Elementary English Composition by fqy94797

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									Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




Elementary English Composition
                    For Natural Science Majors




                                Topics

           1. Nuclear Power Generation

           2. Virtual Reality

                    3. Skyscrapers

                    4. Recycling

              5. Hybrid Vehicles

      6. Biofuel and Food Shortage

      7. Genetically Modified Organism

  8. Human Genetic Engineering

                      9. Cloning




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            Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




1. Nuclear Power Generation



Nuclear power generation is a type of nuclear technology involving the controlled
use of nuclear fission to release energy for work including propulsion, heat, and
the generation of electricity.

Critics claim that nuclear power is an uneconomic and potentially dangerous
energy source with a limited fuel supply compared to renewable energy, and
dispute whether the costs and risks can be reduced through new technology.
Critics also point to the problem of storing radioactive waste, the potential for
possibly severe radioactive contamination by accident or sabotage, the possibility
of nuclear proliferation and the disadvantages of centralized electrical production.

Proponents of nuclear energy claim that nuclear power is a sustainable energy
source that reduces carbon emissions and increases energy security by
decreasing dependence on foreign oil. Proponents also claim that the risks of
storing waste are small and can be further reduced by the technology in the new
reactors and the operational safety record is already good when compared to the
other major kinds of power plants. Many go on to argue that renewables are
limited to a minority share of energy production because they are intermittent
power sources and have questionable economics themselves as well as
demanding too much money for development.

(edited from Wikipedia)




Discussion:
Do you agree or disagree on further nuclear power plant development?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about nuclear power generation in about 200 words.




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            Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




2. Virtual Reality


Virtual reality is a technology which allows a user to interact                               with   a
computer-simulated environment, be it a real or imagined one.

Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences,
displayed either on a computer screen or through special or stereoscopic displays,
but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound
through speakers or headphones. Some advanced, haptic systems now include
tactile information, generally known as force feedback, in medical and gaming
applications. Users can interact with a virtual environment or a virtual artifact
(VA) either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and
mouse, or through multimodal devices such as a wired glove, the Polhemus
boom arm, and omnidirectional treadmill.

The simulated environment can be similar to the real world, for example,
simulations for pilot or combat training, or it can differ significantly from reality,
as in VR games.

In practice, it is currently very difficult to create a high-fidelity virtual reality
experience, due largely to technical limitations on processing power, image
resolution and     communication          bandwidth. However,             those     limitations are
expected   to   eventually       be    overcome        as   processor,       imaging        and   data
communication technologies become more powerful and cost-effective over time.

(edited from Wikipedia)




Discussion:
Is there any negative impact of virtual reality on our life ?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about virtual reality in about 200 words.




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             Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




3. Skyscrapers


A skyscraper is a very tall, continuously habitable building. There is no official
definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be
classified as a skyscraper. However, as per usual practice in most cities, the
definition is used empirically, depending on the relative impact of the shape of a
building to a city's overall skyline. Thus, depending on the average height of the
rest of the buildings and/ or structures in a city, even a building of 80 meters
height may be considered a skyscraper provided that it clearly stands out above
its surrounding built environment and significantly changes the overall skyline of
that particular city.

A loose convention in the United States now draws the lower limit of a
"skyscraper" at 150 meters. A skyscraper taller than 300 meters (100 stories)
may be referred to as supertall. Shorter buildings are still sometimes referred to
as skyscrapers if they appear to dominate their surroundings.

The word skyscraper often carries a connotation of pride and achievement. The
skyscraper, in name and social function, is a modern expression of the age-old
symbol of the world center or axis mundi: a pillar that connects earth to heaven
and the four compass directions to one another.

(edited from Wikipedia)




Discussion:
Would you like to live in a skyscrapers, say, on the 100th floor?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about skyscrapers in about 200 words.




                                                  4
           Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




4. Recycling


Recycling is the reprocessing of materials into new products. Recycling generally
prevents the waste of potentially useful materials, reduces the consumption of
raw materials and reduces energy usage, and hence greenhouse gas emissions,
compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key concept of modern waste
management and is the third component of the waste hierarchy.

All recycling techniques, however, consume energy for transportation and
processing and some also use considerable amounts of water. There may also be
drawbacks with the collection methods associated with recycling. Increasing
collections of separated wastes adds to vehicle movements and the production of
carbon dioxide.

Recycled materials also sometimes cost more financially than their non-recycled
versions. For some materials, recycling is more expensive than landfill disposal
unless externalities are considered. Some argue that the financial costs of
recycling some materials outweigh the environmental benefits.

According to an article in The New York Times by John Tierney, government
mandated recycling wastes more resources than it saves. In cases where
recycling truly does save resources, such as with large scraps of aluminum, this
will be reflected in market prices, and voluntary recycling will take place. Thus,
there is no need for the government to mandate it.

(edited from Wikipedia)




Discussion:
Do you think recycling is the best solution for the environment?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about recycling in about 200 words.




                                                5
            Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




5. Hybrid Vehicle


Hybrid vehicle most commonly refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which
includes internal combustion engines and electric motors.

HEVs typically charge on their batteries by capturing kinetic energy via
regenerative braking, and some HEVs can use the combustion engine to
generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator to either recharge the
battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle.

Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting
it when needed, which. realises greater fuel economy and also reduces air
pollution and carbon emissions generated per kilometer traveled. It may be
particularly significant in urban environments due to elimination of idle-at-rest.

Reduced noise emissions resulting from substantial use of the electric motor at
idling and low speeds is also a benefit. Note, however, that this is not always an
advantage; for example, people who are blind or visually-impaired, and who rely
on vehicle-noise while crossing streets, find it more difficult to do safely.

HEVs became widely available to the public in the 1990s with the introduction of
the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius. HEVs are viewed by some automakers as a
core segment of the next future automotive market                  (edited from Wikipedia)




Discussion:
Would you like to drive a hybrid vehicles or would you prefer something else?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about hybrid vehicles in about 200 words.




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            Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




6. Biofuel and Food Shortage


Due to rising demand for biofuels, farmers worldwide have an increased
economic incentive to grow crops for biofuel production instead of food
production. Without political intervention, this could lead to reduced food
production and increased food prices and inflation. The impacts of this would be
greatest on poorer countries or countries that rely on imported food for their
subsistence.

Food surpluses exist in many developed countries. For example, the UK wheat
surplus was around 2 million tons in 2005. This surplus alone could produce
sufficient bioethanol to replace around 2.5% of the UK's petroleum consumption.
However, above a few percent, there would be direct competition between
biofuel production and food production.

Supporters of biofuels claim that we should increase political and industrial
support for second generation biofuel implementation from non food crops.

Second generation biofuel production processes use non food crops including the
stalks of wheat and corn, wood, biomass crops such as grass and waste biomass.
It is important to note that carbon in waste biomass is used by other organisms,
e.g. it is broken down in the soil to produce nutrients, and provides a habitat for
wildlife. The large scale use of such "waste" biomass by humans might threaten
these habitats and organisms.

(edited from Wikipedia)




Discussion:
Do you agree or disagree on biofuel production?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about biofuel in about 200 words.




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            Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




7. Genetically Modified Organism


A genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism
(GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using the genetic
engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology. With
recombinant DNA technology, DNA molecules from different                               sources are
combined in vitro into one molecule to create a new gene. This modified DNA is
then transferred into an organism causing the expression of modified or novel
traits.

Transgenic plants have been developed for various purposes: resistance to pests,
herbicides or harsh environmental conditions; improved shelf-life; increased
nutritional value - and many more.

There have been disputes over the advantages and disadvantages of genetically
modified food crops. No major health hazards have come to light since GMO food
was introduced in 1973, and close to 150 governmental and/or industry-financed
studies, and at least 47 peer reviewed articles in scientific journals have been
published to attest their safety. Consumer rights groups, however, emphasize
the long term health risks which GMO could pose, or that the risks of GMO have
not yet been adequately investigated.

There are also concerns over crosspollination and losses of biodiversity.

   edited from Wikipedia




Discussion:
Do you agree or disagree on GMO production?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about GMO in about 200 words.




                                                 8
              Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




8. Human Genetic Engineering


Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individual's cells and tissues to
treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is
replaced with a functional one.

Individuals may also benefit from non-therapeutic genetic engineering, but some
claim that there may be adverse social implications.

Numerous enhancements via genetic engineering have been proposed, including
increased memory, intelligence, altered physical appearance. The advantages
created by genetic engineering could lead to new forms of inequality between
those with genetic enhancements and those without. Few medical resources are
available to everyone, and it might allow a privilege to the genetic engineer
themselves or their children, and to those who can afford the cost.

•     Some other debates include:
      Do we have such right to choose to make changes to our children if the
      changes we chose are carried to the germline?

•     If gene therapy can ever prevent aging, how long our lifespan should be?

•     If a person's genetics are drastically altered, are they still the same person?

•     Could our choice always be better than that of natural genes and the
      environment do in shaping the phenotypical characteristics of living things?

    (edited from Wikipedia)




Discussion:
How do you think we should control human genetic engineering?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about human genetic engineering in about 200 words.




                                                   9
             Elementary English Composition for Natural Science Majors (General Education)




9. Cloning


Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of something. In biology, it
collectively refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments
(molecular    cloning),     cells    (cell   cloning),      or   organisms.        The       term   also
encompasses situations whereby organisms reproduce asexually.

Although the practice of cloning organisms has been widespread for several
thousands of years in the form of horticultural cloning, the recent technological
advancements that have allowed for cloning of animals (and potentially humans)
have been highly controversial. Some believe it is unethical to use a human clone
to save the life of another. Others have countered that people who exist today
and   have    interpersonal      relationships        and   personal      histories      should     take
precedence over never-conscious life at any stage of developmental maturity.

The Catholic Church and various traditionalist religious groups oppose all forms
of cloning, on the grounds that life begins at conception. Conversely, Judaism
does not equate life with conception and, though some question the wisdom of
cloning, Orthodox rabbis generally find no firm reason in Jewish law and ethics to
object to cloning.

From the standpoint of classical liberalism, concerns also exist regarding the
protection of the identity of the individual and the right to protect one's genetic
identity.   (edited from Wikipedia)




Discussion:
Do you agree or disagree on cloning?

Assignment:
Write your own opinion about cloning in about 200 words.




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