreach to clients.
                                                                      Provide an interesting and challenging array of services.
  Staffing levels and staff turnover                                  Increase program resources.
                                                                      Provide ongoing staff training and development.
                                                                      Realistically address staff qualifications.
  Information and recordkeeping                                       Provide program resources.
                                                                      Emphasize importance of accurate, complete data to staff.
  Family component                                                    Provide tangible incentives for family involvement.
                                                                      Conduct parent support groups.
  Educational component                                               Provide tutoring and learning opportunities on a daily basis.
                                                                      Use volunteers.
                                                                      Provide positive feedback to students and volunteers.
                                                                      Work with the neighborhood school system.
  Volunteers/mentors                                                  Recruit, screen, train, monitor, and support.
  Program structure                                                   Engage in goal-oriented activities that are implemented in a
                                                                      consistent manner at a regular time.
  Adequacy of physical facilities                                     Send positive messages through pleasant, clean, and well- maintained
                                                                      physical space.
  Monitoring by program director/                                     Employ hands-on directors.
  executive director                                                  Engage in a continuous process of growth and self-evaluation.
                                                                      Welcome criticism in addition to positive feedback.

  * Based on information found in Welsh, W.N., Harris, P.W., and Jenkins, P. 1995. Evaluation of Minority Overrepresentation Programs in Pennsylvania:
  Evaluability Assessment and Process Evaluation. Report #2. Philadelphia, PA: Department of Criminal Justice, Temple University.



                                                                            7
                                                                                                 The data-driven and data-based
                                                                                              approach and ongoing data analysis.
                                                                                              Pennsylvania’s need-based selection of
                                                                                              DMC sites was determined by total arrest
                                                                                              rates, size of the minority population,
                                                                                              and the overrepresentation of minorities
                                                                                              in arrest rates. In addition, using data
                                                                                              from the Pennsylvania State Police, the
                                                                                              JCJC, the State Data Center, and the
                                                                                              National Center for Juvenile Justice,
                                                                                              Pennsylvania analyzes minority over-
                                                                                              representation annually to determine
                                                                                              changes that have occurred in dispropor-
                                                                                              tionate minority processing in the juve-
                                                                                              nile justice system at arrest, detention,
                                                                                              prosecution, adjudication, transfer to
                                                                                              criminal court, and State and local con-
                                                                                              finement. These annual analyses are
                                                                                              conducted for the State as a whole and
                                                                                              for the 18 counties in which 96 percent of
Pennsylvania’s Strengths                       has further benefited from the strong and
                                                                                              the State’s total minority juvenile popula-
   The strengths of the Pennsylvania           continuous leadership of its chair, Daniel
                                               Elby, the executive director of Alternative    tion resides. This ongoing monitoring helps
process in addressing DMC follow.                                                             guide the actions of the subcommittee
                                               Rehabilitation Communities, Inc. More-
   The active support of the Governor,         over, this subcommittee provides regular       and JAC and provides valuable feedback
PCCD, and JAC. Governor Tom Ridge                                                             regarding the impact of Pennsylvania’s
                                               DMC reports (both verbal and written) to
has provided strong support for juvenile       both JAC and PCCD to keep them advised         program efforts. For example, the State’s
justice and children’s issues. In 1997, the                                                   1995 DMC data showed encouraging signs
                                               of subcommittee activities and program
Governor met with representatives of           implementation. These reports serve as         of progress as compared with its 1988
JAC, including Daniel Elby, chair of the                                                      data. Although the minority juvenile
                                               information dissemination tools and help
Minority Confinement Subcommittee, to          maintain and promote the State’s focus         population who are at risk increased from
discuss recommendations to strengthen                                                         12 percent in 1988 to 13 percent in 1995,
                                               on the DMC issue. Through the JCJC,
the juvenile justice system and prevent        cultural diversity training is offered to      minority juveniles confined in secure
delinquency. The Governor has acted on                                                        detention and correctional facilities
                                               court staff and minorities are actively
six of these recommendations, including        recruited for court positions. In addition,    decreased from 73 percent to 66 percent
the creation of a delinquency prevention                                                      and minority juvenile arrests decreased
                                               a staff position within PCCD provides
policy specialist position in PCCD. This       critical support to the subcommittee,          from 30 percent to 29 percent. Minority
individual will assist with the coordination                                                  juveniles transferred to adult court,
                                               supports program planning and develop-
of State and local prevention initiatives      ment, and provides technical assistance        however, increased from 71 percent in
and oversee the DMC and Title V/CTC                                                           1988 to 72 percent in 1995.
                                               under the DMC Initiative.
programs. From 1991 to 1997, PCCD and                                                             The systematic and stepwise ap-
JAC have awarded nearly $4 million to             The utility of the coalition model. The
                                               coalition model encourages networking          proach. Instead of tackling the DMC issue
support the DMC Initiative. For 1998,                                                         throughout the State all at once, Pennsyl-
$500,000 has been reserved to continue         and resource consolidation. This model
                                               requires dedication by a wide range of         vania has adopted the strategy of first tar-
support for the initiative.                                                                   geting jurisdictions or communities with
                                               concerned people and organizations over
   The effectiveness of the subcommittee.      an extended time period. Because of the        the greatest DMC concerns (Harrisburg in
JAC’s Minority Confinement Subcommittee                                                       Dauphin County, the 25th Police District
                                               sheer number of individuals and organiza-
was established to ensure that the issue       tions involved, initiating and sustaining      in Philadelphia, and Allegheny County, in
of minority overrepresentation would                                                          that order, plus Lehigh and Northampton
                                               coordination and momentum are inher-
receive adequate attention and would not       ently challenging. The importance of hav-      counties for Hispanic juveniles). Within
become lost among JAC’s many responsi-                                                        each of the first two target areas, planning
                                               ing the police, schools, probation, and
bilities. The subcommittee has been            community-based agencies involved in           and program funding were facilitated by
meeting three to four times a year since                                                      a local coalition of community organiza-
                                               the coalition’s decisionmaking cannot be
1990 and has set up quarterly meetings         overemphasized. Pennsylvania’s effort in       tions brought together to address the DMC
for 1998. Nine of the ten subcommittee                                                        problem. As Harrisburg and Philadelphia
                                               forming coalitions in its first three tar-
members are minorities (eight African-         geted DMC areas has proven effective in        began the evaluation phase, Pennsylvania
Americans and one Hispanic) with rich                                                         formed a local coalition and planning pro-
                                               breaking down barriers among agencies
experience in working with minority juve-      and securing local funding. Funding staff      cess in Allegheny County, the third target
niles. Their strong dedication and exper-                                                     area, which is expected to benefit from the
                                               positions for the coalitions proved critical
tise are important to the subcommittee’s       to maintaining and enhancing these             cumulative experience of the earlier two.
overall effectiveness. The subcommittee        community-based groups.




                                                                    8
    The emphasis on prevention and            for change. The programs address issues                     vention projects in a continuing and on-
early intervention. In Pennsylvania,          as they arise rather than waiting until the                 going manner, are applicable to all settings.
overrepresentation of minorities in the       evaluation is complete. Evaluation assess-                  States’ efforts to reduce DMC are likely to
juvenile justice system begins at arrest—     ments of process and program content                        be greatly facilitated if they can be guided
minorities are arrested at a rate two times   are ongoing. The results are used to design                 by these principles. OJJDP resources
their proportion in the general population.   valid outcome measures for each indi-                       will continue to be available to provide
Overrepresentation more than doubles at       vidual program and for the initiative as a                  technical assistance to State and local
the detention stage and increases slightly    whole. However, the overall goal of reduc-                  governments working to address DMC.
at the point of commitment to juvenile        ing the number of minority youth in the
corrections. More than five times as many     juvenile justice system and the extent to
minority juveniles are transferred to         which the programs meet their other ob-
                                                                                                          References
criminal court compared with their num-       jectives, such as improving educational                        Center for Juvenile Justice Training
bers in the general population (Center for    performance, employment, and interper-                      and Research. 1989. Disposition Report
Juvenile Justice Training and Research,       sonal relationship skills, are addressed                    Data. Shippensburg, PA: Juvenile Court
1989 and 1995). Because the difference        for all programs.                                           Judges’ Commission.
between minority and nonminority juve-                                                                       Center for Juvenile Justice Training
nile representation is amplified at each
decision point from early to later stages,
                                              Conclusion                                                  and Research. 1995. Disposition Report
                                                                                                          Data. Shippensburg, PA: Juvenile Court
Pennsylvania has elected prevention and          Because of multiple factors that are                     Judges’ Commission.
early intervention as its primary DMC         unique to each State, OJJDP does not
strategy. All five DMC projects in Harris-    specify a process or strategy that States                       Clouser, M. 1994. Reducing minority
burg, six in Philadelphia, and three in Al-   must use to address DMC. Instead, OJJDP                     youth over-representation. In Pennsylva-
legheny County are designed to reduce         outlines the phases that the States need                    nia Progress: Juvenile Justice Achievements
DMC at the front end of the juvenile jus-     to move through to address the DMC core                     of the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime
tice system. Reducing overrepresentation      requirement and offers sample interven-                     and Delinquency. Vol. 1, no. 1. Harrisburg,
in the early stages is expected to further    tion strategies for State consideration.12                  PA: Pennsylvania Commission on Crime
reduce minority representation at later       However, the principles that emerge from                    and Delinquency.
stages in the system. It is important to      the Pennsylvania process, such as stable                       Coalition for Juvenile Justice. 1988.
note that, based on an early and deliber-     leadership by the JAC subcommittee,                         A Delicate Balance. 1988 annual report.
ate subcommittee decision, all of these       data-based and systematic strategies,                       Washington, DC: Coalition for Juvenile
projects are located in established,          broad community involvement and coali-                      Justice.
neighborhood-based organizations with a       tion building, significant financial commit-
                                                                                                             DeComo, R.E. 1993 (September). Juve-
history of working with at-risk minority      ment from the advisory committee, strong
                                                                                                          niles Taken Into Custody Research Program:
youth.                                        support from the State’s top officials, and
                                                                                                          Estimating the Prevalence of Juvenile Cus-
                                              investment in evaluation that, in turn, is
   The inclusion of evaluation in the                                                                     tody by Race and Gender. NCCD Focus.
                                              used to strengthen prevention and inter-
implementation phase. All too fre-                                                                        San Francisco, CA: National Council on
quently, DMC programs and initiatives                                                                     Crime and Delinquency.
have neglected to build in an evaluation      12                                                             Devine, P., Coolbaugh, K., and Jenkins, S.
                                                 For example, Pennsylvania’s intervention strategies
component. The Temple evaluation is an        are primarily programmatic in nature. Future DMC            In press. Disproportionate Minority Con-
interactive approach, which means that        national updates may feature different intervention         finement: Lessons Learned From Five
the evaluators work with the programs         strategies employed by other States, such as legislative,   States. Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S.
during the course of the study to identify    administrative, or policy changes in juvenile justice
                                                                                                          Department of Justice, Office of Justice
ongoing problems and to suggest options       system processing.
                                                                                                          Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
                                                                                                          Delinquency Prevention.
                                                                                                             Feyerherm, W. 1993. The Status of the
                                                                                                          States: A Review of State Materials Regard-
                                                                                                          ing Overrepresentation of Minority Youth in
                                                                                                          the Juvenile Justice System. Portland, OR:
                                                                                                          Portland State University.
                                                                                                             Hamparian, D., and Leiber, M. 1997.
                                                                                                          Disproportionate Confinement of Minority
                                                                                                          Juveniles in Secure Facilities: 1996 National
                                                                                                          Report. Champaign, IL: Community Re-
                                                                                                          search Associates, Inc.
                                                                                                              Harris, P., Welsh, W., Jenkins, P., Mullen,
                                                                                                          J., and Becton, E. 1994. Community Assess-
                                                                                                          ments of Harrisburg and Philadelphia’s
                                                                                                          25th Police District. Report #1. Philadelphia,
                                                                                                          PA: Department of Criminal Justice,
                                                                                                          Temple University.



                                                                         9
    Maniglia, R. 1994. Juvenile Justice and        Sickmund, M., Snyder, H.N., and Poe-       National Innovations to Reduce DMC
Delinquency Prevention Profile: Pennsylva-      Yamagata, E. 1997. Juvenile Offenders and     Douglas Dodge, Director
nia Reducing Minority Overrepresentation:       Victims: 1997 Update on Violence. Wash-       Special Emphasis Division
One City at a Time. Vol. 6, no. 3. Champaign,   ington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice,       Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
IL: Community Research Associates, Inc.         Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juve-    Prevention
   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-        nile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.      810 Seventh Street NW.
quency Prevention. 1990. Disproportionate          Snyder, H.N. 1997 (November). Juvenile     Washington, DC 20531
Minority Confinement Technical Assistance       Arrests 1996. Bulletin. Washington, DC:       202–616–3652
Manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Department         U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Jus-    202–307–2819 (Fax)
of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Of-     tice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice     E-Mail: doug@ojp.usdoj.gov
fice of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency        and Delinquency Prevention.                   National DMC Training, Technical
Prevention.                                        Welsh, W., Harris, P., and Jenkins, P.     Assistance, and Information
   Pennsylvania Commission on Crime             1995 (January). Evaluation of Minority        Dissemination
and Delinquency. 1994. Disproportionate         Overrepresentation Programs in Pennsylva-     Gail Olezene, Program Specialist
Minority Confinement Report by the Juve-        nia: Evaluability Assessment and Process      Training and Technical Assistance
nile Advisory Committee’s Minority Con-         Evaluation. Report #2. Philadelphia, PA:       Division
finement Subcommittee. Harrisburg, PA:          Department of Criminal Justice, Temple        Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and            University.                                    Prevention
Delinquency.                                                                                  810 Seventh Street NW.
                                                                                              Washington, DC 20531
   Pennsylvania Commission on Crime             For Further Information                       202–305–9234
and Delinquency. 1996. Disproportionate                                                       202–307–2819 (Fax)
                                                JJDP Formula Grants Program
Minority Confinement Report by the Juve-                                                      E-Mail: olezenec@ojp.usdoj.gov
                                                Heidi Hsia, DMC Coordinator
nile Advisory Committee’s Minority Con-
                                                State Relations and Assistance Division       Directory of JJDP State Contacts
finement Subcommittee. Harrisburg, PA:
                                                Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency    State Relations and Assistance Division
Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and
                                                 Prevention                                   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Delinquency.
                                                810 Seventh Street NW.                         Prevention
   Pennsylvania Commission on Crime             Washington, DC 20531                          810 Seventh Street NW.
and Delinquency. 1997. Disproportionate         202–616–3667                                  Washington, DC 20531
Minority Confinement Report by the Juve-        202–307–2819 (Fax)                            202–307–5924
nile Advisory Committee’s Minority Con-         E-Mail: hsiah@ojp.usdoj.gov                   202–307–2819 (Fax)
finement Subcommittee. Harrisburg, PA:
                                                Evaluation of the DMC Initiative              Pennsylvania DMC Initiatives State
Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and
                                                (Five DMC Pilot States)                       Contract
Delinquency.
                                                Eric Peterson, Social Science Specialist      Mary Ann Rhoads, Delinquency
   Roscoe, M., and Morton, R. 1994              Research and Program Development                Prevention Specialist
(April). Disproportionate Minority Confine-       Division                                    Pennsylvania Commission on Crime
ment. Fact Sheet #11. Washington, DC: U.S.      Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency      and Delinquency
Department of Justice, Office of Justice          Prevention                                  P.O. Box 1167
Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and        810 Seventh Street NW.                        Federal Square
Delinquency Prevention.                         Washington, DC 20531                          Harrisburg, PA 17108–1167
                                                202–616–3648                                  717–787–8559
                                                202–307–2819 (Fax)                            717–783–7713 (Fax)
                                                E-Mail: eric@ojp.usdoj.gov                    E-Mail: rhoads@pccd.state.pa.us




                                                                    10
   This Bulletin was prepared under contract
number OJP–95–C–004 from the Office of                Acknowledgments
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,
U.S. Department of Justice.                           This Bulletin was written by Heidi M. Hsia, Ph.D., State Representative, State
                                                      Relations and Assistance Division, OJJDP, and Donna Hamparian, Contract
   Points of view or opinions expressed in this       Consultant to Community Research Associates.
document are those of the authors and do not
necessarily represent the official position or        OJJDP gratefully acknowledges the efforts of States and local agencies to reduce
policies of OJJDP or the U.S. Department of           disproportionate minority confinement. We thank Reggie Morton of Community
Justice.                                              Research Associates and individual OJJDP staff who reviewed the draft and
                                                      provided valuable input. Also, thanks are due Ruth Williams and Mary Ann Rhoads
     The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-        of the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency and Daniel Elby, chair
 quency Prevention is a component of the Of-          of the Minority Confinement Subcommittee of the Pennsylvania Juvenile Advisory
 fice of Justice Programs, which also includes        Committee, who contributed materials and assistance to ensure an accurate
 the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of      account of Pennsylvania’s DMC efforts.
 Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Jus-
 tice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.

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