INTRODUCTION TO TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT TOPICS • Background • Cost to Society • Benefits Background • About 43,000 Americans die in highway crashes every year. • 18% of all fatalities on freeways are in ―secondary‖ crashes • ―Struck by‖ is the leading cause of line of duty deaths for Police Officers • ―Struck by‖ is a major cause of line of duty deaths for Fire, EMS, rescue responders, and towing and recovery operators • Traffic incidents account for about one-quarter of all congestion on U.S. roadways. • The total cost of traffic congestion to the U.S. economy in lost productivity and wasted motor fuel is almost $68 billion—or $1,160 per traveler. What is a ―traffic incident‖? • Definition contained in MUTCD Part 6I: • ―A traffic incident is an emergency road user occurrence, a natural disaster, or other unplanned event that affects or impedes normal flow of traffic.‖ What Is an Incident? 2% HERO Assists 15% 19% 2% Crashes Stall Debris 62% Abandoned Vehicle Other Effects of an Incident • For every minute a lane is blocked on freeway, four minutes of congestion are created • Approximately 20% of all roadway crashes are ―secondary‖ crashes • 18% of all fatalities on freeways are in ―secondary‖ crashes Impact of Traffic Incidents • Congestion • Secondary crashes • Responder ―struck by‖ incidents • Clearance time What are the Types and Causes of Traffic Congestion? • Recurring – Operations – Capacity – Transportation 42% Choices • Non-Recurring 58% – Incidents – Adverse Weather – Work Zones – Special Events Non- Recurring Recurring Recurring Congestion • 58% of the nation‘s roadways today are experiencing significant traffic congestion, compared to only 34% in 1982. • By 2020, the U.S. DOT says, the average American motorist will spend almost 36 hours a year stuck in gridlocked traffic. • ―To keep congestion from growing between 1999 and 2000 would have required 1,780 new lane-miles of freeway and 2,590 new lane- miles of streets...‖ By way of context, constructing one new lane-mile of urban freeway, on average, costs about $300 million per lane mile. • The annual vehicle miles traveled in the U.S. will increase 5 percent—from 2.8 TRILLION in 2000 to 4.2 TRILLION in 2020. AMERICAN ROAD & TRANSPORTATION BUILDERS ASSOCIATION Non-Recurring Congestion • Non-Recurring 9% – Incidents – Weather 18% – Work Zones 46% – Special Events 27% 42% 58% Incidents (Crashes, Disabled Vehicles) Weather (Snow, Ice, fog) Work zones Other (special events) Recurring/Non-Recurring Congestion Secondary Crashes • The likelihood of a secondary crash increases by 2.8 percent for each minute the primary incident continues to be a hazard. • Causes include the dramatic change in traffic conditions, including the rapid spreading of queue length, and the substantial drop in traffic speed, as well as rubbernecking. • Secondary crashes due to congestion resulting from a previous crash are estimated to represent 20 percent of all crashes. • Incident management programs prevent secondary incidents by reducing the duration of traffic incidents, and by publicizing the incident using changeable message signs and traveler information systems. Struck-by Incidents • FIRE: 1995-1999 - (17) Firefighters struck and killed – 89% Increase over previous 5 years (9 Firefighters) • FIRE: 2004 - Third leading cause of death • POLICE: 1993-2003 – (1,812) police officers killed 154 (8.5%) struck by automobiles • POLICE: 2004 – (13) Police Officers struck by vehicles while outside their vehicles • DOT: 1999-2003 - (5,101) Work Zone Deaths – 85.7% or 4,374 were motor vehicle occupants – 727 were not motor vehicle occupants (pedestrians, highway workers, first responders) Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), OSHA Website link Response Time • Congestion dramatically increases the time it takes responders to arrive, thus increasing the duration of the incident and the corresponding increase in congestion and secondary crashes Steer It. Clear It. • 2 out of 3 Expressway collisions result from congestion due to a minor accident or disabled vehicle • Check for injuries • Can vehicle be moved? • Move vehicle to a safe area Towing/Recovery Ops • Prompt notification • Request proper resources • Coordinate with IC • Timing of Recovery • Cleaning of Roadway • Standby Services Benefits of TIM • Public Health and Safety • Reduced Public Safety Benefits Personnel Requirements • Reduced Mortality • Economic Savings • Reduced Patient Morbidity • Energy Conservation and Environmental Benefits • Increased Responder Safety • Increased Customer Satisfaction Public Health and Safety Benefits • TIM reduces crashes • TIM reduces secondary crashes • TIM reduces incident detection, verification, dispatch and response time Reduced Mortality • Response time has a well-documented relationship to likelihood of crash survival. For seriously injured patients, arrival at the hospital within the ―golden hour‖ after the crash is considered a strong predictor of patient outcome. • By reducing both notification and response times, TIM saves lives. Reduced Patient Morbidity • Faster incident detection and response prevents injuries and reduces health care costs. Particularly in cases of head trauma or internal injury, faster EMS response can dramatically improve a crash survivor‘s prognosis and reduce the collateral costs to society. • Traffic crashes injured 2.7 million Americans in 2005. Crash survivors often sustain multiple injuries and require long hospitalizations. • Crashes cost society more than $150 billion a year and consume a greater share of the nation‘s health care costs than any other cause of illness or injury. Increased Responder Safety • Improved on-scene procedures reduce struck-by deaths and injuries • Improved emergency communications networks increase responder safety Reduced Public Safety Personnel Requirements • Reducing the number of crashes and clearing them more quickly and efficiently frees public safety personnel resources needed for other duties. Economic Savings • By reducing travel delay, fuel consumption, emissions, and secondary incidents, TIM programs boost the national and regional economy. • According to Texas Transportation Institute‘s (TTI‘s) Urban Mobility Report 2005, travel time value for each person-hour of travel was $13.45 in 2004; for trucks the value was $71.05. • In 2004, trucks idled due to traffic delay (incident-related and other) cost the U.S. trucking industry 243 million hours, and cost $7.8 billion. The costs of travel delay drive up freight costs, which are passed on to consumers through product and commodity price increases. Increased Customer Satisfaction • TIM increases public satisfaction with government services. • Clearing the road after an incident ranked as the top priority among SHA functions in a 2006 statewide citizen survey by MDOT, with 98 percent of respondents ranking road clearance as ―very important.‖ • Motorist assistance patrols are very popular with travelers. Tennessee has reported that of 1,572 comment cards regarding their HELP service patrol in FY 2005, 99.9 percent rated the service ―excellent.‖ • Washington State DOT reports hundreds of positive comments and letters every year, including checks from some pleased motorists who offer to pay for the service. • ―...like a guardian angel. He replaced the tire, checked the air, and...within 15 minutes of the ‗disaster‘ we were on our way home....‖ read one of hundreds of letters received each year by Virginia DOT.
Pages to are hidden for
"INTRODUCTION TO TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT"Please download to view full document