• Background
• Cost to Society
• Benefits
•   About 43,000 Americans die in highway crashes every year.

•   18% of all fatalities on freeways are in ―secondary‖ crashes

•   ―Struck by‖ is the leading cause of line of duty deaths for Police Officers

•   ―Struck by‖ is a major cause of line of duty deaths for Fire, EMS, rescue
    responders, and towing and recovery operators

•   Traffic incidents account for about one-quarter of all congestion on U.S.

•   The total cost of traffic congestion to the U.S. economy in lost productivity
    and wasted motor fuel is almost $68 billion—or $1,160 per traveler.
    What is a ―traffic incident‖?
• Definition contained in
  MUTCD Part 6I:

• ―A traffic incident is an
  emergency road user
  occurrence, a natural
  disaster, or other unplanned
  event that affects or impedes
  normal flow of traffic.‖
     What Is an Incident?
              2%     HERO Assists





                   62%              Abandoned
  Effects of an Incident
• For every minute a lane is blocked on
  freeway, four minutes of congestion are

• Approximately 20% of all roadway crashes
  are ―secondary‖ crashes

• 18% of all fatalities on freeways are in
  ―secondary‖ crashes
Impact of Traffic Incidents
• Congestion

• Secondary crashes

• Responder ―struck by‖ incidents

• Clearance time
What are the Types and Causes of
       Traffic Congestion?
• Recurring
   – Operations
   – Capacity
   – Transportation      42%

• Non-Recurring                                             58%

   –   Incidents
   –   Adverse Weather
   –   Work Zones
   –   Special Events          Non- Recurring   Recurring
             Recurring Congestion
  • 58% of the nation‘s roadways today are experiencing significant
    traffic congestion, compared to only 34% in 1982.

  • By 2020, the U.S. DOT says, the average American motorist will
    spend almost 36 hours a year stuck in gridlocked traffic.

  • ―To keep congestion from growing between 1999 and 2000 would
    have required 1,780 new lane-miles of freeway and 2,590 new lane-
    miles of streets...‖ By way of context, constructing one new lane-mile
    of urban freeway, on average, costs about $300 million per lane

  • The annual vehicle miles traveled in the U.S. will increase 5
    percent—from 2.8 TRILLION in 2000 to 4.2 TRILLION in 2020.

       Non-Recurring Congestion
• Non-Recurring                                 9%

   –   Incidents
   –   Weather                           18%

   –   Work Zones                                                46%

   –   Special Events



                                58%    Incidents (Crashes, Disabled Vehicles)
                                       Weather (Snow, Ice, fog)
                                       Work zones
                                       Other (special events)
  Recurring/Non-Recurring Congestion
                         Secondary Crashes
•   The likelihood of a secondary crash increases by
    2.8 percent for each minute the primary incident
    continues to be a hazard.

•   Causes include the dramatic change in traffic
    conditions, including the rapid spreading of queue
    length, and the substantial drop in traffic speed, as
    well as rubbernecking.

•   Secondary crashes due to congestion resulting from
    a previous crash are estimated to represent 20
    percent of all crashes.

•   Incident management programs prevent secondary
    incidents by reducing the duration of traffic
    incidents, and by publicizing the incident using
    changeable message signs and traveler information
                         Struck-by Incidents
•   FIRE: 1995-1999 - (17) Firefighters struck and
     –   89% Increase over previous 5 years (9 Firefighters)

•   FIRE: 2004 - Third leading cause of death

•   POLICE: 1993-2003 – (1,812) police officers
     154 (8.5%) struck by automobiles

•   POLICE: 2004 – (13) Police Officers struck by
    vehicles while outside their vehicles

•   DOT: 1999-2003 - (5,101) Work Zone Deaths
     –   85.7% or 4,374 were motor vehicle occupants
     –   727 were not motor vehicle occupants (pedestrians,
         highway workers, first responders)

                       Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System
                       (FARS), OSHA Website link
           Response Time
• Congestion dramatically increases the
  time it takes responders to arrive, thus
  increasing the duration of the incident and
  the corresponding increase in congestion
  and secondary crashes
                  Steer It. Clear It.
• 2 out of 3
  collisions result
  from congestion
  due to a minor
  accident or
  disabled vehicle

   • Check for injuries
   • Can vehicle be
   • Move vehicle to a
     safe area
       Towing/Recovery Ops
• Prompt notification
• Request proper
• Coordinate with IC
• Timing of Recovery
• Cleaning of
• Standby Services
                Benefits of TIM
• Public Health and Safety     • Reduced Public Safety
  Benefits                       Personnel Requirements

• Reduced Mortality            • Economic Savings

• Reduced Patient Morbidity    • Energy Conservation and
                                 Environmental Benefits
• Increased Responder Safety
                               • Increased Customer
 Public Health and Safety Benefits

• TIM reduces crashes

• TIM reduces secondary crashes

• TIM reduces incident detection,
  verification, dispatch and response time
            Reduced Mortality
• Response time has a well-documented
  relationship to likelihood of crash survival. For
  seriously injured patients, arrival at the hospital
  within the ―golden hour‖ after the crash is
  considered a strong predictor of patient

• By reducing both notification and response
  times, TIM saves lives.
     Reduced Patient Morbidity
• Faster incident detection and response prevents injuries
  and reduces health care costs. Particularly in cases of
  head trauma or internal injury, faster EMS response can
  dramatically improve a crash survivor‘s prognosis and
  reduce the collateral costs to society.

• Traffic crashes injured 2.7 million Americans in 2005.
  Crash survivors often sustain multiple injuries and
  require long hospitalizations.

• Crashes cost society more than $150 billion a year and
  consume a greater share of the nation‘s health care
  costs than any other cause of illness or injury.
  Increased Responder Safety

• Improved on-scene procedures reduce
  struck-by deaths and injuries

• Improved emergency communications
  networks increase responder safety
      Reduced Public Safety Personnel

• Reducing the number
  of crashes and
  clearing them more
  quickly and efficiently
  frees public safety
  personnel resources
  needed for other
               Economic Savings
• By reducing travel delay, fuel consumption, emissions, and
  secondary incidents, TIM programs boost the national and regional

• According to Texas Transportation Institute‘s (TTI‘s) Urban Mobility
  Report 2005, travel time value for each person-hour of travel was
  $13.45 in 2004; for trucks the value was $71.05.

• In 2004, trucks idled due to traffic delay (incident-related and other)
  cost the U.S. trucking industry 243 million hours, and cost $7.8
  billion. The costs of travel delay drive up freight costs, which are
  passed on to consumers through product and commodity price
    Increased Customer Satisfaction
•   TIM increases public satisfaction with government services.

•   Clearing the road after an incident ranked as the top priority among SHA
    functions in a 2006 statewide citizen survey by MDOT, with 98 percent of
    respondents ranking road clearance as ―very important.‖

•   Motorist assistance patrols are very popular with travelers. Tennessee has
    reported that of 1,572 comment cards regarding their HELP service patrol in
    FY 2005, 99.9 percent rated the service ―excellent.‖

•   Washington State DOT reports hundreds of positive comments and letters
    every year, including checks from some pleased motorists who offer to pay
    for the service.

•   ― a guardian angel. He replaced the tire, checked the air, and...within
    15 minutes of the ‗disaster‘ we were on our way home....‖ read one of
    hundreds of letters received each year by Virginia DOT.

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