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Correctional Populations in the United States 1994 - July 1996

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									U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs




  Bureau of Justice Statistics


Correctional Populations
in the United States, 1994
                5.1 million adults in the United States were under correctional
                supervision in 1994

                    992,000              in jail   in prison
                    484,000              in jail
                  2,964,000                        in prison                      on probation

                    690,000                   on parole


                1.5 million in local jail or prison
                  1,370,000                               Male
                    106,000       Female
                    722,000                   White
                    731,000                    Black



                3.7 million on probation or parole

                  2,998,000                                                       Male
                    656,000                  Female
                  2,330,000                                          White
                  1,283,000                               Black
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics




Correctional Populations
in the United States, 1994


By Jodi M. Brown, Darrell K. Gilliard, Tracy L. Snell,
James J. Stephan, and Doris James Wilson
BJS Statisticians



June 1996, NCJ 160091
                                                                                      Contents


U.S. Department of Justice                               Introduction                       1
Office of Justice Programs
                                                         Jail inmates in 1994               23
Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D.
Director                                                 Probation in 1994                  31

This volume resulted from a collaborative                U.S. military corrections, 1994    51
effort managed by Allen J. Beck, Chief,
Corrections Statistics. Jodi M. Brown up-                Prisoners in 1994                  65
dated the correctional population trends
section. Darrell K. Gilliard prepared the                Parole in 1994                    105
section on jail inmates. Jodi M. Brown,
assisted by Darrell K. Gilliard and Coliece              Capital punishment in 1994        123
R. Rice, collected the data and prepared
the tables for probation and parole sec-                 Index                             181
tions. James J. Stephan, assisted by
Craig Perkins, prepared the section on
military corrections. Tracy L. Snell pre-
pared the section on capital punishment.
Doris James Wilson prepared the section
on prisoners. Thomas Hester and Ida
Hines edited this volume. Marilyn
Marbrook supervised production.
Pamela Butler, Martha Greene, Henrietta
Herrin, and Lisa McNelis of the Govern-
ments Division of the U.S. Bureau of the
Census collected and collated the data on
jails and jail inmates under the supervision
of Alan Stevens.
Jeanne C. Benetti, Patricia A. Clark, and
Marita K. Perez of the Crime Surveys
Branch, Demographic Surveys Division of
the U.S. Bureau of the Census collected,
processed, and tabulated the data on pris-
oners and capital punishment under the
supervision of Gertrude B. Odom and
Kathleen P. Creighton. Christopher
Alaura of the Crime Surveys Programming
Branch provided programming assistance
while supervised by Stephen T. Phillips.

 This report and its data are available
 on the Internet:
 http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
 The National Archive of Criminal Justice
 Data also offers the data for jails and
 capital punishment:
 http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/
 home.html


ii Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Highlights


An estimated 5.1 million adults were            grew by more than 1.8 million, an average            Parole
under some form of correctional supervi-        of 7.2% annually.
sion in 1994. Nearly three-quarters of                                                               An estimated 690,000 adults were on pa-
these people were on probation or parole.       Prisons                                              role at yearend 1994, an increase of 2.1%
About 2.7% of the U.S. adult resident                                                                from 1993. Nine of every ten parolees
population were under correctional care         An estimated 992,000 men and women                   were men. An estimated 53% of persons
or supervision in 1994, up from 1.1%            were in the custody of State and Federal             on parole were white; 46%, black; and
in 1980.                                        prisons at yearend 1994. About 94% of all            1%, of other races.
                                                prisoners were men; 47% were white, and
Jails                                           51%, black.                                          About half of all entries to parole were
                                                                                                     based on a parole board decision. Half of
Local jails are facilities that hold inmates    Two-thirds of sentenced prisoners enter-             all exits from parole were categorized as
beyond arraignment, usually for more than       ing prison in 1994 were new court commit-            successful completions. Most of the re-
48 hours but less than a year. Local jails      ments, and nearly a third were parole or             mainder were returned to incarceration,
are administered by city or county officials.   other conditional release violators. Among           but only a tenth of parolees were returned
                                                persons released from prison in 1994,                to incarceration with a new sentence.
Local jails held an estimated 484,000           77% were placed on probation, parole, or
adults, or about 1 in every 398 adult U.S.      some other type of conditional release.              While the parole population increased by
residents, on June 30, 1994. Men made                                                                only 2% during the year, the average an-
up 90% of adult jail inmates. White             The number of prisoners rose by 9%                   nual rate of increase from 1980 to 1994
non-Hispanic inmates accounted for 39%          during 1994, the equivalent of 82,200 in-            was 8.5%, more than that of any other
of the total jail population; black non-        mates. This brought the total increase in            correctional population. The number of
Hispanics, 44%; and Hispanics, 15%.             prisoners between 1980 and 1994 to                   adults on parole tripled during the 14-year
                                                672,014, which translates to an average              period (from 220,438).
The total number of adults in jail increased    growth rate of 8.4% each year.
by an estimated 28,200 inmates during
the year ending June 30, 1994, or 6.2%.
                                                 Adults on probation, in jail or prison, or on parole, 1980-94
The overall increase of 300,800 adult in-
mates between 1980 and 1994 represents           Number of adults
an average annual increase of 7.2%.               3,000,000

Probation
                                                  2,500,000
Nearly 3 million adults were on                                                        Probation
probation on December 31, 1994.
Probationers made up 58% of all adults            2,000,000
under correctional supervision in 1994.

Approximately 20% of the probationers             1,500,000
were women, a larger proportion than for
any other correctional population. About
                                                  1,000,000
66% of adults on probation were white,
and 32%, black. Six in ten persons dis-
charged from probation had successfully                                                Prison
                                                   500,000
completed their sentences.                                                             Parole

                                                                                       Jail
The number of adults on probation in the                  0
United States increased by 61,100 (2.1%)                  1980       1982       1984          1986       1988       1990      1992        1994
between yearend 1993 and 1994. From
1980 to 1994 the probation population



                                                                                                                                     Highlights iii
Capital punishment
                                                         Incarceration rates
During 1994, 306 inmates were received
                                                         Adults in local jail or in State or Federal prison, 1994
under sentence of death by State and
Federal prisons, and 112 had their death                 Percent of adult U.S. population for each group
sentences removed by means other than                    4%
execution. State and Federal prisons held
a total of 2,890 prisoners under sentence                                                                           3.31%
of death on December 31, 1994.
                                                         3%
An estimated 57% of those under sen-
tence of death at yearend were white and
41% were black. Half of the inmates had
been under sentence of death for at least                2%
6 years.                                                                       1.48%

Thirteen States executed 31 male prison-
ers during 1994. The total number of pris-               1%      .77%
oners executed under civil authority in the                                                                .44%
United States from 1977 to 1994 was 257.
                                                                                             .11%
                                                         0%
                                                                All adults      Male        Female         White    Black

                                                     Adults in jail, on probation, in prison, or on parole, 1994

                                                     Percent of adult U.S. population for each group
                                                     10%
                                                                                                                     9.12%


                                                         8%



                                                         6%

                                                                               4.74%

                                                         4%

                                                                   2.67%
                                                                                                            1.88%
                                                         2%
                                                                                              .76%

                                                         0%
                                                               All adults      Male         Female         White    Black




iv Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Summary of U.S. military confinement, December 31, 1994                                                    The Army, Marine Corps, and Navy oper-
                       Number of prisoners
                                                                                                           ated a total of 33 confinement facilities, as
                    Branch of    Branch of                                                                 of December 31, 1994. These included
                    service      service to                                    Percent of                  11 local and 10 regional facilities, 1 long-
                    holding      which prison-    Number of         Design     capacity
                    prisoners    ers belonged     facilities        capacity   occupied                    term facility inside the continental United
    All services     2,782           2,782           33             5,910         47%                      States, and 11 facilities outside the conti-
Air Force              --              453            --              --          --                       nental U.S. The number of Air Force fa-
Army                 1,779           1,311           12             3,358         53
                                                                                                           cilities was not reported.
Marine Corps           405             485             5            1,180         34
Navy                   598             526           16             1,372         44
Coast Guard             ...              7           ...              ...          ...                     The Navy maintained 16 facilities, and the
--Data for Air Force confinement facilities were not reported.                                             Marine Corps, 5. The Army operated 12
...Not applicable. The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities.
                                                                                                           facilities, including the U.S. Disciplinary
                                                                                                           Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,
Military confinement                                       About 89% of prisoners held by the Army,        which is the only U.S. military confinement
                                                           Marine Corps, and Navy at yearend 1994          facility holding prisoners with sentences
In 1994 the U.S. Department of Defense                     were convicted inmates; and 11% were            of more than 5 years.
Correctional Council established an an-                    unconvicted persons whose cases had
nual military confinement report. The                      not been tried.                                 The design capacity of the 33 U.S. military
council, comprised of representatives from
                                                                                                           confinement facilities totalled 5,910. At
each branch of military service adopted a                  A third of convicted military prisoners were    yearend 1994, these facilities were operat-
standardized questionnaire and a common                    confined for rape (17%), or sexual assault      ing at 47% of their design capacity.
set of definitions. With the Correctional                  offenses (15%); and nearly a fifth (19%)
Council, the Bureau of Justice Statistics                  were confined for military infractions, such
has produced a series of tables, which                     as desertion, AWOL, insubordination, or
provide a unified profile of persons in the                failure to obey a lawful order.
custody of U.S. military authorities.
                                                           Prisoners convicted of murder or nonnegli-
On December 31, 1994, the Army, Marine                     gent manslaughter accounted for 11%, as
Corps, and Navy held a total of 2,782 pris-                did those convicted of larceny/theft. Drug
oners in 33 facilities, including 324 per-                 law violators made up 9%, and assaulters,
sons in pretrial detention and 2,458 in                    8%. Each of the remaining categories of
post trial confinement. The Coast Guard                    offenders accounted for 3% or less.
did not operate confinement facilities.
Prisoner data from the Air Force were not                  Approximately 90% of the 3,657 admis-
reported; however, a total of 453 Air                      sions to military confinement during 1994
Force personnel were held by other                         were new commitments from a military
branches of service. Slightly less than half               court. The remainder were transfers from
of military prisoners reported at yearend                  other military confinement, and parolees
1994 (47%) belonged to the Army. The re-                   and escapees returned.
mainder were nearly equally divided
among members of the Navy (19%), the                       More than three-fifths of the 5,181 per-
Marine Corps (17%), and the Air Force                      sons released from military confinement in
(16%). Less than 1% belonged to the                        1994 were released through expiration of
Coast Guard.                                               sentence or other form of unconditional
                                                           release. About a fifth left on parole or
Approximately 98% of military detainees                    other conditional release, and nearly a fifth
were men and 2% were women. Half                           were transferred, either within the same
were non-Hispanic whites; 39%, non-                        confinement branch or to another branch
Hispanic blacks; 7%, Hispanics; and 4%,                    of service.
other races.



                                                                                                                                           Highlights v
                                                                Important note

                Correctional Populations in the United States          To make comparisons across years or between
                presents numbers that describe persons under           jurisdictions
                some form of correctional supervision. In this
                compilation the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)     BJS makes every effort to report numbers that are
                seeks to help users by                                consistent in interpretation with those of the past
                                                                       and between separate jurisdictions in the present.
                     making readily apparent the links between         Data collection rules and reporting protocols that fit
                   different correctional institutions or methods in   historical statistics and that impose the least burden
                   each State                                          on respondents are used.
                     suggesting the similarities and differences
                   between States and regions as our system of         Some jurisdictions depart from the reporting
                   criminal justice responds to both common and        conventions, and some categories for counting
                   disparate needs                                     have shifted over the years. Users who try to draw
                                                                       conclusions from such numbers by comparing
                    permitting comparisons, however limited they
                   must be, with previous years' statistics.           years or jurisdictions must take into account special
                                                                       circumstances and changes. Footnotes, table
                Helping readers find a single number                   notes, explanatory notes, and other material
                                                                       highlighting the tables must be consulted for a
                Through an index at the end of the volume,             full understanding of the data.
                readers can find all topics treated in the tables.
                The index numbers refer to the tables.                 The following symbols are used in the tables:

                Footnotes give extra information about how to                     / not reported
                interpret the numbers in the tables.
                                                                                  : not known
                Category definitions are available in three places:
                the explanatory notes in the appendices of                       ... not applicable
                sections, the questionnaires also in the
                appendices, and the definitions of common
                terms in the Introduction on page 3.




vi Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
                                                                                                                    Introduction


Introduction                                     1.9   Estimated number of sentenced             1.20 Percent of sentenced prisoners
                                                       prisoners under State or Federal               admitted to State prisons, by the
History of U.S. corrections statistics       2         jurisdiction per 100,000 residents             most serious offense, 1980,
Definitions of common terms                            in each group, by sex and race,                1985, 1990-93                     19
  used in the tables                         3         1980-94                               9
Data sources                                 4                                                   1.21 Number of offenders sentenced
                                                 1.10 Number of Hispanic prisoners                    to Federal prison in U.S. district
Tables                                                under State or Federal                          court, by the most serious offense,
                                                      jurisdiction, 1980-94                  9        1980, 1985, 1990-94                20
1.1   Number of adults on probation,
      in jail, in prison, or on                  1.11 Estimated number of prisoners              1.22 Percent of offenders sentenced
      parole, 1980-94                        5        in custody of State correctional                to Federal prison in U.S. district
                                                      authorities, by the most serious                court, by the most serious offense,
1.2   Estimated number of adults on                   offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-94          10        1980, 1985, 1990-94                21
      probation, in jail, in prison, or on
      parole and their percent of the            1.12 Estimated percent of prisoners             Explanatory notes                         22
      adult population, by sex and                    in custody of State correctional
      race, 1994                             5        authorities, by the most serious           Technical note                            22
                                                      offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-94          11
1.3   Estimated number of adults                                                                 Figures
      under correctional supervision,            1.13 Number of sentenced inmates
      by sex and race, 1985-94               6        in Federal prisons, by the most            1.   Percent of U.S. adult population
                                                      serious offense, 1980, 1985,                    in State or Federal prisons or local
1.4   Percent of adults under                         1990-94                               12        jails, by race and sex, 1984-94      8
      correctional supervision,
      by sex and race, 1985-94               6   1.14 Percent of sentenced inmates               2.   Number of prisoners in custody
                                                      in Federal prisons, by the most                 of State correctional authorities,
1.5   Number of adults in custody                     serious offense, 1980, 1985,                    by offense, 1980-94                  10
      of State or Federal prisons or                  1990-94                               13
      local jails, 1980, 1985, 1990-94       7                                                   3.   New court commitments of
                                                 1.15 Number of new court commitments                 State prisoners, by race, 1980-93 14
1.6   Estimated number of adults held                 to State and Federal prison, by
      in State or Federal prisons or                  race, 1980-94                   14         4.   New court commitments of
      local jails, by sex and race,                                                                   Federal prisoners, by race,
      1985-94                                7   1.16 Percent of new court commitments                1980-94                              15
                                                      to State and Federal prison, by
1.7   Number of adults held in State                  race, 1980-94                   15         5.   Percent of sentenced prisoners
      or Federal prisons or local jails,                                                              admitted to State prisons,
      per 100,000 adult residents                1.17 Number of new court commitments                 by offense type, 1980-93             19
      in each group, by sex and race,                 to State and Federal prison, by
      1980-94                                7        sex, 1980-94                    16

1.8   Number of sentenced prisoners              1.18 Percent of new court commitments
      under State or Federal                          to State and Federal prison, by
      jurisdiction, by sex and race,                  sex, 1980-94                    17
      1980-94                                8
                                                 1.19 Estimated number of sentenced
                                                      prisoners admitted to State
                                                      prisons, by the most serious
                                                      offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-93  18



                                                                                                                           Introduction 1
History of U.S. corrections statistics          All the major reporting series and projects   1974. LEAA, with the Bureau of the
                                                of the corrections unit, Bureau of Justice    Census, surveyed a national random
In 1850 the Federal Government, in              Statistics, are outlined under "Data          sample of inmates in State prisons. The
cooperation with the States as a part of        sources" below. The Bureau of the             survey, repeated in 1979, 1986, and 1991,
the Seventh Decennial Census, initiated a       Census serves as the data collections         collected information on personal
count of prisoners in 32 States and in the      agency for most of these series. The          background and criminal history and
territories of Minnesota, New Mexico,           following chronology sketches the evolu-      inquired about drug and alcohol usage.
Oregon, and Utah. Between 1850 and              tion of the statistical reports grouped in
1870, U.S. marshals administered the            this volume.                                  1976. The NCCD and LEAA annual
census of prisoners as part of a special                                                      reports covered parole data beginning in
schedule of social statistics. The 1880         1904. Prisoners and Juvenile Delinquents,     1976.
report indicated there were 61 prisoners in     1904 reported movements rather than
State institutions per 100,000 residents.       individuals. Prison officials served as       1978. The Bureau of the Census counted
By 1890 Nevada had the highest per              enumerators.                                  prisoners in U.S. jails; Census repeated
capital rate among the States, 203, and                                                       the complete enumeration in 1983, 1988,
Wyoming had the lowest, 16. In that             1924. Prisoners, 1923 presented adults        and 1993.
same year New York had 136 prisoners            separate from juveniles.
per 100,000 residents, and California had                                                     1979. The first annual report on parole
169.                                            1926. Prisoners in State and Federal          and probation appeared, published by
                                                Prisons and Reformatories began as an         BJS.
In 1926 the Bureau of the Census began          annual report that continued until 1946.
the annual collection of prisoner statistics,   The report included a special section on      1982. The Bureau of the Census
and the report for that year described the      prisoners under sentence of death. From       completed the first annual jail sample
goal of the effort as the collection of data    1946 to 1970 the Bureau of Prisons            survey for BJS. Bulletins containing data
to "show the application of penal policies      published the annual figures. The LEAA        from the sample survey are supple-
for various classes of offenders and in         followed for 9 years until BJS was created    mented by the corrections volume
different parts of the country." That first     in 1980. (The Bureau of Census has
annual report in 1926 provided information      acted as collecting agent since 1972.)        1983. The National Prisoner Statistics
by jurisdiction on admissions, releases,                                                      program on admissions and releases
sentences and time served, inmates under        1947. The Bureau of Prisons began the         (NPS) and the Uniform Parole Reports
sentence of death, recidivism, and              separate annual reports on prisoners          (UPR) were combined into one reporting
crowding  issues of major concern              under sentence of death. LEAA and then        system, the National Corrections
today.                                          BJS continued the reports until 1984.         Reporting Program (NCRP). Each year
                                                BJS will continue to publish annual           NCRP collects individual-level data on
In 1950 the corrections program was             bulletins about the death penalty and         persons admitted to prison, released from
transferred from the Bureau of the Census       persons sentenced to death; the more          prison, and released from parole.
to the Bureau of Prisons (BOP) in the           detailed statistics appear in the
Department of Justice and in 1971 to the        corrections volume.                           1985. BJS published the first Correctional
agency predecessor of the Bureau of                                                           Populations in the United States. The
Justice Statistics (BJS), the National          1965. The National Council on Crime and       report consolidated data collected
Criminal Justice Information and Statistics     Delinquency (NCCD), a nongovernmental         annually from Federal, State, and local
Service of the Law Enforcement                  organization, started the Uniform Parole      correctional agencies. The report
Assistance Administration (LEAA). LEAA          Reports project under Federal contract.       contained a chapter highlighting a special
added the statistical series on local jails                                                   collection completed during the year.
(1970), probation (1979), and parole            1970. LEAA conducted its first 1-day
(1976).                                         count of jails.




 2 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Definitions of common terms used in            maximum sentence is used where                  between facilities does not count as a
tables                                         applicable.                                     movement.

                                               Military justice terms                        Most serious offense. The offense with
Custody. To have custody of a prisoner, a
State must hold that person in one of its      General court-martial is the highest mili-      the longest term of incarceration imposed.
facilities. Early statistical reports gave     tary court for judging the most serious of-
                                               fenses. A military judge presides. This         New court commitments. Inmates who
custody counts that largely have been                                                          were admitted to prison directly from a
replaced by jurisdiction counts of State       court includes members (jurors) at the
                                               election of the accused, except when the        court with all new sentences. This
prison populations. A State may have                                                           category includes probation violators
custody of a prisoner over whom another        court must have members for imposition
                                               of the death penalty. If an enlisted person     entering prison for the first time on the
State maintains jurisdiction. The tables                                                       probated offenses. Parole violators are
present both kinds of counting proce-          is accused, in the absence of exigent cir-
                                               cumstances at least a third of the court        excluded from this category.
dures, with jurisdiction counts being more
complete; States that report only on           must be enlisted members who are not            One-day count. For a 1-day count a
custody are noted.                             lower ranking than the accused. A gen-          jurisdiction or facility is asked to report
                                               eral court-martial may be used to try any       how many people were on its roll on a
Detention status. This term distinguish-       person subject to the Uniform Code of           certain day. The average daily population
es between prisoners, usually in jail, who     Military Justice.                               is a year's total number of people on the
were convicted or who were awaiting                                                            roll each day, divided by the number of
judgment.                                      Special court-martial is used for judging
                                               offenses less serious than those in a gen-      days. The methods of counting in
Discretionary parole. A release from           eral court-martial. A military judge pre-       aggregate do not yield estimates of either
prison to supervision is discretionary when    sides. A special court-martial may not          the number of persons in a status during
it is decided by a board or other authority.   impose the following: the death penalty,        the year or the average amount of time
                                               a dishonorable discharge, dismissal of an       persons remain in a status.
Hispanic origin. A person of Hispanic          officer, confinement in excess of 6
origin may be of any race; however, a few                                                      Race. Classification by race often
                                               months, hard labor without confinement          depends on the reporting program and the
States treat the ethnic category as a racial   for more than 3 months, forfeiture of pay
one. Reporting officials usually rely on                                                       State. A few States reported two
                                               in excess of two-thirds of pay per month,       categories: white and nonwhite. A few
self-definition, but some States classify      or forfeiture of any percentage of pay for
according to surname.                                                                          others categorized Hispanic offenders as
                                               more than 6 months.                             belonging to "Other race." The number of
Jurisdiction. Jurisdiction refers to a unit    Summary court-martial is the least formal       persons with certain racial backgrounds
of government or to the legal authority to     military court, consisting of one active-duty   were sometimes estimated.
exercise governmental power. According         commissioned officer. This court promptly
to the latter meaning, the prisoners under                                                     Reporting time. The prison and capital
                                               adjudicates minor offenses under a simple       punishment figures are from December
a State's jurisdiction may be in the custody   procedure. Punishment may not exceed
of local jails. (See "Custody.")                                                               31, 1994, unless otherwise noted. The
                                               confinement for 1 month, hard labor with-       Bureau of the Census surveyed jails on
Mandatory parole. Mandatory parole re-         out confinement for 45 days, restriction to     June 30, 1994; the bureau completed
sults from statutory or correctional guide-    specified limits for more than 2 months, or     census of jails on June 30, 1993.
lines, and no judgment by a panel or           forfeiture of more than two-thirds pay for
board is required for release of a prisoner    more than 1 month. If the service mem-          Revisions. Many States revise the
to supervision outside prison.                 ber is above the rank of E-4, the presiding     yearend number reported for the previous
                                               officer may not impose confinement, hard        year. Those revisions are made in the
Maximum sentence length. Some                  labor without confinement, or reduction of      total, not the detail. For example, the
jurisdictions sentence offenders to a range    more than one grade.                            number of blacks, whites, and members of
of years; the larger number in that range                                                      other races for 1993 were not changed by
is the most that a prisoner may serve on a     Movement. In corrections, a movement is         a State in 1994 to equal its revised 1993
sentence. Often, good time is subtracted       an admission to or a release from a status      total.
from the maximum sentence. When the             prisoner, parolee, or probationer.
tables report on prisoners with sentences      Unless specifically noted, a transfer
longer or shorter than a year, the

                                                                                                                          Introduction 3
Data sources                                     Series based on reported individual
                                                 offenders
Series that aggregate by reporting unit
                                                 NPS-8. Characteristics of persons
NPS-1. Annual yearend count of prisoners         admitted to, under, or released from a
present by jurisdiction, sex, race, Hispanic     sentence of death during the year.
origin, and admissions and releases
during the year.                                 NCRP-1A. Individual record data on each
                                                 offender admitted to prison during the
NPS-1A. Count of prisoners present               year, covering race, age, Hispanic origin,
on June 30 by jurisdiction.                      jail credits, prior prison credit, offenses
                                                 and number of counts, and maximum and
NPS-1B. Advance yearend count of                 minimum sentence.
prisoners; emergency releases because of
prison crowding; rated, operational, and         NCRP-1B. Individual record data on each
design capacities of prison facilities.          offender released from prison during the
                                                 year, covering data from NCRP-1A,
NPS-8A. Yearend count of persons                 offenses and sentences since admission,
in prison under sentence of death.               time spent in halfway houses, time served,
                                                 and category of discharge.
NPS-8B,8C. Complete survey of States to
determine any significant changes in             NCRP-1C. Individual record data on each
statues or case law relating to the death        offender discharged from parole
penalty.                                         supervision, covering data contained in
                                                 NCRP-1A and NCRP-1B, parole
CJ-8. Yearend count, admissions, and             discharge, and category of discharge.
releases of persons on probation by
jurisdiction.                                    Series based on interviews of sampled
                                                 prisoners
CJ-7. Yearend count, admissions, and
releases of persons on parole by                 SIJ-43. Survey every 5 years of a random
jurisdiction.                                    sample of jail inmates to determine
                                                 criminal history, drug and alcohol use, and
CJ-5. Annual survey to estimate the              personal background.
population of jails in jurisdictions holding a
daily average of more than 100 people.           NPS-25. Survey every 5 years of a
                                                 random sample of prison inmates to
CJ-5A. Annual survey to estimate the             determine criminal history, drug and
population of jails in jurisdictions holding a   alcohol use, and personal background.
daily average of fewer than 100 people.

CJ-43. Census every 5 years of all State
and Federal prison facilities to record their
characteristics.

CJ-3. Census every 5 years of all jail
facilities to record their characteristics.




 4 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.1. Number of adults on probation, in jail or prison,
or on parole, 1980-94

                     Total
Year                 estimated           Probation       Jail            Prison             Parole
                     correctional
                                                                  b
1980                   1,840,400
                     populationa         1,118,097      182,288         319,598         220,438
1981                   2,006,600         1,225,934      195,085b        360,029         225,539
1982                   2,192,600         1,357,264      207,853         402,914         224,604
1983                   2,475,100         1,582,947      221,815         423,898         246,440
1984                   2,689,200         1,740,948      233,018         448,264         266,992

1985                   3,011,500         1,968,712      254,986         487,593         300,203
1986                   3,239,400         2,114,621      272,735         526,436         325,638
1987                   3,459,600         2,247,158      294,092         562,814         355,505
1988                   3,714,100         2,356,483      341,893         607,766         407,977
1989                   4,055,600         2,522,125      393,303         683,367         456,803

1990                   4,348,000         2,670,234      403,019         743,382         531,407
1991                   4,535,600         2,728,472      424,129         792,535         590,442
1992                   4,762,600         2,811,611      441,781         850,566         658,601
     b                 4,944,000         2,903,061      455,500b        909,381         676,100
1993
1994                   5,129,700         2,964,171      483,717         991,612         690,159

Percent change
1993-94                      3.8%             2.1%          6.2%               9.0%             2.1%
1980-94                    178.7            165.1         165.4              210.3            213.1

Note: Counts for probation, prison, and parole population are for December 31 of each year
and have been revised based on the most recently reported counts. Jail population counts
are for June 30 of each year. Prisoner counts are for inmates in custody only.
a
 A small number of individuals may have multiple correctional statuses; consequently, the total
number of persons under correctional supervision may be an overestimate. See Technical note.
b
  The jail population counts are estimated.




Table 1.2. Estimated number of adults on probation, in jail, in prison, or
on parole and their percent of the adult population, by sex and race, 1994
                                                                             Sex                                     Race
                                             Totala              Male              Female               White         Black       Other

Total                                       5,129,700           4,367,500          762,200           3,051,100     2,013,400      65,200

   Probation                                2,964,200           2,375,600          588,600           1,966,500       962,700      34,900
   Jail                                       483,700             434,800           48,900             252,300       223,900       7,600
   Prison                                     991,600             934,700           56,900             469,300       507,000      15,300
   Parole                                     690,200             622,400           67,800             363,000       319,800       7,400

U.S. adult resident populationb           192,323,000       92,231,000         100,092,000           162,472,000   22,080,000   7,771,000

Percent under correctional supervision         2.7%                   4.7%            .8%                1.9%         9.1%         .8%

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. In cases where
sex or race was unknown or not reported, percentages were applied
based on known cases.
a
 A small number of individuals may have multiple correctional statuses;
consequently, the total number of persons under correctional supervision
is an overestimate. See Technical note.
b
 Resident population age18 or older on July 1, 1994.




                                                                                                                                            Introduction 5
Table 1.3. Estimated number of adults under correctional
supervision, by sex and race, 1985-94


                                            Sex                                 Race
Year              Total            Male           Female             White       Black      Other

1985            3,011,500       2,606,000         405,500           1,941,600   1,029,600   40,300
1986            3,239,400       2,829,100         410,300           2,090,100   1,117,200   32,100
1987            3,459,600       3,021,000         438,600           2,192,200   1,231,100   36,300
1988            3,714,100       3,223,000         491,100           2,348,600   1,325,700   39,800
1989            4,055,600       3,501,600         554,000           2,521,200   1,489,000   45,400

1990            4,348,000       3,746,300         601,700           2,665,500   1,632,700   49,800
1991            4,535,600       3,913,000         622,600           2,742,400   1,743,300   49,900
1992            4,762,600       4,050,300         712,300           2,835,900   1,873,200   53,500
1993            4,944,000       4,215,800         728,200           2,872,200   2,011,600   60,200
1994            5,129,700       4,367,500         762,200           3,051,100   2,013,400   65,200

Note: Populations are estimated and rounded to the nearest 100.
Previously published estimates by sex and race have been revised,
based on the most recently reported population totals.




Table 1.4. Percent of adults under
correctional supervision, by sex and
race, 1985-94
                                   Sex                      Race
Year           Total        Male    Female         White    Black     Other

1985            1.7%        3.0%     .4%            1.2%     5.2%       .8%
1986            1.8         3.3      .4             1.4      5.7       .6
1987            1.9         3.5      .5             1.4      6.2       .6
1988            2.0         3.7      .5             1.5      6.6       .7
1989            2.2         4.0      .6             1.6      7.3       .7

1990            2.3%        4.2%     .6%            1.7%     7.9%      .7%
1991            2.4         4.4      .6             1.7      8.3       .7
1992            2.5         4.5      .7             1.8      8.7       .7
1993            2.6         4.6      .7             1.7      8.8       .8
1994            2.7         4.7      .8             1.9      9.1       .8

Note: Percentages are based on the resident population
age 18 or older on July 1 of each reference year.




6 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.5. Number of adults in custody of State or Federal prisons
or local jails, 1980, 1985, 1990-94
                                               Federal            State
Year                 Total custodya            prisons            prisons         Local jailsb   Total ratec

1980d                   501,886                23,779            295,819           182,288           221

1985                    742,579                35,781            451,812           254,986           312

1990                  1,146,401                58,838            684,544           403,019           460
1991                  1,216,664                63,930            728,605           424,129           482
1992                  1,292,347                72,071            778,495           441,781           507
1993d                 1,364,881                80,815            828,566           455,500           526
1994                  1,475,329                85,500            906,112           483,717           565

Percent change
 1980-94                  195.6%               259.6%              209.0%            165.4%
 1993-94                    8.7                  5.8                10.3               6.2
a
  State and Federal inmate counts exclude those under State of Federal jurisdiction
who were housed elsewhere, as in county or local jails.
b
  Number of adults held in local jails.
c
  Total number of adults held in the custody of State, Federal, or local jurisdictions
per 100,000 U.S. residents.
d
  Jail population counts are estimated.




Table 1.6. Number of adults held in State or Federal
prisons or local jails, by sex and race, 1985-94

                               White                             Black
Year                   Males        Females              Males        Females

1985                 382,800          21,500            309,800          19,100
1986                 417,600          23,000            342,400          19,900
1987                 439,000          27,700            356,300          23,200
1988                 469,200          32,600            407,400          28,000
1989                 516,000          38,500            472,800          35,500
1990                 545,900          39,300            508,800          38,000
1991                 566,800          42,200            551,000          40,600
1992                 598,000          44,100            590,300          42,400
1993                 627,100          46,500            624,100          47,500
1994                 674,400          50,700            683,200          52,000




Table 1.7. Number of adults held in State or Federal
prisons or local jails per 100,000 adult residents in
each group, by sex and race, 1985-94
                            White                          Black
Year                   Males     Females           Males      Females

1985                    528           27           3,544           183
1986                    570           29           3,850           189
1987                    594           35           3,943           216
1988                    629           41           4,441           257
1989                    685           47           5,066           321
1990                    718           48           5,365           338
1991                    740           51           5,717           356
1992                    774           53           6,014           365
1993                    805           56           6,259           403
1994                    860           60           6,753           435
Note: Data are based on resident population for each group on
July 1 of each year.




                                                                                                               Introduction 7
Table 1.8. Number of sentenced prisoners under State
or Federal jurisdiction, by sex and race, 1980-94

                                          Number of sentenced prisoners
                                             Male                                  Female
Year             Total             Alla      Whiteb       Blackb        Alla       Whiteb    Blackb

1980           315,974          303,643      159,500     140,600       12,331      5,900     6,300
1981           353,673          339,375      178,200     156,100       14,298      6,900     7,200
1982           395,516          379,075      199,400     174,900       16,441      8,000     8,200
1983           419,346          401,870      210,700     185,900       17,476      8,700     8,500
1984           443,398          424,193      223,500     194,600       19,205      9,500     9,400

1985           480,568          459,223      242,700     210,500       21,345     10,800    10,200
1986           522,084          497,540      258,900     232,000       24,544     12,400    11,800
1987           560,812          533,990      277,200     249,700       26,822     13,700    12,600
1988           603,732          573,587      292,200     274,300       30,145     15,500    14,200
1989           680,907          643,643      322,100     313,700       37,264     18,400    18,300

1990           739,980          699,416      346,700     344,300       40,564     20,000    20,100
1991           789,610          745,808      363,600     372,200       43,802     20,900    22,200
1992           846,277          799,776      388,000     401,700       46,501     22,100    23,800
     c
1993           932,266          878,298      418,900     445,400       53,968     25,200    27,900
1994          1,016,760         956,691      452,700     489,200       60,069     28,300    30,700

Note: Sentenced prisoners are those with a sentence of more than 1 year.
a
  Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives,
and other racial groups.
b
  The numbers for sex and race were estimated and rounded to the nearest 100.
For men and women, the total number of sentenced prisoners was multiplied
by the proportion of black or white of the total population in each group.
The reported racial distribution was used to estimate unreported data.
c
  The numbers of sentenced prisoners on December 31, 1993, have been updated
and will differ from numbers reported elsewhere in this volume.




    Figure 1. Percent of U.S. adult population in State or Federal prisons
    or in local jails, by race and sex, 1984-94


    Percent of U.S. adult
    population for each group
    8%


                                                                                   Black males (6.75%)

    6%




    4%




    2%

                                                                                   White males (0.86%)
                                                                                   Black females (0.44%)
    0%                                                                             White females (0.06%)
     1984          1986           1988           1990           1992            1994




8 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.9. Estimated number of sentenced prisoners under State
or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 residents in each group, by sex and
race, 1980-94

                             Number of sentenced prisoners per 100,000 residents
                                       Male                              Female
    Year          Totala     Allb,c    White      Black        Allb,c    White       Black

    1980           139       275         168        1,111         11           6       45
    1981           154       304         186        1,217         12           7       50
    1982           171       337         206        1,345         14           8       57
    1983           179       354         217        1,412         15           9       58
    1984           188       370         228        1,459         16           9       63
    1985           202       397         246        1,559         17        10         68
    1986           217       426         261        1,695         20        12         77
    1987           231       453         277        1,800         22        13         82
    1988           247       482         290        1,951         24        15         91
    1989           276       535         317        2,200         29        17        115
    1990           297       575         339        2,376         32        19        125
    1991           313       606         352        2,523         34        19        135
    1992           332       642         372        2,678         36        20        143
    1993           359       698         398        2,920         41        23        165
    1994           389       753         427        3,158         45        26        179

Note: Sentenced prisoners are those with a sentence of more than 1 year.
a
  Rates may differ from those previously published because the number of
prisoners under jurisdiction has been revised and is based on the U.S. resident
population on December 31 of each year.
b
  Rates may differ from those previously published because the number of prisoners
under jurisdiction has been revised and is based on the U.S. resident population
on July 1 of each year.
c
  Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives,
and other racial groups.




Table 1.10. Number of Hispanic prisoners under
State or Federal jurisdiction, 1980-94

                      State or Federal                   Sentenced
                      Hispanic prisoners                 Hispanic prisonersa
                                   Percent                          Per 100,000
                                   of all                           resident
Year              Number           prisoners         Numberb
                                                                    populationc

1980               25,200              7.7%           24,300             163
1981               29,100              7.9            27,900             179
1982               37,200              9.0            35,500             219
1983               41,100              9.4            39,400             233
1984               47,900             10.4            45,900             260

1985               54,700             10.9%           52,300             285
1986               62,600             11.5            60,000             213
1987               69,800             12.0            67,400             338
1988               76,400             12.2            73,500             354
1989               90,400             12.7            86,400             399

1990              103,100             13.3%           98,500             437
1991              112,500             13.7           107,800             461
1992              125,000             14.1           119,700             493
1993              138,700             14.6           133,300             529
1994              156,908             14.9           151,300             580

Note: Data are based on incomplete counts. Each year, some
States were unable to report data on Hispanic origin, others
reported estimates only, and others reported incomplete counts.
To determine the extent of underreporting in 1994 see table 5.9
and Explanatory notes.
a
  Sentenced prisoners are those with a sentence of more than 1 year.
b
  Numbers of Hispanics with a sentence of more than a year were
estimated by multiplying the total number of sentenced prisoners
by the proportion Hispanic of all prisoners under State and Federal
jurisdiction. Estimates were rounded to the nearest 100.
c
  Rates are based on estimates of the U.S. resident Hispanic
population on July 1 of each year.


                                                                                             Introduction 9
Table 1.11. Estimated number of prisoners in custody of State correctional authorities,
by the most serious offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-94

Most                                              Number of inmates in State prison
serious offense               1980      1985        1990      1991       1992       1993             1994

     Total                  295,819    451,812    684,544         728,605   778,495   828,566        906,112

Violent offenses            173,300    246,200    313,600         339,500   370,300   395,700        429,400
 Murdera                     34,700     50,600     72,000          77,200    85,000    90,300         96,900
 Manslaughter                11,900     14,500     13,200          13,100    14,100    14,800         15,800
 Rape                        13,200     19,400     24,500          25,500    29,500    31,300         33,800
 Other sexual assault         7,300     20,300     39,100          43,000    46,400    49,800         54,300
 Robbery                     75,000     94,000     99,200         107,800   113,400   119,800        129,700
 Assault                     23,300     36,100     53,300          59,000    67,900    73,000         80,400
 Other violentb               7,800     11,300     12,400          13,100    15,200    16,600         18,500

Property offenses            89,300    140,100    173,700         180,700   182,400   191,600        209,800
 Burglary                    50,300     74,500     87,200          90,300    90,400    93,600        101,100
 Larceny                     14,300     27,100     34,800          35,700    33,900    36,900         42,100
 Motor vehicle theft          3,500      6,300     14,400          16,000    18,100    19,100         20,900
 Fraud                       11,800     17,200     20,200          20,400    20,100    21,300         23,500
 Other propertyc              9,400     14,900     17,100          18,200    19,900    20,700         22,300

Drug offenses                19,000     38,900    148,600         155,200   172,300   183,200        202,100

Public-order offensesd       12,400     23,000      45,500         49,500    51,100     53,800        58,800

                    e
Other/unspecified             1,800       3,200      3,100          2,900     3,100      4,400         6,000

                                                              b
Note: Offense distributions for yearend 1991 are based on       Includes extortion, intimidation, criminal en-
data from the Survey of Inmates of State Correctional Fa-     dangerment, and other violent offenses.
                                                              c
cilities, conducted in August 1991. The offense distribu-       Includes possession and selling of stolen
tions for other years are estimated using forward and         property, destruction of property, trespass-
backward stock-flow methods. See Explanatory notes for        ing, vandalism, criminal tampering, and
further details on the estimations. All estimates are based   other property offenses.
                                                              d
on the total number of prisoners in custody, including          Includes weapons, drunk driving, escape,
those with a sentence of 1 year or less and those who         court offenses, obstruction, commercialized
were unsentenced. Estimates for 1993 have been up-            vice, morals and decency charges, liquor
dated; those for 1994 are preliminary and subject to revi-    law violations, and other public-order
sion. See definitions for the distinction between custody     offenses.
                                                              e
and jurisdiction counts. Due to rounding, detail may not        Includes juvenile offenses and unspecified
sum to total.                                                 felonies.
a
 Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.




10 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.12. Estimated percent of prisoners in custody of State correctional
authorities, by the most serious offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-94
                                                      Percent of inmates in State prison
Most serious offense                1980      1985        1990       1991     1992         1993   1994

      Total                       100.0% 100.0% 100.0%            100.0%     100.0%    100.0%     100.0%

Violent offenses                   58.6%     54.5%       45.8%     46.6%     47.6%     47.8 %     47.4%
   Murdera                         11.7      11.2        10.5      10.6      10.9      10.9       10.7
   Manslaughter                     4.0       3.2         1.9       1.8       1.8       1.8        1.7
   Rape                             4.5       4.3         3.6       3.5       3.8       3.8        3.7
   Other sexual assault             2.5       4.5         5.7       5.9       6.0       6.0        6.0
   Robbery                         25.4      20.8        14.5      14.8      14.6      14.5       14.3
   Assault                          7.9       8.0         7.8       8.1       8.7       8.8        8.9
   Other violent b                  2.6       2.5         1.8       1.8       2.0       2.0        2.0

Property offenses                  30.2%     31.0%       25.4%     24.8%     23.4%     23.1%      23.2%
   Burglary                        17.0      16.5        12.7      12.4      11.6      11.3       11.2
   Larceny                          4.8       6.0         5.1       4.9       4.4       4.5        4.6
   Motor vehicle theft              1.2       1.4         2.1       2.2       2.3       2.3        2.3
   Fraud                            4.0       3.8         3.0       2.8       2.6       2.6        2.6
   Other property c                 3.2       3.3         2.5       2.5       2.6       2.5        2.5

Drug offenses                        6.4%      8.6%      21.7%     21.3%      22.1%    22.1 %     22.3%

Public-order offensesd               4.2%      5.1%       6.6%       6.8%      6.6%        6.5%    6.5%

Other/unspecifiede                    .6%       .7%         .5%       .4%       .4%         .5%     .7%

Note: Offense distributions for yearend 1991 are based on data from the Survey of Inmates of State
Correctional Facilities, conducted in August 1991. The offense distributions for other years are esti-
mated using forward and backward stock-flow methods. See Explanatory notes for further details on
the estimations. All estimates are based on the total number of prisoners in physical custody, includ-
ing those with sentences of 1 year or less and those who were unsentenced. See definitions for the
distinction between custody and jurisdiction counts. Due to rounding, detail may not sum to total.
a
  Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.
b
  Includes extortion, intimidation, criminal endangerment, and other violent offenses.
c
  Includes possession and selling of stolen property, destruction of property, trespassing,
vandalism, criminal tampering, and other property offenses.
d
   Includes weapons, drunk driving, escape, court offenses, obstruction, commercialized
vice, morals and decency charges, liquor law violations, and other public-order offenses.
e
  Includes juvenile offenses and unspecified felonies.




Figure 2. Number of prisoners in custody of State
correctional authorities, by offense type, 1980-94
 Number of State
 prison inmates
 500,000



 400,000



 300,000
                                            Violent



 200,000
                                            Property


 100,000
                                             Drug                       Public-order


         0
         1980            1982     1984         1986           1988          1990       1992         1994


                                                                                                           Introduction 11
Table 1.13. Number of sentenced inmates in Federal prisons,
by the most serious offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-94

                                                  Number of inmates in Federal prisona
Most serious offense                 1980b    1985c     1990     1991      1992     1993       1994d

      Total                         19,471   27,607    56,989   65,802   72,851    82,698      87,515

Violent offenses                     6,572    7,768     9,557    9,852     9,506   11,058      11,429
   Homicidee                           703      993     1,233    1,166       917      867         890
   Assault                             394      546     1,964    2,101     2,009    2,365       2,658
   Robbery                           4,699    5,417     5,158    5,410     5,409    6,561       6,608
   Other violentf                      776      812     1,202    1,175     1,171    1,265       1,273

Property offenses                    4,651    5,289     7,935    8,518     8,617    8,718       8,482
   Burglary                            239      292       442      384       313      252         240
   Fraudg                            1,971    2,805     5,113    5,504     5,799    6,146       6,079
   Larceny/theft/other propertyh     2,441    2,192     2,380    2,630     2,505    2,320       2,163

Drug offenses                        4,900    9,482    30,470   36,782   42,879    48,997      51,823

Public-order offenses                2,040    2,514     8,585   10,011   11,253    13,276      15,035
  Immigration                          907      865     1,728    1,988    1,927     2,170       2,544
  Weapons                              737      926     3,073    3,826    4,996     6,515       7,578
  Escape/court i                       149      215       417      441      382       380         418
  Other public-order j                 247      508     3,367    3,756    3,948     4,202       4,495

Other k                              1,308    2,554       442      639       596         658     746

Note: Data for September 30 of 1980 and 1985 are from table A-9 of Statistical Report,
Federal Bureau of Prisons. Data for December 31, 1990-94, are from the BJS
Federal justice database. Numbers may differ from the Federal Bureau of Prisons'
count because the Federal Justice Statistics Program includes prisoners in transit.
a
   Includes prisoners of any sentence length.
b
   Offenses are known for 89.5% of 21,758 total.
c
   Offenses are known for 88.1% of 31,346 total.
d
   Preliminary data.
e
   Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and negligent manslaughter.
f
  Includes kidnaping, rape, other sexual assault, threats against the President,
and other offenses.
g
   Includes embezzlement, counterfeiting, forgery, bankruptcy, and fraud
(excluding tax fraud but including securities fraud).
h
   Includes motor vehicle theft, trespassing, destruction of property, and
transport of stolen property.
i
  Includes flight to avoid prosecution, escape, parole and probation violation,
and other court offenses.
j
 Includes liquor laws, national security laws, income tax, selective service acts,
bribery, gambling, traffic offenses, and other public-order offenses.
k
  Includes offenses not classifiable or not a violation of the United States Code.




12 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.14. Percent of sentenced inmates in Federal prisons,
by the most serious offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-94

                                                            Percent of inmates in Federal prisona
Most serious offense                    1980b       1985c       1990       1991        1992         1993     1994d

      Total                            100.0%     100.0%       100.0%     100.0%     100.0%      100.0%     100.0%

Violent offenses                        33.8%       28.1%       16.8%      15.0%       13.0%        13.4%   13.1%
   Homicidee                             3.6         3.6         2.2        1.8         1.3          1.0     1.0
   Assault                               2.0         2.0         3.4        3.2         2.8          2.9     3.0
   Robbery                              24.1        19.6         9.1        8.2         7.4          7.9     7.6
   Other violentf                        4.0         2.9         2.1        1.8         1.6          1.5     1.5

Property offenses                       23.9%       19.2%       13.9%      12.9%       11.8%        10.5%     9.7%
   Burglary                              1.2         1.1          .8         .6          .4           .3       .3
   Fraudg                               10.1        10.2         9.0        8.4         8.0          7.4      6.9
   Larceny/theft/other propertyh        12.5         7.9         4.2        4.0         3.4          2.8      2.5

Drug offenses                           25.2%       34.3%       53.5%      55.9%       58.9%        59.2%   59.2%

Public-order offenses                   10.5%        9.1%       15.1%      15.2%       15.4%        16.1%   17.2%
  Immigration                            4.7         3.1         3.0        3.0         2.6          2.6     2.9
  Weapons                                3.8         3.4         5.4        5.8         6.9          7.9     8.7
  Escape/court i                          .8          .8          .7         .7          .5           .5      .5
  Other public-order j                   1.3         1.8         5.9        5.7         5.4          5.1     5.1

Other k                                  6.7%        9.3%         .8%       1.0%         .8%         .8%       .9%

Note: Data for September 30 of 1980 and 1985 are from table A-9 of Statistical Report,
Federal Bureau of Prisons. Data for December 31, 1990-94, are from the BJS Federal
Justice database.
a
   Includes prisoners of any sentence length.
b
   Offenses are known for 89.5% of 21,758 total.
c
   Offenses are known for 88.1% of 31,346 total.
d
   Preliminary data.
e
   Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and negligent manslaughter.
f
  Includes kidnaping, rape, other sexual assault, threats against the President, and other
offenses.
g
   Includes embezzlement, counterfeiting, forgery, bankruptcy, and fraud (excluding tax fraud
but including securities fraud).
h
   Includes motor vehicle theft, trespassing, destruction of property, and transport of stolen property.
i
  Includes flight to avoid prosecution, escape, parole and probation violation, and other court offenses.
j
 Includes liquor laws, national security laws, income tax, selective service acts, bribery, gambling,
traffic offenses, and other public-order offenses.
k
  Includes offenses not classifiable or not a violation of the United States Code.




                                                                                                                     Introduction 13
 Table 1.15. Number of new court commitments to State and Federal prison, by race, 1980-94



                                                                                                                     Total num-
                                   Number of State and
             Total num-                                             Total num-                                       ber of
                                   Federal admissions                               Number of State admissions                    Number of Federal admissions
             ber of ad-                                             ber of State                                     Federal
 Year        missionsa         White          Black      Other  b
                                                                    admissions      White       Black       Otherb
                                                                                                                     admissions   White       Black       Otherb

 1980             142,122      82,147         58,412     1,563       131,215        74,268      55,373      1,575     10,907       7,940      2,967        ...
 1981             160,272      90,233         67,795     2,244       149,186        82,052      64,896      2,238     11,086       8,159      2,927        ...
 1982             177,109      96,347         79,345     1,417       164,648        86,934      76,232      1,482     12,461       9,333      3,128        ...
 1983             187,408     106,448         79,648     1,312       173,289        95,829      76,074      1,386     14,119      10,688      3,431        ...
 1984             180,418     102,658         76,678     1,263       166,927        92,144      73,615      1,168     13,491      10,415      3,076        ...

 1985             198,499     109,968         86,744     1,985       183,131        98,158      82,958      1,831     15,368      11,695      3,673        ...
 1986             219,382     119,124         97,844     2,413       203,315       108,774      94,338      2,236     16,067      12,323      3,422        321
 1987             241,887     129,168        110,059     2,661       225,627       117,326     106,045      2,256     16,260      11,902      3,984        374
 1988             261,242     129,054        130,099     2,090       245,310       117,749     125,844      1,717     15,932      11,280      4,254        398
 1989             316,215     148,305        165,380     2,846       297,827       135,809     159,635      2,383     18,388      12,357      5,664        368

 1990c            341,545     163,942        174,529     3,074       323,069       151,842     168,642      2,585     18,476      12,194      5,857        425
 1991c            337,478     156,096        177,724     3,658       317,237       142,757     171,308      3,172     20,241      13,339      6,416        486
 1992c            356,498     163,794        188,783     3,921       334,301       149,433     181,525      3,343     22,197      14,361      7,258        578
 1993d            341,722     158,421        179,528     3,773       318,069       143,449     171,439      3,181     23,653      14,972      8,089        592
 1994d,e          346,097         ...            ...       ...       322,141           ...         ...        ...     23,956      14,781      8,504        671


 Note: The total number of admissions is from the National Prisoners                . . .Not available.
                                                                                    a
 Statistics (1980-84) and from Correctional Populations in the United                 Sentenced prisoners only.
                                                                                    b
 States (1985-94). The number of admissions by race are from Race of                  "Other" includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and
 Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86                      Alaska Natives.
                                                                                    c
 (NCJ-125618) and the National Corrections Reporting Program                          Federal admissions data are from the National Corrections Report-
 (1987-93), and unpublished data are from Federal Justice Statistics                ing Program.
                                                                                    d
 Program (1993-94). All percentages are based on totals excluding                     Federal admissions data are from National Prisoners Statistics,
 prisoners of unknown race. For Federal admissions 1980-85, "Other"                 and the detail data are calculated, based on data provided by the
 is included with "Black."                                                          Federal Justice Statistics Program.
                                                                                    e
                                                                                      The number of State admissions for 1994 was estimated for
                                                                                    Alaska.




Figure 3. New court commitments of State prisoners, by race, 1980-93

Number of new court
commitments to State prisons
400,000




300,000


                                                         All races

200,000
                                                                                            Blacks



                                    Whites
100,000




           0
           1980             1982          1984           1986           1988            1990            1992 1993




14 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.16. Percent of new court commitments to State and Federal prison, by race, 1980-94

                                Percent of State and                                                                        Total number
           Total num-                                              Total num-
                                Federal admissions                                      Percent of State admissions         of Federal      Percent of Federal admissions
           ber of ad-                                              ber of State
Year       missionsa    Total      White      Black     Other b
                                                                   admissions       Total    White     Black     Other  b   admissions     Total   White    Black    Otherb

1980        142,122      100%       57.8%    41.1%      1.1%         131,215         100%    56.6%      42.2%     1.2%          10,907     100%    72.8%    27.2%     ...
1981        160,272      100        56.3     42.3       1.4          149,186         100     55.0       43.5      1.5           11,086     100     73.6     26.4      ...
1982        177,109      100        54.4     44.8        .8          164,648         100     52.8       46.3       .9           12,461     100     74.9     25.1      ...
1983        187,408      100        56.8     42.5        .7          173,289         100     55.3       43.9       .8           14,119     100     75.7     24.3      ...
1984        180,418      100        56.9     42.5        .7          166,927         100     55.2       44.1       .7           13,491     100     77.2     22.8      ...

1985        198,499      100        55.4     43.7       1.0          183,131         100      53.6      45.3      1.0           15,368     100     76.1     23.9      ...
1986        219,382      100        54.3     44.6       1.1          203,315         100      53.5      46.4      1.1           16,067     100     76.7     21.3      2.0
1987        241,887      100        53.4     45.5       1.1          225,627         100      52.0      47.0      1.0           16,260     100     73.2     24.5      2.3
1988        261,242      100        49.4     49.8        .8          245,310         100      48.0      51.3       .7           15,932     100     70.8     26.7      2.5
1989        316,215      100        46.9     52.3        .9          297,827         100      45.6      53.6       .8           18,388     100     67.2     30.8      2.0

       c
1990        341,545      100        48.0     51.1        .9          323,069         100      47.0      52.2       .8           18,476     100     66.0     31.7      2.3
1991c       337,478      100        46.3     52.7       1.1          317,237         100      45.0      54.0      1.0           20,241     100     65.9     31.7      2.4
1992c       356,498      100        45.9     53.0       1.1          334,301         100      44.7      54.3      1.0           22,197     100     64.7     32.7      2.6
1993d       341,722      100        46.4     52.5       1.1          318,069         100      45.1      53.9      1.0           23,653     100     63.3     34.2      2.5
1994d,e     346,097       ...        ...      ...       ...          322,141          ...      ...       ...      ...           23,956     100     61.7     35.5      2.8


Note: The total number of admissions is from the National Prisoners Statis- . . .Not available.
                                                                            a
tics (1980-84) and from Correctional Populations in the United States         Sentenced prisoners only.
(1985-94). The number of admissions by race are from Race of Prisoners b"Other" includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Alaska Natives.
                                                                            c
Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 (NCJ-125618) and the      Federal admissions data are from the National Corrections Reporting Program.
                                                                            d
National Corrections Reporting Program (1987-93), and unpublished data        Federal admissions data are from National Prisoners Statistics, and the detail data
are from Federal Justice Statistics Program (1993-94). All percentages      are calculated, based on data provided by the Federal Justice Statistics Program.
                                                                            e
are based on totals excluding prisoners of unknown race. For Federal          The number of State admissions for 1994 was estimated for Alaska.
admissions 1980-85, "Other" is included with "Black."




  Figure 4. New court commitments of Federal prisoners, by race, 1980-94

 Number of new court
 commitments to Federal prisons
 25,000




 20,000

                                                    All races

 15,000
                                                                                  Whites



 10,000




  5,000
                         Blacks



           0
           1980         1982        1984         1986             1988         1990         1992        1994




                                                                                                                                                           Introduction 15
 Table 1.17. Number of new court commitments to State and Federal prison, by sex, 1980-94
                                  Number of State and
             Total num-           Federal admissions                Number of State admissions      Number of Federal admissions
             ber of ad-
 Year        missions            Males        Females            Total          Males    Females      Totala    Males     Females

 1980          142,122          134,021        8,101           131,215         123,692      7,523    10,907     10,329        578
 1981          160,272          150,741        9,531           149,186         140,253      8,933    11,086     10,488        598
 1982          177,109          166,001       11,108           164,648         154,225     10,423    12,461     11,776        685
 1983          187,408          174,887       12,521           173,289         161,901     11,388    14,119     12,986      1,133
 1984          180,418          167,833       12,585           166,927         155,230     11,697    13,491     12,603        888

 1985          198,499          184,594       13,905           183,131         170,461     12,670    15,368    14,133       1,235
 1986          219,382          203,142       16,240           203,315         188,373     14,942    16,067    14,769       1,298
 1987          241,887          223,352       18,535           225,627         208,450     17,177    16,260    14,902       1,358
 1988          261,242          240,060       21,182           245,310         225,626     19,684    15,932    14,434       1,498
 1989          316,215          288,391       27,824           297,827         271,950     25,877    18,388    16,441       1,947

 1990a         341,545          311,598       29,947           323,069         294,877     28,192    18,476    16,721       1,755
 1991a         337,478          306,787       30,691           317,237         288,408     28,829    20,241    18,379       1,862
 1992a         356,498          324,882       31,616           334,301         304,772     29,529    22,197    20,110       2,087
 1993          341,722          310,565       31,157           318,069         288,883     29,186    23,653    21,682       1,971
 1994b         346,097          314,819       31,278           322,141         292,972     29,169    23,956    21,847       2,109

 a
  Total number of Federal admissions for 1990-92 is from the National
 Corrections Reporting Program and for 1993-94, from the Federal Justice
 Statistics Program. The breakdown by sex is calculated by taking the
 percent that the Federal Justice Statistics Program reports for each of the
 years and applying it to the total number of admissions.
 b
  The number of State admissions for Alaska was estimated. Data are
 preliminary and subject to revision.




16 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.18. Percent of new court commitments to State and Federal prison, by sex, 1980-94

                           Percent of State and                 Percent of State    Total        Percent of Federal
           Total           Federal admissions    Total num-     admissions          number of    admissions
           number of                             ber of State                       Federal
Year       admissions         Males      Females admissions     Males     Females   admissions    Males    Females

1980         142,122           94.3%      5.7%      131,215     94.3%       5.7%     10,907       9 4.7%     5.3%
1981         160,272           94.1       5.9       149,186     94.0        6.0      11,086       94.6       5.4
1982         177,109           93.7       6.3       164,648     93.7        6.3      12,461       94.5       5.5
1983         187,408           93.3       6.7       173,289     93.4        6.6      14,119       92.0       8.0
1984         180,418           93.0       7.0       166,927     93.0        7.0      13,491       93.4       6.6

1985         198,499           93.0%      7.0%      183,131     93.1%       6.9%     15,368        92.0%     8.0%
1986         219,382           92.6       7.4       203,315     92.7        7.3      16,067        91.9      8.1
1987         241,887           92.3       7.7       225,627     92.4        7.6      16,260        91.6      8.4
1988         261,242           91.9       8.1       245,310     92.0        8.0      15,932        90.6      9.4
1989         316,215           91.2       8.8       297,827     91.3        8.7      18,388        89.4     10.6

1990a        341,545           91.2%      8.8%      323,069     91.3%       8.7%     18,476        90.5%     9.5%
1991a        337,478           90.9       9.1       317,237     90.9        9.1      20,241        90.8      9.2
1992a        356,498           91.1       8.9       334,301     91.2        8.8      22,197        90.6      9.4
1993         341,722           90.9       9.1       318,069     90.8        8.5      23,653        91.7      8.3
1994b        346,097           91.0       9.9       322,141     90.9        8.4      23,956        91.2      8.8

a
 Total number of Federal admissions for 1990-92 is from
the National Corrections Reporting Program and for
1993-94, from the Federal Justice Statistics Program.
The breakdown by sex for each year is provided by the
Federal Justice Statistics Program (calculated based on
their count of Federal admissions for each year).
b
 The number of State admissions for Alaska was estimated.
Data are preliminary and subject to revision.




                                                                                                                      Introduction 17
Table 1.19. Estimated number of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons,
by the most serious offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-93

Most                                                Number of new court commitments to State prisona
serious offense                    1980           1985         1990         1991             1992         1993

        All offenses             131,215         183,131       323,069        317,237          334,301    318,069

Violent offenses                  61,800          64,300        86,600          91,700           95,600    93,000
   Murderb                        11,300           8,200         8,700           9,500            9,700     9,500
   Negligent manslaughter          3,500           3,100         3,900           4,100            4,000     4,000
   Sexual assaultc                 8,000          13,600        17,800          17,800           19,100    19,200
   Robbery                        24,400          24,400        29,700          32,000           33,100    31,300
   Aggravated assault             10,400          12,500        22,600          24,100           25,100    24,500
   Other violent                   4,100           2,400         4,200           4,400            4,300     4,600

Property offenses                 52,600          77,600       104,400          98,700         104,300     97,000
   Burglary                       29,500          38,800        46,800          42,800          44,500     41,000
   Larceny/theft                   9,800          18,500        26,200          25,400          27,100     25,400
   Motor vehicle theft             3,000           4,200         8,400           7,600           8,400      7,500
   Fraud                           6,700           9,500        12,600          12,100          12,700     12,200
   Other property                  3,500           6,800        10,300          10,800          12,000     10,900

Drug offenses                       8,800         24,200       102,400          95,200         101,600     95,100

Public-order offenses               5,100         14,500        26,000          28,200           29,400    29,500

Other                               2,900          2,600         3,600           3,500            3,700     3,400

Note: All data were estimated. For each year, the proportion of new court commitments in each
offense category was multiplied by the total number of new court commitments and rounded to
the nearest hundred. (See table 1.20 for percentages.) Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
a
  Includes only those with sentences of more than 1 year.
b
  Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.
c
  Includes rape and other sexual assault.




18 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.20. Percent of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons,
by the most serious offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-93

Most                                               Percent of new court commitments to State prisona
serious offense                   1980             1985          1990          1991            1992    1993

Violent offenses                   47.1%           35.1%        26.8%           28.9%          28.6%   29.2%
   Murderb                          8.6             4.5          2.7             3.0            2.9     3 .0
   Negligent manslaughter           2.7             1.7          1.2             1.3            1.2      1.2
   Sexual assaultc                  6.1             7.4          5.5             5.6            5.7      6.0
   Robbery                         18.6            13.3          9.2            10.1            9.9      9.8
   Aggravated assault               7.9             6.8          7.0             7.6            7.5      7.7
   Other violent                    3.1             1.3          1.3             1.4            1.3      1.5

Property offenses                  40.1%           42.4%        32.3%           31.1%          31.2%   30.5%
   Burglary                        22.5            21.2         14.5            13.5           13.3    12.9
   Larceny/theft                    7.5            10.1          8.1             8.0            8.1     8.0
   Motor vehicle theft              2.3             2.3          2.6             2.4            2.5     2.4
   Fraud                            5.1             5.2          3.9             3.8            3.8     3.8
   Other property                   2.7             3.7          3.2             3.4            3.8     3.4

Drug offenses                       6.7%           13.2%        31.7%           30.0%          30.4%   29.9%

Public-order offenses               3.9%            7.9%         8.1%           8.9%            8.8%   9.3%

Other                               2.2%            1.4%         1.1%           1.1%            1.1%   1.1%

Note: Data based on the most serious offense as reported by participating States.
For 1980, data are from the National Prisoner Statistics program. For 1985 and 1990-97,
data are from the National Corrections Reporting Program.
a
  Includes only those with sentences of more than 1 year.
b
  Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.
c
  Includes rape and other sexual assault.




  Figure 5. Percent of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons,
  by offense type, 1980-93

  Percent of new court
  commitments to State prisons
 50%




 40%
                                         Violent                     Property



 30%




 20%
                                         Drug


 10%                                                                 Public-order




   0%
    1980            1982         1984           1986          1988          1990          1992 1993




                                                                                                               Introduction 19
Table 1.21. Number of offenders sentenced to Federal prison in U.S. district court,
by the most serious offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-94


Most                                      Number of offenders sentenced to Federal prisona
serious offense                1980         1985         1990        1991        1992               1993           1994
           b
   Total                       13,766       20,605           28,659    30,555        33,622        34,844          31,586

Violent offenses                1,770        1,807            2,032     2,260         2,618         2,679           2,443
   Homicidec                      108          110              144       140           135           148             222
   Sexual assaultd                 60          145              226       254           271           227             215
   Robbery                      1,252        1,210            1,313     1,504         1,860         1,950           1,628
   Assault                        265          254              282       283           282           272             284
   Other violent                   85           88               67        79            70            82              94

Property offenses               4,630        5,612            5,885     6,033         6,557         6,980           6,466
   Burglary                        77           94               83       119           106           158             131
   Larceny/theft                1,180        1,252              940       951           901           929             851
   Motor vehicle theft            321          263              200       170           251           321             308
   Fraude                       2,825        3,696            4,464     4,542         5,039         5,378           4,967
   Otherf                         227          307              198       251           260           194             209

Drug offenses                   3,675        7,774           14,092    15,012        16,401        17,343          14,835
  Trafficking                   3,560        7,012           13,640    14,558        15,987        16,667          14,272
  Possession                      115          762              452       454           414           676             563

Public-order offenses           3,690        5,410            6,650     7,250         8,045         7,833           7,838
  Immigration                   1,017        1,412            1,876     1,742         1,741         2,099           2,243
  Weapons                         578        1,003            1,894     2,632         3,426         2,910           2,812
  Escape                          533          499              545       470           475           438             448
  Regulatory                      484          661              799       884           856           912             876
  Otherg                        1,078        1,835            1,536     1,522         1,547         1,474           1,459

                                                         d
Note: Data are from the BJS Federal Justice Statistics    Includes rape and other sex offenses.
                                                         e
Program. For 1980 and 1985, the data source is Fed-       Includes forgery, fraud, embezzlement, and counterfeiting.
eral Criminal Case Processing, 1980-90, with Prelimi-    f
                                                          Includes arson, transportation of stolen property, and other
nary Data for 1990.                                      property offenses.
 a                                                       g
   Includes all offenders sentenced to incarceration      Includes bribery, perjury, national defense, tax law violations
longer than 4 days. Excludes offenders with sus-         (excluding tax fraud), racketeering, extortion, gambling, liquor
pended sentences and those sentenced to time al-         offenses, traffic offenses, mail or transport of obscene materials,
ready sesrved.                                           and other public-order offenses.
 b
   Total may include offenders for whom the offense
category could not be determined.
 c
   Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and
negligent manslaughter.




20 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 1.22. Percent of offenders sentenced to Federal prison in U.S. district court,
by the most serious offense, 1980, 1985, 1990-94

Most                                         Number of offenders sentenced to Federal prisona
serious offense               1980         1985       1990        1991       1992         1993                1994

     Totalb                   100%          100%          100%      100%         100%          100%            100%

Violent offenses             12.9%          8.8%          7.1%      7.4%         7.8%          7.7%            7.7%
   Homicidec                   .8            .5            .5        .5           .1            .4              .7
   Sexual assaultd             .4            .7            .8        .8           .8            .7              .7
   Robbery                    9.1           5.9           4.6       4.9          5.5           5.6             5.2
   Assault                    1.9           1.2           1.0        .9           .8            .8              .9
   Other violent               .6            .4            .2        .3           .2            .2              .3

Property offenses            33.6%         27.2%      20.5%        19.7%        19.5%         20.0%           20.5%
   Burglary                    .6            .5         .3           .4           .3            .5              .4
   Larceny/theft              8.6           6.1        3.3          3.1          2.7           2.7             2.7
   Motor vehicle theft        2.3           1.3         .7           .6           .7            .9             1.0
   Fraud e                   20.5          17.9       15.6         14.9         15.0          15.4            15.7
   Otherf                     1.6           1.5         .7           .8           .8            .6              .7

Drug offenses                26.7%         37.7%      49.2%        49.1%        48.8%         49.8%           47.0%
  Trafficking                25.9          34.0       47.6         47.7         47.6          47.8            45.2
  Possession                   .8           3.7        1.6          1.5          1.2           1.9             1.8

Public-order offenses        26.8%          26.3%         23.2%    23.7%        23.9%         22.5%           24.8%
  Immigration                 7.4            6.9           6.5      5.7          5.2           6.0             7.1
  Weapons                     4.2            4.9           6.6      8.6         10.2           8.4             8.9
  Escape                      3.9            2.4           1.9      1.5          1.4           1.3             1.4
  Regulatory                  3.5            3.2           2.8      2.9          2.5           2.6             2.8
  Otherg                      7.8            8.9           5.4      5.0          4.6           4.2             4.6

                                                      d
Note: Data are from the BJS Federal Justice Statis-     Includes rape and other sex offenses.
                                                      e
tics Program.                                           Includes forgery, fraud, embezzlement, and counterfeiting.
a                                                     f
  Includes all offenders sentenced to incarceration     Includes arson, transportation of stolen property, and other
longer than 4 days. Excludes offenders with sus-      property offenses.
                                                      g
pended sentences and those sentenced to time al-        Includes bribery, perjury, national defense, tax law violations
ready served.                                         (excluding tax fraud), racketeering, extortion, gambling, liquor
b
  Percents exclude offenders for whom the offense     offenses, traffic offenses, mail or transport of obscene materi-
category could not be determined.                     als, and other public-order offenses.
c
  Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and
negligent manslaughter.




                                                                                                                          Introduction 21
Explanatory notes                                 admissions from the yearend base popu-            probation and parole agencies are
                                                  lation. The estimated distribution was           not always notified of new arrests, jail
The offense distributions of State prisoners      then used as the base population for the         entries, or prison admissions;
at yearend are estimated for 1980-93.             preceding year. This process was re-              absconders on agency caseloads in
Inmate surveys, conducted in November             peated until the previous survey year was        one jurisdiction may actually be
1979, March 1986, and August 1991, pro-           reached. Data from the 1991 survey               incarcerated in another jurisdiction;
vide estimates for the custody populations        were used to estimate data for 1990 back
at yearend 1979, 1985, and 1991. When                                                               individuals may be admitted to jail or
                                                  to 1986; data from the 1986 survey were          prison before formal revocation hear-
combined with counts by offense of annual         used to estimate data for 1984 back to
admissions and releases, these surveys pro-                                                        ings by a probation or parole agency.
                                                  1980.
vide the basis for estimating the offense dis-
tributions of the other years.                    5. Final estimates were obtained by cal-      By adding the number of persons on
                                                  culating a weighted sum of the forward        probation, on parole, in jail, and in prison,
The offense distributions were estimated us-      and backward estimates. The forward           we may count some persons more than
ing the following forward and backward            and backward estimates were weighted          once; consequently, the sum will be an
stock-flow procedures:                            inversely to the elapsed number of years      overestimate of the total number of
                                                  (up to 6 years) from the base population      persons under correctional supervision
1. To obtain a base population for each           and then summed. Forward weights              at any one time. The magnitude of the
survey year, survey estimates were applied        were reduced by one-sixth for each year       overestimation is not known; however,
to counts of the total sentenced jurisdictional   after the base survey year, and backward      data collected in previous BJS surveys
populations for the survey year. The 1979         weights were reduced by one-sixth for         of prison and jail inmates indicate that the
survey provided estimates for yearend 1979;       each year preceding the base survey           number of inmates doublecounted may
the 1986 survey for yearend 1985; and the         year. For example, in calculating the final   be small relative to the total population
1991 survey for yearend 1991.                     estimates for 1980, the forward estimates     under correctional supervision. Results
2. To obtain flow populations for each year,      based on the 1979 survey received a           from the 1989 Survey of Inmates of Local
the offense distributions of admissions and       weight of .83 (or 1 minus a sixth), and the   Jails indicated that 28% of the jail
releases (in percents) were drawn from an-        backward estimates based on the 1986          inmates were on probation and 10% were
nual reports of the National Prisoner Statis-     survey received a weight of .17 (or 1.0       on parole at the time of admission.
tics (1980-82) program and the National           minus five-sixths). The final estimates       Results from the 1991 Survey of Inmates
Corrections Reporting Program (1983-93).          were then converted to proportions.           in State Correctional Facilities indicated
These percents were then multiplied by the                                                      23% of the State prisoners on probation
                                                  6. Because the 1979, 1986, and 1991           and 22% on parole when entering prison.
total number of admissions and releases of        survey estimates were based on custody
sentenced prisoners to obtain an estimate of      counts, the final estimates (which were
the number of admissions and releases by                                                        If the survey results are applied to the
                                                  based on the sentenced jurisdictional         total jail and prison populations in 1994,
type of offense for each year.                    counts) were then converted to custody        and if all of these inmates are assumed
3. Forward estimates of the number of in-         counts. To estimate the number of in-         to have been doublecounted, then the
mates at yearend in nonsurvey years were          mates by offense, the total number of in-     total number of doublecounted inmates
estimated iteratively by adding admissions        mates in physical custody was multiplied      would be 612,000, or about 11.9% of the
and subtracting releases from the base            by the proportion of inmates in each of-      estimated correctional population. This is
populations. The estimated end of year dis-       fense category.                               an extreme assumption.
tribution was then used as the base popula-
tion for the next year. The process was then      Technical note                                Somewhat lower estimates are generated
repeated until the subsequent survey year                                                       if it is assumed that the survey figures
was reached. Data from the 1979 survey            To estimate the total correctional            should be applied only to those jail
were used for forward estimates for               populations in tables 1.1-1.5, the four       inmates who are unconvicted and to
1980-84; data from the 1986 survey, for           correctional populations are assumed to       prisoners who are technical violators of
1986-90; and data from the 1991 survey, for       contain individuals with only one status      parole or probation supervision. Under
1992-93.                                          at a time. This assumption may not be         this assumption, the doublecount would
                                                  valid. Multiple correctional statuses may     be an estimated 170,000 inmates, or
4. Backward estimates were obtained itera-        occur because 
tively by adding releases and subtracting                                                       3.5% of the total correctional population.


22 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
         Jail inmates in 1994


Tables
2.1   One-day population and average
      daily population of jail inmates,
      midyear 1990-94                   24

2.2   Demographic characteristics of jail
      inmates, midyear 1990-94          24

2.3   Number of local jail inmates and
      rates per 100,000 U.S. residents,
      midyear 1984-94                   25

2.4   Number of local jail inmates and
      rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, by
      race, midyear 1984-94             25

2.5   Jail capacity and occupancy,
      selected years, midyear
      1990-94                              26

2.6   The 25 largest local jail jurisdictions:
      Number of facilities and inmates
      and average daily population
      midyear 1988, 1993, and 1994 26

2.7   Standard error estimates,
      midyear 1994                         27

2.8   Standard error estimates for the
      number of inmates and rated
      capacity for the Annual Survey of
      Jails, midyear 1984-94            27

Figure
6     Number of jail inmates per
      100,000 U.S. residents, by race,
      1984-94                          25

Methodology                                28

Questionnaire                              29




                  Jail inmates in 1994     23
Table 2.1. One-day count and average daily population
of jail inmates, midyear 1990-94

                                                            Number of jail inmates
                                                                                               Annual
                                                                              Census           Survey
                                          Annual Survey of Jails              of Jails         of Jails
                                   1990           1991           1992            1993            1994

One-day count
  All inmates                     405,320         426,479        444,584         459,804       490,442

       Adults                     403,019         424,129        441,781         455,500       483,717
          Male                    365,821         384,628        401,106         411,500       434,838
          Female                   37,198          39,501         40,674          44,100        48,879
       Juveniles*                   2,301           2,350          2,804           4,300         6,725

Average daily population
  All inmates                     408,075         422,609        441,889         466,155       479,757

       Adults                     405,935         420,276        439,362         462,800                  --
          Male                    368,091         381,458        399,528         418,200                  --
          Female                   37,844          38,818         39,834          44,600                  --
       Juveniles*                   2,140           2,333          2,804           3,400                  --

Note: Data for 1-day counts are for June 30, 1988, 1989, 1992, 1993,
and 1994; June 29, 1990; and June 28, 1991. Data for detail for 1993
were estimated and rounded to the nearest hundred.
*Juveniles are persons defined by State statute as being under a cer-
tain age, usually 18, and subject initially to juvenile court authority
even if tried as adults in criminal court. In 1994 the survey's definition
of juveniles was changed to include all persons under age 18. Be-
cause about 1% of the jail population were juveniles, caution must be
used in interpreting any changes over time.
--Not available.




Table 2.2. Demographic characteristics of jail inmates, midyear 1990-94

                                                Number of jail inmates                                             Percent of jail inmates
Characteristic                    1990        1991     1992          1993            1994         1990          1991       1992          1993    1994

  Total                           405,320     426,479       444,584    459,804       490,442    100.0%         100.0%     100.0%      100.0%    100.0%

Sex
  Male                            368,002     386,865       403,768    415,600       441,219      90.8%        90.7%       90.8%       90.4%    90.0%
  Female                           37,318      39,614        40,816     44,200        49,223       9.2          9.3         9.2         9.6     10.0

Race/Hispanic origin
  White non-Hispanic              167,831     173,512       173,973    180,900       183,762      41.8%        41.1%       40.1%       39.3%    39.1%
  Black non-Hispanic              170,505     183,639       191,188    203,500       206,278      42.5         43.4        44.1        44.2     43.9
  Hispanic                         57,449      60,129        62,961     69,200        72,348      14.3         14.2        14.5        15.1     15.4
  Other*                            5,321       5,391         5,831      6,200         7,344       1.3          1.2         1.3         1.3      1.6

Note: Race/Hispanic origin was reported for 89.7% of inmates in 1990,
91.1% in 1991, 97.6% in 1992, 85.1% in 1993, and 95.8% in 1994.
*Includes Amercian Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders.




24 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 2.3. Local jail inmates and their number
per 100,000 U.S. residents, midyear 1984-94                        Figure 6. Number of jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents,
                        Number of local jail inmates
                                                                   by race, 1984-94
                      Per 100,000                  Per 100,000
                      residents                    residents age   Number of inmates in local jails
Year         All      of all ages       Adults     18 or older     per 100,000 U.S. residents in each group
1994      490,442          188         483,717          251        800
1993*     459,804          178         455,500          239
1992      444,584          174         441,781          234                                                                                 695
1991      426,479          169         424,129          277
1990      405,320          163         403,019          218
                                                                   600
1989      395,553          160         393,303          214
1988      343,569          141         341,893          189
1987      295,873          122         294,092          164                                  Blacks
1986      274,444          114         272,736          154
1985      256,615          108         254,986          145
                                                                   400
1984      234,500           99         233,018          134
Note: Inmate counts for midyear 1984-87, 1989-92,
and 1994 are survey estimates subject to sampling
error. For estimates of each year's sampling error,
see table 2.7.                                                     200                                                                      188
*The number of adult inmates was estimated and                                   All races
rounded to the nearest 100. See Methodology.                                                                            Whites              118


                                                                     0
                                                                     1984 1985           1987          1989         1991          1993 1994
Table 2.4. Number of local jail inmates and rates per
100,000 U.S. residents, by race, midyear 1984-94
                 Number of local jail inmates by race
                   Per 100,000                    Per 100,000
                   white U.S.                     black U.S.
Year       White   residents            Black     residents

1994     255,800          118         226,900          695
1993     239,500          111         214,100          665
1992     233,000          109         195,200          619
1991     229,900          109         188,300          604
1990     221,400          106         174,300          569

1989     220,700          106         171,300          568
1988     197,700           96         142,000          478
1987     176,700           86         115,000          392
1986     160,000           79         108,600          375
1985     147,600           73         105,200          368

1984     136,200            68         95,600          339
Note: Categories for black and white inmates include Hispan-
ics. Inmate counts for midyear 1984-87, 1989-92,
and 1994 are survey estimates subject to sampling
error. Data are estimated and rounded to the nearest 100.




                                                                                                                           Jail inmates in 1994   25
Table 2.5. Jail capacity and occupancy, midyear 1990-94
                                                                                                    Annual
                                                                                Census              Survey of
                                          Annual Survey of Jails                of Jails            Jails
                                   1990           1991           1992               1993              1994

Number of inmates                405,320        426,479         444,584             459,804          490,442

Rated capacity of jailsa         389,171        421,237         449,197             475,224          504,324

Percent of rated
capacity occupiedb                 104%           101%              99%                97%              97%

Amount of capacity addedc         21,402          32,066           27,960            26,027           29,100

Note: Data are for June 30, 1988, 1989, 1992, 1993, and 1994; June 29, 1990;
and June 28, 1991.
a
  Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned to facilities within each jurisdiction.
b
  Percent of rated capacity occupied is based on the 1-day count of inmates.
This ratio may include some inmates not in physical custody but under the
jurisdiction of a local jail, such as inmates on electronic monitoring, under
house arrest, or in day reporting or other community supervision programs.
c
  The amount of bedspace added during the 12 months before the survey or
census in each year.




Table 2.6. The 25 largest local jail jurisdictions: Number of facilities, inmates, and average daily population,
midyear 1988, 1993, and 1994
                                                                                                                 Change in number
                                        Number of facilities                    Number of inmates                of inmates             Average daily population*
Jurisdiction                          1988   1993        1994               1988     1993         1994          1988-94     1993-94    1988       1993        1994

Los Angeles County, CA                  12         8          9           21,782        20,065       20,113      (1,669)         48    22,246     23,232     19,725
New York City, NY                       14        15         15           15,227        17,307       18,171       2,944         864    15,401     17,488     18,091
Harris County, TX                        4         4          4            6,611         9,472       10,716       4,105       1,244     6,546     11,637     10,282
Dallas County, TX                        7         4          6            4,221         7,592        9,715       5,494       2,123     4,097      6,747      9,321
Cook County, IL                           /         /          /           6,148         9,054        9,092       2,944          38     5,700      8,851      8,950

Dade County, FL                            6       7          7             4,603          5,553      6,338       1,735         785     4,275      5,489      6,656
San Diego County, CA                      10      12         11             4,463          5,374      5,487       1,024         113     3,699      5,350      5,651
Orleans Parish, LA                          /      --        11             3,611              --     5,351       1,740           --    3,530          --     5,231
Tarrant County, TX                         5       4          4             2,390          4,408      5,317       2,927         909     2,366      4,508      5,167
Shelby County, TN                          2       2          2             3,411          6,451      5,124       1,713      (1,327)    2,857      6,426      4,891

Maricopa County, AZ                     10          7          7            3,722          4,478      5,170       1,448         692     3,626      4,641      4,862
Orange County, CA                        6          3          3            4,075          4,659      4,987         912         328     4,012      4,672      4,836
Philadelphia City, PA                    7          5          5            3,798          4,836      4,696         898        (140)    3,927      4,912      4,799
Santa Clara County, CA                  10          7          8            3,358          4,237      4,303         945          66     3,382      4,451      4,103
Bexar County, TX                          /         /          /            1,270          3,740      4,301       3,031         561     1,447      3,400      3,882

San Bernardino County, CA                  2        2          2            2,192          2,999      3,136         944        137      2,053      3,146      3,188
Broward County, FL                         3        3          3            2,516          2,921      3,367         851        446      2,629      2,892      3,165
Orange County, FL                          4        /          /            2,309          3,096      3,470       1,161        374      2,374      3,386      3,162
Baltimore City, MD                         6        5          5            2,745          3,112      3,350         605        238      2,773      3,011      3,160
Alameda County, CA                         5        2          3            3,079          3,281      3,330         251         49      3,040      3,604      3,098

Sacramento County, CA                      3        2          2            2,548          2,741      2,954         406        213      2,214      2,976      2,852
Fulton County, GA                         11        4          4            3,233          2,702      2,684        (549)       (18)     3,063      2,529      2,524
Travis County, TX                          3        3          3              899          2,065      2,636       1,737        571        779      2,106      2,463
Wayne County, MI                           2         /         3            1,693          2,280      2,499         806        219      1,717      2,160      2,400
Duval County, FL                           3        3          3            1,684          2,423      2,775       1,091        352      1,392      2,366      2,383

Note: The jurisdictions are ranked by their average daily population in 1994.
Negative numbers are in parentheses.
--Not available.
/These jurisdictions provided a single report covering all of their jail facilities.
*Based on the average daily population for the year ending June 30.




26 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 2.7. Standard error estimates, midyear 1994
                                                              Relative
                                                   Standard   standard
Characteristic                        Estimate     error      error (percent)

One-day count
 All inmates                          490,442         2,471         .5%
   Adults                             483,717         2,459         .5
      Male                            434,838         2,331         .5
      Female                           48,879           384         .8
   Juveniles                            6,725           174        2.6
      Held as adults                    5,139           128        2.5
      Held as juveniles                 1,586           104        6.6

Average daily population              479,757         2,156          .5%

Rated capacity                        504,324         3,221          .6%

Sex
 Male                                 441,219         2,339          .5%
 Female                                49,223           389          .8

Race/Hispanic origin
 White non-Hispanic                   183,762         1,932        1.1%
 Black non-Hispanic                   206,278         1,862         .9
 Hispanic                              72,348           930        1.3
 Other*                                 7,344           331        4.5

*Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific
Islanders, and persons of other races.




Table 2.8. Standard error estimates for the number of inmates
and rated capacity for the Annual Survey of Jails, midyear 1984-94

                      Number of inmates                                    Rated capacity
                                         Relative                                       Relative
                          Estimated      standard                       Estimated       standard
                          standard       error                          standard        error
Year        Number        error          (percent)            Number    error           (percent)


1994        490,442          2,471          .50%              504,324        3,221          .64%

1992        444,584          2,076          .47               449,197        2,693          .60
1991        426,479          2,151          .50               421,237        2,522          .60
1990        405,320          1,778          .44               389,171        2,249          .58
1989        395,553          1,583          .40               367,769        2,042          .56

1987        295,873          1,687          .57               301,198        2,192          .73
1986        274,444          1,465          .53               285,726        2,093          .73
1985        256,615          1,459          .57               272,830        2,062          .76
1984        234,500          1,105          .47               261,432        1,911          .73




                                                                                                    Jail inmates in 1994   27
Methodology                                      Data were obtained by mailed question-        Measures of population
                                                 naires. After followup phone calls to non-
Annual Survey of Jails                           respondents, the response rate for the        Two measures of inmate population are
                                                 survey was 100%.                              used: the average daily population for the
In each of the 4 years between the                                                             year ending June 30 and the inmate count
full censuses, a survey of jails is con-         National estimates for the inmate popula-     on June 30 of each year. The average
ducted to estimate baseline characteristics      tion on June 30, 1994, were produced by       daily population balances out any extraor-
of the Nation's jails and the inmates            sex, race/Hispanic origin, and age group      dinary events that may render atypical the
housed in these jails. The 1994 Annual           and for the average daily population during   inmate count on June 30. The June 30
Survey of Jails is the 10th such survey in a     the year ending June 30, 1994. National       count provides data on characteristics
series begun in 1982. The reference date         estimates were also produced for rated        of inmates, such as race, Hispanic origin,
for the 1994 survey was June 30, 1994.           capacity.                                     and age, that may not be available on
                                                                                               an annual basis.
Using information from the 1993 Census           Sampling error
of Jails, a new sample of jail jurisdictions                                                   Juveniles
was selected for the 1994 survey. A juris-       Survey estimates have an associated
diction is a county (parish in Louisiana)        sampling error because jurisdictions with     State statutes and judicial practices allow
or municipal government that administers         smaller average daily populations were        juveniles to be incarcerated in adult jails
one or more local jails. The sample              sampled for the survey. Estimates based       under a variety of circumstances. Be-
included all jails in 796 selected jail juris-   on the sample survey may differ somewhat      cause of the differing statutes and prac-
dictions and 23 multijurisdiction jails. A       from the results of conducting a complete     tices, however, accurate and comparable
multi-jurisdiction jail is one in which two      census. Different samples could yield         data on juveniles are difficult to collect.
or more jurisdictions have a formal agree-       somewhat different results. Standard error    The 1994 Annual Survey of Jails provides
ment to operate the facility.                    is a measure of the variation among the       new and more accurate estimates of the
                                                 estimates from all possible samples, stat-    juvenile population. For the first time the
In drawing the sample for 1994, jail juris-      ing the precision with which an estimate      survey provides estimates of the total
dictions were first stratified into two          from a particular sample approximates the     number of jail inmates under age 18, the
groups: single-jurisdiction jails and multiju-   average of all possible samples. The esti-    number held as adults, and the number
risdiction jails. All of the multijurisdiction   mated relative sampling error for the total   held as juveniles. New sampling proce-
jails were included in the survey. The           inmate population of 490,442 on June 30,      dures were also introduced in 1994 to
remaining jurisdictions were then further        1994, was 0.50%. (See tables 2.7 and          minimize the standard errors of these esti-
stratified into two groups: jurisdictions        2.8.)                                         mates. By stratifying jurisdictions based
with jails authorized to hold juveniles and                                                    on the authority to house juveniles, the
jurisdictions with jails holding adults only.                                                  precision of the juvenile counts was
Jurisdictions were then selected based                                                         improved.
on the average daily population in the
1993 census. All jails in 203 jurisdictions
were automatically included if the jurisdic-
tion held juveniles and had an average
daily population of 250 or more inmates
in 1993 or if it held only adults and had an
average population of 500 or more. The
other jurisdictions (593) were then selected
based on stratified probability sampling.




28 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
            Probation in 1994


Tables

Adults on probation, 1994

3.1  Characteristics              32
3.2  Counts, January 1
     and December 31              33
3.3 Status of probation           34
3.4 Status of supervision         35
3.5 Adults entering probation,
     by type of sentence          36
3.6 Adults leaving probation,
     by type of exit              37
3.7 Sex and Hispanic origin       38
3.8 Race                          39
3.9 Type of offense               40
3.10 Intensive supervision and
     electronic monitoring        41

Explanatory notes
by jurisdiction                   42

Questionnaire                     47




                    Probation in 1994 31
Table 3.1. Characteristics of adults on probation, 1994

                                                       Number of adults
                                                       on probation       Percent of those
                                                       from State or      persons with a
Characteristic                                         Federal courts     known status

    Total number of adults on probation                     2,964,171            100%

Status of probation                                         1,534,386            100%

  Execution of sentence suspended                             408,784             27
  Imposition of sentence suspended                            135,509              9
  Direct imposition of probation                              749,645             49
  Split sentence (incarceration with probation)               159,544             10
  Other                                                        80,904              5

Status of supervision                                       2,633,237            100%

  Active supervision                                        2,067,461             79
  Inactive supervision                                        226,928              9
  Absconded from supervision                                  252,358             10
  Supervised out of State                                      54,613              2
  Other                                                        31,878              1

Adults entering probation                                   1,046,829            100%

  Probation without incarceration                             692,112             66
  Probation with incarceration                                 99,728             10
  Probation of other types                                    254,989             24

Adults leaving probation                                    1,200,230            100%

  Successful completions                                      717,720             60
  Returned to incarceration                                   222,604             19
   With new sentence                                           54,806              5
   With the same sentence                                     167,798             14
  Death                                                         6,583              1
  Other type of exit                                          253,323             21

Sex of adults on probation                                  2,182,359            100%

  Male                                                      1,749,007             80
  Female                                                      433,352             20

Race of adults on probation                                 2,171,271            100%

  White                                                     1,440,502             66
  Black                                                       705,180             32
  American Indian/Alaska Native                                17,288              1
  Asian/Pacific Islander                                        8,301              --

Hispanic origin of adults on probation                      1,627,929            100%

  Hispanic                                                    240,259             15
  Non-Hispanic                                              1,387,670             85

Type of offense of adults on probation                      2,327,369            100%

  Felony                                                    1,254,596             54
  Misdemeanor                                                 629,593             27
  Driving while intoxicated                                   386,441             17
  Other infractions                                            56,739              2

Note: See the detailed tables, the questionnaire, and the
Explanatory notes for definitions, limitations, and exceptions.
For every characteristic there were persons of unknown
status or type; their numbers are in the detailed tables.
Jurisdictions failed to report data for 48% of "status of
probation," 11% of "status of supervision," 65% of "adults
entering probation," 60% of "adults leaving probation," 26%
of "sex of adults on probation," 27% of "race of adults on
probation," 45% of "Hispanic origin of adults on probation,"
and 21% of "type of offense of adults on probation."
--Less than 0.5%.




32 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 3.2. Adults on probation, 1994

                                                                                                                           Number on
                                                                                                         Percent change    probation
                           Probation                                                   Probation         in probation      on 12/31/94 per
Region and                 population                        1994                      population        population dur-   100,000 adult
jurisdiction               1/1/94                Entries                  Exits        12/31/94          ing 1994          residents

     U.S. total             2,903,061           1,397,505               1,340,630       2,964,171             2.1%             1,541

    Federal                    48,358              20,692                  24,003          45,047             -6.8%               23
    State                   2,854,703           1,376,813               1,316,627       2,919,124                2             1,518

Northeast                    486,827              215,016                192,814          508,986             4.6%             1,310
 Connecticut                  50,904               35,983                 33,434           53,453               5              2,149
 Mainea                        8,712                     :                      :           8,669              -1                928
 Massachusettsb               47,154               36,036                 36,518           46,672              -1              1,011
 New Hampshire                 4,125                2,646                  2,448            4,323               5                512
 New Jersey                  109,576               42,915                 45,570          106,921              -2              1,790
 New York                    155,932               48,054                 39,417          164,569               6              1,205
 Pennsylvania                 88,180               37,749                 26,405           99,524              13              1,087
 Rhode Island                 16,186                8,968                  6,975           18,179              12              2,401
 Vermont                       6,058                2,665                  2,047            6,676              10              1,538

Midwest                      620,125              355,570                340,230          638,894             3.0%             1,412
 Illinois                     78,464               60,911                 59,909           79,466               1                917
 Indiana                      82,705               34,737                 38,442           83,555               1              1,953
 Iowa                         15,376               11,287                 11,161           15,502               1                738
 Kansasa                      24,255               11,427                 11,564           24,102              -1              1,293
 Michigana,c                 139,753               57,673                 53,061          143,178               3              2,054
 Minnesota                    75,961               58,839                 52,828           81,972               8              2,465
 Missouria,b,c                36,000               18,867                 17,982           36,295               1                931
 Nebraskad                    15,483               15,303                 13,232           17,554             13               1,486
 North Dakota                  1,989                1,229                  1,212            2,006               1                430
 Ohioa,c                     103,377               61,408                 59,054          105,953               3              1,285
 South Dakotae                 3,637                4,137                  4,364            3,410              -6                665
 Wisconsina                   43,125               19,752                 17,421           45,901               6              1,229

South                       1,180,579             559,549                536,659        1,207,675             2.3%             1,800
 Alabamaa,b,c                  31,460                    :                      :          36,024              15              1,148
 Arkansas                      16,928               6,378                  4,708           18,598              10              1,026
 Delawareb                     15,571               7,473                  7,537           15,507               0              2,920
 District of Col.               8,264               6,677                  6,616            8,325               1              1,846
 Floridaa,c                   235,805             130,112                125,247          239,108               1              2,237
 Georgiaa,c                   145,230              66,300                 70,663          140,684              -3              2,725
 Kentucky                      11,689               5,380                  5,652           11,417              -2                400
 Louisiana                     32,434              11,649                 10,479           33,604               4              1,091
 Maryland                      80,208              35,434                 38,702           76,940              -4              2,056
 Mississippi                    9,219               3,684                  3,862           10,295              12                538
 North Carolina                86,212              43,826                 40,149           89,889               4              1,692
 Oklahomaa,c                   25,738              13,263                 12,650           26,484               3              1,114
 South Carolina                38,658              15,656                 13,858           40,456               5              1,492
 Tennesseec                    35,293              19,541                 19,107           35,727               1                921
 Texasf                       378,531             173,284                157,237          394,578               4              3,017
 Virginia                      23,619              18,981                 18,511           24,089               2                487
 West Virginiaa,b               5,720               1,911                  1,681            5,950               4                427

West                         567,172              246,678                246,924          563,569             - .6%            1,370
 Alaskaa                       3,214                  603                    644            3,173               -1               766
 Arizonac                     35,534               12,529                 11,147           36,916                4             1,257
 California                  302,645              120,055                137,595          285,105               -6             1,253
 Coloradoa,c                  35,111               24,655                 23,830           36,430                4             1,356
 Hawaii                       11,053                6,745                  5,283           12,515              13              1,430
 Idahoa                        4,749                2,783                  1,315            5,153                9               649
 Montana                       5,572                1,727                  1,658            5,641                1               913
 Nevada                        8,826                5,246                  4,662            9,410                7               870
 New Mexicob                   8,367                6,233                  5,930            8,670                4               750
 Oregon                       37,902               12,415                 12,231           38,086                1             1,654
 Utah                          7,348                3,675                  3,385            7,638                4               618
 Washingtona,c               103,615               47,947                 37,325          111,450                8             2,832
 Wyoming                       3,236                2,065                  1,919            3,382                5               998
                                                                    c
:Not available.                                                       See Explanatory notes for more detail.
                                                                    d
a
 Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the population on De-     January 1, 1994, population count is estimated.
                                                                    e
cember 31, 1994, does not equal the population on January 1,          Data are for year beginning July 1, 1994.
                                                                    f
1994, plus entries minus exits.                                       Total exits are estimated.
b
 All data are estimated.




                                                                                                                                             Probation in 1994   33
Table 3.3. Adults on probation, by status of probation, 1994

                           Probation       Execution     Imposition    Direct im-    Split sentence    Other, un-
Region and                 population      of sentence   of sentence   position of   (incarceration    known, or
jurisdiction               12/31/94        suspended     suspended     probation     with probation)   not reported

   U.S. total               2,964,171        408,784       135,509       749,645        159,544         1,510,689

 Federal                       45,047               :             :             :              :           45,047
 State                      2,919,124        408,784       135,509       749,645        159,544         1,465,642

Northeast                     508,986         42,024        11,128       236,039         38,788          181,007
 Connecticut                   53,453         34,561        10,436             0          8,456                0
 Maine                          8,669               :             :             :              :           8,669
 Massachusetts                 46,672               :             :             :              :          46,672
 New Hampshirea                 4,323          2,940           346         1,037              0                0
 New Jersey                   106,921               :             :             :              :         106,921
 New Yorkb                    164,569             ...           ...      135,824         28,179              566
 Pennsylvania                  99,524              0           346        99,178              0                0
 Rhode Island                  18,179               :             :             :              :          18,179
 Vermont                        6,676          4,523              0            0          2,153                0

Midwest                       638,894         53,353        24,620       167,075         41,552          352,294
 Illinois                      79,466               :             :       60,911               :          18,555
 Indianab                      83,555              0         2,380        55,240         16,141            9,794
 Iowa                          15,502               :             :             :              :          15,502
 Kansas                        24,102               :             :             :              :          24,102
 Michigan                     143,178          1,718         1,321        26,192          8,830          105,117
 Minnesota                     81,972               :             :             :              :          81,972
 Missouria                     36,295         14,824        18,262           467          2,742                0
 Nebraska                      17,554              0             0        15,303              0            2,251
 North Dakotab                  2,006          1,365           641             0              0                0
 Ohio                         105,953         35,446         2,016         8,962         13,839           45,690
 South Dakota                   3,410               :             :             :              :           3,410
 Wisconsin                     45,901              0             0             0              0           45,901

South                       1,207,675        280,880        93,616       312,026         48,529          472,624
 Alabamaa,b                    36,024          7,400             0              0           169           28,455
 Arkansas                      18,598               :             :             :              :          18,598
 Delaware                      15,507               :             :             :              :          15,507
 Distric of Col.b               8,325               :             :        7,967            358                0
 Florida                      239,108          1,966         5,440       201,431         10,158           20,113
 Georgiab                     140,684          1,654             0        18,584         17,392          103,054
 Kentuckyb                     11,417              0             0        11,403              0               14
 Louisiana                     33,604             ...           ...       33,061            543                0
 Maryland                      76,940         63,311         9,557            ...         4,072                0
 Mississippi                   10,295               :             :             :              :          10,295
 North Carolina                89,889         83,182         1,206              0         5,501                0
 Oklahomab                     26,484         11,994         9,762         1,514          2,652              562
 South Carolina                40,456               :             :       35,102          5,354                0
 Tennesseeb                    35,727          5,680         2,022         1,002          2,330           24,693
 Texasb                       394,578        105,693        65,629         1,962               :         221,294
 Virginia                      24,089               :             :              :             :          24,089
 West Virginia                  5,950               :             :             :              :           5,950

West                          563,569         32,527         6,145        34,505         30,675          459,717
 Alaska                         3,173               :              :            :              :           3,173
 Arizona                       36,916              0              0           94            745           36,077
 California                   285,105               :              :            :              :         285,105
 Colorado                      36,430          5,581           295           603          1,481           28,470
 Hawaiia                       12,515               :              :      12,265               :             250
 Idahoa                         5,153          3,143            ...          361               :           1,649
 Montana                        5,641               :             :             :              :           5,641
 Nevada                         9,410               :              :       9,410               :               0
 New Mexicoa                    8,670            353              0            0            823            7,494
 Oregona,b                     38,086          3,341         3,341         7,156         23,563              685
 Utah                           7,638          7,613             25            0              0                0
 Washington                   111,450         11,004         2,070         3,395          3,808           91,173
 Wyoming                        3,382          1,492           414         1,221            255                0
:Not available.
...Not applicable.
a
 Detailed data are estimated for status of probation.
b
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.




34 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 3.4. Adults on probation, by status of supervision, 1994


                               Probation                        Number of adults on probation                Other, un-
Region and                     population,                      in each status of supervision                known, or
jurisdiction                   12/31/94             Active       Inactive       Absconded     Out-of-State   not reported

     U.S. total                 2,964,171          2,067,461     226,928        252,358           54,613       362,812

    Federal                        45,047             39,045       2,110          3,892                0             0
    State                       2,919,124          2,028,416     224,818        248,466           54,613       362,812

Northeast                         508,986            371,719      79,503           1,742           7,828        48,194
 Connecticut                       53,453             36,776      16,677               0               0             0
  Mainea                            8,669              7,318           0           1,024             252            75
 Massachusetts                     46,672                   :           :              :               :        46,672
 New Hampshire                      4,323              2,697       1,186               0             440             0
 New Jersey                       106,921             85,664      17,782                :          3,475             0
 New Yorka                        164,569            160,587         721                :          2,071         1,190
 Pennsylvania                      99,524             61,014      37,966             118             169           257
 Rhode Island                      18,179             12,041       5,134               0           1,004             0
 Vermont                            6,676              5,622          37             600             417             0

Midwest                           638,894            330,380      26,961         17,182            7,610       256,761
 Illinoisa,b                       79,466             79,466           0              0                 :            0
 Indiana                           83,555                   :           :              :                :       83,555
 Iowa                              15,502             15,502            0              0               0             0
 Kansas                            24,102                   :           :              :                :       24,102
 Michigan                         143,178             90,580       7,882          6,133            2,456        36,127
 Minnesota                         81,972                   :           :              :                :       81,972
 Missouric                         36,295             33,376         299              0            2,620             0
 Nebraska                          17,554             15,303           0              0                0         2,251
 North Dakotaa                      2,006              1,748           0              0              258             0
 Ohio                             105,953             52,015      18,728          5,873              954        28,383
 South Dakotad                      3,410              3,410          ...            ...               0             0
 Wisconsina                        45,901             38,980          52          5,176            1,322           371

South                           1,207,675            871,942      96,165        192,842           29,493        17,233
 Alabamaa,c                        36,024             23,247      11,635            225              917             0
 Arkansas                          18,598             12,604       2,155          2,723            1,116             0
 Delawarec                         15,507              7,888       3,366          2,488            1,765             0
 District of Columbia               8,325              7,946           11            51              317             0
 Florida                          239,108            150,577       8,858         71,575            7,013         1,085
 Georgia                          140,684            136,665         103          3,916                0             0
 Kentucky                          11,417             11,417            :              :                :            0
 Louisiana                         33,604             30,296          ...         2,079            1,229             0
 Marylanda                         76,940             36,426      26,810         10,882            2,132           690
 Mississippia                      10,295              8,117       1,254              0              924             0
 North Carolina                    89,889             72,537       3,388         11,112            2,852             0
 Oklahoma                          26,484             19,214       3,601          3,669                0             0
 South Carolinaa                   40,456             32,711         948          5,452            1,217           128
 Tennessee                         35,727             27,155       4,556          4,016                0             0
 Texasa                           394,578            271,053      29,480         74,654           10,011         9,380
 Virginia                          24,089             24,089            0             0                0             0
 West Virginia                      5,950                   :           :              :                :        5,950

West                              563,569            454,375      22,189         36,700            9,682        40,624
 Alaskac                            3,173              2,866            0           172              135             0
 Arizona                           36,916             25,326           0          6,005            3,386         2,199
 California                       285,105            285,105            :              :                :            0
 Colorado                          36,430             20,245       1,496            795              905        12,989
 Hawaii                            12,515                   :           :              :                :       12,515
 Idahoa                             5,153              4,174         264            142              573             0
 Montana                            5,641                   :           :              :                :        5,641
 Nevadaa                            9,410              7,038          ...           900            1,472             0
 New Mexicoc                        8,670              7,168         797              0              705             0
 Oregon                            38,086             24,985         851         11,096            1,154             0
 Utah                               7,638              6,622            0           716              300             0
 Washington                       111,450             68,602      18,781         16,507              610         6,951
 Wyominga                           3,382              2,244          ...           367              442           329
: Not available.
...Not applicable.
a
  See Explanatory notes for more detail.
b
  Excludes absconders.
c
  Detailed data are estimated for status of supervision.




                                                                                                                            Probation in 1994   35
Table 3.5. Adults entering probation, by type of sentence, 1994

                                             Number of adults entering probation
                                            Probation          Probation         Other,
Region and                                  without            with              unknown, or
jurisdiction                Total           incarceration      incarceration     not reported

   U.S. total             1,397,505            692,112            99,728           570,928

 Federal                     20,692             20,047               645                 0
 State                    1,376,813            672,065            99,083           570,928

Northeast                   215,016             78,956             9,041           127,019
 Connecticut                 35,983                  :                  :           35,983
 Maine                             :                  :                 :                0
 Massachusetts               36,036                  :                  :           36,036
 New Hampshire                2,646                  :                  :            2,646
 New Jerseya                 42,915                   :                 :           42,915
 New Yorka                   48,054             39,459             8,407               188
 Pennsylvaniaa               37,749             37,466                 0               283
 Rhode Island                 8,968                  :                  :            8,968
 Vermont                      2,665              2,031               634                 0

Midwest                     355,570            122,238            30,982           167,613
 Illinois                    60,911                   :                 :           60,911
 Indiana                     34,737                   :                 :                0
 Iowa                        11,287             11,287                 0                 0
 Kansas                      11,427             11,427                 0                 0
 Michigan                    57,673             29,245            11,007            17,421
 Minnesota                   58,839                   :                 :           58,839
 Missourib                   18,867             17,165             1,702                 0
 Nebraskab                   15,303             11,443             3,860                 0
 North Dakotaa                1,229              1,229                 0                 0
 Ohio                        61,408             40,442            14,413             6,553
 South Dakota                 4,137                   :                 :            4,137
 Wisconsina                  19,752                  0                 0            19,752

South                       559,549            317,772            29,460           212,317
 Alabamaa                          :                  :                  :               0
 Arkansas                     6,378                   :                 :            6,378
 Delaware                     7,473                   :                  :           7,473
 District of Columbia         6,677              6,319               358                 0
 Florida                    130,112            121,411             6,663             2,038
 Georgiaa                    66,300             56,609             4,979             4,712
 Kentucky                     5,380              5,380                ...                0
 Louisianaa                  11,649             11,218               410                21
 Maryland                    35,434             28,766             6,668                 0
 Mississippi                  3,684              2,828               856                 0
 North Carolinaa             43,826             41,053             2,016               757
 Oklahoma                    13,263             10,660             2,603                 0
 South Carolina              15,656             13,840             1,816                 0
 Tennesseea                  19,541              6,235             3,091            10,215
 Texas                      173,284                   :                 :          173,284
 Virginiaa                   18,981             13,453                  0            5,528
 West Virginia                1,911                   :                 :            1,911

West                        246,678            153,099            29,600             63,979
 Alaskab                      603.0                   :              603                  0
 Arizona                     12,529                 26               280             12,223
 Californiaa                120,055            120,055                  :                 0
 Colorado                    24,655              7,505             1,401             15,749
 Hawaii                       6,745                   :                 :             6,745
 Idahob                       2,783              1,443             1,340                  0
 Montana                      1,727                   :                 :             1,727
 Nevada                       5,246              5,246                ...                 0
 New Mexico                   6,233                   :                 :             6,233
 Oregonb                     12,415              4,327             7,368                720
 Utaha                        3,675              1,680             1,953                 42
 Washngton                   47,947             12,817            16,655             18,475
 Wyoming                      2,065                       :             :             2,065
: Not available.
a
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.
b
 Detailed data are estimated for entries.




36 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 3.6. Adults leaving probation, by type of exit, 1994

                                                        Number of adults leaving probation
                                                                   Incarcerated
                                                            With             Under                    Other, un-
Region and                                     Successful   new              current                  known, or
jurisdiction                     Total         completion   sentence         sentence        Death    not reported

    U.S. total                 1,340,630           717,720     54,124         168,535        6,583     393,723

  Federal a                       24,003            16,381      2,272               0          225       5,125
  State                        1,316,627           701,339     51,852         168,535        6,358     388,598

Northeast                        192,814            83,912      9,959            2,152       1,238      95,553
 Connecticut                      33,434                  :          :                :          :      33,434
 Maine                                  :                 :          :                :           :          0
 Massachusetts                    36,518                  :         :                 :          :      36,518
 New Hampshire                     2,448             2,089          0              347          12           0
 New Jersey a                     45,570            28,037      1,649                 :        404      15,480
 New Yorka                        39,417            24,302      5,497               ...        657       8,961
 Pennsylvaniab                    26,405            22,179      1,139            1,762         165       1,160
 Rhode Island                      6,975             6,028        947                 :          0           0
 Vermont                           2,047             1,277        727               43           0           0

Midwest                          340,230           168,627      7,105           12,702         645     151,151
 Illinois                         59,909            41,553          0              516            :     17,840
 Indiana                          38,442                  :          :                :           :     38,442
 Iowaa                            11,161             8,026        825              886           0       1,424
 Kansasb                          11,564             7,245      1,054            1,055           0       2,210
 Michigan                         53,061            30,378      2,382            3,085          93      17,123
 Minnesota                        52,828                  :          :                :           :     52,828
 Missouria,b                      17,982            13,719        977            2,901         172         213
 Nebraskaa                        13,232             8,596        486              486          41       3,623
 North Dakotaa                     1,212               735        160              227           6          84
 Ohio                             59,054            41,841      1,221            3,546         251      12,195
 South Dakotaa                     4,364             4,158          0                0           0         206
 Wisconsina                       17,421            12,376          0                0          82       4,963

South                            536,659           312,062     29,084           87,522       4,114     103,877
 Alabama a                              :                 :          :                :           :          0
 Arkansasa                         4,708             2,470        647              284          63       1,244
 Delaware                          7,537                  :          :                :           :      7,537
 District of Col.a                 6,616             3,573          0            1,919           0       1,124
 Florida                         125,247            60,568     11,282           29,074         696      23,627
 Georgia a                        70,663            45,784      2,823            5,840         352      15,864
 Kentucky                          5,652             3,760        192            1,475           0         225
 Louisiana a                      10,479             6,449        573            1,978         155       1,324
 Marylanda                        38,702            18,284      3,667            4,617         460      11,674
 Mississippi                       3,862             1,804          0                0            :      2,058
 North Carolinaa                  40,149            26,911           :          12,822         416           0
 Oklahomaa                        12,650            10,040        825              710          84         991
 South Carolinaa                  13,858            10,105        986            2,160         198         409
 Tennesseea                       19,107             6,618          0              573          16      11,900
 Texasa,b                        157,237           108,454      8,089           26,070       1,552      13,072
 Virginiaa                        18,511             7,242          0                0         122      11,147
 West Virginia                     1,681                  :          :                :           :      1,681

West                             246,924           136,738      5,704           66,159         361      37,962
 Alaskab                             644               644          0                0           0           0
 Arizona a                        11,147             7,542      1,474            1,475           2         654
 Californiaa                     137,595            68,132           :          57,276            :     12,187
 Colorado                         23,830            16,311      1,338            1,537           4       4,640
 Hawaii                            5,283                  :          :                :           :      5,283
 Idaho                             1,315             1,315           :                :           :          0
 Montana                           1,658                  :          :                :           :      1,658
 Nevadaa                           4,662             3,188      1,419                 :         55           0
 New Mexico a,b                    5,930             3,639          0              673          46       1,572
 Oregon                           12,231             9,028        768            2,064          95         276
 Utaha                             3,385             2,749        120              254          27         235
 Washington                       37,325            22,993        997            2,143         126      11,066
 Wyominga                          1,919             1,197        270                0           6         446
: Not available.
 a
  See Explanatory notes for more detail.
 b
   Detailed data are estimated for type of exit.




                                                                                                                     Probation in 1994   37
Table 3.7. Adults on probation, by sex and Hispanic origin, 1994

                                                                   Number of adults on probation
                        Probation                        Sex                                   Hispanic origin
Region and              population                                Not                          Non-              Not
jurisdiction            12/31/94            Male       Female     reported       Hispanic      Hispanic          reported

   U.S. total            2,964,171        1,749,007    433,352    781,812        240,259           1,387,670     1,336,242

 Federal                    45,047           33,319     11,728          0              :                   :        45,047
 State                   2,919,124        1,715,688    421,624    781,812        240,259           1,387,670     1,291,195

Northeast                  508,986          280,084     55,798    173,104          54,594           315,093       139,299
 Connecticuta,b             53,453           44,793      8,660          0           7,888            45,565             0
 Maine                       8,669            6,493        893      1,283                :                 :        8,669
 Massachusetts              46,672                :          :     46,672                :                :        46,672
 New Hampshirea,b            4,323            3,718        605          0             216             4,107             0
 New Jerseyb               106,921                 :          :   106,921          14,435            92,486             0
 New York                  164,569          139,258     25,262         49          28,141            70,649        65,779
 Pennsylvaniaa,b            99,524           80,270     19,254          0           3,914            95,610             0
 Rhode Island               18,179                 :          :    18,179                :                 :       18,179
 Vermontb                    6,676            5,552      1,124          0               0             6,676             0

Midwest                    638,894          343,103     89,657    206,134          10,443           235,861       392,590
 Illinoisa                  79,466           68,341     11,125          0                :                 :       79,466
 Indiana                    83,555                 :          :    83,555                :                 :       83,555
 Iowa                       15,502                 :          :    15,502                :                 :       15,502
 Kansas                     24,102           18,858      5,092        152           1,293            22,073           736
 Michigan                  143,178           45,485     15,317     82,376           1,438            30,745       110,995
 Minnesota                  81,972           65,234     16,738          0           3,062            76,712         2,198
 Missouria                  36,295           28,675      7,620          0                :                 :       36,295
 Nebraska                   17,554           13,740      3,814          0           1,001            16,553             0
 North Dakota                2,006            1,596        410          0              62             1,944             0
 Ohio                      105,953           65,659     19,155     21,139           1,144            56,579        48,230
 South Dakota                3,410                 :          :     3,410                :                 :        3,410
 Wisconsin                  45,901           35,515     10,386          0           2,443            31,255        12,203

South                    1,207,675          911,148    231,001      65,526       152,889            686,126       368,660
 Alabamaa,c                 36,024            8,837        874      26,313              :                  :       36,024
 Arkansas                   18,598           14,134      4,464           0           157                   :       18,441
 Delawarea,b                15,507           12,628      2,879           0           548             14,959             0
 District of Columbia        8,325            6,577      1,748           0           321              8,004             0
 Florida                   239,108          171,593     47,557      19,958        17,796            214,742         6,570
 Georgia                   140,684          114,048     26,636           0         1,128            131,364         8,192
 Kentucky                   11,417                 :          :     11,417              :                  :       11,417
 Louisiana                  33,604           26,934      6,670           0              :                  :       33,604
 Maryland                   76,940           63,339     13,601           0              :                  :       76,940
 Mississippia               10,295            7,142      1,899       1,254              :                  :       10,295
 North Carolina             89,889           71,314     18,575           0              :                  :       89,889
 Oklahoma                   26,484           19,505      6,345         634           976             24,874           634
 South Carolina             40,456           34,685      5,771           0              :                  :       40,456
 Tennesseec                 35,727           28,735      6,992           0              :             5,479        30,248
 Texasa                    394,578          313,051     81,527           0       131,835            262,743             0
 Virginia                   24,089           18,626      5,463           0           128             23,961             0
 West Virginia               5,950                 :          :      5,950              :                  :        5,950

West                       563,569          181,353     45,168    337,048          22,333           150,590       390,646
 Alaskaa                     3,173            2,675        498          0              46             3,127             0
 Arizona                    36,916              753         86     36,077             298               541        36,077
 California                285,105                 :          :   285,105                :                 :      285,105
 Colorado                   36,430           26,913      6,770      2,747           7,456            24,592         4,382
 Hawaiia                    12,515            9,761      2,754          0                :                 :       12,515
 Idahoa,b                    5,153            4,122      1,031          0             433             4,720             0
 Montana                     5,641            4,630      1,011          0             132             5,509             0
 Nevadaa,b                   9,410            7,434      1,976          0           1,008             8,402             0
 New Mexicoa,b               8,670            7,027      1,643          0           2,311             5,598           761
 Oregon                     38,086           30,984      7,102          0           2,735            35,351             0
 Utah                        7,638            6,140      1,498          0             840             6,606           192
 Washington                111,450           78,228     20,103     13,119           6,823            53,013        51,614
 Wyoming                     3,382            2,686        696          0             251             3,131             0
: Not available.
a
  Detailed data are estimated for sex.
b
  Detailed data are estimated for Hispanic origin.
c
  See Explanatory notes for more detail.




38 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 3.8. Adults on probation, by race, 1994

                                                          Number of adults on probation
                                                                      American                 Other, un-
                       Probation                                      Indian/       Asian/     known,
Region and             population                                     Alaska        Pacific    or not
jurisdiction           12/31/94              White        Black       Native        Islander   reported

   U.S. total          2,964,171          1,440,502      705,180        17,288        8,301      792,895

 Federal                  45,047             31,932       11,023           595        1,237          260
 State                 2,919,124          1,408,570      694,157        16,693        7,064      792,635

Northeast               508,986            238,488       152,157           562          949      116,830
 Connecticuta            53,453             39,841        13,353           108          151            0
 Maine                    8,669                   :             :             :            :       8,669
 Massachusetts           46,672                   :             :            :            :       46,672
 New Hampshirea           4,323              3,977           346             0            0            0
 New Jerseya            106,921             41,165        50,788             0          533       14,435
 New York               164,569             82,012        57,848           454          259       23,996
 Pennsylvaniaa           99,524             64,817        29,822              :           6        4,879
 Rhode Island            18,179                   :             :             :           :       18,179
 Vermont                  6,676              6,676             0             0            0            0

Midwest                 638,894            295,460       112,726         6,223        2,783      221,697
 Illinoisa               79,466             47,680        31,566            70          150            0
 Indiana                 83,555                   :             :             :            :      83,555
 Iowa                    15,502                   :             :             :            :      15,502
 Kansas                  24,102             18,646         4,790           322          149          195
 Michigan               143,178             44,494         6,427           950        1,172       90,135
 Minnesota               81,972             65,429         9,483         2,944          803        3,313
 Missouria               36,295             25,321        10,835            47           63           29
 Nebraska                17,554             13,485         2,552           407           47        1,063
 North Dakota             2,006              1,782            38           172           14            0
 Ohio                   105,953             48,965        35,415            23           88       21,457
 South Dakota             3,410                   :             :             :            :       3,410
 Wisconsin               45,901             29,658        11,620         1,288          297        3,038

South                 1,207,675            715,547       408,715         4,136        1,122       78,155
 Alabamaa,b              36,024              3,671         5,976             0           64       26,313
 Arkansas                18,598             11,652         6,882            32           32            0
 Delawarea               15,507              7,960         6,881             0            0          666
 District of Columbia     8,325                628         7,666             0            0           31
 Florida                239,108            145,922        69,399           152          323       23,312
 Georgia                140,684             67,546        71,578           179          136        1,245
 Kentucky                11,417                      :          :             :            :      11,417
 Louisianab              33,604                12,906     20,537            12            9          140
 Maryland                76,940                31,499     44,652            62          209          518
 Mississippia,b          10,295                 3,436      5,353              :            :       1,506
 North Carolina          89,889                42,702     43,685         2,012          130        1,360
 Oklahoma                26,484                17,863      6,182         1,660           53          726
 South Carolinab         40,456                18,874     21,313              :            :         269
 Tennessee               35,727                20,956     14,389            10          106          266
 Texasa                 394,578               317,025     73,418              :            :       4,135
 Virginia                24,089                12,907     10,804            17           60          301
 West Virginia            5,950                      :          :             :            :       5,950

West                    563,569               159,075     20,559         5,772        2,210      375,953
 Alaskaa,b                3,173                 1,971        302           783           63           54
 Arizona                 36,916                   775         25            32            7       36,077
 California             285,105                      :          :             :            :     285,105
 Colorado                36,430                18,372      4,776           197          181       12,904
 Hawaii                  12,515                      :          :             :            :      12,515
 Idahoa                   5,153                 4,973         46           113           21            0
 Montana                  5,641                 4,862         67           673           16           23
 Nevadaa                  9,410                 7,193      1,864           136           50          167
 New Mexicoa              8,670                 6,893      1,092           476           59          150
 Oregon                  38,086                34,602      2,321           562          246          355
 Utah                     7,638                 6,807        313           206          120          192
 Washington             111,450                69,446      9,677         2,490        1,446       28,391
 Wyoming                  3,382                 3,181         76           104            1           20
: Not available.
a
 Detailed data are estimated for race.
b
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.




                                                                                                            Probation in 1994   39
Table 3.9. Adults on probation, by type of offense, 1994

                                                              Number of adults on probation
                          Probation                                     Driving
Region and                population                                    while                        Unknown or
jurisdiction              12/31/94          Felony      Misdemeanor     intoxicated        Other     not reported

     U.S. total           2,964,171        1,254,596      629,593           386,441       56,739       636,802

    Federal                  45,047           30,160        8,995             3,109        2,783             0
    State                 2,919,124        1,224,436      620,598           383,332       53,956       636,802

Northeast                   508,986          213,042      112,543            53,389        3,931       126,081
 Connecticutb                53,453           30,334       17,579             5,540            0             0
 Maineb                       8,669            3,669        5,000                 0            0             0
 Massachusetts               46,672                :            :            20,115            0        26,557
 New Hampshireb               4,323            2,594        1,513               216            0             0
 New Jersey                 106,921           80,220       26,701                  :            :            0
 New Yorka                  164,569           82,213       52,945            25,480        3,931             0
 Pennsylvaniab               99,524                 :            :                 :            :       99,524
 Rhode Island                18,179           11,601        6,578                 0            0             0
 Vermont                      6,676            2,411        2,227             2,038            0             0

Midwest                     638,894          194,570      200,038            98,428        3,232       142,626
 Illinois                    79,466           44,468       13,243            19,633        2,122             0
 Indianaa                    83,555           28,956       54,599                  :            :            0
 Iowa                        15,502            6,962        8,540                 0            0             0
 Kansas                      24,102                 :            :                 :            :       24,102
 Michigan                   143,178              786       23,618            21,929          272        96,573
 Minnesota                   81,972           25,874       28,991            27,107            0             0
 Missouria,b                 36,295           30,654        5,033                78          530             0
 Nebraska                    17,554            3,098            0             5,534           69         8,853
 North Dakota                 2,006            1,715          258                33            0             0
 Ohio                       105,953           31,145       37,596            24,114            0        13,098
 South Dakotaa                3,410            2,219        1,191                 0            0             0
 Wisconsin                   45,901           18,693       26,969                 0          239             0

South                     1,207,675          650,639      250,079           207,145       40,281         59,531
 Alabamaa,b                  36,024              155        2,409             1,982            0         31,478
 Arkansas                    18,598           17,032        1,540                26            0              0
 Delawareb                   15,507                0            0                 0            0         15,507
 District of Columbia         8,325            2,964        4,001             1,360            0              0
 Florida                    239,108          141,679       37,767            17,282       37,672          4,708
 Georgia                    140,684           87,239       29,973            23,472            0              0
 Kentucky                    11,417            9,448        1,969                  :           0              0
 Louisiana                   33,604           30,691        1,259               303        1,351              0
 Maryland                    76,940           20,866       55,359               715            0              0
 Mississippi                 10,295            9,041            0                 0            0          1,254
 North Carolina              89,889           28,256       43,460            18,173            0              0
 Oklahoma                    26,484           21,794          825             3,231            0            634
 South Carolina              40,456           15,004       16,280             7,914        1,258              0
 Tennessee                   35,727           23,204        8,493             4,030            0              0
 Texasa                     394,578          219,177       46,744           128,657            0              0
 Virginia                    24,089           24,089            0                 0            0              0
 West Virginia                5,950                 :            :                 :            :         5,950

West                        563,569          166,185       57,938            24,370        6,512       308,564
 Alaskab                      3,173            3,173            0                 0             0            0
 Arizona                     36,916           33,589        2,610               717             0            0
 California                 285,105                 :            :                 :             :     285,105
 Colorado                    36,430           17,691       11,886             2,822        3,943            88
 Hawaii                      12,515            7,395        5,120                  :             :           0
 Idaho                        5,153            5,144            9                  :            0            0
 Montana                      5,641                 :            :                 :            :        5,641
 Nevadab                      9,410            6,653        2,757                  :             :           0
 New Mexicob                  8,670                0          767               469             0        7,434
 Oregona                     38,086           25,609        7,685             3,884          908             0
 Utah                         7,638            5,527        1,863               235            13            0
 Washington                 111,450           60,195       23,465            15,846        1,648        10,296
 Wyoming                      3,382            1,209        1,776               397           ...            0
: Not available.
. . .Not applicable.
a
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.
b
 Detailed data are estimated for type of offense.




40 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 3.10. Adults on probation under intensive supervision,
being electronically monitored, or in a bootcamp, 1994

                                      Number of adults on probation
Region and                Intensive           Electronic
jurisdiction              supervision         monitoring       Bootcamp
     U.S. total           102,703              17,548           1,593

              a
    Federal                     0               2,343               0
    State                 102,703              15,205           1,593

Northeast                  19,034                 471                  0
 Connecticutb                 982                 250                 ...
 Maine                          ...                ...                ...
 Massachusetts                    :                ...                ...
 New Hampshire                 50                    :                ...
 New Jerseya                1,082                 221                 ...
 New York                   6,151                  ...                ...
 Pennsylvania              10,769                    :                ...
 Rhode Island                   ...                ...                ...
 Vermont                        ...                ...                ...

Midwest                    26,586               6,859             155
 Illinois                   1,381                  62               ...
 Indianaa                         :             2,485               ...
 Iowa                         461                  60               ...
 Kansas                        ...                  ...            ...
 Michigan                  15,209               1,741             150
 Minnesota                      ...                 ...              0
 Missourib                  4,275                 111                5
 Nebraskab                    375                 400                0
 North Dakota                   ...                 ...              0
 Ohio                       4,635               1,975               ...
 South Dakota                  50                   ...             ...
 Wisconsin                    200                  25               ...

South                      50,940               6,915           1,438
 Alabamab                      42                  42                0
 Arkansas                        0                   0               0
 Delawareb                  2,748               2,585               ...
 District of Columbia         105                 105               ...
 Florida                   25,439               1,371             260
 Georgia                    5,353                   ...           465
 Kentucky                     260                  ...              ...
 Louisiana                      ...                 ...             ...
 Maryland                   1,254                   ...             ...
 Mississippi                   33                  33               ...
 North Carolina             4,730                 744               ...
 Oklahoma                     671                     :             ...
 South Carolina             2,223                 109               ...
 Tennessee                  1,624                 484               ...
 Texas                      5,877               1,429             660
 Virginia                     581                  13              53
 West Virginia                  ...                   :             ...

West                        6,143                 960                  0
 Alaskab                       36                   0                  0
 Arizona                    3,290                  64                  0
 California                      :                   :                  :
 Colorado                     568                 188                 ...
 Hawaiib                       50                   5                   :
 Idaho                        133                  51                 ...
 Montana                         :                                    ...
 Nevada                       366                 184                 ...
 New Mexicob                  237                  33                 ...
 Oregona                      415                 343                 ...
 Utah                         286                  35                 ...
 Washington                   740                  48                 ...
 Wyoming                       22                   9                 ...
: Not available.
. . .Not applicable.
a
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.
b
 Detailed data are estimated for intensive
supervision, electronic monitoring, and bootcamps.




                                                                            Probation in 1994   41
Explanatory notes by jurisdiction              Arizona                                          District of Columbia

Because many States update their popula-       Arizona has 2 reporting agencies:                "Direct imposition of probation" includes
tion counts, the January 1, 1994, numbers      1 State and 1 local. Detailed data are not       "Execution of sentence suspended" and
may differ from those previously published     provided for the State's probation status,       "Imposition of sentence suspended"
for December 31, 1993.                         entries, sex, Hispanic origin, and race.         (table 3.3).

Federal Prison System                          "Other" includes 581 miscellaneous cases         "Other" exits include undetermined rea-
                                               and 73 cases which includes probation ex-        sons and absconders.
Detailed data are not provided for status of   tended, revoked, or additional jail time due
probation and Hispanic origin.                 to violations of probation (table 3.6).          Florida

"Other" exits include administrative clos-     Arkansas                                         Florida has 15 reporting agencies:
ings and transfers.                                                                             1 State and 14 local.
                                               Detailed data are not provided for proba-
"Other" offense type includes petty            tion status, entries, and Hispanic origin.       Georgia
offenses.
                                               "Other" exits include early discharge by         Georgia has 2 reporting agencies:
About 70% of the 2,343 total is actually       court and discharged absconders.                 1 State and 1 local.
electronically monitored, but all are con-
fined at home (table 3.10).                    California                                       "Other" probation status includes
                                                                                                abandonment and out-of-State.
Alabama                                        Detailed data are not provided for proba-
                                               tion status, sex, Hispanic origin, race, of-     "Other" entries include suspended
Alabama has 3 reporting agencies:              fense type, intensive supervision, electric      sentences and abandonment cases.
1 State and 2 local.                           monitoring, and bootcamp.
                                                                                                "Other" exits include transfers to another
All data are estimated.                        "Probation without incarceration" includes       State, absconders, and special
                                               "probation with incarceration" (table 3.5).      terminations.
Detailed data are not provided for the
State's probation status, entries, exits,      "Other" exits include supervision transfers,     Hawaii
sex, Hispanic origin, race, and offense        loss of jurisdiction, and deaths.
type. In addition, one local jurisdiction                                                       Detailed data are not provided for supervi-
did not provide detailed data for              Colorado                                         sion status, entries, exits, Hispanic origin,
probation status.                                                                               and race.
                                               Colorado has 9 reporting agencies:
Alaska                                         1 State and 8 local. Data are estimated          Detailed data are estimated for probation
                                               for one local agency that did not respond.       status, sex, intensive supervision, and
All data are estimated.                                                                         electronic monitoring.
                                               Connecticut
Detailed data are not provided                                                                  Idaho
for probation status.                          Detailed data are estimated for sex,
                                               Hispanic origin, race, offense type,             Detailed data for entries, sex, Hispanic
"Other" races include Hispanics of             and electronic monitoring.                       origin, and race are estimated.
unknown race and other unknown.
                                               Delaware                                         Suspended execution of sentence
                                                                                                (table 3.3) and "absconder" supervision
                                               All data are estimated.                          status (table 3.4) are estimated.

                                               Detailed data are not provided for proba-
                                               tion status, entries, exits, and offense type.




42 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Illinois                                       Kansas                                          Maryland

Detailed data are not provided for             Detailed data are not provided for proba-       Detatiled data are not provided for
entries and Hispanic origin.                   tion status and supervision status.             Hispanic origin.

Detailed data are estimated for sex and        Detailed data are estimated for exits.          "Other" supervision status includes
race.                                                                                          delinquents in custody.
                                               Kentucky
The total number of supervision status ex-                                                     "Other" exits include 6,903 unsatisfactory,
cludes 4,000 absconders.                       Detailed data are not provided for sex, His-    4,771 pending warrant service.
                                               panic origin, and race.
"Other" exits include 5,582 unsatisfactory,                                                    Massachusetts
4,000 absconders, 4,102 revoked and            "Other" status of probation includes pretrial
4,156 other.                                   diversion.                                      No detailed data are provided.

"Other" offense type includes traffic          Louisiana                                       Michigan
violations.
                                               Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic     Michigan has 115 separate reporting
Indiana                                        origin.                                         agencies: 1 State and 114 local. Data are
                                                                                               estimated for 9 local agencies which did
Detailed data are not provided for             "Other" entries includes reinstatement          not respond.
probation status, supervision status,          and executive probation.
entries, exits, sex, Hispanic origin,                                                          Minnesota
and race.                                      "Other" exits includes error, revocation
                                               by other than the Department of Correc-         Detailed data are not provided for
"Other" probation status includes 2,035        tions, and transfer to the Immigration          probation status, supervision status,
interstate, 3,009 intrastate, 639 shock        and Naturalization Service (INS).               entries, and exits.
probation, and 4,111 others.
                                               "Other" race includes Latins of unknown         Interstate cases the State supervises
Because intensive supervision is run by        race and others.                                are counted, while interstate cases
the local agencies an exact number is                                                          in other States are not counted.
unavailable.                                   Maine
                                                                                               Absconders may not be included in the
Data for "electronic monitoring" include       Detailed data are not provided for proba-       detailed data.
those on home electronic monitoring (table     tion status, entries, exits, race, and His-
3.10). This figure comes from data col-        panic origin.                                   Mississippi
lected in September 1994 and is not in-
cluded in the December 31, 1994, count.        Detailed data are estimated for offense         Detailed data are not provided for
                                               type.                                           probation status and Hispanic origin.
Iowa
                                               "Other" supervision status includes public      "Inactive" supervision status is estimated
Detailed data are not provided for proba-      service (not on probation) and bail             and includes "absconders."
tion status, sex, Hispanic origin, and race.   supervision.
                                                                                               Detailed data are estimated for race
"Other" exits include 362 transferred out-                                                     and sex.
of-State, and 1,062 absconders.
                                                                                               "Other" races include Hispanics
                                                                                               of unknown race and an unknown number
                                                                                               of Asians.




                                                                                                                   Probation in 1994    43
Missouri                                      New Hampshire                                  New York

Missouri has 2 reporting agencies:            Detailed data are not provided                 "Other" status of probation includes local
1 State and 1 local.                          for entries.                                   conditional release.

All data are estimated.                       Detailed data are estimated for status of      "Other" entries include local conditional
                                              probation, sex, Hispanic origin, race, and     release.
Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic   offense type.
origin.                                                                                      "Other" exits include technical violations
                                              New Jersey                                     and revocations.
"Other" exits include 130 revoked warrant
and 29 transfers to another jurisdiction.     Detailed data are not provided                 "Other" offense type includes unclassified
                                              for probation status and sex.                  laws, non-penal laws, and transfer cases.
"Other" offense type includes ordinance
violations.                                   Detailed data are estimated for race           North Carolina
                                              and Hispanic origin.
Detailed data are estimated for intensive                                                    "Other" entries includes adjustment
supervison, electronic monitoring, and        "Other" entries include 29,550 probation       residual.
boot camp.                                    with or without incarceration and 13,365
                                              pretrial intervention (pretrial intervention   "Under current sentence" includes
Montana                                       program for felony offenders diverted in       incarcerated "with new sentence"
                                              Superior Court) and conditional discharge      (table 3.6).
Detailed data are not provided for            (pretrial intervention program for misde-
supervision status, probation status,         meanants diverted in Municipal Court)          North Dakota
entries, exits, offense type, intensive       (table 3.5).
supervision, and electronic monitoring.                                                      "Suspended execution of sentence to
                                              "Other" exits include 4,400 absconder,         incarceration" includes "split sentence"
Nebraska                                      4,503 violations of probation (VOP), and        (table 3.3).
                                              6,577 other.
The January 1, 1994, count is estimated                                                      "Absconder" is not included in December
(table 3.2).                                  Total intensive supervision includes 751       31 count and therefore not provided in
                                              cases in the State program and 331 cases       supervision status (table 3.4).
Detailed data are estimated for entries,      in the local.
intensive supervision, and electronic                                                        Incarcerated "with new sentence" and
monitoring.                                   New Mexico                                     "under current sentence" include revoca-
                                                                                             tions (table 3.5).
"Under current sentence" and "with new        All detailed data are estimated.
sentence" are estimated (table 3.6).                                                         "Other" exits include 61 absconders.
                                              Detailed data are not provided
Nevada                                        for entries.                                   Ohio

Detailed data are estimated for sex, His-     "Other" exits include 461 absconders, 292      Ohio has 53 separate reporting agencies:
panic origin, race, offense type, and elec-   special action discharge, and 819 unsatis-     1 State and 52 local. Data are estimated
tronic monitoring.                            factory discharges.                            for 3 local agencies which did not respond.

"Active" and "absconder" are estimated
(table 3.4).

Exits of incarceration "with new
sentence" are estimated and include "un-
der current sentence."




44 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Oklahoma                                      South Carolina                                Texas

Oklahoma has 3 reporting agencies:            Detailed data are not provided                Detailed data and totals are estimated
1 State and 1 local.                          for Hispanic origin.                          for exits, sex, and race.

"Other" probation status includes             "Other" supervision status includes           Detailed data are not provided for
delayed sentence.                             offender under supervision of Federal         entries and Hispanic origin.
                                              immigration authorities.
"Other" exits include 847 unsatisfactory                                                    "Direct sentence" includes "split sentence."
compliance.                                   "Other" exits include 15 medical, 192
                                              prison, and 202 technical charges pending.    Absconders continue under inactive
Oregon                                                                                      supervision until located.
                                              "Other" races include an unknown combi-
Detailed data are estimated for probation     nation of all races other than black and      "Other" supervision status includes
status and entries.                           white.                                        inactive due to incarceration for a separate
                                                                                            offense.
"Other" probation status and "other" en-      South Dakota
tries include 287 conditional discharges                                                    "Other" exits includes other revocations
and 397 diversions.                           Data are for year beginning July 1, 1993      (without incarceration) and administrative
                                              (table 3.2).                                  closures.
"Other" offense type includes 877
unknown and 31 unclassified.                  Detailed data are not provided for proba-     Offense type is estimated.
                                              tion status, entries, sex, Hispanic origin,
"Intensive supervision" and "electronic       and race.                                     Data includes interstate compact cases
monitoring" include both probationers and                                                   supervised in Texas.
parolees.                                     Total supervision status excludes
                                              116 out-of-State cases.                       Utah
Pennsylvania
                                              "Other" exits includes revoked.               "Other" entries includes reinstated
Detailed data are estimated for exits, sex,                                                 on probation.
Hispanic origin, race, and offense type.      "Misdemeanor" includes driving while in-
                                              toxicated or under the influence of alcohol   "Other" exits consist of 11 court
"Other" supervision status includes 257       (table 3.9).                                  ordered release and 224 revoked
detainees.                                                                                  and terminated.
                                              Tennessee
"Other" exits include 731 transfers                                                         Vermont
and 429 absconders.                           Tennessee has 3 reporting agencies:
                                              1 State and 2 local.                          Detailed data are estimated for race
Rhode Island                                                                                and Hispanic origin.
                                              Detailed data are not provided for the
Detailed data are not provided for            State's probation status, entries, exits,
probation status, entries, sex,               and Hispanic origin. In addition, one
Hispanic origin, and race.                    local jurisdiction did not provide detailed
                                              data for Hispanic origin.

                                              "Other" exits includes 10 appeals.




                                                                                                                Probation in 1994    45
Virginia                                    West Virginia                                 Wyoming

Detailed data are not provided              All data are estimated.                       Detailed data are not provided for entries.
for probation status.
                                            No detailed data are provided.                "Other" supervision status includes com-
"Other" entries includes restored to                                                      pact cases from another State.
supervision, returned from States or dis-   Wisconsin
trict, transfers, and others.                                                             "Other" exits includes bench warrants and
                                            Detailed data are not provided for            interstate transfers/ unsupervised proba-
"Other" exits include probation             probation status and entries.                 tion.
revoked, out-of-State terminations, war-
rant issued, transfers to other             "Other" supervision status includes
districts or States, and other.             vacating order and violation warrant is-
                                            sued.
Washington
                                            "Other" entries are a combination of proba-
Washington has 24 separate reporting        tion without incarceration and probation
agencies: 1 State and 23 local.             with incarceration.

                                            "Other" exits include 45 returned to courts
                                            and sentenced, 21 revoked by court, 97
                                            order violated, 100 sentenced to time
                                            served, and 1,853 other.




46 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
                                           Military corrections in 1994


Tables                                         4.11. Percent of admissions to facilities,
                                                     by type of admission and the
U.S. military confinement facilities,                branch of service holding
1994                                                 prisoners                            59

4.1. Characteristics of facilities and       4.12. Admissions to facilities, by type
     legal status of prisoners held,               of admission and the branch
     by the branch of service holding              of service to which prisoners
     prisoners and type of facility       52       belonged                              60

4.2. Prisoners, by the branch of             4.13. Percent of admissions to facilities,
     service to which prisoners                    by type of admission and the
     belonged and the branch                       branch of service to which
     of service holding them              53       prisoners belonged                   60

4.3. Percent of prisoners, by the            4.14. Releases from facilities, by method
     ranch of service to which                     of release and the branch of
     prisoners belonged and the                    service to which prisoners
     branch of service holding them       53       belonged                           61

4.4. Prisoners, by the branch of             4.15. Percent of releases from facilities,
     service and sex, race, and                    by method of release and the
     Hispanic origin                      53       branch of service to which
                                                   prisoners belonged                   61
4.5. Convicted prisoners, by the most
     serious offense and the branch      4.16. Releases from facilities, by method
     of service to which prisoners             of release and the branch of
     belonged                         54       service holding prisoners          62

4.6. Percent of convicted prisoners,         4.17. Percent of releases from facilities,
     by the most serious offense and               by method of release and the
     the branch of service to which                branch of service holding
     prisoners belonged                   55       prisoners                            62

4.7. Prisoners, by conviction status,          Explanatory notes                         63
     sentence length, and the branch
     of service                           56

4.8. Convicted prisoners, by the most
     serious offense and the branch
     of service holding prisoners     57

4.9. Percent of convicted prisoners,
     by the most serious offense
     and the branch of service
     holding prisoners                    58

4.10. Admissions to facilities, by type
      of admission and the branch
      of service holding prisoners        59


                                                               U.S. military corrections 51
Table 4.1. Characteristics of U.S. military confinement facilities and legal status
of prisoners held, by the branch of service holding prisoners and type of facility,
December 31, 1994


                                                                                            Number of prisoners
Branch of service holding          Number of      Design       Operational                              Pre-         Post-
prisoners and type of facility     facilities     capacity     capacity               Total             trial        trial

All branches
    Total*                            33            5,910           4,964              2,782              324         2,458
Inside continental U.S.
  Local facilities                    11              648             369                140               72            68
  Regional facilities                 10            2,633           2,490              1,182              219           963
  Long-term facilities                 1            1,777           1,503              1,330                0         1,330
Outside continental U.S.              11              852             602                130               33            97

Army
    Total                             12            3,358           2,412              1,779               31         1,748
Inside continental U.S.
  Local facilities                     3              367              88                 27               10            17
  Regional facilities                  4              717             574                367               11           356
  Long-term facilities                 1            1,777           1,503              1,330                0         1,330
Outside continental U.S.               4              497             247                 55               10            45

Marine Corps
    Total                              5            1,180           1,180                405              137          268
Inside continental U.S.
  Local facilities                     1               39              39                 15                5            10
  Regional facilities                  3              949             949                362              130           232
Outside continental U.S.               1              192             192                 28                2            26

Navy
    Total                             16            1,372           1,372                598              156          442
Inside continental U.S.
  Local facilities                     7              242             242                 98               57           41
  Regional facilities                  3              967             967                453               78          375
Outside continental U.S.               6              163             163                 47               21           26

Note: Local facilities hold unsentenced persons and prisoners with sentences of less than 90 days. Regional facilities
hold prisoners with sentences of less than 5 years. The U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, the only
long-term military confinement facility, holds prisoners with sentences of more than 5 years. This report excludes per-
sons who receive nonjudicial punishment for less serious infractions, based on the Uniform Code of Military Justice;
nonjudicial punishment may include reduction in grade, forfeiture of pay, restriction to quarters, extra duty, cancellation
of leave, or other penalties.
*Data for Air Force confinement facilities were not reported. The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities.




52 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 4.2. Prisoners in the custody of U.S. military authorities,                      Table 4.3. Percent of prisoners in the custody of U.S. military
by the branch of service to which prisoners belonged and the                           authorities, by the branch of service to which prisoners belonged
branch of service holding them, December 31, 1994                                      and the branch of service holding them, December 31, 1994

                                   Branch of service holding prisoners                                                            Branch of service holding prisoners
Branch of service to which                              Marine                         Branch of service to which                                      Marine
prisoners belonged            Total*       Army         Corps        Navy              prisoners belonged                Total*           Army         Corps            Navy
      Total                  2,782        1,779            405        598                  Total                      100.0%       100.0%         100.0%     100.0%
Air Force                      453          322             18        113
                                                                                       Air Force                       16.3         18.1              4.4     18.9
Army                         1,311        1,249             24         38
                                                                                       Army                            47.1         70.2              5.9      6.4
Marine Corps                   485          116            342         27
                                                                                       Marine Corps                    17.4           6.5            84.4      4.5
Navy                           526           92             21        413
                                                                                       Navy                            18.9           5.2             5.2     69.1
Coast Guard                      7            0              0          7
                                                                                       Coast Guard                        .3           0               0       1.2
Note: The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities.                           Number of prisoners           2,782        1,779             405      598
*Excludes prisoners held in Air Force confinement facilities.                          Note: The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities. Detail may not
                                                                                       add to total because of rounding.
                                                                                       *Excludes prisoners held in Air Force confinement facilities.




Table 4.4. Prisoners in the custody of U.S. military authorities, by the branch
of service and sex, race, and Hispanic origin, December 31, 1994

                               All                   Sex                             Race/Hispanic origin
Branch of service              inmatesa      Male          Female           Whiteb   Blackb    Hispanic       Otherc
    Total                      2,782         2,731               51         1,398    1,087         189         108

Branch of service to
which prisoners belonged
  Air Force                      453           441               12          286      127           19              21
  Army                         1,311         1,290               21          557      627           76              51
  Marine Corps                   485           479                6          241      172           57              15
  Navy                           526           514               12          310      160           36              20
  Coast Guard                      7             7                0            4        1            1               1

Branch of service holding
prisoners
  Army                         1,779         1,753               26          849      759          100              71
  Marine Corps                   405           399                6          214      133           47              11
  Navy                           598           579               19          335      195           42              26
a
Excludes prisoners held in Air Force confinement facilities.
b
Non-Hispanic inmates only.
c
Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska
Natives, and persons of other races.




                                                                                                                                          U.S. military corrections 53
Table 4.5. Convicted prisoners in the custody of U.S. military authorities, by the most serious offense
and the branch of service to which prisoners belonged, December 31, 1994

                                               Branch of service to which prisoners belonged
Most serious offense            Totala       Air Force      Army      Marine Corps      Navy         Coast Guard
    All offenses                2,483           448         1,298            341           391             5

Violent offenses                1,315           267           767            119           161             1
  Murderb                         265            34           186             32            13             0
  Negligent manslaughter            6             0             5              0             1             0
  Rape                            430            91           259             36            44             0
  Sexual assault                  380           112           169             19            79             1
  Robbery                          39             1            29              9             0             0
  Assault                         195            29           119             23            24             0

Property offenses                 393            59           247             37             50            0
  Burglary                         19             2            13              2              2            0
  Larceny/theft                   265            29           188             25             23            0
  Motor vehicle theft               1             0             0              0              1            0
  Arson                            12             4             4              1              3            0
  Fraud                            70            17            30              7             16            0
  Stolen property                  11             4             1              2              4            0
  Other property                   15             3            11              0              1            0

Drug offenses                    223             48           178             15                 6         0
  Possession                      13              4             8              0                 1         0
  Trafficking                     21              2            14              2                 3         0
  Other/unspecified              189             18           156             13                 2         0

Public-order offenses              83            24             30            12             17            0
  Weapons                           5             0              0             2              3            0
  Driving while intoxicated         8             4              1             1              2            0
  Other public-order               70            20             29             9             12            0

Military offensesc                467            73             76           158           156             4

Other offenses                      2              1             0             0                 1         0
a
  Excludes prisoners held in Air Force confinement facilities.
Includes 25 unconvicted prisoners held in Army confinement facilities.
b
  Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.
c
  Includes desertion, AWOL, disrespect, insubordination, failure to obey order
or regulation, false official statement, conduct unbecoming an officer, and other infractions.




54 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 4.6. Percent of convicted prisoners in the custody of U.S. military authorities,
by the most serious offense and the branch of service to which prisoners belonged,
December 31, 1994

                                                 Branch of service to which prisoners belonged
Most serious offense                   Totala      Air Force        Army       Marine Corps    Navy
    All offenses                      100 %          100 %          100 %           100 %     100 %

Violent offenses                        53.0%         59.6%          59.1%           34.9%    41.2%
  Murder b                              10.7           7.6           14.3             9.4      3.3
  Negligent manslaughter                  .2            0              .4              0        .3
  Rape                                  17.3          20.3           20.0            10.6     11.3
  Sexual assault                        15.3          25.0           13.0             5.6     20.2
  Robbery                                1.6            .2            2.2             2.6       0
  Assault                                7.9           6.5            9.2             6.7      6.1

Property offenses                       15.8%          13.2%         19.0%           10.9%     12.8%
  Burglary                                .8             .4           1.0              .6        .5
  Larceny/theft                         10.7            6.5          14.5             7.3       5.9
  Motor vehicle theft                     --            0             0               0          .3
  Arson                                   .5             .9            .3              .3        .8
  Fraud                                  2.8            3.8           2.3             2.1       4.1
  Stolen property                         .4             .9            .1              .6       1.0
  Other property                          .6             .7            .8              0         .3

Drug offenses                            9.0%           5.4%         13.7%            4.4%      1.5%
  Possession                              .5             .9            .6              0         .3
  Trafficking                             .8             .4           1.1              .6        .8
  Other/unspecified                      7.6            4.0          12.0             3.8        .5

Public-order offenses                    3.3%           5.4%           2.3%           3.5%      4.3%
  Weapons                                 .2            0              0               .6        .8
  Driving while intoxicated               .3             .9             .1             .3        .5
  Other public-order                     2.8            4.5            2.2            2.6       3.1

Military offensesc                      18.8%          16.3%           5.9%          46.3%     39.9%

Other offenses                             .1%           .2%           0               0         .3%

    Number of prisoners               2,483            448          1,298             341      391
Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
--Less than 0.05%.
a
  Excludes prisoners held in Air Force confinement facilities. Includes 25
unconvicted prisoners held in Army confinement facilities and 5 prisoners
held for the Coast Guard.
b
  Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.
c
  Includes desertion, AWOL, disrespect, insubordination, failure to obey order or
regulation, false official statement, conduct unbecoming an officer, and other infractions.




                                                                                                       U.S. military corrections 55
Table 4.7. Prisoners in the custody of U.S. military authorities,
by conviction status, sentence length, and the branch of service,
December 31, 1994

Branch of service to which
prisoners belonged and                 Branch of service holding prisoners
sentence length               Total*        Army         Marine Corps Navy

All branches
  All inmates                 2,782          1,779              405   598
    Convicted                 2,461          1,751              268   442
       One year or more       2,007          1,625              128   254
       Less than 1 year         454            126              140   188
    Unconvicted                 321             28              137   156

Air Force
  All inmates                   453            322               18   113
    Convicted                   443            317               15   111
       One year or more         390            298                6    86
       Less than 1 year          53             19                9    25
    Unconvicted                  10              5                3     2

Army
  All inmates                 1,311          1,249               24    38
   Convicted                  1,276          1,227               18    31
       One year or more       1,139          1,127                1    11
       Less than 1 year         137            100               17    20
   Unconvicted                   35             22                6     7

Marine Corps
 All inmates                    485            116              342    27
   Convicted                    347            116              219    12
      One year or more          228            111              114     3
      Less than 1 year          119              5              105     9
   Unconvicted                  138              0              123    15

Navy
  All inmates                   526             92               21   413
   Convicted                    390             91               16   283
       One year or more         246             89                7   150
       Less than 1 year         144              2                9   133
   Unconvicted                  136              1                5   130

Coast Guard
 All inmates                       7             0                0     7
   Convicted                       5             0                0     5
       One year or more            4             0                0     4
       Less than 1 year            1             0                0     1
   Unconvicted                     2             0                0     2
*Excludes prisoners held in Air Force confinement facilities.




56 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 4.8. Convicted prisoners in the custody of U.S. military
authorities, by the most serious offense and the branch of service
holding prisoners, December 31, 1994

                                              Branch of service holding prisoners
Most serious offense                 Total           Army       Marine Corps      Navy

    All offensesa                    2,483           1,773           268          442

Violent offenses                     1,315           1,158            41          116
  Murderb                              265             263             2            0
  Negligent manslaughter                 6               6             0            0
  Rape                                 430             398            10           22
  Sexual assault                       380             307             9           64
  Robbery                               39              36             2            1
  Assault                              195             148            18           29

Property offenses                      393             279            42           72
  Burglary                              19              13             3            3
  Larceny/theft                        265             211            24           30
  Motor vehicle theft                    1               0             0            1
  Arson                                 12              12             0            0
  Fraud                                 70              31            12           27
  Stolen property                       11               0             2            9
  Other property                        15              12             1            2

Drug offenses                          223              74             0             0
  Possession                            13              13             0             0
  Trafficking                           21              21             0             0
  Other/unspecified                    189             189             0             0

Public-order offenses                   83              48            13           22
  Weapons                                5               0             2            3
  Driving while intoxicated              8               0             2            6
  Other public-order                    70              48             9           13

Military offensesc                     467              65           171          231

Other offenses                            2               0            1             1
a
  Excludes prisoners held in Air Force confinement facilities.
Includes 25 unconvicted prisoners held in Army confinement facilities.
b
  Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.
c
  Includes desertion, AWOL, disrespect, insubordination, failure to obey
order or regulation, false official statement, conduct unbecoming an
officer, and other infractions.




                                                                                         U.S. military corrections 57
Table 4.9. Percent of convicted prisoners in the custody of U.S.
military authorities, by the most serious offense and the branch
of service holding prisoners, December 31, 1994

                                            Branch of service holding prisoners
Most serious offense                Total          Army      Marine Corps       Navy
    All offensesa                  100 %          100 %         100 %        100 %

Violent offenses                   53.0%           65.3%        15.3%         26.2%
  Murderb                          10.7            14.8           .7            0
  Negligent manslaughter             .2              .3           0             0
  Rape                             17.3            22.4          3.7           5.0
  Sexual assault                   15.3            17.3          3.4          14.5
  Robbery                           1.6             2.0           .7            .2
  Assault                           7.9             8.3          6.7           6.6

Property offenses                  15.8%           15.7%        15.7%         16.3%
  Burglary                           .8              .7          1.1            .7
  Larceny/theft                    10.7            11.9          9.0           6.8
  Motor vehicle theft                 --             0            0             .2
  Arson                              .5               .7          --            --
  Fraud                             2.8             1.7          4.5           6.1
  Stolen property                    .4              0            .7           2.0
  Other property                     .6               .7          .4            .5

Drug offenses                       9.0%           12.6%          0            0
  Possession                         .5              .7           0            0
  Trafficking                        .8             1.2           0            0
  Other/unspecified                 7.6            10.7           0            0

Public-order offenses               3.3%            2.7%         4.9%          5.0%
  Weapons                            .2              0            .7            .7
  Driving while intoxicated          .3              0            .7           1.4
  Other public-order                2.8             2.7          3.4           2.9

Military offensesc                 18.8%            3.7%        63.8%         52.3%

Other offenses                        .1%            0             .4%          .2 %

   Number of prisoners              2,483          1,773          268          442
Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
--Less than 0.05%.
a
  Excludes prisoners held in Air Force confinement facilities. Includes
25 unconvicted prisoners held in Army confinement facilities.
b
  Includes nonnegligent manslaughter.
c
  Includes desertion, AWOL, disrespect, insubordination, failure to obey
an order or regulation, false official statement, conduct unbecoming an
officer, and other infractions.




58 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 4.10. Admissions to U.S. military confinement facilities, by type
of admission and the branch of service holding prisoners, 1994

                                                  Branch of service holding prisoners
Type of admission                      Total           Army        Marine Corps*        Navy
    Total                              3,657           1,381              358           1,918

New court commitments                  3,295           1,026              358           1,911
  From summary court                     806              95               88             623
  From special court                   1,033             177              149             707
  From general court                   1,456             754              121             581

Parole violators returned                 75              73                 0                2

Transfers from other
military confinement                     281             281                 0                0

Escapees returned                             6             1                0                5
Note: See the definitions of military courts on
page 3.
*Data are for October 1 to December 31, 1994.




Table 4.11. Percent of admissions to U.S. military confinement facilities, by type
of admission and the branch of service holding prisoners, 1994

                                                  Branch of service holding prisoners
Type of admission                     Total            Army         Marine Corps*       Navy
   Total                             100.0%            100.0%          100.0%           100 %

New court commitments                 90.1             74.3             100.0           99.6
  From summary court                  22.0              6.9              24.6           32.5
  From special court                  28.2             12.8              41.6           36.9
  From general court                  39.8             54.6              33.8           30.3

Parole violators returned               2.1              5.3                0             .1

Transfers from other                    7.7            20.3                 0             0
military confinement

Escapees returned                        .2               .1                0             .3

   Number of admissions               3,657            1,381              358           1,918
Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. See
the definitions of military courts on page 3.
*Data are for October 1 to December 31, 1994.




                                                                                                  U.S. military corrections 59
Table 4.12. Admissions to U.S. military confinement facilities, by type
of admission and the branch of service to which prisoners belonged, 1994

                                                    Branch of service to which prisoners belonged
                                                  Air                        Marine                   Coast
Type of admission                   Total         Force          Army        Corps*          Navy     Guard
   Total                            3,657          373         1,327          457         1,473        27

New court commitments               3,295          290         1,102          443         1,435        25
  From summary court                  806            7           112          176           508         3
  From special court                1,033           49           180          167           622        15
  From general court                1,456          234           810          100           305         7

Parole violators returned              75            14           60             0            1         0

Transfers from other
military confinement                  281            69          162           13            35         2

Escapees returned                       6             0             3            1            2         0
Note: See the definitions of military courts on page 3.
*Data from Marine Corps facilities are for October 1 to December 31, 1994.




Table 4.13. Percent of admissions to U.S. military confinement facilities, by type of admission
and the branch of service to which prisoners belonged, 1994

                                                     Branch of service to which prisoners belonged
                                                   Air                        Marine                 Coast
Type of admission                     Total        Force        Army          Corps*        Navy     Guard
    Total                            100 %         100 %        100 %         100 %         100 %    100 %

New court commitments                90.1          77.7         83.0          96.9         97.4      92.6
  From summary court                 22.0           1.9          8.4          38.5         34.5      11.1
  From special court                 28.2          13.1         13.6          36.5         42.2      55.6
  From general court                 39.8          62.7         61.0          21.9         20.7      25.9

Parole violators returned             2.1           3.8           4.5          0             .1        0

Transfers from other
military confinement                  7.7          18.5         12.2           2.8          2.4       7.4

Escapees returned                       .2           0             .2           .2           .1        0

    Number of admissions              3,657          373         1,327          457         1,473      27

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. See
the definitions of military courts on page 3.
*Data from Marine Corps facilities are for October 1 to December 31, 1994.




60 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 4.14. Releases from U.S. military confinement facilities, by method of release
and the branch of service to which prisoners belonged, 1994

                                                        Branch of service to which prisoners belonged
                                                         Air                       Marine                 Coast
Method of release                         Total          Force       Army          Corps*        Navy     Guard

    All methods                          5,181           534          1,479           535      2,604        29

Unconditional releases                   3,181           208            840           365      1,748        20
  Expiration of sentence                 3,020           167            769           341      1,724        19
  Clemency                                   6             1              0             5          0         0
  Other unconditional                      155            40             71            19         24         1

Conditional releases                     1,097           217            205           136        537            2
  Parole                                   297            99            145            13         38            2
  Restoration to duty                       36            21             10             2          3            0
  Other conditional                        764            97             50           121        496            0

Transfers                                  886             92           434            34        319            7
  Within same branch                       347             18            19            10        293            7
  To other military branch                 533             72           413            24         24            0
  To Federal civilian facility               6              2             2             0          2            0

Other                                        17            17                0             0          0         0
  Escape from confinement                     0             0                0             0          0         0
  Unknown                                    17            17                0             0          0         0

Note: No releases from military confinement facilities as the result
of execution or other causes of death were reported in 1994.
*Data from Marine Corps facilities are for October 1 to December 31, 1994.




Table 4.15. Percent of releases from U.S. military confinement facilities, by method of release
and the branch of service to which prisoners belonged, 1994

                                                       Branch of service to which prisoners belonged
                                                       Air                        Marine                  Coast
Method of release                        Total         Force        Army          Corps*        Navy      Guard

    All methods                           100.0%       100.0%         100.0%        100.0%     100.0%     100.0%

Unconditional releases                    61.4%          39.0%         56.8%         68.2%      67.1%      69.0%
  Expiration of sentence                  58.3           31.3          52.0          63.7       66.2       65.5
  Clemency                                  .1             .2           0              .9        0           0
  Other unconditional                      3.0            7.5           4.8           3.6         .9        3.4

Conditional releases                      21.2%          40.6%         13.9%         25.4%      20.6%       6.9%
  Parole                                   5.7           18.5           9.8           2.4        1.5        6.9
  Restoration to duty                       .7            3.9            .7            .4         .1         0
  Other conditional                       14.7           18.2           3.4          22.6       19.0         0

Transfers                                 17.1%          17.2%         29.3%          6.4%      12.3%      24.1%
  Within same branch                       6.7            3.4           1.3           1.9       11.3       24.1
  To other military branch                10.3           13.5          27.9           4.5         .9        0
  To Federal civilian facility              .1             .4            .1           0           .1        0

Other                                        .3%          3.2%           0             0          0         0
  Escape from confinement                   0             0              0             0          0         0
  Unknown                                    .3           3.2            0             0          0         0

    Number of releases                    5,181           534         1,479            535      2,604       29
Note: No releases from military confinement facilities as the result of execution or other
causes of death were reported in 1994. Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
*Data from Marine Corps facilities are for October 1 to December 31, 1994.




                                                                                                                    U.S. military corrections 61
Table 4.16. Releases from U.S. military confinement facilities, by method
of release and the branch of service holding prisoners, 1994

                                            Branch of service holding prisoners
                                                                  Marine
Method of release                     Total         Army          Corps*        Navy
    All methods                       5,181         1,693            352            3,136

Unconditional releases                3,181         1,010            221            1,950
  Expiration of sentence              3,020           870            209            1,941
  Clemency                                6             0              6                0
  Other unconditional                   155           140              6                9

Conditional releases                  1,097           227            121             749
  Parole                                297           192              4             101
  Restoration to duty                    36            35              0               1
  Other conditional                     764             0            117             647

Transfers                               886           456             10             420
  Within same branch                    347             0              0             347
  To other military branch              533           453             10              70
  To Federal civilian facility            6             3              0               3

Other                                    17                0             0            17
  Escape from confinement                 0                0             0             0
  Unknown                                17                0             0            17
Note: No releases from military confinement facilities as the result of execution
or other causes of death were reported in 1994.
*Data are for October 1 to December 31, 1994.




Table 4.17. Percent of releases from U.S. military confinement facilities,
by method of release and the branch of service holding prisoners, 1994

                                            Branch of service holding prisoners
                                                                  Marine
Method of release                     Total         Army          Corps*        Navy

    All methods                       100.0%       100.0%         100.0%        100.0%

Unconditional releases                 61.4%         59.7%         62.8%            62.2%
  Expiration of sentence               58.3          51.4          59.4             61.9
  Clemency                               .1           0             1.7               0
  Other unconditional                   3.0           8.3           1.7               .3

Conditional releases                   21.2%         13.4%         34.4%            23.9%
  Parole                                5.7          11.3           1.1              3.2
  Restoration to duty                    .7           2.1           0                0
  Other conditional                    14.7            0           33.2             20.6

Transfers                              17.1%         26.9%           2.8%           13.4%
  Within same branch                    6.7            0             0              11.1
  To other military branch             10.3          26.8            2.8             2.2
  To Federal civilian facility           .1             .2           0                .1

Other                                     .3%          0             0                 .5%
  Escape from confinement                0             0             0                0
  Unknown                                 .3           0             0                 .5

    Number of releases               5,181          1,693           352         3,136
Note: No releases from military confinement facilities as a result of execution or other
causes of death were reported in 1994. Detail may not add to total because of
rounding.
*Data are for October 1 to December 31, 1994.




62 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Explanatory notes                               In future years, with the full participation of
                                                all military services, the annual confine-
                                                ment report will provide a complete enu-
In 1994 the U.S. Department of Defense          meration of U.S. military confinement
Corrections Council established an annual       facilities, both inside and outside the conti-
military confinement report (DD Form            nental United States. With the cooperation
2707). The council, comprised of repre-         of the Corrections Council, BJS will include
sentatives from each branch of military         these counts in future publications.
service, adopted a standardized question-
naire with a common set of definitions.
With the Corrections Council, the Bureau
of Justice Statistics produced a series of
tables that provide a unified profile of per-
sons in the custody of U.S. military
authorities.

The annual confinement report provides
yearend counts of persons in U.S. military
confinement facilities inside and outside
the continental United States, by branch of
service, sex, race, and Hispanic origin,
conviction status and sentence length, and
offense. It also provides counts of the
number persons admitted to confinement
and the number released during the calen-
dar year, by branch of service, type of
commitment, and type of release. The
confinement report also includes the num-
ber of facilities and their design and rated
capacities, by level.

Data for 1994 are incomplete. Information
on Air Force confinement facilities (includ-
ing the number and characteristics of pris-
oners held at yearend as well as those
admitted or released during the year) was
not available. Admission and release data
for Marine Corps facilities covered only the
period October 1, 1994, to December 31,
1994.




                                                                                                  U.S. military corrections 63
                                                      Prisoners in 1994


Tables

Prisoners under State or Federal          Sentenced prisoners released
jurisdiction, by sentence length,         conditionally or unconditionally
1993 and 1994                             from State or Federal jurisdiction,
                                          by type of release, 1994
5.1      All prisoners               66
5.2      Male prisoners              67   5.13    All prisoners                 81
5.3      Female prisoners            68   5.14    Male prisoners                82
                                          5.15    Female prisoners              83
5.4      Incarceration rates for
         prisoners under State or         Sentenced prisoners admitted to State
         or Federal jurisdiction          or Federal jurisdiction for violation of
         or in State or Federal           parole or other conditional release
         custody, by sentence
         length, 1994                69   5.16    All prisoners, by sex
5.5      Prisoners housed in jails                and status of sentence     84
         because of crowded State         Sentenced prisoners under State or
         facilities, by sex, 1993         Federal jurisdiction
         and 1994                    70
                                          5.17    Deaths, by sex and cause
Prisoners under State or Federal                  of death                      85
jurisdiction, 1994
                                          Prisoners in custody of State or Federal
5.6      All prisoners, by race      71   correctional authorities, by sentence
5.7      Male prisoners, by race     72   length, 1993 and 1994
5.8      Female prisoners, by race   73
5.9      All prisoners, by sex and        5.18    All prisoners                  86
         Hispanic origin             74   5.19    Male prisoners                 87
                                          5.20    Female prisoners               88
Sentenced prisoners admitted to
or released from State or Federal         Explanatory notes by jurisdiction      89
jurisdiction, by type of admission
or release, 1994                          Questionnaire                          98
5.10a All prisoners admitted         75
5.10b All prisoners released         76
5.11a Male prisoners admitted        77
5.11b Male prisoners released        78
5.12a Female prisoners
        admitted                     79
5.12b Female prisoners
        released                     80




                                                              Prisoners in 1994 65
Table 5.1. Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1993 and 1994
                                                                          Maximum sentence length
                                                                                                                Year or less/unsentenced
                                   Total                  More than a year                     Total
Region and                                 Percent                     Percent                       Percent              Year or less         Unsentenced
jurisdiction             12/31/94 12/31/93 change    12/31/94 12/31/93 change      12/31/94 12/31/93 change            12/31/94 12/31/93     12/31/94 12/31/93
   U.S. total            1,054,774 969,301   8.8%    1,016,760 932,074      9.1%    38,014 37,227               2.1%   15,833     16,703     22,181     20,524

  Federal                  95,034 89,587     6.1%       79,795 74,399       7.3%    15,239 15,188                .3%    4,734      5,168     10,505     10,020
  State                   959,740 879,714    9.1       936,965 857,675      9.2     22,775 22,039               3.0    11,099     11,535     11,676     10,504

 Northeast                153,175 145,620     5.2%     146,937 140,060      4.9%     6,238     5,560       12.2%        2,522      2,510      3,716      3,050
  Connecticuta             14,380 13,691      5.0       10,500 10,508       - .1     3,880     3,183       21.2         1,140      1,017      2,740      2,166
  Maine                     1,474   1,469      .3        1,401   1,446     -3.1         73        23      217.4            73         23          ...        ...
  Massachusettsb           11,396 10,229     11.4       10,504   9,274     13.3        892       955       -6.6           553        678        339        277
  New Hampshire             2,021   1,775    13.9        2,021   1,775     13.9         ...       ...                       ...        ...        ...        ...
  New Jerseyc              24,632 23,831      3.4       24,632 23,831       3.4           /         /                         /          /       ...        ...
  New York                 66,750 64,569      3.4       66,750 64,569       3.4          ...      ...                       ...        ...        ...        ...
  Pennsylvania             28,302 26,050      8.6       28,294 26,045       8.6           8         5                        0          5          8         ...
  Rhode Islanda             2,919   2,783     4.9        1,854   1,719      7.9      1,065     1,064             .1       575        583        490        481
  Vermonta                  1,301   1,223     6.4          981     893      9.9        320       330           -3.0       181        204        139        126

 Midwest                  184,508 173,277     6.5%     183,830 172,709      6.4%       678       568          19.4%       190        229        488        339
  Illinoisb,c              36,531 34,495      5.9       36,531 34,495       5.9           0         0                         /          /         0          0
  Indiana                  15,014 14,470      3.8       14,916 14,364       3.8         98       106           -7.5        89        100           9          6
  Iowab                     5,437   4,898    11.0        5,437   4,898     11.0          ...      ...                       ...        ...        ...        ...
  Kansas                    6,371   5,727    11.2        6,371   5,727     11.2          ...      ...                       ...        ...        ...        ...
  Michiganb                40,631 39,318      3.3       40,631 39,318       3.3           0         0                        0          0          0          0
  Minnesota                 4,575   4,200     8.9        4,575   4,200      8.9          ...      ...                       ...        ...        ...        ...
  Missourid                17,898 16,178       ...      17,898 16,178        ...          0         0                        0          0         ...       ...
  Nebraska                  2,711   2,518     7.7        2,667   2,467      8.1         44        51          -13.7        44         51          ...       ...
  North Dakota                536     498     7.6          501     446     12.3         35        52          -32.7        35         52          ...       ...
  Ohioc                    43,074 40,641      6.0       43,074 40,641       6.0           /         /              /         /           /        ...       ...
  South Dakota              1,708   1,553    10.0        1,708   1,553     10.0           /         0                                   0         ...       ...
  Wisconsin                10,022   8,781    14.1        9,521   8,422     13.0        501       359          39.6         22         26        479        333

 South                    422,053 372,711    13.2%     414,952 364,383     13.9%    7,101      8,328          -14.7%    5,884      6,287      1,217      2,041
  Alabama                  19,573 18,624      5.1       19,074 18,169       5.0       499        455            9.7       499        455          ...        ...
  Arkansas                  8,643   8,625      .2        8,517   7,984      6.7       126        641          -80.3       126        641          ...        ...
  Delawarea                 4,466   4,210     6.1        2,844   2,781      2.3     1,622      1,429           13.5       922        819        700        610
  Dist. of Columbiaa,c     10,949 10,845      1.0       10,085   8,908     13.2       864      1,937          -55.4       347        506        517      1,431
  Floridab                 57,168 53,048      7.8       57,157 52,883       8.1        11        165          -93.3        11        165          ...        ...
  Georgiab                 33,425 27,783     20.3       32,523 27,079      20.1       902        704           28.1       902        704          ...        ...
  Kentucky                 11,066 10,440      6.0       11,066 10,440       6.0         ...        ...                      ...        ...        ...        ...
  Louisiana                24,063 22,468      7.1       24,063 22,468       7.1         ...        ...                      ...        ...        ...        ...
  Marylande                20,998 20,264      3.6       19,854 19,121       3.8     1,144      1,143            .1      1,144      1,143          ...        ...
  Mississippi              10,930   9,907    10.3       10,606   9,601     10.5       324        306           5.9        324        306          ...        ...
  North Carolina           23,648 21,892      8.0       23,046 21,367       7.9       602        525          14.7        602        525          ...        ...
  Oklahomac                16,631 16,409      1.4       16,631 16,409       1.4           /          /           /            /          /        ...        ...
  South Carolina           18,999 18,704      1.6       18,168 17,896       1.5       831        808           2.8        831        808          ...        ...
  Tennesseec               14,401 12,824     12.3       14,401 12,824      12.3           /          /                        /          /        ...        ...
  Texas                   118,195 92,013     28.5      118,195 92,013      28.5           /          /                        /          /        ...        ...
  Virginia                 26,968 22,850     18.0       26,792 22,635      18.4       176         215         -18.1       176        215          ...        ...
  West Virginia             1,930   1,805     6.9        1,930   1,805      6.9          0          0                       ...        ...         0          0

 West                     200,004 188,106    6.3%      191,246 180,523      5.9%    8,758      7,583          15.5%     2,503      2,509      6,255     5,074
  Alaskaa,d                 3,292   2,703     ...        1,934   2,703     ...      1,358             /                   462            /      896           /
  Arizonab                 19,746 17,811     10.9       19,005 17,160      10.8       741        651          13.8        741        651           0         0
  Californiab             125,605 119,951     4.7      121,084 115,573      4.8     4,521      4,378           3.3           0          0     4,521     4,378
  Coloradoc                10,717   9,462    13.3       10,717   9,462     13.3           /          /                        /          /        ...       ...
  Hawaiia                   3,333   3,129     6.5        2,392   2,330      2.7       941        799          17.8        103        103        838       696
  Idaho                     2,811   2,606     7.9        2,811   2,606      7.9         ...        ...                      ...        ...        ...       ...
  Montana                   1,764   1,541    14.5        1,764   1,541     14.5          0          0                        0          0         ...       ...
  Nevada                    6,993   6,412     9.1        6,993   6,246     12.0          0       166                         0       166           0         0
  New Mexico                3,712   3,498     6.1        3,533   3,373      4.7       179        125           43.2       179        125           0        ...
  Oregon                    6,936   6,557     5.8        5,935   5,111     16.1     1,001      1,446          -30.8     1,001      1,446          ...       ...
  Utah                      3,045   2,888     5.4        3,028   2,871      5.5        17         17                       17         17          ...       ...
  Washington               10,833 10,419      4.0       10,833 10,419       4.0         ...        ...                      ...        ...        ...       ...
  Wyoming                   1,217   1,129     7.8        1,217   1,128      7.9          0          1                        0          1          0        ...
                                                     a
Note: See the questionnaire for category              Figures include both jail and prison inmates;        less. See Explanatory notes.
                                                                                                          d
definitions and Explanatory notes for State-by-      jails and prisons are combined in one system.         Data for 1993 are custody rather than jurisdiction
                                                     b
State variations from definitions.                    Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction       counts.
                                                                                                          e
...Not applicable.                                   counts.                                               Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year
                                                     c
/Not reported.                                        Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year      are estimated.
                                                     may include some inmates sentenced to a year or


66 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.2. Male prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1993 and 1994

                                                                                      Maximum sentence length
                                                                                                                              Year or less/unsentenced
                                      Total                        More than a year                            Total
Region and                                     Percent                           Percent                            Percent              Year or less          Unsentenced
jurisdiction             12/31/94   12/31/93   change        12/31/94 12/31/93 change             12/31/94 12/31/93 change            12/31/94 12/31/93     12/31/94 12/31/93

   U.S. total            990,434    911,044          8.7%        956,691   878,037      9.0%      33,743      33,007          2.2%    13,766     14,569     19,977     18,438

  Federal                 87,894     82,696          6.3%         73,929    68,847      7.4%      13,965      13,849           .8%     4,132      4,502      9,833      9,347
  State                  902,540    828,348          9.0         882,762   809,190      9.1       19,778      19,158          3.2      9,634     10,067     10,144      9,091

 Northeast               145,048    137,779          5.3%        139,622   132,962      5.0%       5,426       4,817          12.6%    2,058      2,097      3,368      2,720
  Connecticuta            13,381     12,697          5.4           9,878     9,858       .2        3,503       2,839          23.4       973        875      2,530      1,964
  Maine                    1,426      1,419           .5           1,361     1,397     -2.6           65          22         195.5        65         22          ...        ...
  Massachusettsb          10,690      9,576         11.6          10,112     8,889     13.8          578         687         -15.9       328        492        250        195
  New Hampshire            1,911      1,689         13.1           1,911     1,689     13.1            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  New Jerseyc             23,464     22,698          3.4          23,464    22,698      3.4              /           /                       /          /        ...        ...
  New York                63,175     61,041          3.5          63,175    61,041      3.5            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  Pennsylvania            26,980     24,856          8.5          26,972    24,855      8.5             8           1                       0          1          8         ...
  Rhode Islanda            2,769      2,628          5.4           1,800     1,670      7.8          969         958           1.1       523        516        446        442
  Vermonta                 1,252      1,175          6.6             949       865      9.7          303         310          -2.3       169        191        134        119

 Midwest                 174,611    164,096          6.4%        173,987   163,585      6.4%         624         511         22.1%       170        212        454        299
  Illinoisb,c             34,718     32,807          5.8          34,718    32,807      5.8             0           0                        /          /         0          0
  Indiana                 14,188     13,692          3.6          14,100    13,591      3.7           88         101         -12.9        81         96           7          5
  Iowab                    5,086      4,617         10.2           5,086     4,617     10.2            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  Kansas                   6,027      5,452         10.5           6,027     5,452     10.5            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  Michiganb               38,610     37,520          2.9          38,610    37,520      2.9             0           0                       0          0          0          0
  Minnesota                4,338      4,008          8.2           4,338     4,008      8.2            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  Missourid               16,856     15,258           ...         16,856    15,258     10.5             0           0                       0          0         ...        ...
  Nebraska                 2,535      2,349          7.9           2,500     2,305      8.5           35          44         -20.5        35         44          ...        ...
  North Dakota               520        477          9.0             486       428     13.6           34          49         -30.6        34         49          ...        ...
  Ohioc                   40,518     38,057          6.5          40,518    38,057      6.5              /           /                       /          /        ...        ...
  South Dakota             1,605      1,465          9.6           1,605     1,465      9.6              /          0                        /         0         ...        ...
  Wisconsin                9,610      8,394         14.5           9,143     8,077     13.2          467         317         47.3         20         23        447        294

 South                   395,697    349,908        13.1%         389,424   342,530     13.7%       6,273       7,378         -15.0%    5,214      5,491      1,059      1,887
  Alabama                 18,359     17,493         5.0           17,908    17,084      4.8          451         409          10.3       451        409          ...        ...
  Arkansas                 8,063      8,130         - .8           7,962     7,511      6.0          101         619         -83.7       101        619          ...        ...
  Delawarea                4,184      3,953         5.8            2,707     2,657      1.9        1,477       1,296          14.0       834        729        643        567
  Dist. of Columbiaa,c    10,262     10,158         1.0            9,548     8,544     11.8          714       1,614         -55.8       298        294        416      1,320
  Florida                 54,100     50,349         7.4           54,092    50,187      7.8             8        162         -95.1          8       162          ...        ...
  Georgiab                31,413     26,023        20.7           30,614    25,386     20.6          799         637          25.4       799        637          ...        ...
  Kentucky                10,429      9,895         5.4           10,429     9,895      5.4            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  Louisiana               22,768     21,354         6.6           22,768    21,354      6.6            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  Marylande               19,959     19,288         3.5           18,962    18,278      3.7          997       1,010         -1.3        997      1,010          ...        ...
  Mississippi             10,282      9,330        10.2            9,994     9,068     10.2          288         262          9.9        288        262          ...        ...
  North Carolina          22,465     20,772         8.2           21,913    20,286      8.0          552         486         13.6        552        486          ...        ...
  Oklahomac               15,024     14,827         1.3           15,024    14,827      1.3              /           /                       /          /        ...        ...
  South Carolina          17,977     17,599         2.1           17,251    16,909      2.0          726         690           5.2       726        690          ...        ...
  Tennesseec              13,814     12,316        12.2           13,814    12,316     12.2              /           /                       /          /        ...        ...
  Texas                  109,356     85,064        28.6          109,356    85,064     28.6             0           0                       0          0         ...        ...
  Virginia                25,403     21,631        17.4           25,243    21,438     17.7          160         193         -17.1       160        193          ...        ...
  West Virginia            1,839      1,726         6.5            1,839     1,726      6.5             0           0                      ...        ...         0          0

 West                    187,184    176,565          6.0%        179,729   170,113      5.7%       7,455       6,452         15.5%     2,192      2,267      5,263      4,185
  Alaskad                  3,074      2,581           ...          1,828     2,581       ...       1,246             /           /       440            /      806            /
  Arizonab                18,473     16,774         10.1          17,812    16,167     10.2          661         607          8.9        661        607           0          0
  Californiab            117,390    112,370          4.5         113,705   108,828      4.5        3,685       3,542          4.0           0          0     3,685      3,542
  Coloradoc               10,047      8,920         12.6          10,047     8,920     12.6              /           /                       /          /        ...        ...
  Hawaiia                  3,076      2,923          5.2           2,216     2,187      1.3          860         736         16.8         88         93        772        643
  Idaho                    2,639      2,458          7.4           2,639     2,458      7.4            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  Montana                  1,671      1,474         13.4           1,671     1,474     13.4             0           0                       0          0         ...        ...
  Nevada                   6,552      5,975          9.7           6,552     5,821     12.6             0        154     -100.0             0       154           0          0
  New Mexico               3,521      3,292          7.0           3,396     3,205      6.0          125          87       43.7          125         87           0         ...
  Oregon                   6,557      6,217          5.5           5,695     4,908     16.0          862       1,309      -34.1          862      1,309          ...        ...
  Utah                     2,914      2,765          5.4           2,898     2,749      5.4           16          16         .0           16         16          ...        ...
  Washington              10,135      9,753          3.9          10,135     9,753      3.9            ...         ...                     ...        ...        ...        ...
  Wyoming                  1,135      1,063          6.8           1,135     1,062      6.9             0           1                       0          1          0         ...

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and     a
                                                               Figures include both jail and prison inmates;             See Explanatory notes.
                                                                                                                         d
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from defi-   jails and prisons are combined in one system.                Data for 1993 are custody rather than jurisdiction
nitions.                                                     b
                                                               Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.     counts
                                                                                                                         e
..Not applicable.                                            c                                                            Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are
                                                               Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year
                                                                                                                         estimated
/Not reported.                                               may include some inmates sentenced to a year or
                                                             less.



                                                                                                                                                    Prisoners in 1994          67
Table 5.3. Female prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1993 and 1994

                                                                                      Maximum sentence length
                                                                                                                          Year or less/unsentenced
                                     Total                        More than a year                          Total
Region and                                                                                                                            Year or less             Unsentenced
jurisdiction                                  Percent                      Percent                               Percent
                         12/31/94 12/31/93    change     12/31/94 12/31/92 change              12/31/94 12/31/93 change          12/31/94     12/31/93      12/31/94 12/31/93

   U.S. total            64,340     58,257      10.4%        60,069   54,037         11.2%      4,271       4,220       1.2%        2,067      2,134         2,204      2,086

  Federal                 7,140      6,891       3.6%         5,866    5,552          5.7%      1,274       1,339      -4.9%          602        666           672        673
  State                  57,200     51,366      11.4         54,203   48,485         11.8       2,997       2,881       4.0         1,465      1,468         1,532      1,413

 Northeast                8,127      7,841        3.6%        7,315    7,098        3.1%          812         743       9.3%          464        413           348          330
  Connecticuta              999        994        0.5           622      650       -4.3           377         344       9.6           167        142           210          202
  Maine                      48         50       -4.0            40       49      -18.4              8           1                       8          1           ...           ...
  Massachusetts b           706        653        8.1           392      385        1.8           314         268      17.2           225        186            89           82
  New Hampshire             110         86       27.9           110       86       27.9             ...         ...                     ...        ...           ...          ...
  New Jerseyc             1,168      1,133        3.1         1,168    1,133        3.1               /           /                      /            /          ...          ...
  New York                3,575      3,528        1.3         3,575    3,528        1.3             ...         ...                     ...         ...          ...          ...
  Pennsylvania            1,322      1,194       10.7         1,322    1,190       11.1              0           4                       0          4             0           ...
  Rhode Island a            150        155       -3.2            54       49       10.2            96         106      -9.4            52         67            44           39
  Vermonta                   49         48        2.1            32       28       14.3            17          20     -15.0            12         13              5            7

 Midwest                  9,897      9,181        7.8%        9,843    9,124        7.9%            54         57      -5.3%           20            17         34           40
  Illinoisb,c             1,813      1,688        7.4         1,813    1,688        7.4               0         0                         /             /         0            0
  Indiana                   826        778        6.2           816      773        5.6             10          5                        8             4          2            1
  Iowab                     351        281       24.9           351      281       24.9              ...       ...                      ...           ...        ...          ...
  Kansas                    344        275       25.1           344      275       25.1              ...       ...                      ...           ...        ...          ...
  Michigan b              2,021      1,798       12.4         2,021    1,798       12.4               0         0                        0             0          0            0
  Minnesota                 237        192       23.4           237      192       23.4              ...       ...                     ...            ...        ...          ...
  Missourid               1,042        920         ...        1,042      920       13.3               0         0                        0             0         ...          ...
  Nebraska                  176        169        4.1           167      162        3.1               9         7                        9             7         ...          ...
  North Dakota               16         21      -23.8            15       18      -16.7               1         3                        1             3        ...           ...
  Ohioc                   2,556      2,584       -1.1         2,556    2,584       -1.1                /         /                       /              /        ...          ...
  South Dakota              103         88       17.0           103       88       17.0                /        0                         /            0         ...          ...
  Wisconsin                 412        387        6.5           378      345        9.6             34         42     -19.0              2             3        32           39

 South                   26,356     22,803      15.6%        25,528   21,853         16.8%        828         950     -12.8%          670        796           158          154
  Alabama                 1,214      1,131       7.3          1,166    1,085          7.5          48          46       4.3            48         46              ...          ...
  Arkansas                  580        495      17.2            555      473         17.3          25          22      13.6            25         22              ...          ...
  Delawarea                 282        257       9.7            137      124         10.5         145         133       9.0            88         90            57           43
  Dist. of Columbiaa,c      687        687        .0            537      364         47.5         150         323     -53.6            49        212           101          111
  Floridab                3,068      2,699      13.7          3,065    2,696         13.7           3           3                        3          3            ...          ...
  Georgiab                2,012      1,760      14.3          1,909    1,693         12.8         103          67      53.7           103         67             ...          ...
  Kentucky                  637        545      16.9            637      545         16.9           ...         ...                    ...         ...           ...          ...
  Louisiana               1,295      1,114      16.2          1,295    1,114         16.2           ...         ...                    ...         ...           ...          ...
  Marylande               1,039        976       6.5            892      843          5.8         147         133      10.5           147        133             ...          ...
  Mississippi               648        577      12.3            612      533         14.8          36          44     -18.2            36         44             ...          ...
  North Carolina          1,183      1,120       5.6          1,133    1,081          4.8          50          39      28.2            50         39             ...          ...
  Oklahomac               1,607      1,582       1.6          1,607    1,582          1.6            /           /                        /          /           ...          ...
  South Carolina          1,022      1,105      -7.5            917      987         -7.1         105         118     -11.0           105        118             ...          ...
  Tennesseec                587        508      15.6            587      508         15.6            /           /                        /          /           ...          ...
  Texas                   8,839      6,949      27.2          8,839    6,949         27.2           0           0                        0          0            ...          ...
  Virginia                1,565      1,219      28.4          1,549    1,197         29.4          16          22     -27.3            16         22             ...          ...
  West Virginia              91         79      15.2             91       79         15.2           0           0                       ...        ...            0            0

 West                    12,820     11,541      11.1%        11,517   10,410       10.6%        1,303       1,131      15.2%          311        242           992          889
  Alaskaa,d                 218        122        ...           106      122         ...          112             /        /           22            /          90              /
  Arizonab                1,273      1,037      22.8          1,193      993       20.1            80          44      81.8            80         44              0            0
  Californiab             8,215      7,581       8.4          7,379    6,745        9.4           836         836                       0           0          836          836
  Coloradoc                 670        542      23.6            670      542       23.6               /           /                       /          /           ...          ...
  Hawaiia                   257        206      24.8            176      143       23.1            81          63      28.6            15         10            66           53
  Idaho                     172        148      16.2            172      148       16.2             ...         ...                    ...         ...           ...          ...
  Montana                    93         67      38.8             93       67       38.8              0           0                      0           0            ...          ...
  Nevada                    441        437       0.9            441      425        3.8              0         12                       0         12              0            0
  New Mexico                191        206      -7.3            137      168      -18.5            54          38      42.1            54         38              0           ...
  Oregon                    379        340      11.5            240      203       18.2           139         137       1.5           139        137             ...          ...
  Utah                      131        123       6.5            130      122        6.6              1           1                      1           1            ...          ...
  Washington                698        666       4.8            698      666        4.8             ...         ...                    ...         ...           ...          ...
  Wyoming                    82         66      24.2             82       66       24.2              0           0                      0           0             0           ...

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions     a
                                                           Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and    or less. See Explanatory notes.
                                                                                                                      d
and Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations      prisons are combined in one system.                           Data for 1993 are custody rather than jurisdiction
from definitions.                                        b
                                                           Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.      counts.
                                                                                                                      e
...Not applicable.                                       c                                                             Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year
                                                           Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year
                                                                                                                      are estimated.
/Not reported.                                            may include some inmates sentenced to a year



68 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.4. Incarceration rates for prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction
or in State or Federal custody, by sentence length, 1994

                                                                 Number of prisoners per 100,000 resident population
                                               Total                           More than a year                    Year or less/Unsentenced
Region and                  Under Federal or         In Federal or  Under Federal or       In Federal or        Under Federal or      In Federal or
jurisdiction                State jurisdiction       State custody State jurisdiction      State custody        State jurisdiction    State custody

   U.S. total                     403                   382                 389                  369                         15              13

  Federal                          36                    33                  30                   28                          6                4
  State                           367                   349                 358                  341                          9                9

 Northeast                        298                   291                 286                  279                        12               12
  Connecticuta                    439                   435                 321                  317                       118              118
  Maine                           119                   118                 113                  116                          6               2
  Massachusettsb                  188                   188                 174                  174                        15               15
  New Hampshire                   177                   181                 177                  173                         ...              7
  New Jerseyc                     311                   268                 311                  267                           /              1
  New York                        367                   367                 367                  367                        ...              ...
  Pennsylvania                    235                   234                 235                  234                          0               0
  Rhode Islanda                   293                   295                 186                  193                       107              102
  Vermonta                        223                   217                 168                  162                        55               55

 Midwest                          300                   297                 299                  296                           1               1
  Illinoisbc                      310                   310                 310                  310                           0               0
  Indiana                         260                   260                 258                  258                           2               2
  Iowab                           192                   192                 192                  192                          ...             ...
  Kansas                          248                   248                 248                  248                         ...              ...
  Michiganb                       427                   427                 427                  427                           0               0
  Minnesota                       100                    95                 100                   95                          ...             ...
  Missouri                        338                   338                 338                  338                           0               0
  Nebraska                        167                   166                 164                  162                           3               4
  North Dakota                     84                    96                  78                   90                           5               5
  Ohioc                           387                   375                 387                  375                            /              0
  South Dakota                    236                   240                 236                  240                            /               /
  Wisconsin                       196                   196                 187                  187                         10               10

 South                            462                    421                454                  413                          8               8
  Alabama                         462                    453                450                  442                        12               11
  Arkansas                        350                    334                345                  330                          5               5
  Delawareb                       629                    627                400                  399                       228              227
  District of Columbiaa,c       1,935                  1,873              1,782                1,720                       153              153
  Floridab                        406                    406                406                  406                          0               0
  Georgiab                        469                    469                456                  456                        13               13
  Kentucky                        288                    237                288                  237                        ...               0
  Louisiana                       556                    556                556                  556                         ...             ...
  Marylandd                       417                    412                395                  389                        23               22
  Mississippi                     407                    362                395                  354                        12                7
  North Carolina                  332                    334                323                  323                          8              11
  Oklahomac                       508                    409                508                  409                           /               /
  South Carolina                  516                    472                494                  451                        23               21
  Tennesseec                      276                    241                276                  241                           /              0
  Texas                           637                    525                637                  525                           /              1
  Virginia                        409                    320                406                  320                          3               0
  West Virginia                   106                    106                106                  106                          0               0

 West                             349                   344                 334                  329                        15               15
  Alaskaa                         539                   450                 317                  269                       222              180
  Arizonab                        477                   477                 459                  459                        18               18
  Californiab                     398                   398                 384                  384                        14               14
  Coloradoc                       289                   248                 289                  248                           /               /
  Hawaiia                         281                   245                 202                  172                        79               73
  Idaho                           245                   217                 245                  217                         ...              0
  Montana                         204                   198                 204                  198                          0               0
  Nevada                          468                   460                 468                  445                          0              15
  New Mexico                      222                   231                 211                  218                        11               14
  Oregon                          223                   222                 191                  190                        32               32
  Utah                            158                   168                 157                  161                          1               7
  Washington                      201                   201                 201                  201                         ...              1
  Wyoming                         254                   222                 254                  222                          0               0
                                                   a
Note: See the questionnaire for category defini-     Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails     may include some inmates sentenced to a
tions and Explanatory notes for State-by-State     and prisons are combined in one system.                   year or less. See Explanatory notes.
                                                   b                                                         d
variations from definitions.                         Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.    Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1
                                                   c
...Not applicable.                                   Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year          year are estimated.
/Not reported.




                                                                                                                                                    Prisoners in 1994   69
 Table 5.5. Prisoners housed in jails because of crowded
 State facilities, by sex, 1993 and 1994

                                                                                                                  Prisoners in jails
                                      Number of prisoners housed in jails because of crowding                     as a percent of
 Region and                          Total                   Male                      Female                     all prisoners
 jurisdiction                 12/31/94 12/31/93      12/31/94 12/31/93         12/31/94 12/31/93                       12/31/94

     U.S. total                  45,618      52,716        40,520       51,051         5,098       1,665                  4.3%

  Northeast                       4,379       4,472          4,200       4,308           179         164                  2.8%
   Massachusetts                    966         871            966         871             0           0                  8.5
   New Jersey                     3,413       3,594          3,234       3,430           179         164                 13.9
   Vermont                            0           7              0           7             0           0

  Midwest                         1,365       1,449         1,276        1,377            89          72                    .7%
   Indiana                          903       1,005           869          981            34          24                   6.0
   Minnesota                         85         134            85          134             0           0                   1.9
   Wisconsin                        377         310           322          262            55          48                   3.8

  South                         38,122       45,743        33,415       44,406         4,707       1,337                  9.0%
   Alabama                       1,547        1,204         1,465        1,156            82          48                  7.9
   Arkansas                        301          667           301          667             0           0                  3.5
   Kentucky                        632          396           593          378            39          18                  5.7
   Louisiana                     8,081        6,390         7,333        5,817           748         573                 33.6
   Mississippi                   1,569        1,543         1,508        1,424            61         119                 14.4
   North Carolina                  248            0           248            0             0           0                  1.0
   Oklahoma                        375          380           328          332            47          48                  2.2
   South Carolina                  359          416           332          412            27           4                  1.9
   Tennessee                     1,829        1,329         1,640        1,210           189         119                 12.7
   Texas*                       20,720       29,546        17,422       29,546         3,298            /                17.5
   Virginia                      2,063        3,610         1,862        3,223           201         387                  7.6
   West Virginia                   398          262           383          241            15          21                 20.6

  West                            1,752       1,052         1,629          960           123          92                   .9%
   Arizona                          118         157           118          157             0           0                   .6
   Colorado                       1,135         560         1,045          508            90          52                 10.6
   Idaho                            330         213           305          192            25          21                 11.7
   Utah                             169         122           161          103             8          19                  5.6

 Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and            jails in their jurisdiction count; however, the percentage of
 Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from                jurisdiction population was calculated for all persons serving
 definitions. Unlisted jurisdictions either had combined jail-       sentences to incarceration, whether in State prison or in jail.
 prison systems or did not report prisoners held in local jails.     /Not reported.
 Arizona and Oklahoma did not include inmates in local               *In 1993 Texas did not distinguish the gender of prison in-
                                                                     mates housed in jails.




70 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.6. Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1994

                                                             Number of prisoners
                          Prisoner                                     American              Asian/
Region and                population                                   Indian/               Pacific       Not
jurisdiction              12/31/94          White           Black      Alaska Native         Islander      known
   U.S. total             1,054,774        464,167          501,672        9,283              6,005          73,647

  Federal                    95,034         58,403           33,448        1,385              1,322             476
  State                     959,740        405,764          468,224        7,898              4,683          73,171

 Northeast                  153,175         59,920           81,657          304                546          10,748
  Connecticuta,b             14,380          3,785            6,633           18                 41           3,903
  Mainec                      1,474          1,426               29           12                  3               4
  Massachusettsb,d,e         11,396          4,744            2,983           12                 66           3,591
  New Hampshire               2,021          1,911              101            1                  8               0
  New Jerseyb                24,632          6,962           16,067            3                 45           1,555
  New York                   66,750         28,406           36,183          181                301           1,679
  Pennsylvaniab              28,302          9,525           18,642           56                 63              16
  Rhode Islanda               2,919          1,901              989           10                 19               0
  Vermonta,c                  1,301          1,260               30           11                  0               0

 Midwest                    184,508         80,324           96,115        1,590                266            6,213
  Illinoisb,d                36,531          8,892           24,008           43                 55            3,533
  Indiana                    15,014          8,705            6,242           50                 17                0
  Iowab,d                     5,437          3,780            1,377           87                 33              160
  Kansas                      6,371          3,718            2,509           96                 45                3
  Michiganb,d                40,631         16,698           22,887          176                 47              823
  Minnesotab,f                4,575          2,407            1,551          313                  1              303
  Missouri                   17,898          9,200            8,630           46                 20                2
  Nebraskac                   2,711          1,707              898           95                  5                6
  North Dakota                  536            419               18           97                  2                0
  Ohiog                      43,074         18,583           23,135             /                  /           1,356
  South Dakotac               1,708          1,246               60          402                  0                0
  Wisconsin                  10,022          4,969            4,800          185                 41               27

 South                      422,053        133,183          237,476        1,635                142          49,617
  Alabama                    19,573          6,764           12,767            3                  1              38
  Arkansasb                   8,643          3,691            4,919            8                  4              21
  Delawarea,b                 4,466          1,389            2,996            0                  4              77
  District of Columbiaa      10,949            155           10,794            0                  0               0
  Floridad                   57,168         22,789           33,123           23                 43           1,190
  Georgiad                   33,425         10,867           22,432           39                 40              47
  Kentucky                   11,066          6,997            4,045            0                  2              22
  Louisianab,d               24,063          5,490           18,528            5                  1              39
  Maryland                   20,998          4,757           16,193            4                  1              43
  Mississippib               10,930          2,713            8,147            8                 11              51
  North Carolina             23,648          7,491           15,397          460                 13             287
  Oklahomab                  16,631          8,904            6,052        1,055                 11             609
  South Carolina             18,999          5,743           13,174           20                  5              57
  Tennesseeb                 14,401          7,180            7,169            9                  5              38
  Texasb,c,e                118,195         27,858           43,426             /                  /         46,911
  Virginiab                  26,968          8,755           18,026            0                  0             187
  West Virginia               1,930          1,640              288            1                  1               0

 West                       200,004        132,337           52,976        4,369              3,729            6,593
  Alaskaa,b,c                 3,292          1,594              455        1,110                 37               96
  Arizonad                   19,746         15,466            3,334          703                 37              206
  Californiab,d             125,605         79,944           40,288        1,010              1,317            3,046
  Coloradoc                  10,717          7,485            2,581          212                 47              392
  Hawaiia,b                   3,333            674              174           48              1,843              594
  Idahoc,e                    2,811          2,269               36          108                 18              380
  Montanah                    1,764          1,421               33          306                  4                0
  Nevadab,c                   6,993          3,933            1,989          104                 83              884
  New Mexico                  3,712          3,077              429          141                  2               63
  Oregon                      6,936          5,206              874          137                 55              664
  Utah                        3,045          2,591              272          120                 45               17
  Washington                 10,833          7,727            2,451          308                235              112
  Wyomingb                    1,217            950               60           62                  6              139
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and              are reported under "Not known."
                                                                      f
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.      Minnesota includes some Asian/Pacific
/Not reported.                                                        Islanders under "Not known."
                                                                      g
a
  Figures include both jail and prison inmates;                        Ohio includes American Indians, Alaska
                                                                      Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islanders under
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
                                                                      "White."
  Some or all Hispanic prisoners reported under                       h
                                                                       Montana includes all Hispanic inmates
"Not known."                                                          under "White."
c
  The numbers in racial categories were estimated.
d
  Data are custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
  Inmates housed in local jails or other facilities

                                                                                                                       Prisoners in 1994   71
Table 5.7. Male prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1994

                                                             Number of male prisoners
                           Prisoner                                       American                Asian/
Region and                 population                                     Indian/                 Pacific        Not
jurisdiction               12/31/94           White            Black      Alaska Native           Islander       known
   U.S. total               990,434          436,453           471,583          8,515               5,705          68,178

  Federal                    87,894           54,317            30,591          1,305               1,214             467
  State                     902,540          382,136           440,992          7,210               4,491          67,711

 Northeast                  145,048           56,542            77,448            290                 534          10,234
  Connecticuta,b             13,381            3,467             6,175             18                  39           3,682
  Mainec                      1,426            1,383                25             11                   3               4
  Massachusettsb,d,e         10,690            4,428             2,866             11                  65           3,320
  New Hampshire               1,911            1,806                97              1                   7               0
  New Jerseyb                23,464            6,621            15,256              3                  41           1,543
  New York                   63,175           26,816            34,218            172                 297           1,672
  Pennsylvaniab              26,980            9,023            17,828             53                  63              13
  Rhode Islanda               2,769            1,786               954             10                  19               0
  Vermonta,c                  1,252            1,212                29             11                   0               0

 Midwest                    174,611           76,220            90,644          1,464                 255           6,028
  Illinoisb,d                34,718            8,421            22,794             34                  51           3,418
  Indiana                    14,188            8,217             5,909             45                  17               0
  Iowab,d                     5,086            3,547             1,271             80                  33             155
  Kansas                      6,027            3,537             2,356             88                  44               2
  Michiganb,d                38,610           15,915            21,686            169                  46             794
  Minnesotab,f                4,338            2,285             1,458            296                   1             298
  Missouri                   16,856            8,666             8,125             45                  18               2
  Nebraskac                   2,535            1,617               831             84                   3               0
  North Dakota                  520              411                18             89                   2               0
  Ohiog                      40,518           17,615            21,562               /                   /          1,341
  South Dakotac               1,605            1,187                57            361                   0               0
  Wisconsin                   9,610            4,802             4,577            173                  40              18

 South                      395,697          125,055           223,663          1,496                 135          45,348
  Alabama                    18,359            6,323            11,996              3                   1              36
  Arkansasb                   8,063            3,421             4,612              6                   3              21
  Delawarea,b                 4,184            1,308             2,797              0                   2              77
  District of Columbiaa      10,262              133            10,129              0                   0               0
  Floridad                   54,100           21,513            31,335             23                  43           1,186
  Georgiad                   31,413           10,140            21,153             37                  38              45
  Kentucky                   10,429            6,659             3,746              0                   2              22
  Louisianab                 22,768            5,130            17,593              5                   1              39
  Maryland                   19,959            4,462            15,454              1                   0              42
  Mississippib               10,282            2,520             7,693              8                  11              50
  North Carolina             22,465            7,063            14,674            438                  13             277
  Oklahomab                  15,024            8,158             5,334            947                  10             575
  South Carolina             17,977            5,398            12,502             19                   5              53
  Tennesseeb                 13,814            6,845             6,918              8                   5              38
  Texasb,c,e                109,356           26,201            40,451               /                   /         42,704
  Virginiab                  25,403            8,218            17,002              0                   0             183
  West Virginia               1,839            1,563               274              1                   1               0

 West                       187,184          124,319            49,237          3,960               3,567           6,101
  Alaskaa,b,c                 3,074            1,492               415          1,045                  36              86
  Arizonad                   18,473           14,503             3,085            648                  36             201
  Californiad,b             117,390           74,992            37,472            846               1,294           2,786
  Coloradoc                  10,047            7,052             2,364            198                  46             387
  Hawaiia,b                   3,076              604               162             42               1,729             539
  Idahoc,e                    2,639            2,144                35             95                  18             347
  Montanah                    1,671            1,352                32            283                   4               0
  Nevadab,c                   6,552            3,669             1,861             92                  72             858
  New Mexico                  3,521            2,948               402            137                   2              32
  Oregon                      6,557            4,913               823            119                  52             650
  Utah                        2,914            2,482               253            120                  44              15
  Washington                 10,135            7,281             2,278            275                 228              73
  Wyomingb                    1,135              887                55             60                   6             127
                                                                         d
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the ex-           Data are custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
                                                                         e
planatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.            lnmates housed in local jails or other facilities are re-
/Not reported.                                                           ported under "Not known." See Explanatory notes.
                                                                         f
a
  Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are      Minnesota includes a number of Asian/Pacific Islanders
                                                                         under "Not known."
combined in one system.                                                  g
b
                                                                           Ohio includes American Indians, Alaska Natives,
  Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not known."         and Asian/Pacific Islanders under "White."
 See Explanatory notes.                                                  h
                                                                           Montana includes all Hispanic inmates under "White."
c
  Race was estimated.



72 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.8. Female prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1994

                                                           Number of female prisoners
                          Prisoner                                       American                Asian/
Region and                population                                     Indian/                 Pacific        Not
jurisdiction              12/31/94          White            Black       Alaska Native           Islander       known
   U.S. total              64,340           27,714              30,089          768                300           5,469

  Federal                   7,140            4,086               2,857           80                108               9
  State                    57,200           23,628              27,232          688                192           5,460

 Northeast                  8,127            3,378               4,209            14                12             514
  Connecticuta,b              999              318                 458             0                 2             221
  Mainec                       48               43                   4             1                 0               0
  Massachusettsb,d,e          706              316                 117             1                 1             271
  New Hampshire               110              105                   4             0                 1               0
  New Jerseyb               1,168              341                 811             0                 4              12
  New York                  3,575            1,590               1,965             9                 4               7
  Pennsylvaniab             1,322              502                 814             3                 0               3
  Rhode Islanda               150              115                  35             0                 0               0
  Vermonta,c                   49               48                   1             0                 0               0

 Midwest                    9,897            4,104               5,471          126                 11             185
  Illinoisb,d               1,813              471               1,214            9                  4             115
  Indiana                     826              488                 333            5                  0               0
  Iowab,d                     351              233                 106            7                  0               5
  Kansas                      344              181                 153            8                  1               1
  Michiganb,d               2,021              783               1,201            7                  1              29
  Minnesotab,f                237              122                  93           17                  0               5
  Missouri                  1,042              534                 505            1                  2               0
  Nebraskac                   176               90                  67           11                  2               6
  North Dakota                 16                8                   0            8                  0               0
  Ohiog                     2,556              968               1,573             /                  /             15
  South Dakotac               103               59                   3           41                  0               0
  Wisconsin                   412              167                 223           12                  1               9

 South                     26,356            8,128              13,813          139                  7           4,269
  Alabama                   1,214              441                 771            0                  0               2
  Arkansasb                   580              270                 307            2                  1               0
  Delawarea                   282               81                 199            0                  2               0
  District of Columbiaa       687               22                 665            0                  0               0
  Floridad                  3,068            1,276               1,788            0                  0               4
  Georgiad                  2,012              727               1,279            2                  2               2
  Kentucky                    637              338                 299            0                  0               0
  Louisiana                 1,295              360                 935            0                  0               0
  Maryland                  1,039              295                 739            3                  1               1
  Mississippib                648              193                 454            0                  0               1
  North Carolina            1,183              428                 723           22                  0              10
  Oklahomab                 1,607              746                 718          108                  1              34
  South Carolina            1,022              345                 672            1                  0               4
  Tennessee                   587              335                 251            1                  0               0
  Texasb,c,e                8,839            1,657               2,975             /                  /          4,207
  Virginiab                 1,565              537               1,024            0                  0               4
  West Virginia                91               77                  14            0                  0               0

 West                      12,820            8,018               3,739           409               162             492
  Alaskaa,b,c                 218              102                  40            65                 1              10
  Arizonad                  1,273              963                 249            55                 1               5
  Californiab,d             8,215            4,952               2,816           164                23             260
  Coloradoc                   670              433                 217            14                 1               5
  Hawaiia,b                   257               70                  12             6               114              55
  Idahoc,e                    172              125                   1            13                 0              33
  Montanah                     93               69                   1            23                 0               0
  Nevadab,c                   441              264                 128            12                11              26
  New Mexico                  191              129                  27             4                 0              31
  Oregon                      379              293                  51            18                 3              14
  Utah                        131              109                  19             0                 1               2
  Washington                  698              446                 173            33                 7              39
  Wyomingb                     82               63                   5             2                 0              12
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions        estimated.
                                                            d
and Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from      Data are custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
                                                            e
definitions.                                                  Inmates housed in local jails or other facilities are re-
/Not reported.                                              ported under "Not known." See Explanatory notes.
a                                                           f
  Figures include both jail and prison inmates;               Minnesota includes a number of Asian/Pacific Islanders
jails and prisons are combined in one system.               under "Not known."
                                                            g
b
  Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under           Ohio includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, and
"Not known." See Explanatory notes.                         Asian/Pacific Islanders under "White."
                                                            h
c
  The numbers of prisoners in racial categories were          Montana includes all Hispanic inmates under "White."



                                                                                                                          Prisoners in 1994   73
Table 5.9. Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sex and Hispanic origin, 1994

                                                                                               Number of prisoners
                                                Total                                                  Male                                              Female
                          Prisoner
Region and                population               Non-           Not                                     Non-             Not                               Non-       Not
jurisdiction              12/31/94        Hispanic Hispanic       known             Total    Hispanic     Hispanic         known            Total   Hispanic Hispanic   known
   U.S. total              1,054,774       156,908      695,731   202,135          990,434 149,552           652,501           188,381     64,340    7,356    43,230     13,754

  Federal                     95,034        25,226       69,332       476           87,894 23,604             63,823               467      7,140    1,622     5,509          9
  State                      959,740       131,682      626,399   201,659          902,540 125,948           588,678           187,914     57,200    5,734    37,721     13,745

 Northeast                   153,175        35,225      115,840        2,110       145,048     33,383        109,729             1,936      8,127    1,842     6,111        174
  Connecticuta                14,380         3,903       10,477            0        13,381      3,682          9,699                  0       999      221       778           0
  Maineb                       1,474             2        1,472            0         1,426          2          1,424                  0        48        0        48           0
  Massachusettsc,d            11,396         1,909        7,622        1,865        10,690      1,809          7,189             1,692        706      100       433        173
  New Hampshire                2,021           152        1,869            0         1,911        146          1,765                  0       110        6       104           0
  New Jersey                  24,632         4,217       20,412            3        23,464      4,063         19,398                  3     1,168      154     1,014           0
  New York                    66,750        21,935       44,573          242        63,175     20,705         42,229               241      3,575    1,230     2,344           1
  Pennsylvania                28,302         2,642       25,660           ...       26,980      2,531         24,449                 ...    1,322      111     1,211          ...
  Rhode Islanda                2,919           458        2,461            0         2,769        438          2,331                  0       150       20       130           0
  Vermonta                     1,301             7        1,294            0         1,252          7          1,245                  0        49        0        49           0

 Midwest                     184,508         6,362      133,286       44,860       174,611      6,171        126,247            42,193      9,897      191     7,039      2,667
  Illinoisc                   36,531         3,529       32,998            4        34,718      3,414         31,300                 4      1,813      115     1,698          0
  Indiana                     15,014           332       14,682            0        14,188        325         13,863                 0        826        7       819          0
  Iowac                        5,437           149        5,277           11         5,086        144          4,931                11        351        5       346          0
  Kansasb                      6,371           348        6,023            0         6,027        339          5,688                 0        344        9       335          0
  Michiganc,e                 40,631           703       39,928            0        38,610        683         37,927                 0      2,021       20     2,001          0
  Minnesota                    4,575           222        4,353            0         4,338        218          4,120                 0        237        4       233          0
  Missouri                    17,898           226       17,651           21        16,856        214         16,621                21      1,042       12     1,030          0
  Nebraskab                    2,711           205        2,500            6         2,535        198          2,337                 0        176        7       163          6
  North Dakota                   536            21          515            0           520         21            499                 0         16        0        16          0
  Ohiof                       43,074             /            /       43,074        40,518          /              /            40,518      2,556        /         /      2,556
  South Dakotaf                1,708             /            /        1,708         1,605          /              /             1,605        103        /         /        103
  Wisconsin                   10,022           627        9,359           36         9,610        615          8,961                34        412       12       398          2

 South                       422,053        31,479      240,260   150,314          395,697     30,429        225,479           139,789     26,356    1,050    14,781     10,525
  Alabama                     19,573             2       19,571         0           18,359          2         18,357                 0      1,214        0     1,214          0
  Arkansas                     8,643            33        8,610         0            8,063         30          8,033                 0        580        3       577          0
  Delawarea                    4,466           191        4,186        89            4,184        183          3,926                75        282        8       260         14
  District of Columbiaa       10,949            17       10,790       142           10,262         16         10,108               138        687        1       682          4
  Floridac                    57,168         3,938       53,201        29           54,100      3,853         50,222                25      3,068       85     2,979          4
  Georgiac                    33,425           278            0    33,147           31,413        273              0            31,140      2,012        5         0      2,007
  Kentucky                    11,066            29       11,037         0           10,429         29         10,400                 0        637        0       637          0
  Louisianaf                  24,063              /           /    24,063           22,768           /             /            22,768      1,295        /         /      1,295
  Maryland                    20,998              /           /    20,998           19,959           /             /            19,959      1,039        /         /      1,039
  Mississippi                 10,930            47       10,879         4           10,282         46         10,232                 4        648        1       647          0
  North Carolinaf             23,648             /            /    23,648           22,465          /              /            22,465      1,183        /          /     1,183
  Oklahoma                    16,631           557       16,074         0           15,024        526         14,498                 0      1,607       31     1,576          0
  South Carolina              18,999            52       18,339       608           17,977         46         17,440               491      1,022        6       899        117
  Tennessee                   14,401            38       14,363         0           13,814         38         13,776                 0        587        0       587          0
  Texasb,d                   118,195        26,191       71,284    20,720          109,356     25,282         66,652            17,422      8,839      909     4,632      3,298
  Virginia                    26,968           102            0    26,866           25,403        101              0            25,302      1,565        1         0      1,564
  West Virginia                1,930             4        1,926         0            1,839          4          1,835                 0         91        0        91          0

 West                        200,004        58,616      137,013        4,375       187,184     55,965        127,223             3,996     12,820    2,651     9,790        379
  Alaskaa,b                    3,292            96        3,196            0         3,074         86          2,988                 0        218       10       208          0
  Arizonac                    19,746         6,129       13,614            3        18,473      5,806         12,665                 2      1,273      323       949          1
  Californiac,g              125,605        43,321       79,238        3,046       117,390     41,377         73,227             2,786      8,215    1,944     6,011        260
  Coloradob                   10,717         2,704        7,621          392        10,047      2,580          7,080               387        670      124       541          5
  Hawaiia,h                    3,333           122        3,057          154         3,076        111          2,831               134        257       11       226         20
  Idahod                       2,811           339        1,925          547         2,639        326          1,823               490        172       13       102         57
  Montana                      1,764            34        1,730            0         1,671         32          1,639                 0         93        2        91          0
  Nevada                       6,993           763        6,224            6         6,552        740          5,806                 6        441       23       418          0
  New Mexico                   3,712         2,101        1,548           63         3,521      2,006          1,483                32        191       95        65         31
  Oregon                       6,936           663        6,272            1         6,557        649          5,907                 1        379       14       365          0
  Utah                         3,045           508        2,521           16         2,914        490          2,409                15        131       18       112          1
  Washington                  10,833         1,697        8,989          147        10,135      1,635          8,357               143        698       62       632          4
  Wyoming                      1,217           139        1,078             0        1,135        127          1,008                 0         82       12        70          0
                                                                  b
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and           Data for Hispanic prisoners are estimated.              inmates as non-Hispanic.
                                                                  c                                                        f
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from defini-       Data are custody rather than jurisdiction counts.        State does not distinguish Hispanic ethnicity of
                                                                  d
tions.                                                             Inmates housed in local jails or other facilities are   prisoners.
                                                                                                                           g
...Not applicable.                                                reported under "Not known." See Explanatory               Some Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not
/Not reported.                                                    notes.                                                   known." See Explanatory notes.
a                                                                 e                                                        h
 Figures include both jail and prison inmates;                     Michigan included only Mexican-Americans as              Data include Puerto Ricans and persons with Hispanic
jails and prisons are combined in one system.                     Hispanic prisoners and reported other Hispanic           surnames in "Other" race category.



74 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.10a. Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1994

                                                                   Number of sentenced prisoners admitted during 1994
                            Prisoner                                 Parole or other     Escapees and         Returns                   Transfers
Region and                  population                 New court     conditional release AWOLs returned       from appeal               from other      Other
jurisdiction                1/1/94            Total    commitments   violators returned                       or bond                   jurisdictions   admissions

   U.S. total               934,640          541,434       345,035              170,974                 13,346           775               4,511           6,793

  Federal                    74,399           27,325        23,956                3,146                      /              /                 54             169
  State                     860,241          514,109       321,079              167,828                 13,346           775               4,457           6,624

 Northeast                  140,074           69,759        44,547               17,365                   4,691          152               1,732           1,272
  Connecticuta               10,508            1,880           801                  709                     368            2                   0               0
  Maine                       1,446              778           498                  268                       7            0                   0               5
  Massachusetts b,c,d         9,274            5,513         2,401                1,155                      34             /                848           1,075
  New Hampshiree              1,775            1,065           777                  261                      27             /                  0               0
  New Jerseye,f              23,831           13,188         9,154                3,922                     112             /                  /               0
  New Yorke                  64,569           34,557        23,153                6,548                   4,090          110                 616              40
  Pennsylvania               26,059           11,400         6,785                4,171                       1           38                 253             152
  Rhode Island a              1,719              934           640                  246                      42            2                   4               0
  Vermont a                     893              444           338                   85                      10            /                  11               0

 Midwest                    171,856           98,132        71,530               21,477                   3,564          410                 218             933
  Illinois b,f               34,495           23,345        17,976                4,452                     893           24                   /               0
  Indiana e                  14,364            7,186         6,543                  594                       8             /                 41               0
  Iowab                       4,898            4,114         2,284                  996                     603           44                 108              79
  Kansase                     5,727            4,025         1,879                2,078                      26             /                  0              42
  Michigan b                 39,318           12,419         7,520                3,315                   1,229          308                  47               0
  Minnesota                   4,261            3,140         2,214                  926                       /             /                  /               0
  Missouri                   16,178           11,273         7,462                2,996                     774           13                  18              10
  Nebraska                    2,467            1,608         1,227                  368                      13             /                  0               0
  North Dakota                  446              400           319                   81                       0            0                   0               0
  Ohiof                      39,727           23,320        19,198                4,094                       8           20                   0               0
  South Dakota                1,553              869           665                  189                      10            1                   4               0
  Wisconsin                   8,422            6,433         4,243                1,388                       /            ...                 0             802

 South                      367,340          204,763       138,088               57,000                   3,705          161               1,984           3,825
  Alabama                    18,169            8,524         6,274                1,856                     205           84                  32              73
  Arkansas                    8,552            4,369         3,330                  999                      16           16                   8               0
  Delawarea                   2,889            1,254           890                  194                     100             0                 26              44
  District of Columbiaa,f    10,842            8,646           863                2,370                   1,652             /              1,759           2,002
  Floridab                   52,883           29,897        21,188                7,423                     339             /                 20             927
  Georgiab                   27,426           15,374        11,322                3,851                     120            1                  80               0
  Kentucky                   10,440            6,673         4,841                1,686                     111            ...                 0              35
  Louisiana                  22,468           12,336         6,146                5,873                     100           52                  24             141
  Maryland c,e               19,121            9,530         7,754                1,672                     103             /                  1               0
  Mississippi e               9,601            4,362         4,125                  152                      41             /                  0              44
  North Carolina             21,367           23,867        18,202                5,426                     216            0                   0              23
  Oklahomae,f                16,409            7,167         6,452                  225                     490            0                   0               0
  South Carolina e           17,896            7,900         5,524                2,246                     122             8                   /              0
  Tennessee f                12,824            6,541         3,474                2,970                      73             /                 24               0
  Texas c,d,f                92,013           44,862        26,640               18,209                      13             0                  /               /
  Virginia                   22,635           12,591        10,299                1,756                       /             /                  /             536
  West Virginia               1,805              870           764                   92                       4            0                  10               0

 West                       180,971          141,455        66,914               71,986                   1,386           52                 523             594
  Alaskaa,g                   2,703                /             /                    /                       /             /                  /                /
  Arizonab                   17,160            9,295         7,362                1,856                      32            0                  45               0
  Californiab               115,573          105,299        41,582               62,776                     510             /                431               0
  Coloradoc,f                 9,462            4,964         3,523                1,071                     353           13                   4               0
  Hawaiia,c                   2,330            1,844           993                  845                       6            0                   0               0
  Idaho                       2,606            1,648         1,176                  447                       7            2                  13               3
  Montana                     1,546              888           339                  116                      42           ...                  8             383
  Nevada e                    6,138            3,701         2,964                  612                      49             /                  /              76
  New Mexico                  3,373            2,318         1,197                1,054                      50            0                  17               0
  Oregon                      5,662            3,184         1,516                1,367                     159           10                   /             132
  Utah                        2,871            1,995           885                1,093                      13            4                   0               0
  Washington                 10,419            5,751         4,881                  700                     148           22                   0               0
  Wyoming e                   1,128              568           496                   49                      17            1                   5               0

                                                       b
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions    Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.        number of other admissions. See Explanatory
                                                       c
and Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations     Some or all data for the admissions categories are           notes.
                                                                                                                     f
from definitions.                                      estimated.                                                      Data for inmates by sentence length may be
                                                       d
...Not applicable.                                      Includes imates housed in local jails or other facilities.   slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
                                                                                                                     g
/Not reported.                                         See Explanatory notes.                                          Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska was
a                                                      e
 Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails    New court commitments may include a small                    unable to provide movement data.
and prisons are combined in one system.




                                                                                                                                                    Prisoners in 1994   75
Table 5.10b. Sentenced prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1994

                                                                  Number of sentenced prisoners released during 1994
                                                                                       Out on          Transfers                                               Prisoner
Region and                              Conditional     Unconditional Escapees and     appeal          to other                            Other               population
jurisdiction                   Total    releases        releases      AWOLs            or bond         jurisdictions         Deaths        releases            12/31/94

   U.S. total                 456,942     353,020        72,836             14,307                801       4,858             3,011         8,109              1,016,760

  Federal                      21,445       4,790        15,986                  /                   /        186               197           286                 79,795
  State                       435,497     348,230        56,850            14,307                 801       4,672             2,814         7,823                936,965

 Northeast                     62,896      47,586            7,017           5,005                289       2,031               720           248                146,937
  Connecticuta,b                1,888       1,423              200             167                  2          53                40             3                 10,500
  Maine                           823         454              341               8                  7           1                 4             8                  1,401
  Massachusetts b,c,d           4,283       1,260            1,806              29                  0       1,149                39             0                 10,504
  New Hampshireb                  819         601              112              26                   /          0                 4            76                  2,021
  New Jerseye                  12,387       9,634            2,441             135                 47           0               130             0                 24,632
  New York                     32,376      25,274            1,259           4,591                194         642               404            12                 66,750
  Pennsylvania                  9,165       7,908              811              16                 27         161                93           149                 28,294
  Rhode Island a                  799         718               13              33                 12          17                 6             0                  1,854
  Vermonta                        356         314               34               0                   /          8                 0             0                    981

 Midwest                       85,483      64,746        15,516              3,561                318          65               444           833                183,830
  Illinoisc,e                  21,309      19,648           462                935                 22           /                96           146                 36,531
  Indiana                       6,634       5,747           844                  7                    /         0                36             0                 14,916
  Iowac                         3,575       3,040           413                 18                 30           5                 4            65                  5,437
  Kansas                        3,381       3,217           116                 26                   6          0                16             0                  6,371
  Michigan c                   11,106       8,337           723              1,694                206          38               108             0                 40,631
  Minnesota                     2,826       2,539           274                   /                   /          /               13             0                  4,575
  Missouri                      9,553       8,217           409                843                 20          11                49             4                 17,898
  Nebraska                      1,408         855           522                 17                    /         2                12             0                  2,667
  North Dakota                    345         237           108                  0                   0          0                 0             0                    501
  Ohioe                        19,973       8,508        11,335                  8                 32           3                87             0                 43,074
  South Dakota                    714         457           231                 13                   2          6                 5             0                  1,708
  Wisconsin                     4,659       3,944            79                   /                 ...         0                18           618                  9,521

 South                        156,707     120,729        26,814              4,126                129       2,417             1,303         1,189                414,952
  Alabama                       7,619       4,475         2,734                210                 91          38                59            12                 19,074
  Arkansas                      4,404       3,453           852                 17                 23          25                34             0                  8,517
  Delawarea,b                   1,299         552           488                 53                   0         62                14           130                  2,844
  District of Columbiaa,b,e     9,403       4,471           758              2,001                    /     1,463                53           657                 10,085
  Floridac                     25,623      18,808         6,034                349                  ...       202               230             0                 57,157
  Georgiac                     10,277       7,585         2,031                161                    /       405                95             0                 32,523
  Kentucky                      6,047       3,426         2,386                130                    /        11                26            68                 11,066
  Louisiana                    10,741       9,980           498                100                    /       104                51             8                 24,063
  Marylandb,d                   8,797       7,754           852                111                    /        12                68             0                 19,854
  Mississippi                   3,357       1,648         1,615                 45                    /         0                34            15                 10,606
  North Carolina               22,188      21,492           435                204                   0          0                57             0                 23,046
  Oklahomae                     6,945       2,967         3,391                501                   2         10                74             0                 16,631
  South Carolina                7,628       5,205         2,192                130                 13           0                88             0                 18,168
  Tennesseee                    4,964       3,656         1,098                 81                    /        85                44             0                 14,401
  Texas d,e                    18,236      17,462           448                 13                    /         /               313             0                118,195
  Virginia                      8,434       7,288           783                  8                    /         /                56           299                 26,792
  West Virginia                   745         507           219                 12                 0            0                 7             0                  1,930

 West                         130,411     115,169            7,503           1,615                  65        159               347         5,553                191,246
  Alaskaa,f                         /           /                /               /                   /          /                  /            /                  1,934
  Arizonac                      7,450       6,678              392              43                   0          5                41           291                 19,005
  Californiac                  99,788      92,152            1,491             846                    /        57               186         5,056                121,084
  Coloradod,e                   3,709       1,977            1,245             281                  14          0                15           177                 10,717
  Hawaiia,d                     1,782       1,527              205               6                   0         22                 7            15                  2,392
  Idaho                         1,443       1,195              175              15                   5         41                12              0                 2,811
  Montana                         670         494              111              56                   3          5                 1              0                 1,764
  Nevada g                      2,846       1,535            1,231              62                   1          /                17              0                 6,993
  New Mexico                    2,158       1,471              615              37                   0         22                13              0                 3,533
  Oregon                        2,911       2,778                7             108                   8          /                10              0                 5,935
  Utah                          1,838       1,650              156              12                   8          0                12              0                 3,028
  Washington                    5,337       3,389            1,731             149                  26          0                28            14                 10,833
  Wyoming                         479         323              144               0                   0          7                 5              0                 1,217
                                                         b
 Note: See the questionnaire for category                 Unconditional releases may include some releases to pro-         incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
 definitions and Explanatory notes for State-by-         bation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes.                     f
                                                                                                                            Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska
                                                         c
 State variations from definitions.                       Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.            was unable to provide movement data.
                                                         d
 ...Not applicable.                                       Some or all data for release categories are estimated. See Ex-   g
 /Not reported.                                          planatory notes.
                                                                                                                             Unconditional releases may include
 a
  Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails    e
                                                          Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly              transfers to other jurisdictions.
 and prisons are combined in one system.




76 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.11a. Sentenced male prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1994

                                                                         Number of sentenced male prisoners admitted during 1994
                                 Number of                                Parole or other     Escapees and Returns            Transfers
Region and                       male prisoners              New court    conditional release AWOLs          from appeal or from other           Other
jurisdiction                     1/1/94             Total    commitments  violators returned  returned       bond             jurisdictions      admissions

   U.S. total                     880,375         495,964      313,850            158,774            12,320            571            4,241        6,208

  Federal                          68,847          24,985       21,816              2,964                 /               /              53          152
  State                           811,528         470,979      292,034            155,810            12,320            571            4,188        6,056

 Northeast                        132,971           64,929      41,090             16,392              4,401           145            1,641        1,260
  Connecticuta                      9,858            1,704         724                641                337             2                0            0
  Maine                             1,397              746         479                256                  7             0                0            4
  Massachusettsb,c,d                8,889            5,202       2,189              1,082                 32              /             824        1,075
  New Hampshiree                    1,689              986         711                249                 26              /               0            0
  New Jerseye,f                    22,698           12,174       8,413              3,656                105              /                /           0
  New Yorke                        61,041           32,103      21,357              6,208              3,842           104              553           39
  Pennsylvania                     24,864           10,703       6,287              3,986                  1            37              250          142
  Rhode Islanda                     1,670              883         602                234                 41             2                4            0
  Vermonta                            865              428         328                 80                 10              /              10            0

 Midwest                          162,876           89,331      64,671             20,225              3,194           238              189          814
  Illinoisb,f                      32,807           21,653      16,516              4,297                820            20                 /           0
  Indianae                         13,591            6,623       6,014                563                  7                /            39            0
  Iowab                             4,617            3,673       2,044                907                515            37              101           69
  Kansase                           5,452            3,640       1,660              1,922                 22               /              0           36
  Michiganb                        37,520           11,294       6,928              3,093              1,093           153               27            0
  Minnesota                         4,062            2,897       2,029                868                  /                /              /           0
  Missouri                         15,258           10,258       6,692              2,821                710            13               18            4
  Nebraska                          2,305            1,460       1,124                325                 11              /               0            0
  North Dakota                        428              373         298                 75                  0              0               0            0
  Ohiof                            37,294           20,720      16,852              3,848                  6            14                0            0
  South Dakota                      1,465              785         594                176                 10               1              4            0
  Wisconsin                         8,077            5,955       3,920              1,330                  /             ...              0          705

 South                            345,112         187,583      125,677              52,994             3,462           141            1,859        3,450
  Alabama                          17,084           7,754        5,670               1,737               178            72               32           65
  Arkansas                          8,057           3,960        2,983                 942                16            13                6            0
  Delawarea                         2,765           1,104          778                 181                83              0              22           40
  District of Columbiaa,f          10,148           8,341          803               2,285             1,606               /          1,645        2,002
  Floridab                         50,187          27,066       19,174               6,923               318               /             17          634
  Georgiab                         25,710          14,317       10,468               3,659               109              1              80            0
  Kentucky                          9,895           6,029        4,352               1,541               102             ...              0           34
  Louisiana                        21,354          11,336        5,674               5,365                97            48               23          129
  Marylandc,e                      18,278           8,850        7,161               1,586               103               /              0            0
  Mississippie                      9,068           4,006        3,784                 140                40               /              0           42
  North Carolina                   20,286          21,543       16,257               5,051               214              0               0           21
  Oklahomae,f                      14,827           6,213        5,615                 193               405              0               0            0
  South Carolinae                  16,909           7,328        5,103               2,110               108              7                /           0
  Tennesseef                       12,316           6,027        3,176               2,761                66               /             24            0
  Texasc,d,f                       85,064          41,542       24,668              16,861                13              0                /            /
  Virginia                         21,438          11,341        9,289               1,569                  /              /               /         483
  West Virginia                     1,726             826          722                  90                 4              0              10            0

 West                             170,569         129,136       60,596              66,199             1,263            47              499          532
  Alaskaa,g                         2,581                /           /                    /                 /              /               /           /
  Arizonab                         16,167           8,383        6,681               1,642                20              0              40            0
  Californiab                     108,828          96,195       37,547              57,746               485               /            417            0
  Coloradoc,f                       8,920           4,548        3,209                 996               326            13                4            0
  Hawaiia,c                         2,187           1,636          865                 765                 6              0               0            0
  Idahoc                            2,458           1,491        1,056                 414                 5              2              11            3
  Montana                           1,478             828          322                 110                42             ...              7          347
  Nevadae                           5,755           3,355        2,672                 569                41               /               /          73
  New Mexico                        3,205           2,163        1,101               1,001                46              0              15            0
  Oregon                            5,426           2,937        1,424               1,259               135            10                 /         109
  Utah                              2,749           1,847          813               1,018                12              4               0            0
  Washington                        9,753           5,226        4,449                 632               128            17                0            0
  Wyominge                          1,062             527          457                  47                17              1               5            0

                                                                              d
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and                        Includes inmates housed in local jails or other facilities.
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.             See Explanatory notes.
                                                                              e
...Not applicable                                                               New court commitments may include a small number of other admissions.
/Not reported.                                                                See Explanatory notes.
a                                                                             f
  Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons               Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect.
are combined in one system.                                                     See Explanatory notes.
b                                                                             g
  Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.                         Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska was unable to provide movement data.
c
  Some or all data for the admissions categories are estimated.


                                                                                                                                                    Prisoners in 1994 77
Table 5.11b. Sentenced male prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1994

                                                            Number of sentenced male prisoners released during 1994                                     Number
                                                                                         Out on        Transfers                                        of male
Region and                                Conditional   Unconditional     Escapees and appeal or       to other                     Other               prisoners
jurisdiction                     Total    releases      releases          AWOLs          bond          jurisdictions       Deaths   releases            12/31/94

   U.S. total                   417,136    321,962          66,200            13,233         735           4,577           2,888      7,541             956,691

  Federal                        19,391      4,574          14,166                  /          /             186             193        272              73,929
  State                         397,745    317,388          52,034            13,233         735           4,391           2,695      7,269             882,762

 Northeast                       58,278     43,876           6,593             4,721         259           1,915             687        227             139,622
  Connecticuta,b                  1,684      1,264             183               150           2              47              35          3               9,878
  Maine                             782        429             325                 8           7               1               4          8               1,361
  Massachusetts b,c,d             3,979      1,150           1,650                27           0           1,113              39          0              10,112
  New Hampshireb                    764        559             109                25           /               0               4         67               1,911
  New Jerseye                    11,408      8,798           2,320               131          36               0             123          0              23,464
  New York                       29,969     23,299           1,188             4,333         179             577             387          6              63,175
  Pennsylvania                    8,595      7,398             772                16          24             153              89        143              26,972
  Rhode Island a                    753        677              12                31          11              16               6          0               1,800
  Vermonta                          344        302              34                 0           /               8               0          0                 949

 Midwest                         77,624     59,065          13,826             3,222         299              44             428        740             173,987
  Illinoisc,e                    19,742     18,220             430               845          16               /              90        141              34,718
  Indiana                         6,114      5,261             810                 7            /              0              36          0              14,100
  Iowac                           3,204      2,716             382                17          27               4               4         54               5,086
  Kansas                          3,065      2,918             102                23            6              0              16          0               6,027
  Michigan c                     10,204      7,637             671             1,565         206              19             106          0              38,610
  Minnesota                       2,621      2,355             253                  /           /              /              13          0               4,338
  Missouri                        8,660      7,460             387               733          18              11              47          4              16,856
  Nebraska                        1,265        756             482                14            /              1              12          0               2,500
  North Dakota                      315        217              98                 0            0              0               0          0                 486
  Ohioe                          17,496      7,459           9,923                 6          24               3              81          0              40,518
  South Dakota                      645        410             210                12            2              6               5          0               1,605
  Wisconsin                       4,293      3,656              78                  /          ...             0              18        541               9,143

 South                          142,620    109,352          24,682             3,858         113           2,287           1,246      1,082             389,424
  Alabama                         6,930      4,100           2,466               181          78              38              56         11              17,908
  Arkansas                        4,055      3,155             804                17          21              24              34          0               7,962
  Delawarea,b                     1,162        503             426                49            0             60              13        111               2,707
  District of Columbiaa,b,e,f     8,941      4,283             688             1,914             /         1,396              53        607               9,548
  Floridac                       23,161     16,808           5,594               336           ...           199             224          0              54,092
  Georgiac                        9,413      6,886           1,912               154             /           369              92          0              30,614
  Kentucky                        5,495      3,043           2,231               122             /            10              25         64              10,429
  Louisiana                       9,922      9,204             468                97             /            95              51          7              22,768
  Marylandb,d                     8,166      7,196             789               106             /            12              63          0              18,962
  Mississippi                     3,080      1,468           1,519                45             /             0              33         15               9,994
  North Carolina                 19,916     19,250             409               201            0              0              56          0              21,913
  Oklahomae                       6,016      2,480           3,045               411            2              8              70          0              15,024
  South Carolina                  6,986      4,797           1,979               112          12               0              86          0              17,251
  Tennesseee                      4,529      3,306           1,024                80             /            76              43          0              13,814
  Texas d,e                      16,599     15,891             408                13             /             /             287          0             109,356
  Virginia                        7,536      6,503             704                 8             /             /              54        267              25,243
  West Virginia                     713        479             216                12            0              0               6          0               1,839

 West                           119,223    105,095           6,933             1,432          64             145             334      5,220             179,729
  Alaskaa,g                           /          /               /                 /            /                 /            /          /               1,828
  Arizonac                        6,738      6,012             382                26           0                5             41        272              17,812
  Californiac                    91,318     84,199           1,356               777            /             51             178      4,757             113,705
  Coloradod,e                     3,421      1,795           1,183               246          14                0             15        168              10,047
  Hawaiia,d                       1,607      1,384             177                 6           0              22               7         11               2,216
  Idaho                           1,310      1,080             164                12           5              37              12          0               2,639
  Montana                           635        462             109                55           3                5              1          0               1,671
  Nevada h                        2,558      1,388           1,105                49           1                 /            15          0               6,552
  New Mexico                      1,972      1,337             571                33           0              18              13          0               3,396
  Oregon                          2,668      2,554               7                89           8               /              10          0               5,695
  Utah                            1,698      1,521             148                11           7                0             11          0               2,898
  Washington                      4,844      3,052           1,600               128          26                0             26         12              10,135
  Wyoming                           454        311             131                 0           0                7              5          0               1,135

                                                        b                                                              f
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions      Unconditional releases may include a small number of          The District of Columbia was unable to
and Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations     inmates who were released to probation or appeal/bond. See     report deaths by sex; therefore, all deaths
from definitions.                                       Explanatory notes.                                             are reported under males.
                                                        c                                                              g
...Not applicable.                                        Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.         Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska
                                                        d
/Not reported.                                            Some or all release categories are estimated.                was unable to provide movement data.
a                                                       e                                                              h
 Figures include both jail and prison inmates;            Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly           Unconditional releases may include
jails and prisons are combined in one system.           incorrect. See Explanatory notes.                              transfers to other jurisdictions.



78 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.12a. Sentenced female prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1994

                               Number                                      Number of sentenced female prisoners admitted during 1994
                               of female                                 Parole or other       Escapees           Returns          Transfers
Region and                     prisoners                   New court     conditional release   and AWOLs          from appeal or from other           Other
jurisdiction                   1/1/94            Total     commitments   violators returned    returned           bond             jurisdictions      admissions

   U.S. total                    54,265          45,470       31,185           12,200                1,026             204                 270               585

  Federal                         5,552           2,340        2,140              182                    /               /                   1                17
  State                          48,713          43,130       29,045           12,018                1,026             204                 269               568

 Northeast                        7,103           4,830        3,457              973                  290                7                 91               12
  Connecticuta                      650             176           77               68                   31                0                  0                0
  Maine                              49              32           19               12                    0                0                  0                1
  Massachusettsb,c,d                385             311          212               73                    2                /                 24                0
  New Hampshiree                     86              79           66               12                    1                /                  0                0
  New Jerseye,f                   1,133           1,014          741              266                    7                /                   /               0
  New Yorke                       3,528           2,454        1,796              340                  248                6                 63                1
  Pennsylvania                    1,195             697          498              185                    0                1                  3               10
  Rhode Islanda                      49              51           38               12                    1                0                  0                0
  Vermonta                           28              16           10                5                    0                /                  1                0

 Midwest                          8,980           8,801        6,859            1,252                  370             172                  29               119
  Illinoisb,f                     1,688           1,692        1,460              155                   73                4                  /                 0
  Indianae                          773             563          529               31                    1                 /                 2                 0
  Iowab                             281             441          240               89                   88                7                  7                10
  Kansase                           275             385          219              156                    4                /                  0                 6
  Michiganb                       1,798           1,125          592              222                  136             155                  20                 0
  Minnesota                         199             243          185               58                    /                /                  /                 0
  Missouri                          920           1,015          770              175                   64                0                  0                 6
  Nebraska                          162             148          103               43                    2                 /                 0                 0
  North Dakota                       18              27           21                6                    0                0                  0                 0
  Ohiof                           2,433           2,600        2,346              246                    2                6                  0                 0
  South Dakota                       88              84           71               13                    0                0                  0                 0
  Wisconsin                         345             478          323               58                     /              ...                 0                97

 South                           22,228          17,180       12,411            4,006                  243              20                 125               375
  Alabama                         1,085             770          604              119                   27              12                   0                 8
  Arkansas                          495             409          347               57                    0                3                  2                 0
  Delawarea                         124             150          112               13                   17                0                  4                 4
  District of Columbiaa,f           694             305           60               85                   46                /                114                 0
  Floridab                        2,696           2,831        2,014              500                   21                /                  3               293
  Georgiab                        1,716           1,057          854              192                   11                0                  0                 0
  Kentucky                          545             644          489              145                    9               ...                 0                 1
  Louisiana                       1,114           1,000          472              508                    3                4                  1                12
  Marylandc,e                       843             680          593               86                    0                /                  1                 0
  Mississippie                      533             356          341               12                    1                  /                0                 2
  North Carolina                  1,081           2,324        1,945              375                    2                0                  0                 2
  Oklahomae,f                     1,582             954          837               32                   85                0                  0                 0
  South Carolinae                   987             572          421              136                   14                1                   /                0
  Tennesseef                        508             514          298              209                    7                  /                0                 0
  Texasc,d,f                      6,949           3,320        1,972            1,348                    0                0                  /                 /
  Virginia                        1,197           1,250        1,010              187                     /                 /                /                53
  West Virginia                      79              44           42                2                    0                0                  0                 0

 West                            10,402          12,319        6,318            5,787                  123                5                 24               62
  Alaskaa,g                         122                /            /                /                    /               /                  /                 /
  Arizonab                          993             912          681              214                   12                0                  5                0
  Californiab                     6,745           9,104        4,035            5,030                   25                /                 14                0
  Coloradoc,f                       542             416          314               75                   27                0                  0                0
  Hawaiia,c                         143             208          128               80                    0                0                  0                0
  Idaho                             148             157          120               33                    2                0                  2                0
  Montana                            68              60           17                6                    0               ...                 1               36
  Nevadae                           383             346          292               43                    8                  /                 /               3
  New Mexico                        168             155           96               53                    4                0                  2                0
  Oregon                            236             247           92              108                   24                0                  /               23
  Utah                              122             148           72               75                    1                0                  0                0
  Washington                        666             525          432               68                   20                5                  0                0
  Wyominge                           66              41           39                2                    0                0                  0                0
                                                                          c
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and                    Some or all data for the admissions categories are estimated.
                                                                          d
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.           Includes inmates housed in local jails or other facilities.
...Not applicable.                                                        See Explanatory notes.
                                                                          e
/Not reported.                                                              New court commitments may include a small number of other
a                                                                         admissions. See Explanatory notes.
 Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons          f
                                                                            Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect.
are combined in one system.                                               See Explanatory notes.
b
 Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.                    g
                                                                            Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska was unable to provide movement data.




                                                                                                                                                  Prisoners in 1994 79
Table 5.12b. Sentenced female prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1994

                                                         Number of sentenced female prisoners released during 1994                                Number of
                                                                                        Out on        Transfers                                   female
Region and                               Conditional    Unconditional    Escapees       appeal or     to other                      Other         prisoners
jurisdiction                   Total     releases       releases         and AWOLs bond               jurisdictions      Deaths     releases      12/31/94

   U.S. total                   39,806      31,058         6,636             1,074          66              281           123          568         60,069

  Federal                        2,054         216         1,820                /            /                0             4           14          5,866
  State                         37,752      30,842         4,816             1,074          66              281           119          554         54,203

 Northeast                       4,618       3,710           424              284           30              116            33            21         7,315
  Connecticuta,b                   204         159            17               17            0                6             5             0           622
  Maine                             41          25            16                0            0                0             0             0            40
  Massachusettsb,c,d               304         110           156                2            0               36             0             0           392
  New Hampshireb                    55          42             3                1            /                0             0             9           110
  New Jerseye                      979         836           121                4           11                0             7             0         1,168
  New York                       2,407       1,975            71              258           15               65            17             6         3,575
  Pennsylvania                     570         510            39                0            3                8             4             6         1,322
  Rhode Islanda                     46          41             1                2            1                1             0             0            54
  Vermonta                          12          12             0                0            /                0             0             0            32

 Midwest                         7,859       5,681         1,690              339           19               21            16            93         9,843
  Illinoisc,e                    1,567       1,428            32               90             6                /            6             5         1,813
  Indiana                          520         486            34                0             /               0             0             0           816
  Iowac                            371         324            31                1             3               1             0            11           351
  Kansas                           316         299            14                3             0               0             0             0           344
  Michiganc                        902         700            52              129             0              19             2             0         2,021
  Minnesota                        205         184            21                /               /              /            0             0           237
  Missouri                         893         757            22              110             2               0             2             0         1,042
  Nebraska                         143          99            40                3              /              1             0             0           167
  North Dakota                      30          20            10                0             0               0             0             0            15
  Ohioe                          2,477       1,049         1,412                2             8               0             6             0         2,556
  South Dakota                      69          47            21                1             0               0             0             0           103
  Wisconsin                        366         288             1                 /           ...              0             0            77           378

 South                          14,087      11,377         2,132              268           16              130            57          107         25,528
  Alabama                          689         375           268               29           13                0             3            1          1,166
  Arkansas                         349         298            48                0            2                1             0            0            555
  Delawarea,b                      137          49            62                4            0                2             1           19            137
  Dist. of Columbiaa,b,e,f         462         188            70               87            /               67             /           50            537
  Floridac                       2,462       2,000           440               13              ...            3             6            0          3,065
  Georgiac                         864         699           119                7              /             36             3            0          1,909
  Kentucky                         552         383           155                8             /               1             1            4            637
  Louisiana                        819         776            30                3             /               9             0            1          1,295
  Maryland                         631         558            63                5             /               0             5            0            892
  Mississippib,d                   277         180            96                0             /               0             1            0            612
  North Carolina                 2,272       2,242            26                3            0                0             1            0          1,133
  Oklahomae                        929         487           346               90            0                2             4            0          1,607
  South Carolina                   642         408           213               18            1                0             2            0            917
  Tennesseed                       435         350            74                1             /               9             1            0            587
  Texasd,e                       1,637       1,571            40                0             /                /           26            0          8,839
  Virginia                         898         785            79                0              /               /            2           32          1,549
  West Virginia                     32          28             3                0            0                0             1            0             91

 West                           11,188      10,074           570              183             1              14            13          333         11,517
  Alaskaa,g                          /           /             /                /              /               /            /            /            106
  Arizonac                         712         666            10               17             0               0             0           19          1,193
  Californiac                    8,470       7,953           135               69              /              6             8          299          7,379
  Coloradod,e                      288         182            62               35             0               0             0            9            670
  Hawaiia,c                        175         143            28                0             0               0             0            4            176
  Idaho                            133         115            11                3             0               4             0            0            172
  Montana                           35          32             2                1             0               0             0            0             93
  Nevadah                          288         147           126               13             0                /            2            0            441
  New Mexico                       186         134            44                4             0               4             0            0            137
  Oregon                           243         224             0               19             0                /            0            0            240
  Utah                             140         129             8                1             1               0             1            0            130
  Washington                       493         337           131               21             0               0             2            2            698
  Wyoming                           25          12            13                0             0               0             0            0             82

                                                                         d
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and                   Some or all release categories are estimated.
                                                                         e
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.          Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect.
...Not applicable.                                                       See Explanatory notes.
                                                                         f
/Not reported.                                                             The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by sex;
a
  Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons        therefore, all deaths are reported under males.
                                                                         g
are combined in one system.                                                Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska was unable to provide
b
  Unconditional releases may include a small number of inmates           movement data.
                                                                         h
who were released to probation.                                            Unconditional releases may include transfers to other jurisdictions.
c
  Data are for custody rather than jurisdictional counts.


80 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.13. Sentenced prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally
from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1994

                                                              Conditional release                                                  Unconditional release
                                                                                 Supervised
Region and                                                                       mandatory                                    Expiration
jurisdiction                            Total           Parole    Probation      release            Other            Total    of sentence   Commutation         Other

   U.S. total                         353,020          149,004      21,587         151,150            31,279         73,074     67,787           644            4,405

  Federal                               4,790            2,621           9           2,160                 /         15,986     15,623           363                /
  State                               348,230          146,383      21,578         148,990            31,279         57,088     52,164           281            4,405

 Northeast                             47,586           41,431         892            3,749            1,514          7,255       6,874             6             137
  Connecticuta,b                        1,423              231            /               ...          1,192            438         198             0               2
  Maine                                   454                4         437                 0              13            341         336             0               5
  Massachusettsb,c,d                    1,260            1,260            /               ...              0          1,806       1,733             0              73
  New Hampshireb                          601              543          58                 /               0            112         112             0               /
  New Jersey                            9,634            9,326          ...              ...             308          2,441       2,441             0               0
  New York                             25,274           21,525            0           3,749                0          1,259       1,259             0               0
  Pennsylvania                          7,908            7,908          ...               ...              0            811         752             2              57
  Rhode Islanda                           718              374         343                ...              1             13           9             4               0
  Vermonta                                314              260          54                ...              0             34          34             0               0

 Midwest                               64,746           27,301       8,313           25,299            3,833         15,516     14,416            14            1,086
  Illinoisc                            19,648               28          ...          19,620                 0           462        438             8               16
  Indiana                               5,747                2       2,660            3,085                 0           844          1             0              843
  Iowac                                 3,040            1,624         505                ...            911            413        289             0              124
  Kansas                                3,217            2,799         244                ...            174            116        113             3                 0
  Michiganc                             8,337            8,337          ...               ...               0           723        723             0                 0
  Minnesota                             2,539               11          ...           1,881              647            274        257             /               17
  Missouri                              8,217            5,260       2,109                 0             848            409        388             0               21
  Nebraska                                855              855          ...               ...               0           522        516             0                 6
  North Dakota                            237              132          97                ...               8           108        108             0                 0
  Ohio                                  8,508            4,565       2,698                ...          1,245         11,335     11,288             3               44
  South Dakota                            457              402          ...              55                ...          231        231             0                ...
  Wisconsin                             3,944            3,286          ...             658                 0            79         64             0               15

 South                                120,729           65,481      10,441           24,412           20,395         26,814     23,648           257            2,909
  Alabama                               4,475            2,388       2,087                ...              0          2,734      2,618             0              116
  Arkansas                              3,453            2,962          ...               ...            491            852        850             0                 2
  Delawarea,b                             552               64            /             488                0            488        145             1              342
  District of Columbiaa,b               4,471            2,471            /             198            1,802            758        758             0                 0
  Floridac                             18,808              225       1,868                ...         16,715          6,034      5,477            30              527
  Georgiac                              7,585            6,689          34                ...            862          2,031      1,995            35                 1
  Kentucky                              3,426            2,749         677                ...              /          2,386      2,386             0                  /
  Louisiana                             9,980            1,727         194            8,059                0            498        289             0              209
  Marylandb,d                           7,754            3,912          ...           3,830               12            852        281             6              565
  Mississippi                           1,648              929         719                ...              0          1,615      1,392             0              223
  North Carolina                       21,492           21,485            7                /               0            435        389             0               46
  Oklahoma                              2,967              979       1,819                 0             169          3,391      2,968             0              423
  South Carolina                        5,205            3,935       1,267                 0               3          2,192      2,108             0               84
  Tennessee                             3,656            2,121       1,194                  /            341          1,098      1,098             0                 0
  Texasd                               17,462            9,561         570            7,331                0            448        448             ...              ...
  Virginia                              7,288            2,782          ...           4,506                0            783        227           185              371
  West Virginia                           507              502            5               ...              0            219        219             0                 0

 West                                 115,169           12,170       1,932           95,530            5,537          7,503       7,226             4             273
  Alaskaa,e                                 /                 /            /                /               /             /            /             /               /
  Arizonac                              6,678            1,154         171              118            5,235            392         306             0              86
  Californiac                          92,152                 /          ...         92,152                ...        1,491       1,491             ...              /
  Coloradod                             1,977            1,846          82               49                 0         1,245       1,244             1               0
  Hawaiia,d                             1,527              817         710                 0                0           205         175             0              30
  Idaho                                 1,195              451         705                ...             39            175         164             0              11
  Montana                                 494              322         157               15                 0           111         111             0               0
  Nevadaf                               1,535            1,535           ...              ...               0         1,231       1,215             0              16
  New Mexico                            1,471            1,221          ...              ...             250            615         615             0               0
  Oregon                                2,778            2,778           ...              ...               0             7           6             0               1
  Utah                                  1,650            1,650            0                0                0           156          36             0             120
  Washington                            3,389              193           ...          3,196                 0         1,731       1,722             0               9
  Wyoming                                 323              203         107                 0              13            144         141             3               0

                                                   b                                                             e
Note: See the questionnaire for category defini-     Unconditional releases may include some                      Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska was un-
tions and Explanatory notes for State-by-State     releases to probation or appeal/bond.                         able to provide movement data.
                                                                                                                 f
variations from definitions.                       See Explanatory notes.                                        Unconditional releases may include transfers to
. . .Not applicable.                               c                                                             other jurisdictions.
                                                     Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
/Not reported.                                     d
a                                                    Some or all release categories are estimated.
 Figures include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.      See Explanatory notes.



                                                                                                                                                         Prisoners in 1994 81
Table 5.14. Sentenced male prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally
from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1994

                                                        Conditional release                                                  Unconditional release

Region and                                                             Supervised man-                                 Expiration
jurisdiction                       Total     Parole      Probation     datory release          Other          Total    of sentence     Commutation          Other

   U.S. total                    321,962     135,672      19,199            138,985            28,106         66,200       61,637             550           4,013

  Federal                          4,574       2,494           9              2,071                 /         14,166       13,848             318               /
  State                          317,388     133,178      19,190            136,914            28,106         52,034       47,789             232           4,013

 Northeast                        43,876      38,048         855               3,638            1,335          6,593        6,464               5             124
  Connecticuta,b                   1,264         219             /                 ...          1,045            183          181               0               2
  Maine                              429           4         415                    0              10            325          320               0               5
  Massachusettsb,c,d               1,150       1,150             /                 ...              0          1,650        1,587               0              63
  New Hampshireb                     559         501          58                     /              0            109          109               0               /
  New Jersey                       8,798       8,518          ...                 ...             280          2,320        2,320               0               0
  New York                        23,299      19,661            0              3,638                0          1,188        1,188               0               0
  Pennsylvania                     7,398       7,398           ...                 ...              0            772          716               2              54
  Rhode Islanda                      677         346         331                   ...              0             12            9               3               0
  Vermonta                           302         251          51                   ...              0             34           34               0               0

 Midwest                          59,065      24,878       7,143              23,532            3,512         13,826       12,789               6           1,031
  Illinoisc                       18,220          28           ...            18,192                 0           430          415               2              13
  Indiana                          5,261           2       2,380               2,879                 0           810            1               0             809
  Iowac                            2,716       1,457         399                   ...            860            382          274               0             108
  Kansas                           2,918       2,540         211                   ...            167            102          101               1                0
  Michiganc                        7,637       7,637           ...                 ...               0           671          671               0                0
  Minnesota                        2,355          11           ...             1,773              571            253          237               /              16
  Missouri                         7,460       4,802       1,842                    0             816            387          367               0              20
  Nebraska                           756         756           ...                 ...               0           482          476               0                6
  North Dakota                       217         121          89                  ...                7            98           98               0                0
  Ohio                             7,459       4,146       2,222                   ...          1,091          9,923        9,876               3              44
  South Dakota                       410         357           ...                53                ...          210          210               0              ...
  Wisconsin                        3,656       3,021           ...               635                 0            78           63               0              15

 South                           109,352      59,137       9,442              22,503           18,270         24,682       21,862             217           2,603
  Alabama                          4,100       2,199       1,901                   ...              0          2,466        2,359                0            107
  Arkansas                         3,155       2,698           ...                 ...            457            804          802                0               2
  Delawarea,b                        503          59             /               444                0            426          136                1            289
  District of Columbiaa,b          4,283       2,283             /               198            1,802            688          688                0               0
  Floridac                        16,808         218       1,759                   ...         14,831          5,594        5,094              28             472
  Georgiac                         6,886       6,126          32                   ...            728          1,912        1,879              32                1
  Kentucky                         3,043       2,471         572                   ...              /          2,231        2,231                0                 /
  Louisiana                        9,204       1,558         178               7,468                0            468          269                0            199
  Marylandb,d                      7,196       3,586           ...             3,598               12            789          273                5            511
  Mississippi                      1,468         822         646                   ...              0          1,519        1,313                0            206
  North Carolina                  19,250      19,243            7                   /               0            409          372                0             37
  Oklahoma                         2,480         774       1,565                    0             141          3,045        2,678                0            367
  South Carolina                   4,797       3,625       1,169                    0               3          1,979        1,911                0             68
  Tennessee                        3,306       1,919       1,091                     /            296          1,024        1,024                0               0
  Texasd                          15,891       8,701         519               6,671                0            408          408              ...             ...
  Virginia                         6,503       2,379           ...             4,124                0            704          209             151             344
  West Virginia                      479         476            3                  ...              0            216          216                0               0

 West                            105,095      11,115       1,750              87,241            4,989          6,933        6,674               4             255
  Alaskaa,e                             /          /             /                  /                 /            /             /                /             /
  Arizonac                         6,012         989         166                 116            4,741            382          300               0              82
  Californiac                     84,199           /           ...            84,199                ...        1,356        1,356               ...             /
  Coloradod                        1,795       1,672          76                  47                 0         1,183        1,182               1               0
  Hawaiia,d                        1,384         747         637                    0                0           177          151               0              26
  Idaho                            1,080         422         621                   ...             37            164          154                0             10
  Montana                            462         299         148                  15                 0           109          109                0              0
  Nevadaf                          1,388       1,388           ...                 ...               0         1,105        1,090                0             15
  New Mexico                       1,337       1,139          ...                 ...             198            571          571                0              0
  Oregon                           2,554       2,554           ...                 ...               0             7            6                0              1
  Utah                             1,521       1,521            0                   0                0           148           36                0            112
  Washington                       3,052         188           ...             2,864                 0         1,600        1,591                0              9
  Wyoming                            311         196         102                    0              13            131          128                3              0

                                                                                                          d
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions   and prisons are combined in one system.              Some or all release categories are estimated.
                                                       b
and Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations      Unconditional releases may include some          See Explanatory notes.
                                                                                                          e
from definitions.                                      releases to probation or appeal/bond. See            Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska
. . .Not applicable.                                   Explanatory notes.                                 was unable to provide movement data.
                                                       c                                                  f
  /Not reported.                                         Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction      Unconditional releases may include
a
 Figures include both jail and prison inmates;         counts. See Explanatory notes.                     transfers to other jurisdictions.
jails and prisons are combined in one system.


82 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.15. Sentenced female prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally
from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1994

                                                       Conditional release                                                   Unconditional release
                                                                      Supervised
Region and                                                            mandatory                                  Expiration
jurisdiction                     Total      Parole      Probation release               Other           Total    of sentence          Commutation             Other

   U.S. total                   31,058      13,332         2,388        12,165           3,173          6,636       6,150                     94                 392

  Federal                          216         127             0            89               /          1,820       1,775                     45                   /
  State                         30,842      13,205         2,388        12,076           3,173          4,816       4,375                     49                 392

 Northeast                       3,710        3,383           37            111            179            424         410                      1                     13
  Connecticuta,b                   159           12             /             ...          147             17          17                      0                      0
  Maine                             25            0           22               0             3             16          16                      0                      0
  Massachusettsb,c,d               110          110             /             ...            0            156         146                      0                     10
  New Hampshireb                    42           42             0               /            0              3           3                      0                      /
  New Jersey                       836          808           ...            ...            28            121         121                      0                      0
  New York                       1,975        1,864             0           111              0             71          71                      0                      0
  Pennsylvania                     510          510            ...            ...            0             39          36                      0                      3
  Rhode Islanda                     41           28           12              ...            1              1           0                      1                      0
  Vermonta                          12            9             3             ...            0              0           0                      0                      0

 Midwest                         5,681        2,423        1,170          1,767            321          1,690       1,627                      8                     55
  Illinoisc                      1,428            0           ...         1,428               0            32          23                      6                      3
  Indiana                          486            0          280            206               0            34           0                      0                     34
  Iowac                            324          167          106              ...           51             31          15                      0                     16
  Kansas                           299          259           33              ...             7            14          12                      2                      0
  Michiganc                        700          700            ...            ...             0            52          52                      0                      0
  Minnesota                        184            0            ...          108             76             21          20                      /                      1
  Missouri                         757          458          267               0            32             22          21                      0                      1
  Nebraska                          99           99            ...           ...              0            40          40                      0                      0
  North Dakota                      20           11             8             ...             1            10          10                      0                      0
  Ohio                           1,049          419          476              ...          154          1,412       1,412                      0                      0
  South Dakota                      47           45            ...             2             ...           21          21                      0                      ...
  Wisconsin                        288          265            ...           23               0             1           1                      0                      0

 South                          11,377       6,344           999          1,909          2,125          2,132       1,786                     40                 306
  Alabama                          375         189           186              ...            0            268         259                       0                  9
  Arkansas                         298         264             ...           ...            34             48          48                       0                  0
  Delawarea,b                       49           5               /           44              0             62           9                       0                 53
  District of Columbiaa,b          188         188               /             0             0             70          70                       0                  0
  Floridac                       2,000           7           109              ...        1,884            440         383                       2                 55
  Georgiac                         699         563              2             ...          134            119         116                       3                  0
  Kentucky                         383         278           105             ...             /            155         155                       0                   /
  Louisiana                        776         169            16            591              0             30          20                       0                 10
  Marylandb,d                      558         326             ...          232              0             63           8                       1                 54
  Mississippi                      180         107            73              ...            0             96          79                       0                 17
  North Carolina                 2,242       2,242              0               /            0             26          17                       0                  9
  Oklahoma                         487         205           254               0            28            346         290                       0                 56
  South Carolina                   408         310            98               0             0            213         197                       0                 16
  Tennessee                        350         202           103                /           45             74          74                       0                  0
  Texasd                         1,571         860            51            660              0             40          40                      ...                ...
  Virginia                         785         403             ...          382              0             79          18                     34                  27
  West Virginia                     28          26              2             ...            0              3           3                       0                  0

 West                           10,074       1,055           182          8,289            548            570         552                       0                    18
  Alaskaa,e                           /           /              /              /              /             /           /                      /                     /
  Arizonac                         666         165              5              2           494             10           6                       0                     4
  Californiac                    7,953            /            ...        7,953              ...          135         135                      ...                    /
  Coloradod                        182         174              6              2              0            62          62                       0                     0
  Hawaiia,d                        143          70            73               0              0            28          24                       0                     4
  Idaho                            115          29            84              ...             2            11          10                       0                     1
  Montana                           32          23              9              0              0             2           2                       0                     0
  Nevadaf                          147         147             ...            ...             0           126         125                       0                     1
  New Mexico                       134          82            ...            ...            52             44          44                       0                     0
  Oregon                           224         224            ...            ...              0             0           0                       0                     0
  Utah                             129         129              0              0              0             8           0                       0                     8
  Washington                       337           5             ...          332               0           131         131                       0                     0
  Wyoming                           12           7              5              0              0            13          13                       0                     0

                                                       a
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions     Figures include both jail and prison inmates;           See Explanatory notes.
                                                                                                                 e
and Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations    jails and prisons are combined in one system.               Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska was
                                                       b
from definitions.                                        Unconditional releases may include some releases to     unable to provide movement data.
                                                                                                                 f
. . .Not applicable.                                   probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes.            Unconditional releases may include transfers to
                                                       c
  /Not reported.                                         Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.   other jurisdictions.
                                                       d
                                                         Some or all release categories are estimated.




                                                                                                                                                     Prisoners in 1994 83
 Table 5.16. Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction for violation
 of parole or other conditional release, by sex and status of sentence, 1994

                                                                   Parole violators                                            Other conditional release violators
 Region and                                             New sentence          No new sentence                                     New sentence             No new sentence
 jurisdiction                Total        Total          Male Female            Male      Female                   Total          Male      Female          Male   Female

    U.S. total             170,974        73,685        36,998        2,551       31,878          2,258             97,289        29,053      2,048       60,845     5,343

   Federal                   3,146         1,859             /             /       1,750            109              1,287             /           /       1,214        73
   State                   167,828        71,826        36,998        2,551       30,128          2,149             96,002        29,053      2,048       59,631     5,270

  Northeast                  17,365       12,726           985          47        10,975            719              4,639           327         30        4,105       177
   Connecticuta                 709          235             3            0          224              8                474            10           3         404        57
   Maine                        268            4             0            0            4              0                264            77           3         175         9
   Massachusettsb,c           1,155        1,070           100            0          907             63                 85            75         10             /         /
   New Hampshire                261          261              /            /         249             12                   /              /          /           /         /
   New Jersey                 3,922        3,912           414          17         3,232            249                 10               /          /         10         0
   New York                   6,548        5,796            ...          ...       5,463            333                752             ...        ...        745         7
   Pennsylvania               4,171        1,233           393          25           767             48              2,938           111           9       2,715       103
   Rhode Islanda                246          130            45            4           79              2                116            54           5          56         1
   Vermonta                      85           85            30            1           50              4                   /              /          /           /         /

  Midwest                    21,477       13,809         4,331         199         8,669            610              7,668         4,246        161        2,979       282
   Illinoisb                  4,452             /             /           /             /              /             4,452         3,749        121          548        34
   Indiana                      594          594           204           9           359             22                   /             /          /            /         /
   Iowab                        996          705           403          36           240             26                291           163         23          101         4
   Kansas                     2,078        1,705           270          11         1,322            102                373            49          7          281        36
   Michiganb                  3,315        3,315         1,150          72         1,943            150                  0             0          0            0         0
   Minnesota                    926             /             /           /             /              /               926           135          5          733        53
   Missouri                   2,996        2,566           538          27         1,865            136                430            79          2          339        10
   Nebraska                     368          368             /            /          325             43                  0             0          0            0         0
   North Dakota                  81           30             /            /           28              2                 51             /          /           47         4
   Ohio                       4,094        3,217         1,424          25         1,684             84                877              /          /         740       137
   South Dakota                 189          133             4           0           119             10                 56             3          2           50         1
   Wisconsin                  1,388        1,176           338          19           784             35                212            68          1          140         3

  South                     57,000        39,374        30,473        2,214        6,201            486             17,626         8,049        570        8,271       736
   Alabama                   1,856         1,410           128            8        1,195             79                446           414         32             /         /
   Arkansas                    999           742           393            2          309             38                257            86          1          154        16
   Delawarea                   194            49            48            1             /              /               145           133         12             /         /
   District of Columbiaa     2,370         2,082         1,400           85          597               /               288           216           /          72          /
   Floridab                  7,423           136            18            1          111              6              7,287         2,142        159        4,652       334
   Georgiab                  3,851         3,851         3,392          162          267             30                   /             /          /            /         /
   Kentucky                  1,686         1,471           113            6        1,241            111                215            17          1          170        27
   Louisiana                 5,873           670           349           25          275             21              5,203         2,038        138        2,703       324
   Marylandc                 1,672         1,666           884           48          696             38                  6             0          0            6         0
   Mississippi                 152           133            54            4           67              8                 19            19          0            0         0
   North Carolina            5,426         5,426         5,051          375             /              /                  /             /          /            /         /
   Oklahomac                   225           225           139           23           54              9                   /             /          /            /         /
   South Carolina            2,246         1,466           476           22          895             73                780           317         16          422        25
   Tennesseec                2,970         2,096         1,959          137             /              /               874           802         72             /         /
   Texas                    18,209        16,459        15,241        1,218             /              /             1,750         1,620        130             /         /
   Virginia                  1,756         1,400           781           96          451             72                356           245          9           92        10
   West Virginia                92            92            47            1           43              1                  0             0          0            0         0

  West                       71,986        5,917         1,209          91         4,283            334             66,069        16,431      1,287       44,276     4,075
   Alaskaa,d                       /            /             /           /             /              /                   /             /          /            /         /
   Arizonab                   1,856          424            63           8           311             42              1,432           278         13          990       151
   Californiab               62,776             /             /           /             /              /            62,776        15,875      1,245       41,871     3,785
   Coloradoc                  1,071          930           155          14           709             52                141            47           2          85          7
   Hawaiia,c                    845          389            78           6           283             22                456           158         21          246        31
   Idaho                        447          224             8           0           209              7                223            68           6         129        20
   Montana                      116          116            10           2           100              4                  ...           ...        ...          ...       ...
   Nevada                       612          612              /           /          569             43                    /             /          /          ...       ...
   New Mexico                 1,054          657              /           /          619             38                397               /          /        382        15
   Oregon                     1,367        1,367           669          46           590             62                   0             0          0            0         0
   Utah                       1,093        1,093           213          15           805             60                   0             0          0            0         0
   Washington                   700           56             7           0            47              2                644              5          0         573        66
   Wyoming                       49           49             6           0            41              2                   0             0          0            0         0

                                                                  b
 Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions              Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
                                                                  c
 and Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations               Some or all release categories are estimated.
                                                                  d
 from definitions.                                                 Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska was unable to
 ...Not applicable.                                               provide movement data. See Explanatory notes.
 /Not reported.
 a
  Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails
 and prisons are combined in one system.



84 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.17. Deaths among sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sex and cause of death, 1994

                                                                            Number of deaths among sentenced prisoners
                                                Illness or                                            Accidental                     Caused by      Unspecified
Region and                     Total            natural cause           AIDS            Suicide        self-injury     Execution     another        cause
jurisdiction               Male Female          Male Female         Male Female     Male Female      Male Female         Malea      Male Female     Male Female

   U.S. total             2,888       123       1,320     73         888      35       151      4          32      1         30      67      1       400    9

  Federal                   193         4            /      /           /       /        /       /          /      /          0       /       /      193    4
  State                   2,695       119       1,320     73         888      35       151      4          32      1         30      67      1       207    5

 Northeast                  687        33         228     10         360      19        31      1           2      0          0      19      1        47    2
  Connecticutb               35         5          11      1          21       3         2      0           0      0          0       1      1         0    0
  Maine                       4         0           4      0           0       0         0      0           0      0         ...      0      0         0    0
  Massachusettsc             39         0          12      0          21       0         5      0           0      0         ...      1      0         0    0
  New Hampshire               4         0           3      0           0       0         1      0           0      0          0       0      0         0    0
  New Jersey                123         7          22      1          62       4         4      0           0      0          0       2      0        33    2
  New York                  387        17         113      4         232      12        13      1           2      0          0      13      0        14    0
  Pennsylvania               89         4          58      4          24       0         6      0           0      0          0       1      0         0    0
  Rhode Islandb               6         0           5      0           0       0         0      0           0      0         ...      1      0         0    0
  Vermontb                    0         0           0      0           0       0         0      0           0      0         ...      0      0         0    0

 Midwest                    428        16         291     11          59       2        40      1          11      0          3      11      0        13    2
  Illinoisc                  90         6          34      3          34       1         8      0           1      0          1       3      0         9    2
  Indiana                    36         0          30      0           2       0         1      0           1      0          1       1      0         0    0
  Iowac                       4         0           2      0           0       0         2      0           0      0         ...      0      0         0    0
  Kansas                     16         0          13      0           1       0         1      0           0      0         ...      0      0         1    0
  Michiganc                 106         2          92      2           /       /        10      0           3      0         ...      0      0         1    0
  Minnesota                  13         0          10      0           1       0         2      0           0      0         ...      0      0         0    0
  Missouri                   47         2          33      2           0       0         4      0           5      0          0       3      0         2    0
  Nebraska                   12         0           6      0           1       0         4      0           0      0          1       0      0         0    0
  North Dakota                0         0           0      0           0       0         0      0           0      0         ...      0      0         0    0
  Ohio                       81         6          58      4          19       1         2      1           1      0          0       1      0         0    0
  South Dakota                5         0           3      0           0       0         2      0           0      0          0       0      0         0    0
  Wisconsin                  18         0          10      0           1       0         4      0           0      0         ...      3      0         0    0

 South                    1,246        57         597     41         398      13        54      2          14      0         25      31      0       127    1
  Alabama                    56         3             /     /         12       2         /      /             /      /         0      /       /       44    1
  Arkansas                   34         0          20      0           2       0         1      0           2      0           5      4      0         0    0
  Delawareb                  13         1          13      1           0       0         0      0           0      0           0      0      0         0    0
  Dist. of Columbiab,d       53          /          5       /         13       /         5      /           0      /         ...      1       /       29    /
  Floridac                  224         6          78      5         128       1        11      0           2      0           1      4      0         0    0
  Georgiac                   92         3          45      2          43       0         0      1           1      0           1      0      0         2    0
  Kentucky                   25         1          20      1           5       0         0      0           0      0           0      0      0         0    0
  Louisiana                  51         0           /       /          /         /        /     /           /        /         0        /     /       51    0
  Maryland                   63         5          27      3          23       2         7      0           2      0           1      3      0         0    0
  Mississippi                33         1          23      1           6       0         3      0           0      0           0      1      0         0    0
  North Carolina             56         1          23      1          26       0         4      0           0      0           1      2      0         0    0
  Oklahoma                   70         4          57      4           1       0         3      0           3      0           0      5      0         1    0
  South Carolina             86         2          43      2          34       0         4      0           1      0           0      4      0         0    0
  Tennessee                  43         1          29      1           7       0         4      0           3      0           0      0      0         0    0
  Texas                     287        26         176     17          79       8        12      1            /       /       14       6      0         /    /
  Virginia                   54         2          32      2          19       0         0      0           0      0           2      1      0         0    0
  West Virginia               6         1           6      1           0       0         0      0           0      0          ...     0      0         0    0

 West                       334        13         204     11          71       1        26      0           5      1          2       6      0        20    0
  Alaskab,e                   /         /           /       /           /       /         /      /           /      /          /      /      /         /     /
  Arizonac                   41         0          36      0           0       0         2      0           0      0          0       2      0         1    0
  Californiac               178         8         103      8          57       0        15      0           0      0          0       3      0         0    0
  Colorado                   15         0           9      0           1       0         2      0           2      0          0       0      0         1    0
  Hawaiib                     7         0           4      0           0       0         1      0           2      0         ...      0      0         0    0
  Idaho                      12         0           8      0           3       0         0      0           0      0          1       0      0         0    0
  Montana                     1         0           1      0           0       0         0      0           0      0          0       0      0         0    0
  Nevada                     15         2          11      1           4       1         0      0           0      0          0       0      0         0    0
  New Mexico                 13         0             /    /           0       0         /      /           /       /         0       /       /       13    0
  Oregon                     10         0           5      0           1       0         4      0           0      0          0       0      0         0    0
  Utah                       11         1           9      1           1       0         0      0           0      0          0       1      0         0    0
  Washington                 26         2          18      1           4       0         2      0           1      1          1       0      0         0    0
  Wyoming                     5         0           0      0           0       0         0      0           0      0          0       0      0         5    0

                                                                   c
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and            Data are custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from defini-       Most, but not all, States reserve prison for offenders
tions.                                                             sentenced to more than 1 year.
                                                                   d
. . .Not applicable.                                                The District of Columbia was unable to separate deaths
                                                                   by sex. All deaths are reported under males.
/Not reported.                                                     e
a                                                                   Because of reporting difficulties, Alaska was unable
 No female deaths due to execution occurred during 1994.
b                                                                  to provide movement data.
 Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons
are combined in one system.



                                                                                                                                            Prisoners in 1994 85
Table 5.18. Prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1993 and 1994

                                                                                   Maximum sentence length
                                                                                                                      Year or less/unsentenced
                                     Total                    More than a year                         Total
Region and                                    Percent                       Percent                         Percent              Year or less           Unsentenced
jurisdiction            12/31/94 12/31/93     change    12/31/94 12/31/93 change          12/31/94 12/31/93 change           12/31/94 12/31/93       12/31/94 12/31/93

   U.S. total           991,612     909,381      9.0%    957,318   876,392        9.2%      34,294     32,989       4.0%       13,839     13,968       20,455     19,021

  Federal                85,500      80,815      5.8%     73,984    69,143        7.0%      11,516     11,672      -1.3%        3,046      3,495        8,470      8,177
  State                 906,112     828,566      9.4     883,334   807,249        9.4       22,778     21,317       6.9        10,793     10,473       11,985     10,844

 Northeast              149,626     141,602     5.7%     143,334   135,990        5.4%       6,292      5,612      12.1%        2,547      2,536        3,745      3,076
  Connecticuta           14,246      13,384     6.4       10,391    10,232        1.6        3,855      3,152      22.3         1,157        985        2,698      2,167
  Maine                   1,460       1,437     1.6        1,436     1,414        1.6           24         23       4.3            24         23            ...        ...
  Massachusetts          11,396      10,229    11.4       10,504     9,274       13.3          892        955      -6.6           553        678          339        277
  New Hampshire           2,066       1,899     8.8        1,981     1,826        8.5           85         73      16.4            27         19           58         54
  New Jersey             21,219      20,237     4.9       21,131    20,095        5.2           88        142     -38.0            88        142            ...        ...
  New York               66,750      64,569     3.4       66,750    64,569        3.4            ...        0                       ...        0            ...         0
  Pennsylvania           28,285      26,059     8.5       28,277    26,045        8.6             8        14     -42.9              0         5             8          9
  Rhode Islanda           2,937       2,600    13.0        1,917     1,677       14.3        1,020        923      10.5           517        480          503        443
  Vermonta                1,267       1,188     6.6          947       858       10.4          320        330      -3.0           181        204          139        126

 Midwest                183,052     172,810     5.9%     182,354   172,196        5.9%         698        614     13.7%           188        229          510        385
  Illinoisb              36,531      34,495     5.9       36,531    34,495        5.9             0          0                        /          /           0          0
  Indiana                15,014      14,470     3.8       14,916    14,364        3.8           98        106      -7.5            89        100             9          6
  Iowa                    5,437       4,898    11.0        5,437     4,898       11.0            ...        ...                     ...        ...          ...        ...
  Kansas                  6,369       5,732    11.1        6,369     5,732       11.1            ...        ...                     ...        ...          ...        ...
  Michigan               40,631      39,318     3.3       40,631    39,318        3.3             0          0                       0          0            0          0
  Minnesota               4,372       4,060     7.7        4,372     4,030        8.5            ...       30                       ...         0           ...       30
  Missouri               17,911      16,178    10.7       17,911    16,178       10.7             0          0                       0          0           ...        ...
  Nebraska                2,701       2,483     8.8        2,637     2,416        9.1           64         67      -4.5            42         51           22         16
  North Dakota              612         572     7.0          577       520       11.0           35         52     -32.7            35         52            ...         0
  Ohio                   41,718      40,253     3.6       41,718    40,253        3.6             0          0                        /          /           0          0
  South Dakota            1,734       1,570    10.4        1,734     1,570       10.4             /          0                        /         0           ...         0
  Wisconsin              10,022       8,781    14.1        9,521     8,422       13.0          501        359     39.6             22         26          479        333

 South                  376,234     327,159    15.0%     369,293   319,697        15.5%      6,941      7,462       -7.0%       5,538      5,359        1,403      2,103
  Alabama                19,179      18,313     4.7       18,725    17,858        4.9          454        455        - .2         454        455             0          0
  Arkansas                8,242       7,702     7.0        8,127     7,574        7.3          115        128     -10.2           115        128             0          0
  Delawarea               4,451       4,129     7.8        2,837     2,779        2.1        1,614      1,350      19.6           916        742          698        608
  Dist. of Columbiaa     10,597      10,342     2.5        9,733     8,691       12.0          864      1,651     -47.7           347        384          517      1,267
  Florida                57,168      53,048     7.8       57,157    52,883        8.1           11        165     -93.3            11        165            ...        ...
  Georgia                33,425      27,783    20.3       32,523    27,079       20.1          902        704      28.1           902        704            ...        ...
  Kentucky                9,097       8,622     5.5        9,097     8,622        5.5             0          0                       0          0            0          0
  Louisiana              15,982      16,078    -0.6       15,982    16,078        - .6           ...        ...                     ...        ...          ...        ...
  Maryland               20,719      19,992     3.6       19,589    18,863        3.8        1,130      1,129       .1          1,130      1,129            ...        ...
  Mississippi             9,705       8,326    16.6        9,514     8,165       16.5          191        161     18.6            191        161             0          0
  North Carolina         23,836      22,098     7.9       23,046    21,367        7.9          790        731      8.1            602        525          188        206
  Oklahomab              13,386      12,108    10.6       13,386    12,108       10.6              /          /                       /          /          ...        ...
  South Carolina         17,362      16,933     2.5       16,599    15,947        4.1          763        986     -22.6           763        964            ...       22
  Tennessee              12,572      11,495     9.4       12,572    11,495        9.4             0          0                        /          /           0          0
  Texas                  97,475      70,127    39.0       97,374    70,127       38.9          101            /                   101            /          ...        ...
  Virginia               21,108      18,258    15.6       21,102    18,256       15.6             6          2                       6          2           ...        ...
  West Virginia           1,930       1,805     6.9        1,930     1,805        6.9             0          0                      ...        ...           0          0

 West                   197,200     186,995     5.5%     188,353   179,366        5.0%       8,847      7,629     16.0%         2,520      2,349        6,327      5,280
  Alaskaa                 2,745       2,703     1.6        1,645     2,703          ...      1,100           /                    237           /         863            /
  Arizona                19,746      17,811    10.9       19,005    17,160       10.8          741        651     13.8            741        651             0          0
  California            125,605     119,951     4.7      121,084   115,573        4.8        4,521      4,378      3.3               0         0        4,521      4,378
  Coloradob               9,177       8,902     3.1        9,177     8,902        3.1             /          /                        /         /           ...        ...
  Hawaii                  2,909       2,814     3.4        2,041     2,051        - .5         868        763     13.8             70         76          798        687
  Idaho                   2,493       2,500    -0.3        2,493     2,500        - .3           0          0                        0         0             0          0
  Montana                 1,708       1,541    10.8        1,708     1,541       10.8            0          0                       ...        0             0         ...
  Nevada                  6,884       6,153    11.9        6,656     6,026       10.5          228        127      79.5           228          0             0       127
  New Mexico              3,868       3,499    10.5        3,642     3,339        9.1          226        160      41.3           226        160             0           /
  Oregon                  6,915       6,544     5.7        5,915     5,106       15.8        1,000      1,438     -30.5         1,000      1,438             0          0
  Utah                    3,238       3,046     6.3        3,105     2,966        4.7          133         80      66.3            17         22          116         58
  Washington             10,847      10,429     4.0       10,817    10,398        4.0           30         31      -3.2              1         1           29         30
  Wyoming                 1,065       1,102    -3.4        1,065     1,101       -3.3            0          1                        0         1             0          0

                                                                             a
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions                          Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails
and Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations                          and prisons are combined in one system.
                                                                             b
from definitions.                                                             Data for inmates sentenced to more than a year may
...Not applicable.                                                           include some inmate sentenced to a year or less.
/Not reported.




86 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 5.19. Male prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1993 and 1994

                                                                                      Maximum sentence length
                                                                                                                          Year or less/unsentenced
                                    Total                        More than a year                          Total
Region and                               Percent                               Percent                          Percent              Year or less          Unsentenced
jurisdiction           12/31/94 12/31/93 change            12/31/94 12/31/93 change           12/31/94 12/31/93 change           12/31/94 12/31/93     12/31/94 12/31/93

   U.S. total           934,718     858,092      8.9%       904,193    828,690        9.1%      30,525     29,402       3.8%      11,999     12,194     18,526     17,208

  Federal                79,597      74,992      6.1%        68,851     64,167        7.3%      10,746     10,825      - .7%       2,646     3,029       8,100     7,796
  State                 855,121     783,100      9.2        835,342    764,523        9.3       19,779     18,577      6.5         9,353     9,165      10,426     9,412

 Northeast              141,721     133,974      5.8%       136,249    129,126        5.5%       5,472      4,848 12.9%            2,075      2,118      3,397      2,730
  Connecticuta           13,298      12,475      6.6          9,793      9,637        1.6        3,505      2,838 23.5             1,000        856      2,505      1,982
  Maine                   1,422       1,385      2.7          1,399      1,363        2.6           23         22   4.5               23         22          ...        ...
  Massachusetts          10,690       9,576     11.6         10,112      8,889       13.8          578        687 -15.9              328        492        250        195
  New Hampshire           1,928       1,764      9.3          1,879      1,742        7.9           49         22 122.7                 3         0         46         22
  New Jersey             20,230      19,268      5.0         20,154     19,133        5.3           76        135 -43.7               76        135          ...        ...
  New York               63,175      61,041      3.5         63,175     61,041        3.5            ...        0                      ...        0          ...         0
  Pennsylvania           26,963      24,864      8.4         26,955     24,855        8.4             8         9 -11.1                 0         1           8          8
  Rhode Islanda           2,797       2,461     13.7          1,867      1,636       14.1          930        825 12.7               476        421        454        404
  Vermonta                1,218       1,140      6.8            915        830       10.2          303        310  -2.3              169        191        134        119

 Midwest                173,177     163,683      5.8%       172,534    163,129        5.8%         643        554     16.1%          169       210         474        344
  Illinoisb              34,718      32,807      5.8         34,718     32,807        5.8             0          0                       /         /          0          0
  Indiana                14,188      13,692      3.6         14,100     13,591        3.7           88        101     -12.9           81        96            7          5
  Iowa                    5,086       4,617     10.2          5,086      4,617       10.2            ...        ...                    ...       ...         ...        ...
  Kansas                  6,020       5,456     10.3          6,020      5,456       10.3            ...        ...                    ...       ...         ...        ...
  Michigan               38,610      37,520      2.9         38,610     37,520        2.9             0          0                      0         0           0          0
  Minnesota               4,162       3,866      7.7          4,162      3,837        8.5            ...       29                      ...        0          ...       29
  Missouri               16,867      15,258     10.5         16,867     15,258       10.5             0          0                      0         0          ...        ...
  Nebraska                2,542       2,334      8.9          2,488      2,276        9.3           54         58      -6.9           34        42          20         16
  North Dakota              571         542      5.4            537        493        8.9           34         49     -30.6           34        49           ...         0
  Ohio                   39,177      37,715      3.9         39,177     37,715        3.9             0          0                       /         /          0          0
  South Dakota            1,626       1,482      9.7          1,626      1,482        9.7              /         0                       /        0          ...         0
  Wisconsin               9,610       8,394     14.5          9,143      8,077       13.2          467        317     47.3            20        23         447        294

 South                  355,621     309,861     14.8%       349,498    303,187       15.3%       6,123      6,674       -8.3%      4,894     4,714       1,229     1,960
  Alabama                17,975      17,190      4.6         17,567     16,781        4.7          408        409        - .2        408       409            0         0
  Arkansas                7,659       7,218      6.1          7,571      7,112        6.5           88        106     -17.0           88       106            0         0
  Delawarea               4,170       3,882      7.4          2,701      2,653        1.8        1,469      1,229      19.5          828       663         641       566
  District of Columbiaa   9,917       9,845        .7         9,203      8,370       10.0          714      1,475     -51.6          298       294         416     1,181
  Florida                54,100      50,349      7.4         54,092     50,187        7.8             8       162     -95.1             8      162           ...       ...
  Georgia                31,413      26,023     20.7         30,614     25,386       20.6          799        637      25.4          799       637           ...       ...
  Kentucky                8,660       8,240      5.1          8,660      8,240        5.1             0          0                      0         0           0         0
  Louisiana              15,435      15,537      - .7        15,435     15,537        - .7           ...        ...                    ...       ...         ...       ...
  Maryland               19,687      19,018      3.5         18,704     18,022        3.8          983        996     -1.3           983       996           ...       ...
  Mississippi             9,080       7,868     15.4          8,918      7,731       15.4          162        137     18.2           162       137            0         0
  North Carolina         22,637      20,963      8.0         21,913     20,286        8.0          724        677      6.9           552       486         172       191
  Oklahomab              12,266      11,000     11.5         12,266     11,000       11.5              /          /                      /         /         ...       ...
  South Carolina         16,533      15,988      3.4         15,860     15,144        4.7          673        844     -20.3          673       822           ...      22
  Tennessee              12,174      11,106      9.6         12,174     11,106        9.6             0          0                       /         /          0         0
  Texas                  91,934      66,320     38.6         91,845     66,320       38.5           89            /                   89           /         ...       ...
  Virginia               20,142      17,588     14.5         20,136     17,586       14.5             6          2                      6         2          ...       ...
  West Virginia           1,839       1,726      6.5          1,839      1,726        6.5             0          0                     ...       ...          0         0

 West                   184,602     175,582      5.1%       177,061    169,081        4.7%       7,541      6,501     16.0%        2,215      2,123      5,326     4,378
  Alaskaa                 2,589       2,581        .3         1,588      2,581          ...      1,001           /                   226           /       775           /
  Arizona                18,473      16,774     10.1         17,812     16,167       10.2          661        607      8.9           661        607           0         0
  California            117,390     112,370      4.5        113,705    108,828        4.5        3,685      3,542      4.0              0         0      3,685     3,542
  Coloradob               8,597       8,412      2.2          8,597      8,412        2.2             /          /                       /         /         ...       ...
  Hawaiia                 2,746       2,658      3.3          1,951      1,953        - .1         795        705     12.8            60         71        735       634
  Idaho                   2,346       2,356      - .4         2,346      2,356        - .4           0          0                       0         0           0         0
  Montana                 1,625       1,474     10.2          1,625      1,474       10.2            0          0                      ...        0           0        ...
  Nevada                  6,425       5,740     11.9          6,204      5,622       10.4          221        118      87.3          221          0           0      118
  New Mexico              3,642       3,291     10.7          3,474      3,173        9.5          168        118      42.4          168        118           0          /
  Oregon                  6,545       6,209      5.4          5,682      4,905       15.8          863      1,304     -33.8          863      1,304           0         0
  Utah                    3,085       2,922      5.6          2,967      2,846        4.3          118         76      55.3           15         21        103        55
  Washington             10,147       9,759      4.0         10,118      9,729        4.0           29         30      -3.3             1         1         28        29
  Wyoming                   992       1,036     -4.2            992      1,035       -4.2            0          1                       0         1           0         0

                                                                                 a
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and Explanatory              Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and
notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.                            prisons are combined in one system.
                                                                                 b
. . .Not applicable.                                                              Data for inmates sentenced to more than a year may
/Not reported.                                                                   include some inmates sentenced to a year or less.




                                                                                                                                                   Prisoners in 1994 87
Table 5.20. Female prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1993 and 1994

                                                                                     Maximum sentence length
                                                                                                                        Year or less/unsentenced
                                     Total                        More than a year                      Total
Region and                                  Percent                             Percent                       Percent               Year or less         Unsentenced
jurisdiction              12/31/94 12/31/93 change          12/31/94 12/31/93 change        12/31/94 12/31/93 change            12/31/94 12/31/93    12/31/94 12/31/93

     U.S. total           56,894      51,289     10.9%       53,125   47,702       11.4%     3,769      3,587        5.1%        1,840      1,774     1,929     1,813

  Federal                  5,903       5,823      1.4%        5,133    4,976        3.2%       770        847       -9.1%          400        466       370       381
  State                   50,991      45,466     12.2        47,992   42,726       12.3      2,999      2,740        9.5         1,440      1,308     1,559     1,432

 Northeast                 7,905       7,628      3.6%        7,085    6,864         3.2%      820        764       7.3%           472       418        348      346
  Connecticuta               948         909      4.3           598      595          .5       350        314      11.5            157       129        193      185
  Maine                       38          52    -26.9            37       51       -27.5          1         1                         1        1         ...       ...
  Massachusetts              706         653      8.1           392      385         1.8       314        268       17.2           225       186         89       82
  New Hampshire              138         135      2.2           102       84        21.4        36         51      -29.4            24        19         12       32
  New Jersey                 989         969      2.1           977      962         1.6        12          7                       12         7          ...      ...
  New York                 3,575       3,528      1.3         3,575    3,528         1.3         ...        0                        ...       0          ...       0
  Pennsylvania             1,322       1,195     10.6         1,322    1,190        11.1          0         5                         0        4           0        1
  Rhode Islanda              140         139       .7            50       41        22.0        90         98       -8.2            41        59         49       39
  Vermonta                    49          48      2.1            32       28        14.3        17         20      -15.0            12        13           5        7

 Midwest                   9,875       9,127      8.2%        9,820    9,067        8.3%        55          60      -8.3             19       19         36       41
  Illinoisb                1,813       1,688      7.4         1,813    1,688        7.4           0           0                         /        /         0        0
  Indiana                    826         778      6.2           816      773        5.6         10            5                        8        4          2        1
  Iowa                       351         281     24.9           351      281       24.9          ...         ...                      ...      ...        ...      ...
  Kansas                     349         276     26.4           349      276       26.4          ...         ...                      ...      ...        ...      ...
  Michigan                 2,021       1,798     12.4         2,021    1,798       12.4           0           0                        0        0          0        0
  Minnesota                  210         194      8.2           210      193        8.8          ...          1                       ...       0         ...       1
  Missouri                 1,044         920     13.5         1,044      920       13.5           0           0                        0        0        ...       ...
  Nebraska                   159         149      6.7           149      140        6.4         10            9                        8        9          2        0
  North Dakota                41          30     36.7            40       27       48.1           1           3                        1        3        ...        0
  Ohio                     2,541       2,538       .1         2,541    2,538         .1           0           0                         /        /         0        0
  South Dakota               108          88     22.7           108       88       22.7            /          0                         /       0        ...        0
  Wisconsin                  412         387      6.5           378      345        9.6         34          42     -19.0               2        3        32       39

 South                    20,613      17,298     19.2%       19,795   16,510       19.9%       818        788        3.8%          644       645        174      143
  Alabama                  1,204       1,123      7.2         1,158    1,077        7.5         46         46                       46        46           0        0
  Arkansas                   583         484     20.5           556      462       20.3         27         22       22.7            27        22           0        0
  Delawarea                  281         247     13.8           136      126        7.9        145        121       19.8            88        79         57       42
  District of Columbiaa      680         497     36.8           530      321       65.1        150        176      -14.8            49        90        101       86
  Florida                  3,068       2,699     13.7         3,065    2,696       13.7           3          3                        3         3         ...      ...
  Georgia                  2,012       1,760     14.3         1,909    1,693       12.8        103         67      53.7            103        67          ...      ...
  Kentucky                   437         382     14.4           437      382       14.4           0          0                        0         0          0        0
  Louisiana                  547         541      1.1           547      541        1.1          ...        ...                      ...       ...        ...      ...
  Maryland                 1,032         974      6.0           885      841        5.2        147        133      10.5            147       133          ...      ...
  Mississippi                625         458     36.5           596      434       37.3         29         24      20.8             29        24           0        0
  North Carolina           1,199       1,135      5.6         1,133    1,081        4.8         66         54      22.2             50        39         16       15
  Oklahomab                1,120       1,108      1.1         1,120    1,108        1.1            /          /                        /         /        ...      ...
  South Carolina             829         945    -12.3           739      803       -8.0         90        142      -36.6            90       142          ...       0
  Tennessee                  398         389      2.3           398      389        2.3           0          0                         /         /         0        0
  Texas                    5,541       3,807     45.5         5,529    3,807       45.2         12            /                     12           /        ...      ...
  Virginia                   966         670     44.2           966      670       44.2           0          0                        0         0         ...      ...
  West Virginia               91          79     15.2            91       79       15.2           0          0                       ...       ...         0        0

 West                     12,598      11,413     10.4%       11,292   10,285        9.8%     1,306      1,128       15.8%          305       226      1,001      902
  Alaskaa                    156         122     27.9            57      122         ...        99           /                      11          /        88          /
  Arizona                  1,273       1,037     22.8         1,193      993       20.1         80         44      81.8             80        44           0        0
  California               8,215       7,581      8.4         7,379    6,745        9.4        836        836                         0        0        836      836
  Coloradob                  580         490     18.4           580      490       18.4           /          /                         /        /         ...      ...
  Hawaiia                    163         156      4.5            90       98       -8.2         73         58      25.9             10         5         63       53
  Idaho                      147         144      2.1           147      144        2.1          0          0                         0        0           0        0
  Montana                     83          67     23.9            83       67       23.9          0          0                        ...       0           0       ...
  Nevada                     459         413     11.1           452      404       11.9          7          9                         7        0           0        9
  New Mexico                 226         208      8.7           168      166        1.2         58         42       38.1            58        42           0         /
  Oregon                     370         335     10.4           233      201       15.9        137        134        2.2           137       134           0        0
  Utah                       153         124     23.4           138      120       15.0         15          4                         2        1         13         3
  Washington                 700         670      4.5           699      669        4.5          1          1                         0        0           1        1
  Wyoming                     73          66     10.6            73       66       10.6          0          0                         0        0           0        0

                                                                               a
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and                        Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.              prisons are combined in one system.
                                                                               b
...Not applicable.                                                              Data for inmates sentenced to more than a year may
/Not reported.                                                                 include some inmates sentenced to a year or less.




88      Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Explanatory notes by jurisdiction            Race and ethnicity: Numbers are                Jurisdiction population, inmates with a year
                                             estimated. Alaska classifies race into         or less sentence: Includes 21 men and 3
Federal prisons                              White, Black, Hispanic, Indian, Alaska Na-     women being held in the county jail await-
                                             tive, Asian, and unknown.                      ing transfer to Department of Correction
Population, admissions, and releases                                                        for whom the sentence is unknown.
counts: Movement data were provided;         Other race: Includes Hispanic inmates.
however, when admissions are added to                                                       Custody population, inmates with a year
the January 1 population and releases are    Arizona                                        or less sentence: Includes 13 men and 5
subtracted, the total does not equal the                                                    women being held in the county jail await-
December 31, 1994 population.                Population, admissions, and releases           ing transfer to Department of Correction
                                             counts: Based on custody data.                 for whom the sentence is unknown.
Inmates with a year or less sentence: Ju-
risdiction and custody counts include in-    Other unconditional releases: Court-           Other race: Includes Arkansas' Cuban
mates whose sentence length is unknown.      ordered releases.                              race category.

Alabama                                      Other conditional releases: Includes super-    California
                                             vised early releases, provisional releases,
Other conditional release violators with     supervised work furloughs, earned credit       Population, admissions, and releases
new sentences: Includes inmates returned     releases, and releases to home arrest          counts: Based on custody data.
from supervised release under Alabama        program.
Act 754 and split sentence/probation with                                                   Other conditional release violators with
and without new sentences.                   Cause of death: Type of death pending in-      new sentences: May include some parole
                                             vestigation at time of data collection.        violators and returns from supervised
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted                                                        mandatory releases with new sentences.
as a single category.                        Other releases: Includes early releases to
                                             detainer and persons returned to prison        Other conditional release violators only, no
Other admissions: Unspecified in the Ala-    pending revocation hearing where no revo-      new sentences: May include some parole
bama data system.                            cation occurred.                               violators without new sentences. The cate-
                                                                                            gory also includes supervised mandatory
Other unconditional releases: Court-         Jurisdiction population, total: Excludes 118   and parole releases returned pending a
ordered releases.                            men housed in local jails solely to ease       revocation hearing.
                                             prison crowding.
Cause of death: Can specify only                                                            Other admissions: Contains returns from
executions.                                  Other race: Includes inmates not catego-       appeal/bond in other admissions category.
                                             rized as white, black, American Indian,
Other releases: Type of release not known    Asian, Pacific Islander, or Spanish origin.    Unconditional releases, expirations of sen-
at time of data collection.                                                                 tence: Includes some court-ordered
                                             Arkansas                                       releases.
Other race: Alabama’s "Other" race
category.                                    Arkansas changed its December 31, 1993,        Conditional releases, supervised manda-
                                             count.                                         tory releases: Includes some court-ordered
Alaska                                                                                      releases.
                                             Other unconditional releases: Court-
Population, admissions, and releases         ordered releases.                              Other releases: Contains releases to
counts: Alaska was unable to report move-                                                   appeal/bond in “Other releases” category.
ment data and prison overcrowding.           Other conditional releases: Comprised of       The category also contains the net differ-
Population counts for 1993 are based on      persons released under the provisions of       ence between total admissions and the
custody data.                                Arkansas’ Acts 378 and 814 and Boot            year-end population. These are most
                                             Camp to some form of supervision.              likely prisoners temporarily released to
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and                                                   courts, jail, and hospitals and not returned
custody counts include inmates in prisons                                                   to prison as of December 31, 1994.
and jails, which form an integrated system
in Alaska.




                                                                                                                  Prisoners in 1994 89
Jurisdiction population, unsentenced in-        Other unconditional releases: Court-          Other unconditional releases: Court-
mates: Includes civil narcotic addict com-      ordered discharges and releases from          ordered releases.
mitments and county diagnostic cases.           Connecticut supervision.
                                                                                              Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
Other race and not known Hispanic origin:       Other conditional releases: Release to        custody counts include inmates in prisons
Includes some Asian, Pacific Islander, and      home jurisdiction and community releases.     and jails, which form an integrated system.
Hispanic inmates admitted to California
prisons prior to January 1990 (when these       Other releases: Includes inmates released     Other race: Includes Puerto Rican and
categories were added to the California         in error.                                     Mexican prisoners.
computer system).
                                                Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and     District of Columbia
Colorado                                        custody counts include inmates in prisons
                                                and jails, which form an integrated system.   Sentencing information, partially sus-
Sentencing information: Reported popula-                                                      pended sentences: Some prisoners serve
tions with sentences of more than 1 year        Other race: Connecticut’s Hispanic            sentences in which the term in prison is
include a small number of inmates with a        category.                                     partially suspended, to be completed un-
maximum sentence of 1 year or less.                                                           der probation. They were categorized with
                                                Delaware                                      inmates sentenced to 1 year or more only
Transfers from other jurisdictions: Includes                                                  when the prison portion of their sentences
custody transfers of inmates to other           Delaware revised the previously reported      exceeded 12 months. As a result, the
States due to interstate compacts.              December 31, 1993, count of male in-          population and movement counts of in-
                                                mates with a maximum sentence of more         mates with maximum sentences of more
Escapees: Numbers are estimated.                than 1 year.                                  than 1 year are understated, and the
                                                                                              population count of inmates with 1 year or
Cause of death: Type of death not deter-        Sentencing information, partially sus-        less maximum sentence is overstated.
mined at time of data collection.               pended sentences: Some prisoners serve
                                                sentences in which the term in prison is      Sentencing information, short sentences:
Other releases: Court-ordered releases          partially suspended, to be completed un-      An undetermined number of inmates
not classified as conditional or                der probation. They were categorized with     housed in neither the District of Columbia
unconditional.                                  inmates sentenced to 1 year or more only      jail nor the Detention Center and having ei-
                                                when the prison portion of their sentences    ther no sentence or a minimum sentence
State inmates housed in other facilities to     exceeded 12 months. As a result, the          of 1 year or less were included in the
ease overcrowding: Includes 320 men             population and movement counts of in-         movement and population counts of in-
house in a facility owned and operated by       mates with maximum sentences of more          mates with more than 1 year maximum
the County of Bent; and 725 men and 90          than 1 year are understated, and the          sentences. As a result, the population and
women housed in county correctional fa-         population count of inmates with 1 year or    movement counts of inmates with maxi-
cilities owned by the State.                    less maximum sentence is overstated.          mum sentences of more than 1 year are
                                                                                              overstated, and the population count of in-
Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are           Parole and other conditional release viola-   mates with 1 year or less maximum sen-
estimated.                                      tors with new sentences: Includes violators   tence is understated.
                                                with and without new sentences.
Connecticut                                                                                   Transfers from and to other jurisdictions:
                                                Other admissions and releases: Includes       Includes transfers from and to mental hos-
Other admissions: Includes returns from         admissions from and releases to State and     pitals and other State and Federal
discharge and returns from inadvertent          local hospitals, inmates serving weekend      facilities.
releases.                                       sentences, and inmates whose terms were
                                                changed from jail sentences of less than 1    Unconditional releases, expirations of
Unconditional releases, expirations of sen-     year to prison sentences of more than a       sentence: Includes some inmates with
tence: Connecticut’s data system does not       year.                                         partially suspended sentences and re-
distinguish inmates with probation condi-                                                     leases to probation.
tions in effect upon expiration of the incar-   Unconditional releases, expirations of sen-
ceration portion of their sentence. Includes    tence: Includes some releases to
some releases to probation.                     probation.




90   Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Number of deaths: The District of Colum-       Other conditional releases: Includes          releases, race, and Hispanic origin are
bia is unable to provide number of deaths      control releases with supervision, condi-     estimated based on information from
by sex. Therefore, all deaths are reported     tional medical releases, conditional re-      Hawaii’s Correctional Information System
under males. As a result, total male re-       leases, supervised community releases,        (CIS).
leases are sightly overcounted, and female     and reinstatement to control releases.
releases are slightly undercounted.                                                          Other unconditional releases: Administra-
                                               Transfers to other jurisdictions: Includes    tive discharges and emergency releases.
Cause of death: Type of death was not de-      interstate transfers (inmates who have
termined at time of data collection.           been under Florida’s jurisdiction but serve   Other conditional releases: Type of release
                                               their sentence in another State or Federal    not known at the time of data collection.
Total jurisdiction population: Includes male   prison).
and female District of Columbia criminal                                                     Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
code violators housed in Federal Bureau of     Other race: Includes prisoners of Oriental,   custody counts include inmates in prisons
Prisons facilities and male inmates housed     Scandinavian, Slavic and other                and jails, which form an integrated system
in other State facilities. Of these inmates,   backgrounds.                                  in Hawaii.
an undetermined number are being
housed solely to ease prison crowding.         Georgia                                       Other race: Includes Puerto Ricans, pris-
                                                                                             oners of other Hispanic origin, and other
Unsentenced inmate populations: Jurisdic-      Georgia revised its December 31, 1994,        racial categories (inmates who identified
tion and custody counts include unsen-         count.                                        more than one racial background). Pris-
tenced inmates held in the District jail or                                                  oners of part-Hawaiian ancestry are
Detention Center.                              Population, admissions, and releases          counted as Asians/Pacific Islanders.
                                               counts: Based on custody data.
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and                                                    Hispanic origin: Includes Hawaii’s Puerto
custody counts include inmates in prisons      Parole violators with new sentences: May      Ricans category and individuals of Hawaii’s
and jails, which form an integrated system     include a small number of other conditional   "Other race" category with Spanish
in the District of Columbia.                   release violators with new sentences.         surnames.

Florida                                        Parole violators only, no new sentences:      Idaho
                                               May include a small number of other con-
Population, admissions, and releases           ditional release violators returned without   Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
counts: Based on custody data.                 new sentences.                                as a single category.

Other conditional release violators with       Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted          Other admissions: Civil commitments.
new sentences: Includes violators of con-      as a single category.
trol releases, provisional releases, condi-                                                  Other unconditional releases: Court-
tional releases, and supervised community      Unconditional releases: Includes one in-      ordered releases, reprieves, pardons, ap-
releases who have been given new               mate who was pardoned.                        peal won/discharges, and acquittals.
sentences.
                                               Other conditional releases: Consists of       Other conditional releases: Releases to
Transfers from other jurisdictions: Includes   special and supervised reprieves con-         detainer.
admissions through interstate compact          trolled by the Georgia Parole Board.
agreements with and without new                                                              Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are
sentences.                                     Cause of death: Unknown.                      estimated. Not known includes inmates
                                                                                             housed in local jails to ease overcrowding
Other admissions: Contains the net differ-     Jurisdiction population: Excludes inmates     for whom race and ethnicity data are
ence between total admissions and the re-      awaiting pick-up from local jails.            unavailable.
lease movements not classified in other
categories.                                    Other race: Includes inmates who identify     Illinois
                                               race categories other than those specified.
Other unconditional releases: Includes va-                                                   Population, admissions, and releases
cated sentences and control releases with-     Hawaii                                        counts: Based on custody data.
out supervision.
                                               Category estimates: Jurisdiction and cus-     Sentencing information: Reported popula-
                                               tody counts are actual counts. Admissions,    tions with sentences of more than 1 year


                                                                                                                  Prisoners in 1994 91
include an undetermined number of in-           Other unconditional releases: Court-           Kentucky
mates with maximum sentences of 1 year.         ordered discharges.
                                                                                               Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
Other conditional release violators with        Conditional releases, paroles: Includes        as a single category.
new sentences: Includes some parole vio-        persons returned to parole following revo-
lators with new sentences.                      cation hearings and persons released to        Other admissions: Includes court-ordered
                                                parole by Conditional Commutation              returns to prison.
Other conditional release violators only, no    Orders.
new sentences: Includes some parole vio-                                                       Other releases: Includes court-ordered re-
lators without new sentences.                   Other admissions and releases:                 leases not identifiable as conditional or
                                                Safekeepers.                                   unconditional.
Escapees: Illinois now reports the move-
ment of escapees using the Offender             Other conditional releases: Releases to        Other race: Includes inmates whose race
Tracking System. Because all inmates in         work release programs.                         cannot be classified in the specified
Community Correctional Centers and Elec-                                                       categories.
tronic Detention Centers are now included       Other race: Iowa’s Hispanic category.
in the counts, the number of escapes and                                                       Louisiana
returns from escape appear to have in-          Kansas
creased from reporting in previous years.                                                      Population, admissions, and releases
                                                Total population: The Kansas Sentencing        counts: Based on custody data.
Other unconditional releases: Court-            Guidelines Act, which became effective on
ordered releases.                               July 1, 1993, is being applied retroactivelySentencing information: Jurisdiction and
                                                during 1993 and 1994 to approximately       custody counts of inmates with a maxi-
Cause of death: Unknown at time of data         1,210 existing Kansas prisoners at the      mum sentence of more than 1 year and
collection.                                     time the law was enacted. As a result,      with 1 year or less maximum sentence are
                                                there is an overall decrease in male and    not comparable to 1992 and previously re-
Other admissions and releases: Contains         female jurisdiction and custody counts, as  ported data. Prior to 1993, reported in-
the net difference between long-term ad-        well as a change in some admission and      mates with 1 year or less sentence were
missions and release movements not re-          release categories.                         actually parole revocations with a remain-
ported in other categories (transfers, writs,                                               ing sentence equal to 1 year or less. The
and medical furloughs) in order to balance      New court commitments: May include          original sentences for these persons were
the yearend populations. The category           some returns from appeal/bond.              greater than 1 year, but when they re-
also includes an undetermined number of                                                     turned from parole the remaining time on
transfers to other jurisdictions.               Other conditional release violators, with   their sentences had decreased to 1 year or
                                                and without new sentences: Includes some less. Since persons with sentences of 1
Other race: Illinois’ Hispanic category.        probation violators who should have been    year or less are not sentenced to Louisi-
                                                categorized as new court commitments.       ana prisons, all inmates are now reported
Indiana                                                                                     as having a maximum sentence greater
                                                Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted        than or equal to 1 year.
New court commitments: Includes proba-          as a single category.
tion violators with and without new                                                         Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
sentences.                                      Other admissions: Admission type not        as a single category.
                                                known at time of data collection.
Other unconditional releases: Sentences                                                     Other admissions: Admissions to treat-
terminated based on Parole Board                Other conditional releases: Conditional re- ment programs from probation and parole
decisions.                                      leases to supervision, similar to that for  districts.
                                                parole.
Iowa                                                                                        Other unconditional releases: Includes
                                                Cause of death: Unknown.                    court-ordered and good-time releases.
Population, admissions, and releases
counts: Based on custody data.                  Hispanic origin: Estimates based on previ-     Cause of death: Can specify only for
                                                ous years’ Hispanic population.                executions.
Parole violators only, no new sentences:
Includes parolees remanded to prison prior
to a formal revocation hearing.


92     Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Other releases: Consists of inmates re-        New court commitments: May include a          Transfers from and to other jurisdictions:
leased in error.                               small number of returns from appeal/bond.     Includes transfers from and to mental hos-
                                                                                             pitals and Federal and other State
American Indian or Alaskan Native: In-         Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted          facilities.
cludes American Indian only.                   as a single category.
                                                                                             Returns from and releases to appeal/bond:
Asian or Pacific Islander: Includes Chi-       Other unconditional releases: Court-          Contains the net difference of all move-
nese and Japanese only.                        ordered releases. May also include a small    ments from and to the courts.
                                               number of releases to appeal/bond.
Other race: Includes Latins and all other                                                    Cause of death, illness or natural causes:
racial categories.                             Massachusetts                                 Includes unspecified type of death, includ-
                                                                                             ing deaths resulting from AIDS- or HIV-
Hispanic origin: Not included in Louisiana’s   Population, admissions, and releases          related diseases.
data system.                                   counts: Based on custody data.
                                                                                             Other deaths: Shot during escape.
Maine                                          Parole violators only, no new sentences:
                                               Includes some parole violators with new       Unknown race: Includes Michigan’s
Other conditional release violators with       sentences, other conditional release viola-   Mexican-Americans.
new sentences: Probation violators with        tors with and without new sentences, and
new sentences.                                 a small number of returns from                Hispanic origin: Includes only inmates of
                                               appeal/bond.                                  Mexican-American descent.
Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences: Probation violators with no     Category estimates: The totals for admis-     Minnesota
new sentences.                                 sions and releases are actual; the catego-
                                               ries are estimated.                           Minnesota revised its December 31, 1993,
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted                                                         count.
as a single category.                          Other admissions: Includes 966 inmates
                                               housed in local facilities and 109 inmates    Other conditional release violators with
Other admissions: Returns from intensive       held in Federal and other State facilities.   new sentences: Includes parole violators,
supervision programs. This program was                                                       supervised mandatory release violators,
terminated by the State Legislature as of      Unconditional releases, expirations of sen-   and work release violators with new
June 30, 1993.                                 tence: Includes some releases to              sentences.
                                               probation.
Other releases: Releases to detainer or                                                      Other conditional release violators only, no
warrant.                                       Other unconditional releases: Includes        new sentences: Includes parole violators,
                                               court-ordered releases and a small num-       supervised mandatory release violators,
Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are          ber of releases to appeal/bond.               and work release violators with no new
estimated.                                                                                   sentences.
                                               Other race: Includes Hispanic inmates
Maryland                                       whose race is not specified; also includes    Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Escapees
                                               966 male inmates housed in local facilities   and AWOL prisoners are not formally re-
Category estimates: The movement and           and 109 male inmates held in Federal and      leased; therefore, returns from and re-
population totals are actual counts. Cate-     other State facilities.                       leases to escape or AWOL are not
gories for admissions and releases are es-                                                   considered valid admission categories
timated by applying percentages from           Unknown ethnicity: Includes 966 male in-      in Minnesota’s data system.
automated data to the totals that are made     mates housed in local facilities and 109
manually. The automated data system            male inmates held in Federal and other        Other unconditional releases: Includes
counts only inmates with maximum sen-          State facilities.                             inmates discharged by court or executive
tences of more than 1 year, while the de-                                                    orders. May include some commutations.
tailed categories in the manual data           Michigan
include inmates with maximum sentences                                                       Other conditional releases: Work releases
of 1 year or less.                             Population, admissions, and releases          and intensive community supervision.
                                               counts: Based on custody data.




                                                                                                                   Prisoners in 1994 93
Other race: Includes an undetermined           Escapes from confinement: Includes             Transfers from other jurisdictions: These
number of Asian/Pacific Islanders and          walkaways from residential treatment facili-   inmates are considered part of Nevada’s
other unclassified categories.                 ties, electronic monitoring program, and       out count and are not counted as
                                               community release centers.                     admissions.
Unknown race: Includes Minnesota’s His-
panic category.                                Other releases: Includes deferred commit-      Other admissions: Includes Nevada’s "not
                                               ments and erroneous releases.                  physically received" category. Inmates are
Mississippi                                                                                   counted as admissions when Nevada be-
                                               Montana                                        gins to monitor their sentences and in-
New court commitments: Includes some                                                          cludes them in their out-count population.
probation violators with and without new       Montana revised the previously reported
sentences.                                     December 31, 1993, population of inmates       Unconditional, expiration of sentence: May
                                               with maximum sentences of more than 1          include some inmates transferred to other
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted           year.                                          jurisdictions.
as a single category.
                                               Other admissions: Includes some proba-         Other unconditional releases: Court-
Other admissions: Includes inmates await-      tion violators. Also includes 47 males and     ordered releases.
ing revocation hearings and returns from       1 female inmate added to balance the
appeal/bond.                                   population count.                              Race: Numbers are estimated.

Other unconditional releases: Court-           Escapee releases: Includes 6 inmates who       Other race: Includes some Hispanic
ordered releases.                              escaped from prison and 50 from                inmates.
                                               pre-release.
Other releases: Inmates returned to com-                                                      New Hampshire
munity supervision following a revocation      Jurisdiction and custody population: In-
hearing where no revocation occurred.          cludes some inmates from other jurisdic-       New court commitments: Includes some
Also includes releases to appeal/bond.         tions who are housed by Montana.               returns from appeal/bond. May also in-
                                                                                              clude some other conditional release viola-
Unknown race: Includes Mississippi’s His-      Race, white: Includes inmates of Hispanic      tors with and without new sentences.
panic category.                                origin.
                                                                                              Parole violators only, no new sentences:
Missouri                                       Nebraska                                       Includes parole violators with a new
                                                                                              sentence.
Population and admissions counts: 1993         Parole violators only, no new sentences:
counts are based on custody data.              Includes some parole violators with new        Unconditional releases, expiration of sen-
                                               sentences.                                     tence: Includes other unconditional re-
Escapee returns, with and without new                                                         leases and some releases to appeal/bond.
sentences: Include some returns from           Race and ethnicity: Numbers are
AWOL which cannot be separated from            estimated.                                     Other releases: Court-ordered releases
escape return admissions.                                                                     not identifiable as conditional or
                                               Nevada                                         unconditional.
Other admissions: Includes inmates re-
turned from erroneous releases and per-        Total admissions and releases: May in-         New Jersey
sons whose commitment was reinstated.          clude some inmates with a 1 year
                                               sentence.                                      Sentencing information: Reported popula-
Other unconditional releases: Includes                                                        tions with sentences of more than 1 year
court-ordered releases.                        New court commitments: May include a           include 96 male and 12 female inmates
                                               very small number of returns from              with a sentence equal to 1 year.
Other conditional releases: Includes condi-    appeal/bond.
tional release to custody/detainer, adminis-                                                  New court commitments: May include
trative parole, and credit time releases.      Parole violators only, no new sentences:       some transfers from other jurisdictions
                                               Includes some parole violators with new        and returns from appeal/bond.
Causes of death: Unknown.                      sentences.
                                                                                              Other conditional release violators only, no
                                                                                              new sentences: Prisoners returned (some


94   Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
with new sentences) from the Intensive         Other admissions: Includes 26 men re-          Other unconditional releases: Court-
Supervision Program, an experimental pro-      turned from conditional parole deportation     ordered releases.
gram operated by the Administrative Office     to the custody of the U.S. Bureau of Immi-
of Courts.                                     gration and Naturalization Services, as well   Other conditional releases: Includes some
                                               as 13 men and 1 woman returned follow-         supervised mandatory releases.
Other conditional releases: Prisoners re-      ing erroneous release.
leased to the Intensive Supervision                                                           Hispanic origin: Not included in North
Program.                                       Causes of death: Unknown at time of data       Carolina’s data system.
                                               collection.
Causes of death: Unknown at time of data                                                      North Dakota
collection.                                    Transfers to other jurisdictions: Includes
                                               577 men and 65 women transferred to the        Other conditional releases: Court-ordered
Unknown race: Includes 1,526 male and          jurisdiction of the Department of Mental       releases.
12 female Hispanic inmates who are not         Hygiene for psychiatric treatment.
classified as white or black. Also includes                                                   Ohio
17 male inmates for whom the race cate-        Other releases: Consists of erroneous re-
gory was unspecified.                          leases of 6 men and 6 women.                   Ohio updated the December 31, 1993,
                                                                                              count for inmates with a maximum sen-
Unknown ethnicity: Includes inmates for        North Carolina                                 tence of more than 1 year.
whom race category was unspecified.
                                               Sentencing information, partially sus-         Sentencing information: Reported popula-
New Mexico                                     pended sentences: Some prisoners serve         tion of inmates with maximum sentences
                                               sentences in which the term in prison is       of more than 1 year includes some in-
Parole violators only, no new sentences:       partially suspended, to be completed un-       mates with sentences of 1 year or less.
Includes parole violators with and without     der probation. They were categorized with
additional sentences.                          inmates sentenced to 1 year or more only       Escapees and AWOL prisoners: All unau-
                                               when the prison portion of their sentences     thorized absences are classified as
Other conditional release violators only, no   exceeded 12 months. Nearly all of the in-      escapes.
new sentences: Includes violators both         mates with a partially suspended sentence
with and without new sentences. Also in-       were included with those prisoners having      Other unconditional releases: Sentences
cludes returns from community corrections      sentences of 1 year or less. As a result,      vacated by courts.
programs.                                      the population and movement counts of in-
                                               mates with maximum sentences of more           Other conditional releases: Includes fur-
Other conditional releases: Releases to        than 1 year are understated, and the           loughs and other conditional releases
community corrections programs.                population count of inmates with 1 year or
                                               less maximum sentence is overstated.           Race, white: May include some American
Cause of death: Can specify only                                                              Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, or Pacific
executions.                                    Category estimates, sentencing: Popula-        Islanders.
                                               tion totals are actual; populations by sen-
New York                                       tence length are estimated.                    Oklahoma

New court commitments: Includes parole         Parole violators with new sentences: In-       Sentencing information: Reported popula-
and other conditional release violators with   cludes some parole violators without new       tion of inmates with maximum sentences
new sentences.                                 sentences and some conditional release         of more than 1 year includes some in-
                                               violators with and without new sentences.      mates with sentences of 1 year or less.
Transfers from other jurisdictions: Includes
553 men and 63 women previously under          Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted           New court commitments: Include some
the jurisdiction of the Department of Men-     as a single category.                          conditional release violators with and with-
tal Hygiene for psychiatric treatment.                                                        out new sentences.
                                               Other admissions: Consists of an adjust-
                                               ment residual to balance movement data
                                               with the December 31 populations.




                                                                                                                    Prisoners in 1994 95
Other unconditional releases: Includes        Other releases: Includes releases to the       Transfers to other jurisdictions: Includes
Legislative CAP releases (Senate Bill 445).   State Mental Hospital.                         transfers to Federal or other State
                                                                                             facilities.
Other conditional releases: Includes condi-   Other race: Pennsylvania’s Hispanic
tional commutations and CAP releases to       category.                                      Race: Numbers are estimated.
probation supervision.
                                              Rhode Island                                   Tennessee
Other deaths: Shot during a robbery at-
tempt while on community supervision.         Sentencing information, partially sus-         Sentencing information: Reported popula-
                                              pended sentences: Some prisoners serve         tion and movement of inmates with maxi-
Total jurisdiction population: Excludes 328   sentences in which the term in prison is       mum sentences of 1 year include inmates
men and 47 women housed in local jails        partially suspended, to be completed un-       with maximum sentences of more than 1
solely to ease prison crowding.               der probation. They were categorized with      year. As a result, the population and
                                              inmates sentenced to 1 year or more only       movement counts of inmates with maxi-
Unknown race: Includes Hispanic inmates.      when the prison portion of their sentences     mum sentences of more than 1 year are
                                              exceeded 12 months. As a result, the           overstated.
Oregon                                        population and movement counts of in-
                                              mates with maximum sentences of more           Parole violators with new sentences: May
Oregon revised its December 31, 1993,         than 1 year are understated, and the           include some parole violators with no new
count due to an adjustment in methodol-       population and movements counts of in-         sentences.
ogy to identify inmates with a maximum        mates with 1 year or less maximum sen-
sentence of more than 1 year.                 tences are overstated.                         Other conditional release violators with
                                                                                             new sentences: Includes some probation
Transfers from and to other jurisdictions:    Other conditional releases: Includes court-    and community corrections program viola-
Oregon cannot distinguish transfers from      ordered releases to drug/alcohol treatment     tors with no new sentences.
other admissions or release categories.       program.
Transfers may be included in any admis-                                                      Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
sions or release category.                    Jurisdiction population, unsentenced in-       as a single category.
                                              mates: Includes 16 men held on civil con-
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: All unau-        tempt of court for nonpayment of child         Conditional releases, paroles: May include
thorized absences are classified as           support.                                       a small number of supervised mandatory
escapes.                                                                                     releases.
                                              Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
Other admissions: Type of admission un-       custody counts include inmates in prisons      Other conditional releases: Releases to
known at time of data collection.             and jails, which form an integrated system     community corrections programs.
                                              in Rhode Island.
Other unconditional releases: Type of un-                                                    Total jurisdiction population: Includes
conditional release unknown at time of        South Carolina                                 1,640 men and 189 women housed in local
data collection.                                                                             facilities solely to ease prison crowding.
                                              New court commitments: May include a           Excludes 3,134 felons sentenced to serve
Pennsylvania                                  small number of transfers from other           their time in local facilities.
                                              jurisdictions.
Pennsylvania revised its December 31,                                                        Other race: Includes Hispanic inmates.
1993, count.                                  Other unconditional releases: Releases by
                                              court-order and remanded.                      Hispanic origin: Not included in Tennes-
Other admissions: Type of admissions un-                                                     see’s data system.
known at time of data collection.             Other conditional releases: Inmates re-
                                              leased to the jurisdiction of the Department   Texas
Other unconditional releases: Court-          of Parole, Probation, and Pardon Services
ordered releases.                             under the Emergency Powers Act.                Sentencing information: Reported popula-
                                                                                             tion of inmates with maximum sentences
Escapee and AWOL prisoners: Excludes          South Dakota                                   of more than 1 year includes some in-
prisoners who absconded while residents                                                      mates with maximum sentences of 1 year
of community-based facilities.                Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted           or less.
                                              as a single category.


96   Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Admissions and releases: Numbers are          Race: Numbers are estimated.                  Wisconsin
estimated.
                                                                                            Admissions and releases counts: An unde-
                                              Virginia
                                                                                            termined number of admissions and re-
Parole violators with and without new sen-
                                                                                            leases are not reported; therefore, when
tences: Texas’ data system does not dis-      Virginia provided counts as of January 4,
                                                                                            admissions are added to the January 1
tinguish parole violators with new            1994.
                                                                                            population and releases are subtracted,
sentences from those without new
                                                                                            the total does not equal the December 31
sentences.                                    Other admissions: Includes pending parole
                                                                                            population.
                                              revocations (both discretionary and man-
Other conditional release violators with      datory), transfers, and returns from
                                                                                            Other admissions: Includes 632 males and
and without new sentences: Texas’ data        appeal/bond.
                                                                                            85 females temporarily returned to prison
system does not distinguish other condi-
                                                                                            without a formal revocation; 52 males and
tional release violators with new sentences   Other unconditional releases: Administra-
                                                                                            1 female returned pending revocation
from those without new sentences.             tive releases.
                                                                                            hearings; 1 male and 1 female with no
                                                                                            Wisconsin sentence; 11 male sex offend-
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted          Conditional releases, supervised manda-
                                                                                            ers held under Wisconsin’s predator law;
as a single category.                         tory releases and paroles: Includes re-
                                                                                            and 3 males erroneously admitted.
                                              leases to detainer and transfers to other
Other admissions: Contains adjustment re-     jurisdictions.
                                                                                            Other unconditional releases: Includes
siduals to balance the movement data with
                                                                                            court-ordered releases.
the December 31 population. The number        Other releases: Includes persons released
does include 17,422 men and 3,298             to appeal/bond and those who were re-
                                                                                            Other releases: Includes 513 males and
women housed in local jails to ease           turned to prison pending revocation of dis-
                                                                                            73 females returned to the community af-
crowding.                                     cretionary or mandatory parole, where no
                                                                                            ter being held without formal revocations;
                                              revocation occurred, who are being re-
                                                                                            1 male and 1 female with no Wisconsin
Race and ethnicity: Numbers are               turned to parole or other supervised
                                                                                            sentence; 15 males and 1 female pending
estimated.                                    status.
                                                                                            revocation hearing; 3 males and 1 female
                                                                                            erroneously admitted, and 9 males and
Other race: Texas’ Hispanic category.         Unknown race: Includes Virginia’s Hispanic
                                                                                            1 female with court-ordered releases.
Also Includes 17,422 men and 3,298            race category.
women inmates housed in local jails.
                                                                                            Unsentenced inmates: Jurisdiction and
                                              Washington
                                                                                            custody counts of inmates whose sen-
Unknown Hispanic origin: Includes 17,422
                                                                                            tence was unknown at time of data
men and 3,298 women housed in local jails Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
                                                                                            collection.
to ease prison overcrowding.              as a single category.
                                                                                            Wyoming
Utah                                          Other unconditional releases: Vacated
                                              sentences.                                    New court commitments and unconditional
Other unconditional releases: Inmates                                                       releases, expirations of sentence: May in-
whose sentences were terminated prior         Other releases: Type of release unknown       clude a small number of administrative
to expiration.                                at time of data collection.                   turnovers (starts and expirations of con-
                                                                                            secutive sentences).
Vermont                                       Other race: Inmates of mixed racial origin.
                                                                                            Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
Parole violators with and without new         West Virginia                                 as a single category.
sentences: May include other conditional
                                              West Virginia has no footnotes or explana-
release violators.                                                                          Other conditional releases: Includes in-
                                              tory notes.
                                                                                            mates placed in the "S.T.O.P." program.
AWOL: May include some returns from
appeal/bond.                                                                                Other race: Wyoming’s Hispanic category.

Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
custody counts include inmates in prisons
and jails, which form an integrated system
in Vermont.


                                                                                                                 Prisoners in 1994 97
                  Parole in 1994


Tables

Adults on parole, 1994

6.1   Characteristics             106
6.2   Counts, January 1
      and December 31             107
6.3   Status of supervision       108
6.4   Adults entering parole,
      by type of sentence         109
6.5   Adults leaving parole,
      by type of exit             110
6.6   Sex and Hispanic origin     111
6.7   Race                        112
6.8   Sentence length             113
6.9   Intensive supervision and
      electronic monitoring       114

Explanatory notes
by jurisdiction                   115

Questionnaire                     119




                      Parole in 1994 105
Table 6.1. Characteristics of adults on parole, 1994

                                            Number of adults         Percent of those
                                            on parole from State     persons with a
Characteristics                             or Federal courts        known status

    Total number of adults on parole             690,159                  100%

Status of supervision                            682,679                  100%

  Active supervision                             514,616                   75
  Inactive supervision                            88,611                   13
  Absconded from supervision                      42,008                    6
  Supervised out of State                         32,539                    5
  Other                                            4,905                    1

Adults entering parole                           402,531                  100%

  Discretionary parole                           211,805                   53
  Mandatory parole                               168,669                   42
  Reinstatement                                   15,652                    4
  Other                                            6,405                    2

Adults leaving parole                            386,448                  100%

  Successful completions                         177,870                   46
  Returned to prison or jail                     157,978                   41
    With new sentence                             40,565                   10
    With revocation pending                       75,886                   20
    Other                                         41,527                   11
  Transferred to another State                     8,693                    2
  Death                                            4,121                    1
  Other                                           37,786                   10

Sex of adults on parole                          675,869                  100%

  Male                                           609,510                   90
  Female                                          66,359                   10

Race of adults on parole                         634,159                  100%

  White                                          333,517                   53
  Black                                          293,861                   46
  American Indian/Alaska Native                    3,676                    1
  Asian/Pacific Islander                           3,105                    --

Hispanic origin of adults on parole              497,972                  100%

  Hispanic                                        96,932                   19
  Non-Hispanic                                   401,040                   81

Length of sentence                               562,616                  100%

  Less than 1 year                                27,280                    5
  One year or more                               535,336                   95

Note: See the detailed tables, the questionnaire, and the ex-
planatory notes for definitions, limitations, and exceptions.
Jurisdictions failed to report data for 1% of "status of supervi-
sion," 42% of "adults entering parole," 44% of "adults exiting pa-
role," 2% of "sex of adults on parole," 8% of "race of adults on
parole," 28% of "Hispanic origin of adults on parole," and 18%
of "length of sentence" of parolees.
--Less than 0.5%.




106 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 6.2. Adults on parole, 1994
                         Parole                                           Parole                Percent change in       Number on parole on
Region and               population                     1994              population            parole population       12/31/94 per 100,000
jurisdiction             1/1/94               Entries            Exits    12/31/94              during 1994             adult residents

     U.S. total           676,100            411,504           396,971        690,159                   2.1%                   359

    Federal                55,710             28,505            22,788         61,430                  10.3%                    32
    State                 620,390            382,999           374,183        628,729                   1.3                    327

Northeast                 167,337             75,585            68,187        173,735                   3.8%                   447
 Connecticuta,c             1,000              1,470               270          1,200                  20.0                     48
 Maineb                        38                  3                 1             40                   5.3                      4
 Massachusettsd,e           4,370              3,872             3,709          4,533                   3.7                     98
 New Hampshire                777                529               471            835                   7.5                     99
 New Jersey                35,775             15,365             9,320         41,820                  16.9                    700
 New York                  52,186             25,493            23,847         53,832                   3.2                    394
 Pennsylvania              72,100             28,052            29,797         70,355                  -2.4                    769
 Rhode Island                 536                482               490            528                  -1.5                     70
 Vermont                      555                319               282            592                   6.7                    136

Midwest                    79,852             58,903            56,124         82,442                   3.2%                   182
 Illinois                  24,177             21,113            18,595         26,695                  10.4                    308
 Indiana                    2,891              3,005             2,609          3,296                  14.0                     77
 Iowa                       2,339              2,265             1,632          2,972                  27.1                    142
 Kansasb                    7,141              4,161             5,011          6,291                 -11.9                    338
 Michigan                  14,015              9,009            10,102         12,922                  -7.8                    185
 Minnesota                  1,834              2,090             2,020          1,904                   3.8                     57
 Missouric                 12,264              5,692             5,364         12,592                   2.7                    323
 Nebraska                     815                865               909            771                  -5.4                     65
 North Dakota                  90                179               176             93                   3.3                     20
 Ohio                       6,997              6,012             5,829          7,180                   2.6                     87
 South Dakota                 674                568               581            661                  -1.9                    129
 Wisconsina,b               6,615              3,944             3,296          7,065                   6.8                    189

South                     257,202            118,655           123,425        253,067                   -1.6%                  377
 Alabamaa,c                 6,729              7,292             7,283          6,760                    0.5                   215
 Arkansasf                  4,036              4,470             3,591          4,915                  21.8                    271
 Delawareb,c                  914                409               294          1,029                  12.6                    194
 District of Columbia       6,591              3,336             3,353          6,574                  -0.3                  1,458
 Floridaa,b                17,567             14,202            11,452         19,089                    8.7                   179
 Georgiaa,b                20,790              8,025            13,315         17,505                 -15.8                    339
 Kentuckya                  4,148              4,185             3,980          4,380                    5.6                   153
 Louisianaa                14,463              9,805             7,153         17,112                  18.3                    556
 Maryland                  13,858             10,429             9,492         14,795                    6.8                   395
 Mississippia               1,730                911             1,208          1,517                 -12.3                     79
 North Carolina            17,284             16,269            12,526         21,027                  21.7                    396
 Oklahoma                   2,503                939               838          2,604                    4.0                   110
 South Carolina             5,790              1,891             1,652          6,029                    4.1                   222
 Tennesseea                11,279              2,726             3,473         10,260                  -9.0                    265
 Texasc                   116,637             24,088            32,162        108,563                  -6.9                    830
 Virginia                  11,504              9,021            10,876          9,649                 -16.1                    195
 West Virginiaa,b           1,379                657               777          1,259                  -8.7                     90

West                      115,999            129,856           126,447        119,485                   3.0%                   291
 Alaska                       685                638               645            678                  -1.0                    164
 Arizona                    4,017              5,817             5,483          4,351                   8.3                    148
 Californiab               80,845            110,307           106,068         85,084                   5.2                    374
 Coloradod,g                2,731              2,057             2,325          2,463                  -9.8                     92
 Hawaiih                    1,541                718               596          1,663                   7.9                    190
 Idahoa                       837                   :                 :           862                   3.0                    109
 Montanab                     704                390               458            636                  -9.7                    103
 Nevadaa                    3,398              1,823             1,510          3,529                   3.9                    326
 New Mexicoa,b,c            1,281                871               878          1,505                  17.5                    130
 Oregon                    13,687              5,175             4,598         14,264                   4.2                    619
 Utaha                      2,185              1,651             1,401          2,438                  11.6                    197
 Washingtonc                3,720                193             2,263          1,650                 -55.6                     42
 Wyoming                      368                216               222            362                  -1.6                    107
                                                                          d
:Not available.                                                             Total entries are estimated.
a                                                                         e
  Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the population on              The December 31, 1994, count is estimated.
                                                                          f
December 31, 1994, does not equal the population on January 1, 1994,        The January 1, 1994, count is estimated.
                                                                          g
plus entries minus exits.                                                   Total exits are estimated.
b                                                                         h
  See Explanatory notes for more detail.                                    Data are for the year beginning July 1, 1993.
c
  All data are estimated.




                                                                                                                                               Parole in 1994   107
Table 6.3. Adults on parole, by status of supervision, 1994

                                                                     Number of adults on parole
                         Parole                                                                       Other, un-
Region and               population                                                                   known, or
jurisdiction             12/31/94            Active     Inactive       Absconded       Out-of-State   not reported
     U.S. total           690,159           514,616      88,611           42,008          32,539        12,385

    Federal                61,430            48,200      12,325              905               0             0
    State                 628,729           466,416      76,286           41,103          32,539        12,385

Northeast                 173,735           108,735      46,182            7,289           7,792         3,737
 Connecticut a              1,200               950           0               50             200             0
 Maine b                       40                30           0                0              10             0
 Massachusetts              4,533             4,533           0                 :              0             0
 New Hampshire                835               652          50                0             133             0
 New Jersey                41,820            16,109      24,413                0           1,298             0
 New York                  53,832            38,427       5,784            5,890           3,731             0
 Pennsylvania c            70,355            47,128      15,900            1,333           2,331         3,663
 Rhode Islandc                528               395           0                0              59            74
 Vermont                      592               511          35               16              30             0

Midwest                     82,442            65,383            0          2,640           6,765         7,654
 Illinois                   26,695            24,856          ...             ...          1,839             0
 Indiana                     3,296             2,846            0            100             250           100
 Iowa                        2,972             2,972            0               0              0             0
 Kansas b,c                  6,291             4,239            0               0          2,052             0
 Michigan                   12,922            10,685            0          1,617             620             0
 Minnesota c                 1,904             1,546            0            218             140             0
 Missouria                  12,592            11,417            0               :          1,175             0
 Nebraska                      771               635          ...             52              84             0
 North Dakota                   93                79            0               0             14             0
 Ohio                        7,180                  :            :              :               :        7,180
 South Dakota                  661               476            0             17             168             0
 Wisconsin c                 7,065             5,632            0            636             423           374

South                     253,067           185,964      27,671           25,267          13,287           878
 Alabama a                  6,760             3,891       1,927                0             927            15
 Arkansas a                 4,915             4,018          18              341             538             0
 Delaware a                 1,029               748          26              137             118             0
 District of Columbia       6,574             4,535         571            1,125             343             0
 Florida                   19,089            13,658       1,910            2,379           1,142             0
 Georgia                   17,505            15,798            :                :          1,707             0
 Kentucky                   4,380             4,380             :               :               :            0
 Louisiana                 17,112            15,736          ...             859             517             0
 Marylandc                 14,795            10,098       1,833            1,670             707           487
 Mississippi                1,517             1,165            0               0             352             0
 North Carolinac           21,027            16,105       2,225            2,248             449             0
 Oklahoma                   2,604             1,904         634               66                :            0
 South Carolinac            6,029             4,711          82              502             690            44
 Tennesseec                10,260             8,605         245              620             643           147
 Texasa                   108,563            70,162      18,134           15,293           4,974             0
 Virginia                   9,649             9,649            0               0               0             0
 West Virginia              1,259               801          66               27             180           185

West                      119,485           106,334        2,433           5,907           4,695           116
 Alaska                       678               532             0             40             106             0
 Arizona                    4,351             3,271             0            775             305             0
 Californiaa,d             85,084            84,876              :            62             146             0
 Colorado c                 2,463             1,810             0            137             516             0
 Hawaii                     1,663             1,150          171             133             161            48
 Idaho                        862               567              :           147             148             0
 Montana                      636               440           40              30             126             0
 Nevadaa                    3,529             2,543           ...            310             676             0
 New Mexico a               1,505             1,053             0            224             228             0
 Oregon                    14,264             7,307        1,542           3,544           1,871             0
 Utah                       2,438             2,030             0            156             252             0
 Washington a               1,650               620          680             300              50             0
 Wyomingc                     362               135           ...             49             110            68
:Not available.
. . .Not applicable.
a
  Detailed data are estimated for supervision status.
b
  Excludes absconders.
c
  See Explanatory notes for more detail.
d
  Excludes absconders and out-of-State cases.




108 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 6.4. Adults entering parole, by type of sentence, 1994
                                                      Number of adults entering parole
                                                                                                 Other, un-
Region and jurisdiction                                                                          known, or
                            Total       Discretionarya        Mandatoryb      Reinstatementc     not reported

     U.S. total             411,504        211,805            168,669             15,652            15,378

    Federal                  28,505         26,725              1,780                  0                 0
    State                   382,999        185,080            166,889             15,652            15,378

Northeast                    75,585         71,624               3,893                   68               0
 Connecticut                  1,470          1,450                    0                  20               0
 Maine                            3              3                    0                    0              0
 Massachusettsd               3,872          3,872                    0                    0              0
 New Hampshire                  529            515                    0                   14              0
 New Jersey                  15,365         15,365                    0                    0              0
 New York                    25,493         21,600               3,893                   ...              0
 Pennsylvania                28,052         28,052                    0                    0              0
 Rhode Island                   482            448                  ...                  34               0
 Vermont                        319            319                    0                    0              0

Midwest                      58,903         28,220              25,958              2,776             1,949
 Illinoisd                   21,113             33              19,615                250             1,215
 Indiana                      3,005              0               3,005                 ...                0
 Iowa                         2,265          2,265                   0                   0                0
 Kansas                       4,161          3,501                 213                106               341
 Michigan                     9,009          7,194                   0              1,815                 0
 Minnesota                    2,090              7               1,924                   0              159
 Missouri                     5,692          5,149                 543                    :               0
 Nebraska                       865            865                   0                ...                 0
 North Dakota                   179            179                   0                   0                0
 Ohio                         6,012          5,180                   0                598               234
 South Dakota                   568            561                   0                   7                0
 Wisconsin                    3,944          3,286                 658                   0                0

South                       118,655         76,545              30,767                206           11,137
 Alabamad                     7,292             15                    0                  0           7,277
 Arkansasd                    4,470          3,466                    :                  :           1,004
 Delawared                      409               :                    :                  :            409
 District of Columbia         3,336          2,051                 873                136              276
 Florida                     14,202         12,188               2,014                    :              0
 Georgia                      8,025          8,025                  ...                ...               0
 Kentucky                     4,185          4,147                  ...                38                0
 Louisiana                    9,805          1,727               8,059                 19                0
 Maryland                    10,429          3,981               6,448                   0               0
 Mississippi                    911            898                   0                 13                0
 North Carolina              16,269         15,781                    :                  :             488
 Oklahoma                       939            939                  ...                ...               0
 South Carolina               1,891          1,891                    0                  0               0
 Tennesseed                   2,726          2,726                    :                  :               0
 Texas                       24,088         15,706               8,382                    :              0
 Virginia                     9,021          2,457               4,991                   0           1,573
 West Virginia                  657            547                    0                  0             110

West                        129,856          8,691            106,271             12,602              2,292
 Alaskad                        638             85                469                 84                  0
 Arizona                      5,817          1,708              3,511                293                305
 Californiad                110,307            211             98,079             12,017                  0
 Coloradod                    2,057          1,846                 49                   :               162
 Hawaii                         718            665                  0                  0                 53
 Idaho                             :              :                 0                   :                 0
 Montana                        390              0                  0                  0                390
 Nevadad                      1,823          1,374                318                131                  0
 New Mexico                     871               :                  :                  :               871
 Oregon                       5,175            852              3,843                 77                403
 Utah                         1,651          1,541                  2                  0                108
 Washingtond                    193            193                  0                   :                 0
 Wyoming                        216            216                 ...                ...                 0

:Not known.                                               determinate sentencing statutes, good-time provi-
. . .Not applicable.                                      sions, or emergency releases.
a                                                         c
 Discretionary parole entries are persons entering         Reinstatement entries are persons returned to parole
because of a parole board decision.                       after serving time in a prison because of a parole
b
 Mandatory parole entries are persons whose releases      violation.
                                                          d
from prison were not decided by a parole board.            See Explanatory notes for more detail.
                                                          e
Includes those entering because of                         Detailed data are estimated for entries.




                                                                                                                  Parole in 1994   109
Table 6.5. Adults leaving parole, by type of exit, 1994

                                                              Number of adults leaving parole
                                                           Returned to incarceration
                                                      With                                Transferred             Other,
Region and                            Successful      new        With                     to another              unknown, or
jurisdiction               Total      completion     sentence    revocation       Other   jurisdiction   Death    not reported

   U.S. total              396,971        177,870      40,565       75,886      41,527        8,693      4,121       48,309

 Federal                    22,788         12,340           0        5,424           0        2,497        343        2,184
 State                     374,183        165,530      40,565       70,462      41,527        6,196      3,778       46,125

Northeast                   68,187         39,887       7,331       15,371         255        1,213        978        3,152
 Connecticutb                  270            180           0            0          80            8          2            0
 Maine                           1              0           0            1           0            0          0            0
 Massachusetts               3,709          2,564           :        1,145           0            0          0            0
 New Hampshire                 471            247          67          149           0            5          3            0
 New Jersey                  9,320          4,633         814        3,167           0          583        123            0
 New Yorka                  23,847         10,889       3,663        6,844         ...          ...        549        1,902
 Pennsylvaniaa,b            29,797         20,976       2,655        3,867         163          591        297        1,248
 Rhode Island                  490            342          55           75          12            0          4            2
 Vermont                       282             56          77          123           0           26          0            0

Midwest                     56,124         31,154       7,871        9,381       2,944          389        296        4,089
 Illinoisa                  18,595         12,420       3,870          582          ...         168         18        1,537
 Indiana                     2,609          1,095         613          371         155          160         ...         215
 Iowa                        1,632          1,157         220          205            0          50           0           0
 Kansasa                     5,011            385         374        2,185          26             :        41        2,000
 Michigan                   10,102          5,251         868        1,796       2,072            0        102           13
 Minnesota                   2,020          1,376         135          505            0           0           4           0
 Missourib                   5,364          3,487       1,177          611            0          11         78            0
 Nebraska                      909            536            :         368            0           0          5            0
 North Dakota                  176            141           6           24            0           0          0            5
 Ohioa                       5,829          2,990         608        1,377         691            0         31          132
 South Dakota                  581            401           0          180            0           0          0            0
 Wisconsina                  3,296          1,915           0        1,177           0            0         17          187

South                      123,425         56,807       7,655       39,979       1,373        3,968      1,515       12,128
 Alabamab                    7,283             20           0            0            0            0         0        7,263
 Arkansasa                   3,591          1,749           :        1,126          73           44         31          568
 Delaware                      294               :           :            :            :            :         :         294
 District of Columbia        3,353          1,403         471          554         853           ...        72            0
 Floridaa                   11,452          4,950       2,437        3,360             :        108         20          577
 Georgia                    13,315          8,309       1,420        2,782            0         654        150            0
 Kentucky                    3,980          1,031         126        1,149         ...        1,631         27           16
 Louisianaa                  7,153          3,446       1,979        1,343          ...           0        103          282
 Maryland                    9,492          5,950         841          634         369             4       166        1,528
 Mississippi                 1,208            993           0            0            0            0         0          215
 North Carolinaa            12,526          7,789             :      4,631             :            :      106            0
 Oklahoma                      838            590         162           63            0             :       23            0
 South Carolinaa             1,652            927         176          425           78            0        37            9
 Tennesseea                  3,473          1,228             :      1,462            0         223         52          508
 Texasa,b                   32,162         11,740           0       19,776          ...            :       646            0
 Virginiaa                  10,876          6,326           0        2,563            0       1,278         72          637
 West Virginia                 777            356          43          111            0          26         10          231

West                       126,447         37,682      17,708        5,731      36,955          626        989       26,756
 Alaska                        645            315         101          229           0           ...         0            0
 Arizona                     5,483          3,511         260        1,287           0          420          5            0
 Californiaa               106,068         26,589      15,836          338      36,955             0       820       25,530
 Coloradob                   2,325          1,228         169          761            :         154         13            0
 Hawaii                        596            282          24          287           0              :        3            0
 Idaho                            :           215            :            :           :             :         :           0
 Montana                       458               :           :            :           :            :          :         458
 Nevadaa,b                   1,510          1,125            :         350           0             :        35            0
 New Mexicob                   878            327            :         418            :             :       11          122
 Oregona                     4,598          2,026       1,118        1,118         ...           10         73          253
 Utah                        1,401            334         193          858           0             4         9            3
 Washingtona,b               2,263          1,587           7           49           0             0        20          600
 Wyoming                       222            143          ...          36         ...            38         0            5

:Not available.
. . .Not applicable.
a
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.
b
 Detailed data are estimated for exits.




110 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 6.6. Adults on parole, by sex and Hispanic origin, 1994
                                                         Number of adults on parole
                           Parole                       Sex                         Hispanic origin
                           population                           Not                    Non-        Not
Region and jurisdiction    12/31/94          Male      Female   reported Hispanic      Hispanic reported

   U.S. total                690,159        609,510     66,359    14,290    96,932     401,040    192,187

 Federal                      61,430         53,704      7,716        10          :           :    61,430
 State                       628,729        555,806     58,643    14,280    96,932     401,040    130,757

Northeast                    173,735        156,232     17,503        0     29,328     143,207      1,200
 Connecticuta                  1,200          1,120         80        0           :           :     1,200
 Maine                            40             38          2        0          1          39          0
 Massachusetts                 4,533          4,191        342        0        791       3,742          0
 New Hampshirea,b                835            710        125        0        100         735          0
 New Jersey                   41,820         40,349      1,471        0      7,946      33,874          0
 New York                     53,832         49,322      4,510        0     17,938      35,894          0
 Pennsylvaniaa,b              70,355         59,460     10,895        0      2,482      67,873          0
 Rhode Island                    528            488         40        0         70         458          0
 Vermont                         592            554         38        0          0         592          0

Midwest                        82,442        73,235      6,235     2,972     3,298      58,920     20,224
 Illinoisa,b                   26,695        24,956      1,739         0     2,040      24,655          0
 Indiana                        3,296         3,051        245         0          :           :     3,296
 Iowa                           2,972              :          :    2,972          :           :     2,972
 Kansasb,c                      6,291         5,786        505         0       352       5,939          0
 Michigan                      12,922        11,826      1,096         0       216      12,706          0
 Minnesota                      1,904         1,774        130         0        89       1,815          0
 Missouri                      12,592        11,437      1,155         0          :           :    12,592
 Nebraska                         771           677         94         0        66         705          0
 North Dakota                      93            88          5         0         4          89          0
 Ohioa,b                        7,180         6,533        647         0       140       7,040          0
 South Dakotab                    661           599         62         0         7         654          0
 Wisconsin                      7,065         6,508        557         0       384       5,317      1,364

South                        253,067        217,155     24,604    11,308    26,754     120,169    106,144
 Alabamaa,b                    6,760             12          5     6,743          :           :     6,760
 Arkansas                      4,915          4,405        510         0        15       4,900          0
 Delawarea,b                   1,029            949         80         0        43         986          0
 District of Columbia          6,574          6,114        460         0          :           :     6,574
 Florida                      19,089         17,088      2,001         0       933      18,156          0
 Georgiaa                     17,505         16,028      1,477         0          :           :    17,505
 Kentucky                      4,380               :          :    4,380          :           :     4,380
 Louisiana                    17,112         15,814      1,298         0          :           :    17,112
 Maryland                     14,795         13,699      1,096         0          :           :    14,795
 Mississippi                   1,517          1,365        152         0          :           :     1,517
 North Carolina               21,027         19,206      1,821         0          :           :    21,027
 Oklahoma                      2,604          2,173        431         0        85       2,519          0
 South Carolina                6,029          5,417        612         0          :           :     6,029
 Tennessee                    10,260          9,339        921         0          :           :    10,260
 Texasa,b                    108,563         95,999     12,564         0    25,589      82,974          0
 Virginiaa                     9,649          8,539      1,110         0        55       9,594          0
 West Virginia                 1,259          1,008         66       185        34       1,040        185

West                         119,485        109,184     10,301        0     37,552      78,744      3,189
 Alaska                          678            657         21        0         19         659          0
 Arizona                       4,351          4,003        348        0      1,305       3,046          0
 Californiac                  85,084         77,861      7,223        0     32,373      52,711          0
 Coloradob                     2,463          2,214        249        0        586       1,877          0
 Hawaii                        1,663          1,532        131        0           :           :     1,663
 Idaho                           862            776         86        0        138         724          0
 Montana                         636            574         62        0          0           0        636
 Nevada*                       3,529          3,211        318        0        106       3,423          0
 New Mexicoa,b                 1,505          1,355        150        0        823         682          0
 Oregon                       14,264         12,826      1,438        0      1,662      12,602          0
 Utah                          2,438          2,247        191        0        421       2,017          0
 Washingtona,b                 1,650          1,584         66        0         83         677        890
 Wyoming                         362            344         18        0         36         326          0

:Not available.
a
  Detailed data are estimated for sex.
b
  Detailed data are estimated for Hispanic origin.
c
  See Explanatory notes for more detail.




                                                                                                            Parole in 1994   111
Table 6.7. Adults on parole, by race, 1994
                                                         Number of adults on parole
                        Parole                              American          Asian/    Other, un-
Region and              population                          Indian/           Pacific   known, or
jurisdiction            12/31/94          White      Black  Alaska Native Islander      not reported
     U.S. total          690,159          333,517    293,861     3,676        3,105       56,000

    Federal               61,430           39,471     16,582       786          872        3,719
    State                628,729          294,046    277,279     2,890        2,233       52,281

Northeast                173,735           70,492     78,910       117          869       23,347
 Connecticut               1,200                 :         :          :           :        1,200
 Maine                        40               40          0         0            0            0
 Massachusetts             4,533            2,655      1,041         6           31          800
 New Hampshirea              835              757         75         0            3            0
 New Jersey               41,820           16,728     25,092         0            0            0
 New Yorkb                53,832            8,440     26,750       101          187       18,354
 Pennsylvaniaa            70,355           40,872     25,834         9          647        2,993
 Rhode Island                528              408        118         1            1            0
 Vermont                     592              592          0         0            0            0

Midwest                   82,442           32,182     40,239       640          248        9,133
 Illinoisa                26,695            6,394     18,181        35           34        2,051
 Indiana                   3,296                 :          :         :            :       3,296
 Iowa                      2,972                 :          :         :            :       2,972
 Kansasb                   6,291            3,900      2,188        86           33           84
 Michigan                 12,922            5,502      7,343        42            4           31
 Minnesotab                1,904            1,061        582       153            0          108
 Missouria                12,592            7,665      4,884        16            7           20
 Nebraska                    771              501        251        19            0            0
 North Dakota                 93               79          2        12            0            0
 Ohioa                     7,180            3,087      3,805         4          144          140
 South Dakota                661              527         25       109            0            0
 Wisconsin                 7,065            3,466      2,978       164           26          431

South                    253,067          111,319    128,314       628          106       12,700
 Alabamaa                  6,760                8          9         0            0        6,743
 Arkansasb                 4,915            2,001      2,422         4            1          487
 Delawarea                 1,029              427        554         0            0           48
 District of Columbia      6,574              131      6,377          :            :          66
 Floridab                 19,089            8,079     10,711         7            2          290
 Georgiaa                 17,505            6,055     11,450          :            :           0
 Kentucky                  4,380                 :          :         :            :       4,380
 Louisiana                17,112            4,722     12,341         2            6           41
 Maryland                 14,795            3,733     11,022         3            9           28
 Mississippib              1,517              534        977          :            :           6
 North Carolina           21,027            7,140     13,205       469           17          196
 Oklahomab                 2,604            1,584        799       117            2          102
 South Carolinab           6,029            1,968      4,020          :            :          41
 Tennessee                10,260            4,550      5,710          :            :           0
 Texasa                  108,563           65,873     42,586        22           52           30
 Virginiab                 9,649            3,610      5,962         3           17           57
 West Virginia             1,259              904        169         1            0          185

West                     119,485           80,053     29,816     1,505        1,010        7,101
 Alaska                      678              401         79       182           16            0
 Arizona                   4,351            3,481        609       174            0           87
 Californiaa,b            85,084           56,260     24,997       502          827        2,498
 Colorado                  2,463            1,286        522        32            7          616
 Hawaii                    1,663                 :          :         :            :       1,663
 Idahoa                      862              819         13        26            4            0
 Montanab                    636              564          0         0            0           72
 Nevadaa                   3,529            2,047      1,030        53           13          386
 New Mexicoa               1,505            1,262        164        67             :          12
 Oregon                   14,264           10,322      1,864       292           97        1,689
 Utah                      2,438            2,116        208        77           34            3
 Washingtona,b             1,650            1,172        314        83           12           69
 Wyoming                     362              323         16        17            0            6

:Not available.
a
 Detailed data are estimated for race.
b
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.




112 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 6.8. Adults on parole, by sentence length, 1994

                                       Number of adults on parole
                                                 Length of sentence
                          Parole
                          population    One year     More than    Not
Region and jurisdiction   12/31/94      or less      one year     reported

   U.S. total              690,159       27,280        535,336        127,543

 Federal                    61,430       12,791         48,639              0
 State                     628,729       14,489        486,697        127,543

Northeast                  173,735         2,472       100,908         70,355
 Connecticuta                1,200              0        1,200              0
 Maine                          40              0           40              0
 Massachusetts               4,533           450         4,083              0
 New Hampshire                 835              0          835              0
 New Jersey                 41,820         1,384        40,436              0
 New York                   53,832            ...       53,832              0
 Pennsylvania               70,355               :            :        70,355
 Rhode Island                  528             46          482              0
 Vermont                       592           592             0              0

Midwest                     82,442             46       68,948         13,448
 Illinoisb                  26,695            ...       26,695              0
 Indiana                     3,296            ...             :         3,296
 Iowa                        2,972            ...           ...         2,972
 Kansasb                     6,291              0        6,291              0
 Michigan                   12,922              0       12,922              0
 Minnesota                   1,904              0        1,904              0
 Missouria                  12,592              0       12,592              0
 Nebraska                      771              0          771              0
 North Dakota                   93             46           47              0
 Ohio                        7,180               :            :         7,180
 South Dakota                  661              0          661              0
 Wisconsin                   7,065              0        7,065              0

South                      253,067         6,384       203,579         43,104
 Alabamaa                    6,760            17             0          6,743
 Arkansas                    4,915            59         4,856              0
 Delaware                    1,029              :             :         1,029
 District of Columbia        6,574              :             :         6,574
 Florida                    19,089         3,228        15,861              0
 Georgiaa                   17,505           394        17,111              0
 Kentucky                    4,380           ...         4,380              0
 Louisiana                  17,112         2,051        15,061              0
 Maryland                   14,795           632        14,163              0
 Mississippi                 1,517              :             :         1,517
 North Carolina             21,027              :             :        21,027
 Oklahoma                    2,604             0         2,604              0
 South Carolina              6,029              :             :         6,029
 Tennessee                  10,260             0        10,260              0
 Texasa                    108,563             0       108,563              0
 Virginia                    9,649             0         9,649              0
 West Virginia               1,259             3         1,071            185

West                       119,485         5,587       113,262           636
 Alaska                        678              0          678             0
 Arizona                     4,351         2,524         1,827             0
 California                 85,084              0       85,084             0
 Colorado                    2,463              :        2,463             0
 Hawaii                      1,663              0        1,663             0
 Idaho                         862             0           862             0
 Montana                       636              0            0           636
 Nevadaa                     3,529            29         3,500             0
 New Mexicoa                 1,505              0        1,505             0
 Oregon                     14,264         3,027        11,237             0
 Utah                        2,438              7        2,431             0
 Washingtona                 1,650              0        1,650             0
 Wyoming                       362            ...          362             0

:Not known.
. . .Not applicable.
a
 Detailed data are estimated for sentence length.
b
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.




                                                                                Parole in 1994   113
Table 6.9. Adults on parole under intensive supervision, being
electronically monitored, or in a bootcamp, 1994

                                      Number of adults on parole
                             Intensive         Electronic
Region and jurisdiction      supervision       monitoring   Bootcamp

   U.S. total                 22,941             5,681         925

 Federal                           0             2,343          ...
 State                        22,941             3,338         925

Northeast                       8,008              157           0
 Connecticutb                      ...              50         ...
 Maine                             ...              ...        ...
 Massachusetts                      61              ...        ...
 New Hampshire                    105                6         ...
 New Jersey                       410               ...        ...
 New York                          ...              51         ...
 Pennsylvania                   7,432                 :        ...
 Rhode Island                      ...              50         ...
 Vermont                           ...              ...        ...

Midwest                         4,237            1,184           0
 Illinois                         434              402         ...
 Indiana                           ...              ...        ...
 Iowa                             364                40        ...
 Kansas                            ...              ...        ...
 Michigan                             :            183         ...
 Minnesotab                       268                50        ...
 Missourib                      2,187              359         ...
 Nebraska                         110               ...        ...
 North Dakota                         :                :          :
 Ohio                              ...              ...        ...
 South Dakota                       74              ...        ...
 Wisconsin                        800              150         ...

South                           9,050            1,055         652
 Alabamab                           17                0           0
 Arkansasb                        250               ...         ...
 Delawarea,b                      215               ...         ...
 District of Columbia             316               ...        ...
 Florida                           39               26          ...
 Georgiab                         225              100          ...
 Kentucky                         422               ...         ...
 Louisiana                        189               ...         ...
 Marylandb                        593                63        651
 Mississippia                      ...              ...        ...
 North Carolina                   598              288          ...
 Oklahoma                          60              ...         ...
 South Carolina                   765                79         ...
 Tennessee                        376              ...         ...
 Texasa,b                       4,127              463          ...
 Virginia                         858                36         ...
 West Virginia                     ...              ...         ...

West                            1,646              942         273
 Alaska                            27              ...         ...
 Arizona                             :             288          ...
 Californiab                         :             149         273
 Coloradoa                        300                  :        ...
 Hawaii                            70               12            0
 Idaho                             37               ...         ...
 Montana                          102                48         ...
 Nevadab                          171                62         ...
 New Mexicob                      131                36         ...
 Oregona                          415              343          ...
 Utah                             381                 :         ...
 Washington                        ...              ...         ...
 Wyoming                           11                 4         ...

:Not available.
. . .Not applicable.
a
 See Explanatory notes for more detail.
b
 Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision,
electronic monitoring, and bootcamps.




114 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Explanatory notes by jurisdiction               "Other" exits includes detainer, out-of-      Colorado
                                                State parole termination, absconder, and
Because many States update their popula-        incarcerated out-of-State.                    Total entries and total exits are estimated
tion counts, the January 1, 1994, numbers                                                     (table 6.2).
may differ from those previously published      "Other" races includes Mexicans,
for December 31, 1993.                          Cubans, Europeans, Australians,               "Active" cases include interstate compact
                                                and other non-Americans of                    cases into Colorado (table 6.3).
Federal                                         unknown race.
                                                                                              "Other" entries are estimated and include
Reinstatements and those persons initially      California                                    interstate compact from other States.
inactive are excluded for totals to be cor-
rect (table 6.4).                               Data are reported by the Department of        Data for "transferred to another parole ju-
                                                Corrections and the California Youth          risdiction" are estimated (table 6.5).
"Other" exits include administrative            Authority.
closings.                                                                                     Detailed data are estimated for sex, His-
                                                Felons supervised in California are in-       panic origin, and race.
Data for "electronic monitoring" repre-         cluded in January 1 count, entries, exits,
sented approximately 70% electronic             December 31 count, sex, Hispanic origin,      "Electronic monitoring" is included with
monitoring; the remainder are non-              and race.                                     "intensive supervision."
electronically monitored home
confinement.                                    California felon inmates paroled to another   Connecticut
                                                State through interstate compact agree-
Alabama                                         ments are not included in entries, exits,     Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic
                                                sex, Hispanic origin, and race.               origin and race.
Data are reported by the State and Bir-
mingham City Parole Department.                 The total number of supervision status ex-    Delaware
                                                cludes 15,012 absconders and 2,392 out-
All data are estimated.                         of-State cases because they are not in-       Detailed data are not provided for entries,
                                                cluded in December 31 count (table 6.2).      exits, and sentence length.
Detailed data are not provided for entries,
exits, sex, Hispanic origin, race, "intensive   "Other" exits include suspensions and         December 31 count includes all Delaware
supervision," and electronic monitoring.        other releases.                               parolees because there are no local jails
                                                                                              (table 6.2).
Arizona                                         "Returned to incarceration  with revoca-
                                                tion" is included with "returned to incar-    "Electronic monitoring" is operated by an
"Other" entries include cases from              ceration  other" (table 6.5).                outside agency.
out-of-State.
                                                "Other" races include any person who
                                                                                              District of Columbia
Arkansas                                        could not be specifically classified.
                                                Detailed data are estimated for supervision
                                                                                              Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic
January 1 population count is estimated         status, Hispanic origin, race, and "elec-
                                                                                              origin and sentence length.
(table 6.2).                                    tronic monitoring."
                                                                                              "Other" entries include parole/reparole
"Active" supervision status cases are           "Other" exits include "discharges-court
                                                                                              grants, administrative status, consecutive
estimated.                                      action pending," absent without leave
                                                                                              sentences, and detainers.
                                                at discharge, and end of jurisdiction.
"Intensive supervision" cases are esti-
mated (table 6.9).                              "Other" races include an unknown number
                                                of Filipinos and other unspecified.
"Other" entries include return from out-of-
State, transfers, reactivated from detainer,
absconders, and custody out-of-State and
in-State.



                                                                                                                      Parole in 1994 115
Florida                                       Idaho
                                                                                             "Returned to incarceration-with revocation"
All data include cases that serve time in     Detailed data are not provided for entries.    includes condition violators and "returned
community supervision (Parole, MCR,                                                          to incarceration-other" includes release to
Conditional Pardon, Community Control,        "Successful completion" is estimated (table    detainer-new sentence (table 6.5).
Supervised Community Release, Provi-          6.5).
sional Release, Conditional Release,                                                         Detailed data are estimated for Hispanic
Control Release, Administrative Control       Detailed data are estimated for sex, His-      origin.
Release, and Conditional Medical              panic origin, and race.
Release).                                     Illinois                                       Kentucky

"Other" exits include pardons.                Detailed data are estimated for sex, His-      Detailed data are not provided for sex, His-
                                              panic origin, and race.                        panic origin, and race.
"Other" race include Latins of unknown
race and other unspecified.                   "Other" entries include transfers from other   Louisiana
                                              States and other unspecified cases.
Georgia                                       "Other" exits include transfers to the Ap-     Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic
                                              prehension Unit and other unspecified          origin.
Detailed data are not provied for Hispanic    cases.
origin.                                                                                      "Other" exits include error, revocations by
                                              "More than a year" includes cases with
                                                                                             a non-Department of Corrections authority,
Detailed data are estimated for sex, race,    sentence of "one year or more" (table 6.8).
sentence length, "intensive supervision,"                                                    and remands to the custody of INS.
and "electronic monitoring."                  Indiana
                                                                                             Maine
Because of accounting procedures and          Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic
record keeping, the January 1 count, plus     origin, race, and sentence length.             Maine abolished parole in 1976. The data
entries, minus exits, does not equal                                                         reported represent offenders convicted
December 31 count (table 6.2)                                                                prior to 1976.
                                              Iowa

Hawaii                                                                                       Supervision status excludes 15
                                              Detailed data are estimated for sex, His-
                                                                                             absconders.
                                              panic origin, race, and sentence length.
Data are for calendar year ending June
1994.                                                                                        Maryland
                                              Kansas
Detailed data are not provided                                                               Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic
for Hispanic orgin and race.                  The following counts exclude 573 abscon-       origin.
                                              ders: January 1, December 31, supervi-
"Other" entries include cases from the        sion status, sex, Hispanic origin, race, and   Detailed data are estimated for "intensive
mainland.                                     sentence length.                               supervision" and "bootcamp."

"Other" supervision status includes cases     December 31 count includes 4,239 in-           "Other" supervision status includes
in institutions (Federal or State) awaiting   State cases, and 2,052 out-of-State cases      delinquents in custody.
sentence or in Federal institutions serving   (table 6.2).
a sentence.                                                                                  Massachusetts
                                              "Other" entries include release from pre-
                                              revocation and administrative holding con-     Detailed data are estimated for entries,
                                              finement, and previous absconders placed       December 31 count, and "intensive
                                              in jail.                                       supervision."
                                              "Other" exits include absconders,              "Other" races include Hispanics of un-
                                              expiration of sentence, pre-revocation con-    known race and other unknown.
                                              finement, confinement for administrative
                                              holding, and others involving Kansas of-
                                              fenders who are out-of-State.


116 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Minnesota                                      Nebraska                                      North Carolina

Detailed data are estimated for "electronic    Detailed data for sex, Hispanic origin,       Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic
monitoring."                                   and race are estimated.                       origin and sentence length.

Some of the "active" count includes "inac-     Nevada                                        "Other" entries include an adjustment
tive" cases (table 6.3).                                                                     residual.
                                               "Active" and "absconder" status
"Other" entries include released to            cases are estimated (table 6.3).              North Dakota
intensive community supervision program.
                                               Detailed data are estimated for sex, His-     Detailed data are not provided for "inten-
"Other" races include Hispanics of             panic origin, race, and sentence length.      sive supervision" and "electronic
unknown race, other unspecified,                                                             monitoring."
and unknown.                                   Detailed data are estimated for "intensive
                                               supervision" and "electronic monitoring."     North Dakota does not keep daily records
Mississippi                                                                                  of "absconders; data are collected at the
                                               "Returned to incarceration  with revoca-     termination of sentence (table 6.3).
                                               tion" includes "returned to incarceration 
Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic
                                               with new sentence" (table 6.5).               "Other" exits include absconders and mis-
origin, and sentence length.
                                                                                             cellaneous exits.
                                               "Successful completion" is estimated
"Other" entries are due to an information
                                               (table 6.5).                                  Ohio
lag.

"Other" exits include a combination of "re-    New Hampshire                                 Detailed data are estimated for sex,
turned to incarceration  with new sen-                                                      Hispanic origin, and race.
tence" and "Returned to incarceration         Detailed data are estimated for sex,
with revocation."                              Hispanic origin, and race.                    Detailed data are not provided for sen-
                                                                                             tence length and supervision status.
"Other" races include a combined estimate      New Mexico
of and Asian Hispanics of unknown race.                                                      "Other" entries include out-of-State
                                               All data are estimated.                       placement.
Programs for "electronic monitoring and
"bootcamp" exist but only for offenders        Because of accounting procedures              "Other" exits include status changed to
with an "inmate" status.                       and record keeping, January 1 count, plus     inactive.
                                               entries, minus exits, does not equal
                                               December 31 count (table 6.2).                Oklahoma
Missouri

All data are estimated.                        New York                                      "Other" races include Hispanics of un-
                                                                                             known race and unknown.
Detailed data are not provided for             "Other" exits include board action
Hispanic origin.                               and court orders.                             Oregon

Montana                                        "Other" races include Hispanics of            "Other" entries include transitional leave.
                                               unknown race and other unspecified.
Detailed data are not provided for entries,                                                  "Other" exits include cases unknown at the
exits, Hispanic origin, and sentence length.                                                 time of data collection.

"Other" races include a combination                                                          "Intensive supervision" and "electronic
of all races other than white.                                                               monitoring" includes probation and parole
                                                                                             cases.




                                                                                                                     Parole in 1994 117
Pennsylvania                                  South Dakota                                    Virginia

Detailed data are estimated for exits, sex,   Detailed data are estimated for Hispanic        Detailed data are estimated for sex.
Hispanic origin, and race.                    origin.
                                                                                              "Other" entries include restored to
Detailed data are not provided for sen-       Tennessee                                       supervision, transferred from other
tence length.                                                                                 district, transfer from other State,
                                              "Other" supervisory status includes             returned from other States.
"Other" supervisory status includes           detainer cases.
detainees.                                                                                    "Other" exits include out-of-State cases,
                                              "Other" exits include expired sentence.         termination, miscellaneous,
"Other" exits include absconders, trans-                                                      administrative, and others.
fers, and unknown.                            "Intensive supervision" is "enhanced su-
                                              pervision" (table 6.9).                         "Other" races include Hispanic of unknown
Rhode Island                                                                                  race and other unspecified.
                                              Texas
"Other" supervisory status includes INS                                                       Washington
detainees, persons in Federal detention or    All data are estimated.
witness program, and persons under State                                                      All data are estimated.
detention warrants.                           "Successful completion" includes dis-
                                              charged cases (table 6.5).                      "Other" exits include out-of-State.
"Reinstatement of parole" includes re-
parole after revocation, (table 6.4).         "Returned to incarceration  with revoca-       "Other" races include offenders of mixed
                                              tion" includes all revocations for year in-     race.
"Returned to incarceration  other" in-       cluding those with new convictions and
cludes "persons who are held on detention     those with no new convictions (table 6.5).      Wisconsin
warrants by the parole board to serve the
balance of the parole time expired while      "Electronic monitoring" cases are               Because of missing data, January 1 count,
held on that warrant" (table 6.5).            included in the total "intensive supervision"   plus entries, minus exits, does not equal
                                              cases.                                          December 31 count
"Other" exits includes absconders.                                                            (table 6.2).
                                              Utah
South Carolina                                                                                "Other" supervision status includes
                                              "Other" entries include parole to custody.      vacating order issued and violation
Detailed data are not provided for Hispanic                                                   warrant issued.
origin and sentence length.                   "Not of Hispanic origin" includes
                                              unknown (table 6.6).                            "Other" exits include voluntary/invol-
"Other" supervision status includes                                                           untary return, revised and remanded,
supervised by INS.                                                                            and errors.

"Other" exits include pardon and medical.                                                     Wyoming

"Other" races include an unknown combi-                                                       "Other" supervisory status include compact
nation of all races other than black or                                                       cases supervised for another State.
white.




118 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
                                           Capital punishment in 1994


Tables

7.1      Summary characteristics           Prisoners removed from death row,
         of all prisoners present          by race, 1994
         at yearend, received from
         court, and removed from         7.16     Status of prisoners          156
         death row, 1994             124 7.17     Means of removal
                                                  from death row               157
Prisoners under sentence of death,         7.18   Time between sentencing
by race, 1994                                     and yearend                  158
                                         7.19     Age                          159
7.2      Movement of all prisoners   125 7.20     Level of education
7.3      Movement of female                       completed                    162
         prisoners                   125   7.21   Marital status at time
7.4      Movement of Hispanic                     of imprisonment              164
         prisoners                   127   7.22   Legal status at time
7.5      Time between sentencing                  of capital offense           166
         and yearend                 128   7.23   Felony history               168
7.6      Age                         131
7.7      Level of education                Current statutes
         completed                   134   7.24   Status of death penalty,
7.8      Marital status at time                   by jurisdiction, 1994        170
         of imprisonment             137
7.9      Legal status at time           Prisoners executed under civil
         of capital offense         140 authority in the United States, 1930-94
7.10     Felony history             143
                                        7.25   Year, region,
                                               and jurisdiction               171
Prisoners received from court under     7.26   Race and offense               172
sentence of death, by race, 1994
7.11   Age                          146 Explanatory notes                     173
7.12   Level of education
       completed                    148 Questionnaires                        174
7.13   Marital status at time
       of imprisonment              150
7.14   Legal status at time
       of capital offense           152
7.15   Felony history               154




                                                    Capital punishment in 1994 123
Table 7.1. Summary characteristics of all prisoners present at yearend, received
from court, and removed from death row, 1994

                                                 Prisoners on death row
                                                                      Sentence of death
                                                                      removed in 1994
                                                                                 By means
                           Present at      Received from                         other than
Characteristic             yearend 1994    court in 1994       Executed          executiona

     U.S. total               2,890              306               31                 112

Sex
 Male                         2,849              301               31                 112
 Female                          41                5                0                   0

Race
 White                        1,645              162               20                  72
 Black                        1,197              136               11                  39
 Otherb                          48                8                0                   1

Hispanic origin
 Hispanic                       224               25                1                   9
 Non-Hispanic                 2,429              218               28                  93
 Not known                      237               63                2                  10

Education
 8th grade or less             384                43                6                  23
 9th to 11th grade             930                87               10                  35
 12th grade                    939                91               11                  29
 Any college                   255                27                4                  14
 Not reported                  382                58                0                  11

Felony history
 Prior conviction, total     1,810               167               24                  77
   Homicide                    242                16                1                  12
   Other offenses            1,460               145               22                  54
   Offense not reported        108                 6                1                  11
 No prior conviction           889               101                7                  30
 Not reported                  191                38                0                   5

Age
 Under 20 years                 19                17                0                   1
 20-24 years                   231                80                0                   7
 25-29 years                   434                62                1                  17
 30-34 years                   654                66                7                  18
 35-39 years                   627                27                9                  17
 40-54 years                   822                51               14                  42
 55 years or older             103                 3                0                  10

    Median age                  35                29               39                  38
a
 Includes deceased from causes other than execution,        "Other" race admitted includes 2 American Indians, 1
commutation of sentence, sentence vacated, and conviction   Asian, and 5 inmates of unspecified race. One Ameri-
vacated.                                                    can Indian had his death sentence removed in 1994.
b
  "Other" race present at yearend includes 23 American
Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.




124 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.2. Movement of all prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1994

                                                                       Prisoners under sentence of death
                      Under death                      Received from               Executed            Death sentence                   Under death
Region                sentence 12/31/93                court in 1994               in 1994             removed in 1994a                 sentence 12/31/94
and State         Total White Black Other         Total White Black Otherb Total White Black       Total White Black Otherb         Total White Black Otherb

     U.S. total    2,727 1,575 1,111      41        306     162    136     8      31     20     11     112       72   39      1     2,890 1,645 1,197       48

  Federal              6     3     3       0          0       0      0     0       0      0      0       0        0    0      0         6     3     3        0
  State            2,721 1,572 1,108      41        306     162    136     8      31     20     11     112       72   39      1     2,884 1,642 1,194       48

Northeast            180      68   107     5         24        7    15     2       0       0     0      9        3     6      0       195      72   116      7
 Connecticut           5       3     2     0          0        0     0     0       0       0     0      1        1     0      0         4       2     2      0
 New Jersey            7       4     3     0          3        0     3     0       0       0     0      1        0     1      0         9       4     5      0
 Pennsylvania        168      61   102     5         21        7    12     2       0       0     0      7        2     5      0       182      66   109      7

Midwest              420     207   211     2         36       19    17     0       3       1      2     11       8     3      0       442     217   223      2
 Illinois            151      57    94     0         11        5     6     0       1       1      0      6       4     2      0       155      57    98      0
 Indiana              47      31    16     0          2        1     1     0       1       0      1      1       1     0      0        47      31    16      0
 Missouri             80      47    33     0          9        5     4     0       0       0      0      1       1     0      0        88      51    37      0
 Nebraska             11       7     3     1          1        1     0     0       1       0      1      1       1     0      0        10       7     2      1
  Ohioc              129      63    65     1         13        7     6     0       0       0      0      2       1     1      0       140      69    70      1
  South Dakota         2       2     0     0          0        0     0     0       0       0      0      0       0     0      0         2       2     0      0

South            1,510       880   610    20        197     105     89     3      26     17      9     71        46   24      1     1,610     922   666     22
 Alabama           120        64    54     2         24      13     11     0       0      0      0      9         3    6      0       135      74    59      2
 Arkansas           33        20    13     0          8       5      3     0       5      4      1      0         0    0      0        36      21    15      0
 Delaware           15         7     8     0          0       0      0     0       1      0      1      0         0    0      0        14       7     7      0
 Florida           325       208   117     0         39      23     16     0       1      1      0     21        16    5      0       342     214   128      0
 Georgia            94        46    48     0          8       8      0     0       1      0      1      5         1    4      0        96      53    43      0
 Kentucky           29        22     7     0          4       4      0     0       0      0      0      4         3    1      0        29      23     6      0
 Louisiana          43        14    29     0          6       3      3     0       0      0      0      2         1    1      0        47      16    31      0
 Maryland           14         3    11     0          0       0      0     0       1      1      0      0         0    0      0        13       2    11      0
 Mississippi        50        20    30     0          5       2      3     0       0      0      0      5         2    3      0        50      20    30      0
 North Carolinad    99        55    42     2         27      11     15     1       1      1      0     14        10    3      1       111      55    54      2
 Oklahoma          122        80    33     9         12        4     7     1       0      0      0      5        5     0      0       129      79    40     10
 South Carolina     52        28    24     0          7        3     4     0       0      0      0      0        0     0      0        59      31    28      0
 Tennessee          99        67    30     2          4        2     2     0       0      0      0      3        3     0      0       100      66    32      2
 Texas             366       221   140     5         43       25    17     1      14     10      4      1        1     0      0       394     235   153      6
 Virginia           49        25    24     0         10        2     8     0       2      0      2      2        1     1      0        55      26    29      0

West                 611     417   180    14         49       31    15     3       2       2     0      21       15    6      0       637     431   189     17
 Arizona             117     100    14     3         10        5     2     3       0       0     0       6        5    1      0       121     100    15      6
 California          363     217   138     8         22       11    11     0       0       0     0       4        2    2      0       381     226   147      8
 Colorado              3       3     0     0          0        0     0     0       0       0     0       0        0    0      0         3       3     0      0
 Idaho                21      21     0     0          0        0     0     0       1       1     0       1        1    0      0        19      19     0      0
 Montana               8       6     0     2          0        0     0     0       0       0     0       0        0    0      0         8       6     0      2
 Nevada               64      41    23     0          8        7     1     0       0       0     0       6        3    3      0        66      45    21      0
 New Mexico            1       1     0     0          1        1     0     0       0       0     0       0        0    0      0         2       2     0      0
 Oregon               13      12     0     1          6        5     1     0       0       0     0       2        2    0      0        17      15     1      1
 Utah                 11       9     2     0          0        0     0     0       0       0     0       1        1    0      0        10       8     2      0
 Washington           10       7     3     0          2        2     0     0       1       1     0       1        1    0      0        10       7     3      0

                                                                                                             c
Note: The following States with death penalty             Carolina had his sentence overturned by             A black male in Ohio was sentenced to death in
statutes reported no prisoners under sentence             an appellate court and was awaiting resen-         March 1994 and removed from under sentence of
of death in 1994: New Hampshire and                       tencing.                                           death in June 1994. This inmate is included in both
                                                          b
Wyoming.                                                    Two American Indians, 1 Asian, and 5 in-         the admission and removal counts of inmates.
a                                                                                                            d
 Dispositions of death sentences other than by            mates of unspecified race were received             A white male in North Carolina was removed from
execution included dismissal of indictment, re-           from court; 1 American Indian had his              death row in January 1994 and resentenced to death
versal of judgment, commutation, re-                      death sentence removed; 23 American In-            in April 1994. This inmate is included in both the ad-
sentencing, order of a new trial, and death.              dians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of                 mission and removal counts of inmates.
One American Indian prisoner in North                     unspecified race were under a sentence
                                                          of death at yearend.




                                                                                                                                     Capital punishment in 1994 125
Table 7.3. Movement of female prisoners under sentence of death,
by race, 1994

                                   Female prisoners under sentence of death
                     Under death               Received from           Under death
                     sentence12/31/93          court in 1994a          sentence 12/31/94
Region and State    Total White Black      Total White Black         Total White Black

     U.S. totalb     36      25      11          5       2     3        41      27      14

  Federal             0       0       0          0       0     0         0       0       0
  State              36      25      11          5       2     3        41      27      14

 Northeast            3       1       2          1       0     1          4      1       3
  Pennsylvania        3       1       2          1       0     1          4      1       3

 Midwest              6       4       2          1       0     1          7      4       3
  Illinois            4       2       2          1       0     1          5      2       3
  Missouri            2       2       0          0       0     0          2      2       0

 South               20      15       5          1       1     0        21      16       5
  Alabama             4       2       2          1       1     0         5       3       2
  Florida             4       3       1          0       0     0         4       3       1
  Mississippi         1       1       0          0       0     0         1       1       0
  North Carolina      2       2       0          0       0     0         2       2       0
  Oklahoma            4       3       1          0       0     0         4       3       1
  Tennessee           1       1       0          0       0     0         1       1       0
  Texas               4       3       1          0       0     0         4       3       1

 West                 7       5       2          2       1     1          9      6       3
  Arizona             1       1       0          0       0     0          1      1       0
  California          4       3       1          2       1     1          6      4       2
  Idaho               1       1       0          0       0     0          1      1       0
  Nevada              1       0       1          0       0     0          1      0       1

                                                         a
Note: The following States with death penalty statutes    All women received from court with a
reported no women under sentence of death in 1994:       death sentence in 1994 had been con-
Connecticut, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Nebraska,        victed of murder.
                                                         b
South Dakota, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Ken-           No women under sentence of death
tucky, Louisiana, Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia,    were executed or removed from death
Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,             row during 1994.
Washington, and Wyoming.




126 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.4. Movement of Hispanic prisoners under sentence of death, 1993

                                         Hispanic prisoners under sentence of death
                    Under death      Received                          Death sentence      Under death
                    sentence         from court        Executed        removed             sentence
Region and State    12/31/93         in 1994           in 1994         in 1994*            12/31/94

     U.S. total        209               25               1                    9              224

  Federal                0                0               0                    0                0
  State                209               25               1                    9              224

Northeast                 8                4              0                    0               12
 New Jersey               1                0              0                    0                1
 Pennsylvania             7                4              0                    0               11

Midwest                 16                 0              0                    1               15
 Illinois                9                 0              0                    1                8
 Indiana                 2                 0              0                    0                2
 Ohio                    5                 0              0                    0                5

South                  100               15               1                    7              107
 Arkansas                1                0               0                    0                1
 Florida                31                5               0                    4               32
 Georgia                 1                0               0                    0                1
 Mississippi             1                0               0                    0                1
 North Carolina          2                0               0                    2                0
 Oklahoma                6                0               0                    0                6
 Tennessee               1                0               0                    0                1
 Texas                  55               10               1                    1               63
 Virginia                2                0               0                    0                2

West                    85                 6              0                    1               90
 Arizona                20                 1              0                    1               20
 California             52                 3              0                    0               55
 Colorado                1                 0              0                    0                1
 Idaho                   2                 0              0                    0                2
 Nevada                  7                 1              0                    0                8
 New Mexico              0                 1              0                    0                1
 Oregon                  1                 0              0                    0                1
 Utah                    2                 0              0                    0                2

Note: Hispanic prisoners may be of any race. States    *Dispositions of death sentences other than by execution
that do not appear had no Hispanic prisoners under a   included dismissal of indictment, reversal of judgment,
death sentence in 1994.                                commutation, resentencing, and order of a new trial.




                                                                                                                  Capital punishment in 1994 127
Table 7.5. Time between sentencing and the yearend for prisoners
under sentence of death, by race, 1994

                                             Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                     Less than   12-23     24-35    36-47     48-71      More than   Median num-
and State          Total   12 months   months months months months 71 months               ber of months

All prisoners
      U.S. total   2,890      280       267      248       240       379        1,476           73

   Federal             6        0         5        0         1         0            0           18
   State           2,884      280       262      248       239       379        1,476           73

Northeast            195       22        18        16        21       25           93           67
 Connecticut           4        0         1         0         2        1            0            *
 New Jersey            9        1         2         0         1        3            2           48
 Pennsylvania        182       21        15        16        18       21           91           72

Midwest              442       33        30        40        34       51          254           80
 Illinois            155       11        11        14         6       24           89           81
 Indiana              47        2         2         3         3        3           34           97
 Missouri             88        7         6         6        12        6           51           76
 Nebraska             10        1         0         0         0        0            9          159
 Ohio                140       12        10        16        13       18           71           73
 South Dakota          2        0         1         1         0        0            0            *

South              1,610      179       158      136       137       201          799           70
 Alabama             135       21         8       10         5        23           68           73
 Arkansas             36        6         5        2         2         5           16           58
 Delaware             14        0         6        4         0         0            4           24
 Florida             342       36        32       25        40        39          170           70
 Georgia              96        6         6        6         6        15           57           86
 Kentucky             29        4         1        3         1         0           20          111
 Louisiana            47        5         6        7         5         1           23           48
 Maryland             13        0         1        1         1         4            6           67
 Mississippi          50        5        10        4         6         7           18           47
 North Carolina      111       21        29       15         7        12           27           31
 Oklahoma            129       12         8        5        12        18           74           79
 South Carolina       59        7         7        2         8         5           30           74
 Tennessee           100        4         2        8        10         9           67           99
 Texas               394       42        31       38        28        55          200           73
 Virginia             55       10         6        6         6         8           19           46

West                 637       46        56        56       47       102          330           74
 Arizona             121       10        13        11       14        14           59           66
 California          381       21        33        38       24        63          202           75
 Colorado              3        0         0         0        1         0            2            *
 Idaho                19        0         2         1        1         3           12          103
 Montana               8        0         0         2        0         1            5           76
 Nevada               66        8         2         1        4        14           37           82
 New Mexico            2        1         0         0        0         0            1            *
 Oregon               17        4         3         2        1         4            3           33
 Utah                 10        0         1         0        1         2            6           81
 Washington           10        2         2         1        1         1            3           35




128 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.5. Continued

                                               Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                       Less than   12-23     24-35     36-47     48-71       More than   Median num-
and State         Total      12 months   months    months months       months      71 months   ber of months

White prisoners
     U.S. total   1,645         148        137       137       136       215          872           76

  Federal             3           0          2         0         1         0            0            *
  State           1,642         148        135       137       135       215          872           76

Northeast               72        7          8         3         6        10           38           76
 Connecticut             2        0          1         0         0         1            0            *
 New Jersey              4        0          1         0         0         2            1            *
 Pennsylvania           66        7          6         3         6         7           37           77

Midwest                217       19         17        20        18        19          124           80
 Illinois               57        5          7         7         0         6           32           81
 Indiana                31        1          0         2         3         3           22           93
 Missouri               51        5          4         1         7         3           31           80
 Nebraska                7        1          0         0         0         0            6          160
 Ohio                   69        7          5         9         8         7           33           69
 South Dakota            2        0          1         1         0         0            0            *

South                  922       94         77        73        83       114          481           75
 Alabama                74       11          8         4         4        10           37           71
 Arkansas               21        4          1         2         1         3           10           62
 Delaware                7        0          5         0         0         0            2           20
 Florida               214       22         16        14        23        23          116           75
 Georgia                53        6          3         3         2         6           33           87
 Kentucky               23        4          1         2         1         0           15          111
 Louisiana              16        2          2         2         1         0            9           88
 Maryland                2        0          1         0         1         0            0            *
 Mississippi            20        2          3         2         2         2            9           57
 North Carolina         55        7         16        10         4         8           10           32
 Oklahoma               79        4          4         2         6        12           51           86
 South Carolina         31        3          3         2         7         1           15           67
 Tennessee              66        2          1         4         8         7           44           98
 Texas                 235       25         12        22        18        36          122           76
 Virginia               26        2          1         4         5         6            8           50

West                   431       28         33        41        28        72          229           76
 Arizona               100        5          9        10        12        11           53           77
 California            226       10         17        25        10        43          121           76
 Colorado                3        0          0         0         1         0            2            *
 Idaho                  19        0          2         1         1         3           12          103
 Montana                 6        0          0         2         0         1            3           81
 Nevada                 45        7          1         0         2         7           28           84
 New Mexico              2        1          0         0         0         0            1            *
 Oregon                 15        3          2         2         1         4            3           44
 Utah                    8        0          1         0         1         2            4           70
 Washington              7        2          1         1         0         1            2           29




                                                                                                               Capital punishment in 1994 129
Table 7.5. Continued

                                                Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                          Less than 12-23     24-35     36-47    48-71     More than Median num-
and State              Total    12 months months    months months months 71 months ber of months

Black prisoners
     U.S. total        1,197       124        124      109     102      159         579          68

  Federal                  3         0          3        0       0        0           0           *
  State                1,194       124        121      109     102      159         579          68

Northeast                116        13           7     13       14        15         54          66
 Connecticut               2         0           0      0        2         0          0           *
 New Jersey                5         1           1      0        1         1          1          45
 Pennsylvania            109        12           6     13       11        14         53          70

Midwest                  223        14         13      20       16        32        128          80
 Illinois                 98         6          4       7        6        18         57          84
 Indiana                  16         1          2       1        0         0         12         117
 Missouri                 37         2          2       5        5         3         20          75
 Nebraska                  2         0          0       0        0         0          2           *
 Ohio                     70         5          5       7        5        11         37          76

South                    666        82         79      61       53        86        305          65
 Alabama                  59        10          0       5        1        13         30          82
 Arkansas                 15         2          4       0        1         2          6          49
 Delaware                  7         0          1       4        0         0          2          26
 Florida                 128        14         16      11       17        16         54          62
 Georgia                  43         0          3       3        4         9         24          79
 Kentucky                  6         0          0       1        0         0          5         109
 Louisiana                31         3          4       5        4         1         14          41
 Maryland                 11         0          0       1        0         4          6          79
 Mississippi              30         3          7       2        4         5          9          45
 North Carolina           54        13         13       5        3         4         16          25
 Oklahoma                 40         7          2       3        5         6         17          58
 South Carolina           28         4          4       0        1         4         15          88
 Tennessee                32         2          1       4        2         1         22         102
 Texas                   153        16         19      15       10        19         74          69
 Virginia                 29         8          5       2        1         2         11          35

West                     189        15         22      15       19        26         92          67
 Arizona                  15         2          4       1        2         1          5          44
 California              147        11         16      13       14        18         75          74
 Nevada                   21         1          1       1        2         7          9          65
 Oregon                    1         1          0       0        0         0          0           *
 Utah                      2         0          0       0        0         0          2           *
 Washington                3         0          1       0        1         0          1           *

Other prisoners†
   U.S. total             48         8           6         2     2         5         25          75

 Northeast                  7        2           3         0     1         0          1          18
  Pennsylvania              7        2           3         0     1         0          1          18

 Midwest                    2        0           0         0     0         0          2            *
  Nebraska                  1        0           0         0     0         0          1            *
  Ohio                      1        0           0         0     0         0          1            *

 South                    22         3           2         2     1         1         13          77
  Alabama                  2         0           0         1     0         0          1           *
  North Carolina           2         1           0         0     0         0          1           *
  Oklahoma                10         1           2         0     1         0          6          76
  Tennessee                2         0           0         0     0         1          1           *
  Texas                    6         1           0         1     0         0          4          77

 West                     17         3           1         0     0         4          9          76
 Arizona                   6         3           0         0     0         2          1          32
 California                8         0           0         0     0         2          6         113
 Montana                   2         0           0         0     0         0          2           *
 Oregon                    1         0           1         0     0         0          0           *

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty stat-   *Medians were not calculated on fewer than 5 cases.
                                                       †
ute, the following States reported no prisoners on      "Other prisoners" includes 23 American Indians, 17
death row at yearend 1994: New Hampshire and           Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.
Wyoming.




130 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.6. Age of prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1994

                                             Prisoners under sentence of death
Region             All      Under      20 to      25 to      30 to     35 to     40 to      55 years
and State          ages     20 years   24 years 29 years 34 years 39 years       54 years   or older

All prisoners
    U.S. total      2,890       19      231       434       654        627          822       103

  Federal               6        0        1         2         1          1            1         0
  State             2,884       19      230       432       653        626          821       103

Northeast            195         0       14        28        45         46           57         5
 Connecticut           4         0        0         1         2          0            1         0
 New Jersey            9         0        0         2         2          2            1         2
 Pennsylvania        182         0       14        25        41         44           55         3

Midwest              442         2       34        63       105         98          122        18
 Illinois            155         0       11        21        29         40           50         4
 Indiana              47         0        1         9        16          8           11         2
 Missouri             88         1        5        12        22         16           26         6
 Nebraska             10         0        0         0         2          2            3         3
 Ohio                140         1       17        21        36         31           31         3
 South Dakota          2         0        0         0         0          1            1         0

South               1,610       14      155       255       361        341          428        56
 Alabama              135        1       10        22        29         26           44         3
 Arkansas              36        0        4         3         9          8           11         1
 Delaware              14        0        3         3         5          2            1         0
 Florida              342        2       31        43        76         63          115        12
 Georgia               96        0        9        11        16         28           25         7
 Kentucky              29        0        0         1         5          7           15         1
 Louisiana             47        0        5        10        11         11            9         1
 Maryland              13        0        0         2         5          3            3         0
 Mississippi           50        0        9        12         9         11            5         4
 North Carolina       111        1        9        17        31         18           30         5
 Oklahoma             129        0       11        24        24         30           32         8
 South Carolina        59        2        3        14        11         16           13         0
 Tennessee            100        0        8         8        22         27           30         5
 Texas                394        8       43        73        96         83           82         9
 Virginia              55        0       10        12        12          8           13         0

West                 637         3       27        86       142        141          214        24
 Arizona             121         2        5        15        32         20           43         4
 California          381         0       14        50        84         85          134        14
 Colorado              3         0        0         0         0          2            1         0
 Idaho                19         0        0         1         2         12            4         0
 Montana               8         0        1         1         2          3            1         0
 Nevada               66         1        6        12        14         11           20         2
 New Mexico            2         0        0         0         1          1            0         0
 Oregon               17         0        1         3         3          1            7         2
 Utah                 10         0        0         1         3          4            1         1
 Washington           10         0        0         3         1          2            3         1




                                                                                                       Capital punishment in 1994 131
Table 7.6. Continued

                                                        Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                         All     Under      20 to      25 to     30 to     35 to      40 to      55 years
and State                      ages    20 years   24 years 29 years 34 years 39 years       54 years   or older

White prisoners
  U.S. total                   1,645     13         95       214       367       349          532         75

  Federal                          3      0          0         0         1         1            1          0
  State                        1,642     13         95       214       366       348          531         75

 Northeast                       72        0         3         9        14        21           22          3
  Connecticut                     2        0         0         1         0         0            1          0
  New Jersey                      4        0         0         0         1         1            0          2
  Pennsylvania                   66        0         3         8        13        20           21          1

 Midwest                        217        2        15        25        61        41           62         11
  Illinois                       57        0         5         8        13        12           16          3
  Indiana                        31        0         1         3        12         6            8          1
  Missouri                       51        1         3         6        12         8           16          5
  Nebraska                        7        0         0         0         2         1            3          1
  Ohio                           69        1         6         8        22        13           18          1
  South Dakota                    2        0         0         0         0         1            1          0

 South                          922        8        63       138       196       191          284         42
  Alabama                        74        0         6        15        15        11           26          1
  Arkansas                       21        0         1         1         4         6            8          1
  Delaware                        7        0         1         3         1         1            1          0
  Florida                       214        1        17        22        45        40           79         10
  Georgia                        53        0         5         5        10        14           15          4
  Kentucky                       23        0         0         1         2         5           14          1
  Louisiana                      16        0         1         2         3         6            4          0
  Maryland                        2        0         0         0         2         0            0          0
  Mississippi                    20        0         2         3         5         5            2          3
  North Carolina                 55        0         3         8        16        10           14          4
  Oklahoma                       79        0         4        16        15        16           21          7
  South Carolina                 31        1         2         6         4         8           10          0
  Tennessee                      66        0         1         6        16        16           23          4
  Texas                         235        6        17        44        54        47           60          7
  Virginia                       26        0         3         6         4         6            7          0

 West                           431        3        14        42        95        95          163         19
  Arizona                       100        2         2        11        22        19           40          4
  California                    226        0         7        16        51        47           94         11
  Colorado                        3        0         0         0         0         2            1          0
  Idaho                          19        0         0         1         2        12            4          0
  Montana                         6        0         1         1         1         2            1          0
  Nevada                         45        1         3         8        11         7           14          1
  New Mexico                      2        0         0         0         1         1            0          0
  Oregon                         15        0         1         2         3         1            6          2
  Utah                            8        0         0         1         3         3            1          0
  Washington                      7        0         0         2         1         1            2          1




132 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.6. Continued

                                                      Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                   All        Under       20 to      25 to      30 to      35 to       40 to        55 years
and State                ages       20 years    24 years 29 years 34 years 39 years          54 years     or older

Black prisoners
     U.S. total           1,197         6         132         210      279        266           276          28

  Federal                     3         0           1           2        0           0            0           0
  State                   1,194         6         131         208      279         266          276          28

Northeast                   116          0         11          17        29         24           33           2
 Connecticut                  2          0          0           0         2          0            0           0
 New Jersey                   5          0          0           2         1          1            1           0
 Pennsylvania               109          0         11          15        26         23           32           2

Midwest                     223         0          19         37         44         56           60           7
 Illinois                    98         0           6         13         16         28           34           1
 Indiana                     16         0           0          6          4          2            3           1
 Missouri                    37         0           2          6         10          8           10           1
 Nebraska                     2         0           0          0          0          0            0           2
 Ohio                        70         0          11         12         14         18           13           2

South                       666         6          90         114      162         144          136          14
 Alabama                     59         1           4           7       14          15           16           2
 Arkansas                    15         0           3           2        5           2            3           0
 Delaware                     7         0           2           0        4           1            0           0
 Florida                    128         1          14          21       31          23           36           2
 Georgia                     43         0           4           6        6          14           10           3
 Kentucky                     6         0           0           0        3           2            1           0
 Louisiana                   31         0           4           8        8           5            5           1
 Maryland                    11         0           0           2        3           3            3           0
 Mississippi                 30         0           7           9        4           6            3           1
 North Carolina              54         1           6           9       15           7           15           1
 Oklahoma                    40         0           7           7        7          11            7           1
 South Carolina              28         1           1           8        7           8            3           0
 Tennessee                   32         0           7           1        6          10            7           1
 Texas                      153         2          24          28       41          35           21           2
 Virginia                    29         0           7           6        8           2            6           0

West                        189         0          11         40         44         42           47           5
 Arizona                     15         0           1          2          8          1            3           0
 California                 147         0           7         32         33         35           37           3
 Nevada                      21         0           3          4          3          4            6           1
 Oregon                       1         0           0          1          0          0            0           0
 Utah                         2         0           0          0          0          1            0           1
 Washington                   3         0           0          1          0          1            1           0

Other prisoners*
   U.S. total                48          0           4         10         8         12           14           0

 Northeast                      7       0            0         2          2          1            2           0
  Pennsylvania                  7       0            0         2          2          1            2           0

 Midwest                        2       0            0          1         0          1            0           0
  Nebraska                      1       0            0          0         0          1            0           0
  Ohio                          1       0            0          1         0          0            0           0

 South                       22         0            2          3         3          6            8           0
  Alabama                     2         0            0          0         0          0            2           0
  North Carolina              2         0            0          0         0          1            1           0
  Oklahoma                   10         0            0          1         2          3            4           0
  Tennessee                   2         0            0          1         0          1            0           0
  Texas                       6         0            2          1         1          1            1           0

 West                        17         0            2         4          3          4            4           0
  Arizona                     6         0            2         2          2          0            0           0
  California                  8         0            0         2          0          3            3           0
  Montana                     2         0            0         0          1          1            0           0
  Oregon                      1         0            0         0          0          0            1           0

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the     *"Other prisoners" includes 23 American Indians, 17
following States reported no prisoners on death row at          Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.
yearend 1994: New Hampshire and Wyoming.




                                                                                                                      Capital punishment in 1994 133
Table 7.7. Level of education completed by prisoners
under sentence of death, by race, 1994

                                   Prisoners under sentence of death
Region             Total  7th grade 8th      9th to      12th      Any       Not
and State          number or less   grade 11th grade grade         college   reported

All prisoners
      U.S. total   2,890       186      198       930       939        255      382

  Federal              6         0        1         3         1          1        0
  State            2,884       186      197       927       938        254      382

 Northeast           195         14      10        51         57        15        48
  Connecticut          4          0       1         1          2         0         0
  New Jersey           9          0       1         2          1         1         4
  Pennsylvania       182         14       8        48         54        14        44

 Midwest             442         15      25       165       131         47        59
  Illinois           155          4       8        61        42         17        23
  Indiana             47          3       6        18        19          1         0
  Missouri            88          1       5        32        24          7        19
  Nebraska            10          1       0         2         2          5         0
  Ohio               140          6       6        52        42         17        17
  South Dakota         2          0       0         0         2          0         0

 South             1,610       129      141       525       497        109      209
  Alabama            135         9       15        32        48          9       22
  Arkansas            36         1        1        18        13          3        0
  Delaware            14         2        1         5         0          0        6
  Florida            342        26       29       105       109         24       49
  Georgia             96         3       10        32        33         12        6
  Kentucky            29         2        8         5         8          4        2
  Louisiana           47         6        3        15        18          2        3
  Maryland            13         0        0         5         3          3        2
  Mississippi         50         4        5        22         5          4       10
  North Carolina     111         9       18        29        46          8        1
  Oklahoma           129         8        8        63        36          7        7
  South Carolina      59         7        4        13         9          2       24
  Tennessee          100         8        2        21        33          6       30
  Texas              394        35       28       146       115         23       47
  Virginia            55         9        9        14        21          2        0

 West                637         28      21       186       253         83        66
  Arizona            121         13       7        37        39         20         5
  California         381         11      10       121       149         45        45
  Colorado             3          0       0         0         3          0         0
  Idaho               19          1       1         3        10          4         0
  Montana              8          0       1         3         3          0         1
  Nevada              66          2       1        16        33         12         2
  New Mexico           2          0       0         0         2          0         0
  Oregon              17          0       1         2         6          1         7
  Utah                10          1       0         2         6          0         1
  Washington          10          0       0         2         2          1         5




134 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.7. Continued

                                  Prisoners under sentence of death
Region            Total  7th grade 8th       9th to      12th     Any   Not
and State         number or less   grade     11th grade grade college   reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total   1,645       111     114     474       565       170      211

  Federal             3         0       0       1         1         1        0
  State           1,642       111     114     473       564       169      211

Northeast               72      3       3       17       26         7        16
 Connecticut             2      0       1        1        0         0         0
 New Jersey              4      0       0        0        0         1         3
 Pennsylvania           66      3       2       16       26         6        13

Midwest                217     10      14      69        71        28        25
 Illinois               57      1       2      20        16        10         8
 Indiana                31      3       5      10        13         0         0
 Missouri               51      1       4      17        12         4        13
 Nebraska                7      0       0       2         1         4         0
 Ohio                   69      5       3      20        27        10         4
 South Dakota            2      0       0       0         2         0         0

South                  922     75      81     264       299        74      129
 Alabama                74      6       7      15        30         5       11
 Arkansas               21      0       0       9         9         3        0
 Delaware                7      2       0       3         0         0        2
 Florida               214     13      19      57        68        20       37
 Georgia                53      2       5      16        19         8        3
 Kentucky               23      1       7       4         6         3        2
 Louisiana              16      0       1       4         8         1        2
 Maryland                2      0       0       0         0         2        0
 Mississippi            20      2       2       7         3         2        4
 North Carolina         55      4       7      11        26         6        1
 Oklahoma               79      5       6      37        23         3        5
 South Carolina         31      3       2       5         4         2       15
 Tennessee              66      5       2      11        25         3       20
 Texas                 235     27      18      79        68        16       27
 Virginia               26      5       5       6        10         0        0

West                   431     23      16     123       168        60        41
 Arizona               100     12       4      33        31        19         1
 California            226      8       8      71        83        29        27
 Colorado                3      0       0       0         3         0         0
 Idaho                  19      1       1       3        10         4         0
 Montana                 6      0       1       2         2         0         1
 Nevada                 45      1       1      10        25         6         2
 New Mexico              2      0       0       0         2         0         0
 Oregon                 15      0       1       2         6         1         5
 Utah                    8      1       0       2         4         0         1
 Washington              7      0       0       0         2         1         4




                                                                                   Capital punishment in 1994 135
Table 7.7. Continued

                                        Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                  Total  7th grade 8th      9th to      12th     Any             Not
and State               number or less    grade 11th grade grade college               reported

Black prisoners
     U.S. total          1,197          72       80      439         359         81         166

  Federal                    3           0        1        2           0          0           0
  State                  1,194          72       79      437         359         81         166

Northeast                  116          11        5        32         30           8         30
 Connecticut                 2           0        0         0          2           0          0
 New Jersey                  5           0        1         2          1           0          1
 Pennsylvania              109          11        4        30         27           8         29

Midwest                    223           5       11        95         60         18          34
 Illinois                   98           3        6        41         26          7          15
 Indiana                    16           0        1         8          6          1           0
 Missouri                   37           0        1        15         12          3           6
 Nebraska                    2           1        0         0          1          0           0
 Ohio                       70           1        3        31         15          7          13

South                      666          51       59      252         193         33          78
 Alabama                    59           3        7       17          18          3          11
 Arkansas                   15           1        1        9           4          0           0
 Delaware                    7           0        1        2           0          0           4
 Florida                   128          13       10       48          41          4          12
 Georgia                    43           1        5       16          14          4           3
 Kentucky                    6           1        1        1           2          1           0
 Louisiana                  31           6        2       11          10          1           1
 Maryland                   11           0        0        5           3          1           2
 Mississippi                30           2        3       15           2          2           6
 North Carolina             54           4       11       18          20          1           0
 Oklahoma                   40           1        2       21          10          4           2
 South Carolina             28           4        2        8           5          0           9
 Tennessee                  32           3        0        8           8          3          10
 Texas                     153           8       10       65          45          7          18
 Virginia                   29           4        4        8          11          2           0

West                       189           5        4        58         76         22          24
 Arizona                    15           1        2         2          5          1           4
 California                147           3        2        48         61         15          18
 Nevada                     21           1        0         6          8          6           0
 Oregon                      1           0        0         0          0          0           1
 Utah                        2           0        0         0          2          0           0
 Washington                  3           0        0         2          0          0           1

Other prisoners*
   U.S. total               48           3        4        17         15           4          5

 Northeast                   7           0        2         2           1          0          2
  Pennsylvania               7           0        2         2           1          0          2

 Midwest                     2           0        0         1           0          1          0
  Nebraska                   1           0        0         0           0          1          0
  Ohio                       1           0        0         1           0          0          0

 South                      22           3        1         9           5          2          2
  Alabama                    2           0        1         0           0          1          0
  North Carolina             2           1        0         0           0          1          0
  Oklahoma                  10           2        0         5           3          0          0
  Tennessee                  2           0        0         2           0          0          0
  Texas                      6           0        0         2           2          0          2

 West                       17           0        1         5           9          1          1
  Arizona                    6           0        1         2           3          0          0
  California                 8           0        0         2           5          1          0
  Montana                    2           0        0         1           1          0          0
  Oregon                     1           0        0         0           0          0          1

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, *"Other prisoners" includes 23 American Indians,
the following States reported no prisoners on death     17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.
row at yearend 1994: New Hampshire and
Wyoming.




136 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.8. Marital status at time of imprisonment of prisoners
under sentence of death, by race, 1994

                                   Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                                 Divorced or               Never     Not
and State           Total   Married separated       Widowed      married   reported

All prisoners
      U.S. total    2,890      707       568           67        1,320      228

  Federal               6        2         1            0            3        0
  State             2,884      705       567           67        1,317      228

Northeast             195       42        24            9         115          5
 Connecticut            4        1         0            0           3          0
 New Jersey             9        2         0            1           2          4
 Pennsylvania         182       39        24            8         110          1

Midwest               442      105        85            8         214         30
 Illinois             155       36        31            2          69         17
 Indiana               47        7         7            1          32          0
 Missouri              88       19        11            4          49          5
 Nebraska              10        3         4            0           3          0
 Ohio                 140       40        31            1          60          8
 South Dakota           2        0         1            0           1          0

South               1,610      415       300           37         726       132
 Alabama              135       28        28            2          55        22
 Arkansas              36        9         7            2          15         3
 Delaware              14        4         1            0           9         0
 Florida              342       74        71            7         175        15
 Georgia               96       30        20            6          36         4
 Kentucky              29        7        14            1           6         1
 Louisiana             47        8         5            0          16        18
 Maryland              13        3         2            0           6         2
 Mississippi           50        9         6            1          25         9
 North Carolina       111       18        36            4          53         0
 Oklahoma             129       54        26            1          38        10
 South Carolina        59       18         4            1          36         0
 Tennessee            100       24        12            5          33        26
 Texas                394      117        57            6         192        22
 Virginia              55       12        11            1          31         0

West                  637      143       158           13         262         61
 Arizona              121       23        40            3          38         17
 California           381      102        81            5         168         25
 Colorado               3        1         1            0           1          0
 Idaho                 19        4         5            1           9          0
 Montana                8        2         1            0           5          0
 Nevada                66        8        20            1          31          6
 New Mexico             2        0         1            0           1          0
 Oregon                17        1         3            1           2         10
 Utah                  10        2         4            0           4          0
 Washington            10        0         2            2           3          3




                                                                                      Capital punishment in 1994 137
Table 7.8. Continued

                                    Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                                  Divorced or               Never     Not
and State          Total     Married separated       Widowed      married   reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total    1,645        423       432           52         620       118

  Federal              3          2         1            0           0         0
  State            1,642        421       431           52         620       118

Northeast              72        13        15            7           33         4
 Connecticut            2         0         0            0            2         0
 New Jersey             4         0         0            1            0         3
 Pennsylvania          66        13        15            6           31         1

Midwest                217       50        56            6           98         7
 Illinois               57       11        15            1           26         4
 Indiana                31        6         7            1           17         0
 Missouri               51       11        10            3           26         1
 Nebraska                7        3         2            0            2         0
 Ohio                   69       19        21            1           26         2
 South Dakota            2        0         1            0            1         0

South                  922      262       230           27         332         71
 Alabama                74       18        20            1          27          8
 Arkansas               21        7         5            2           5          2
 Delaware                7        2         0            0           5          0
 Florida               214       54        59            6          85         10
 Georgia                53       16        16            3          16          2
 Kentucky               23        7        13            1           2          0
 Louisiana              16        4         3            0           4          5
 Maryland                2        1         0            0           1          0
 Mississippi            20        4         5            0           7          4
 North Carolina         55       12        20            3          20          0
 Oklahoma               79       28        16            1          25          9
 South Carolina         31       10         3            1          17          0
 Tennessee              66       15        11            5          16         19
 Texas                 235       77        50            3          93         12
 Virginia               26        7         9            1           9          0

West                   431       96       130           12         157         36
 Arizona               100       20        39            3          29          9
 California            226       64        57            4          88         13
 Colorado                3        1         1            0           1          0
 Idaho                  19        4         5            1           9          0
 Montana                 6        1         1            0           4          0
 Nevada                 45        4        19            1          17          4
 New Mexico              2        0         1            0           1          0
 Oregon                 15        1         3            1           2          8
 Utah                    8        1         3            0           4          0
 Washington              7        0         1            2           2          2




138 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.8. Continued

                                         Prisoners under sentence of death
Region                                      Divorced or                Never     Not
and State               Total     Married separated       Widowed      married   reported

Black prisoners
     U.S. total          1,197        269         131         15         676      106

  Federal                    3          0           0          0           3        0
  State                  1,194        269         131         15         673      106

Northeast                  116         27            9         2          77         1
 Connecticut                 2          1            0         0           1         0
 New Jersey                  5          2            0         0           2         1
 Pennsylvania              109         24            9         2          74         0

Midwest                    223         55          29          2         114        23
 Illinois                   98         25          16          1          43        13
 Indiana                    16          1           0          0          15         0
 Missouri                   37          8           1          1          23         4
 Nebraska                    2          0           2          0           0         0
 Ohio                       70         21          10          0          33         6

South                      666        145          66         10         385        60
 Alabama                    59          8           8          1          28        14
 Arkansas                   15          2           2          0          10         1
 Delaware                    7          2           1          0           4         0
 Florida                   128         20          12          1          90         5
 Georgia                    43         14           4          3          20         2
 Kentucky                    6          0           1          0           4         1
 Louisiana                  31          4           2          0          12        13
 Maryland                   11          2           2          0           5         2
 Mississippi                30          5           1          1          18         5
 North Carolina             54          5          15          1          33         0
 Oklahoma                   40         22           7          0          10         1
 South Carolina             28          8           1          0          19         0
 Tennessee                  32          9           1          0          15         7
 Texas                     153         39           7          3          95         9
 Virginia                   29          5           2          0          22         0

West                       189         42          27          1          97        22
 Arizona                    15          2           1          0           6         6
 California                147         35          23          1          76        12
 Nevada                     21          4           1          0          14         2
 Oregon                      1          0           0          0           0         1
 Utah                        2          1           1          0           0         0
 Washington                  3          0           1          0           1         1

Other prisoners*
     U.S. total             48         15            5         0          24         4

Northeast                    7           2           0         0           5         0
 Pennsylvania                7           2           0         0           5         0

Midwest                      2           0           0         0           2         0
 Nebraska                    1           0           0         0           1         0
 Ohio                        1           0           0         0           1         0

South                       22           8           4         0           9         1
 Alabama                     2           2           0         0           0         0
 North Carolina              2           1           1         0           0         0
 Oklahoma                   10           4           3         0           3         0
 Tennessee                   2           0           0         0           2         0
 Texas                       6           1           0         0           4         1

West                        17           5           1         0           8         3
 Arizona                     6           1           0         0           3         2
 California                  8           3           1         0           4         0
 Montana                     2           1           0         0           1         0
 Oregon                      1           0           0         0           0         1

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the
following States reported no prisoners on death row at
yearend 1994: New Hampshire and Wyoming.
*"Other prisoners" includes 23 American Indians, 17
Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.




                                                                                            Capital punishment in 1994 139
Table 7.9. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1994

                                   Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes
Region                  Not charged with or sen- Charged with                        Under sentence for another crime                    Legal status
and State               tenced for another crime another crime       Total  On probation On parole        Escaped In prison Othera not reported
All prisoners
      U.S. total                1,487                   175           903          251        518           42          61        31       325

   Federal                          3                     1             2            1          1            0           0         0         0
   State                        1,484                   174           901          250        517           42          61        31       325

 Northeast                         44                     31           72           17          49            1          1          4        48
  Connecticut                       4                      0            0            0           0            0          0          0         0
  New Jersey                        5                      0            2            0           2            0          0          0         2
  Pennsylvania                     35                     31           70           17          47            1          1          4        46

 Midwest                          307                     11           97            4          70            1         19          3        27
  Illinois                         92                      5           51            0          43            0          7          1         7
  Indiana                          37                      3            6            3           2            0          0          1         1
  Missouri                         65                      1           15            0           5            1          9          0         7
  Nebraska                          9                      0            1            0           0            0          1          0         0
  Ohio                            103                      1           24            1          20            0          2          1        12
  South Dakota                      1                      1            0            0           0            0          0          0         0

 South                            823                     91          510          165        276           25          26        18        186
  Alabama                          69                      5           41           15         19            5           2         0         20
  Arkansas                         16                      4           13            1          6            3           2         1          3
  Delaware                          5                      1            8            5          1            1           0         1          0
  Florida                         193                     25           82           33         29            9           8         3         42
  Georgia                          42                      6           32           19          8            1           2         2         16
  Kentucky                         20                      1            8            2          5            0           0         1          0
  Louisiana                        23                      4            8            0          4            1           0         3         12
  Maryland                          7                      0            4            1          2            0           1         0          2
  Mississippi                      35                      3           11            2          5            0           4         0          1
  North Carolina                   73                      6           30           16         12            1           1         0          2
  Oklahoma                         68                      8           40           13         22            1           1         3         13
  South Carolina                   31                      1           22            8         12            1           0         1          5
  Tennessee                        66                      3           15            1         11            0           2         1         16
  Texas                           158                     18          164           36        124            2           2         0         54
  Virginia                         17                      6           32           13         16            0           1         2          0

 West                             310                     41          222           64        122           15          15          6        64
  Arizona                          74                      8           34            8         13            6           3          4         5
  California                      160                     17          151           45         90            8           7          1        53
  Colorado                          2                      0            1            0          1            0           0          0         0
  Idaho                            16                      2            1            0          1            0           0          0         0
  Montana                           1                      3            3            1          0            0           2          0         1
  Nevada                           43                      9           13            7          3            1           2          0         1
  New Mexico                        0                      0            2            2          0            0           0          0         0
  Oregon                            7                      1            7            0          7            0           0          0         2
  Utah                              2                      1            7            0          6            0           1          0         0
  Washington                        5                      0            3            1          1            0           0          1         2




140 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.9. Continued

                                  Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes
                       Not charged with or sen- Charged with                        Under sentence for another crime                   Legal status
Region and State       tenced for another crime another crime       Total  On probation On parole Escaped In prison Othera not reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total                  875                   106           485       144           264           28         33         16      179

   Federal                         2                     0             1         1             0            0          0          0        0
   State                         873                   106           484       143           264           28         33         16      179

 Northeast                        18                     11           22          5           15            1          0          1        21
  Connecticut                      2                      0            0          0            0            0          0          0         0
  New Jersey                       3                      0            0          0            0            0          0          0         1
  Pennsylvania                    13                     11           22          5           15            1          0          1        20

 Midwest                         155                      6           44          2           30            0         10          2        12
  Illinois                        37                      2           15          0           13            0          2          0         3
  Indiana                         23                      2            5          2            2            0          0          1         1
  Missouri                        37                      0            9          0            3            0          6          0         5
  Nebraska                         6                      0            1          0            0            0          1          0         0
  Ohio                            51                      1           14          0           12            0          1          1         3
  South Dakota                     1                      1            0          0            0            0          0          0         0

 South                           481                     56          278         97          144           16         12          9      107
  Alabama                         36                      3           23         10            9            2          2          0       12
  Arkansas                        13                      2            4          0            1            2          1          0        2
  Delaware                         2                      0            5          2            1            1          0          1        0
  Florida                        122                     16           46         17           19            6          2          2       30
  Georgia                         21                      4           19         13            4            1          0          1        9
  Kentucky                        17                      1            5          2            3            0          0          0        0
  Louisiana                        7                      1            4          0            2            1          0          1        4
  Maryland                         1                      0            1          1            0            0          0          0        0
  Mississippi                     13                      3            4          0            3            0          1          0        0
  North Carolina                  37                      3           14          9            4            1          0          0        1
  Oklahoma                        42                      6           22          8           11            0          1          2        9
  South Carolina                  12                      0           14          5            9            0          0          0        5
  Tennessee                       45                      2           11          1            7            0          2          1        8
  Texas                          102                     12           94         24           66            2          2          0       27
  Virginia                        11                      3           12          5            5            0          1          1        0

 West                            219                     33          140         39           75           11         11          4        39
   Arizona                        59                      8           29          6           11            5          3          4         4
   California                    105                     13           79         22           49            5          3          0        29
 Colorado                          2                      0            1          0            1            0          0          0         0
 Idaho                            16                      2            1          0            1            0          0          0         0
 Montana                           1                      1            3          1            0            0          2          0         1
 Nevada                           25                      7           12          7            2            1          2          0         1
 New Mexico                        0                      0            2          2            0            0          0          0         0
 Oregon                            7                      1            5          0            5            0          0          0         2
 Utah                              1                      1            6          0            5            0          1          0         0
 Washington                        3                      0            2          1            1            0          0          0         2




                                                                                                                             Capital punishment in 1994 141
Table 7.9. Continued

                                        Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes
                             Not charged with or sen- Charged with                        Under sentence for another crime                    Legal status
Region and State             tenced for another crime another crime       Total  On probation On parole Escaped In prison Othera not reported

Black prisoners
     U.S. total                         583                    64             408      104          249          13          28      14          142

   Federal                                1                     1               1        0            1           0           0       0            0
   State                                582                    63             407      104          248          13          28      14          142

  Northeast                              22                    19              49       12            33           0          1        3          26
   Connecticut                            2                     0               0        0             0           0          0        0           0
   New Jersey                             2                     0               2        0             2           0          0        0           1
   Pennsylvania                          18                    19              47       12            31           0          1        3          25

  Midwest                               150                      5             53        2            40           1          9        1          15
   Illinois                              55                      3             36        0            30           0          5        1           4
   Indiana                               14                      1              1        1             0           0          0        0           0
   Missouri                              28                      1              6        0             2           1          3        0           2
   Nebraska                               2                      0              0        0             0           0          0        0           0
   Ohio                                  51                      0             10        1             8           0          1        0           9

  South                                 327                    34             228       67          130            9         14        8          77
   Alabama                               31                     2              18        5           10            3          0        0           8
   Arkansas                               3                     2               9        1            5            1          1        1           1
   Delaware                               3                     1               3        3            0            0          0        0           0
   Florida                               71                     9              36       16           10            3          6        1          12
   Georgia                               21                     2              13        6            4            0          2        1           7
   Kentucky                               3                     0               3        0            2            0          0        1           0
   Louisiana                             16                     3               4        0            2            0          0        2           8
   Maryland                               6                     0               3        0            2            0          1        0           2
   Mississippi                           22                     0               7        2            2            0          3        0           1
   North Carolina                        35                     3              15        6            8            0          1        0           1
   Oklahoma                              20                     1              16        5           10            1          0        0           3
   South Carolina                        19                     1               8        3            3            1          0        1           0
   Tennessee                             20                     1               4        0            4            0          0        0           7
   Texas                                 51                     6              69       12           57            0          0        0          27
   Virginia                               6                     3              20        8           11            0          0        1           0

  West                                   83                      5             77       23            45           3          4        2          24
   Arizona                               11                      0              3        0             2           1          0        0           1
   California                            51                      3             70       23            40           2          4        1          23
   Nevada                                18                      2              1        0             1           0          0        0           0
   Utah                                   0                      0              1        0             1           0          0        0           0
   Washington                             1                      0              1        0             1           0          0        0           0
                                          2                      0              1        0             0           0          0        1           0
Other prisonersb
   U.S. total                            29                      5             10        3             5           1          0        1           4

  Northeast                               4                      1              1        0             1           0          0        0           1
   Pennsylvania                           4                      1              1        0             1           0          0        0           1

  Midwest                                 2                      0              0        0             0           0          0        0           0
   Nebraska                               1                      0              0        0             0           0          0        0           0
   Ohio                                   1                      0              0        0             0           0          0        0           0

  South                                  15                      1              4        1             2           0          0        1           2
   Alabama                                2                      0              0        0             0           0          0        0           0
   North Carolina                         1                      0              1        1             0           0          0        0           0
   Oklahoma                               6                      1              2        0             1           0          0        1           1
   Tennessee                              1                      0              0        0             0           0          0        0           1
   Texas                                  5                      0              1        0             1           0          0        0           0

  West                                    8                      3              5        2             2           1          0        0           1
   Arizona                                4                      0              2        2             0           0          0        0           0
   California                             4                      1              2        0             1           1          0        0           1
   Montana                                0                      2              0        0             0           0          0        0           0
   Oregon                                 0                      0              1        0             1           0          0        0           0
                                                          a                                                  b
Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute,    "Other" includes mandatory conditional release,    "Other prisoners" includes 23 American Indi-
the following States reported no prisoners on death row   bail, temporary leave, work release or furlough,   ans, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified
at yearend 1994: New Hampshire and Wyoming.               halfway house, house arrest, and jail.             race.




142 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.10. Felony history of prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1994

                                                 Prisoners under sentence of death
                                            With prior felony convictions                With
                             Total with      Criminal     Other       Type of offenses   no prior   Felony history
Region and State   Total     prior felonies homicide offenses unreported                 felonies   not reported

All prisoners
      U.S. total     2,890      1,810          242       1,460            108               889          191

   Federal               6          4            0           4              0                 2            0
   State             2,884      1,806          242       1,456            108               887          191

 Northeast            195         110           16          82              12               45           40
  Connecticut           4           1            0           0               1                2            1
  New Jersey            9           3            1           2               0                5            1
  Pennsylvania        182         106           15          80              11               38           38

 Midwest              442         240           36         190              14              183           19
  Illinois            155          99           19          77               3               51            5
  Indiana              47          24            3          20               1               23            0
  Missouri             88          45            6          34               5               37            6
  Nebraska             10           5            2           2               1                5            0
  Ohio                140          65            6          55               4               67            8
  South Dakota          2           2            0           2               0                0            0

 South               1,610      1,027          128         830              69              484           99
  Alabama              135         85           17          64               4               33           17
  Arkansas              36         27            4          22               1                9            0
  Delaware              14          9            0           9               0                5            0
  Florida              342        236           30         183              23               81           25
  Georgia               96         67            5          59               3               24            5
  Kentucky              29         16            3          12               1               13            0
  Louisiana             47         22            3          19               0               22            3
  Maryland              13          9            1           7               1                3            1
  Mississippi           50         27            2          25               0               18            5
  North Carolina       111         69            8          60               1               41            1
  Oklahoma             129         82           13          57              12               39            8
  South Carolina        59         31            2          29               0               25            3
  Tennessee            100         56            5          44               7               31           13
  Texas                394        247           28         204              15              129           18
  Virginia              55         44            7          36               1               11            0

 West                 637         429           62         354              13              175           33
  Arizona             121          69            6          57               6               37           15
  California          381         267           44         217               6              102           12
  Colorado              3           3            0           3               0                0            0
  Idaho                19          13            1          12               0                6            0
  Montana               8           4            2           1               1                2            2
  Nevada               66          41            6          35               0               25            0
  New Mexico            2           2            0           2               0                0            0
  Oregon               17          13            0          13               0                2            2
  Utah                 10           8            2           6               0                1            1
  Washington           10           9            1           8               0                0            1




                                                                                                                     Capital punishment in 1994 143
Table 7.10. Continued

                                               Prisoners under sentence of death
                                          With prior felony convictions                With
                           Total with      Criminal     Other       Type of offenses   no prior   Felony history
Region and State   Total   prior felonies homicide offenses unreported                 felonies   not reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total    1,645       992           129         801              62               548         105

   Federal             3         2             0           2               0                 1           0
   State           1,642       990           129         799              62               547         105

 Northeast           72         34             5          27               2                21          17
  Connecticut         2          0             0           0               0                 2           0
  New Jersey          4          0             0           0               0                 3           1
  Pennsylvania       66         34             5          27               2                16          16

 Midwest            217        104            13          88               3               104            9
  Illinois           57         32             6          25               1                24            1
  Indiana            31         17             1          16               0                14            0
  Missouri           51         22             3          18               1                26            3
  Nebraska            7          3             1           2               0                 4            0
  Ohio               69         28             2          25               1                36            5
  South Dakota        2          2             0           2               0                 0            0

 South              922        568            69         452              47               298          56
  Alabama            74         48             9          36               3                16          10
  Arkansas           21         12             4           8               0                 9           0
  Delaware            7          6             0           6               0                 1           0
  Florida           214        135            16         104              15                62          17
  Georgia            53         38             2          34               2                13           2
  Kentucky           23         13             3           9               1                10           0
  Louisiana          16          7             2           5               0                 8           1
  Maryland            2          1             0           1               0                 1           0
  Mississippi        20          9             0           9               0                 7           4
  North Carolina     55         38             5          33               0                17           0
  Oklahoma           79         46             7          29              10                27           6
  South Carolina     31         19             1          18               0                12           0
  Tennessee          66         37             2          29               6                24           5
  Texas             235        143            15         119               9                81          11
  Virginia           26         16             3          12               1                10           0

 West               431        284            42         232              10               124          23
  Arizona           100         55             6          43               6                33          12
  California        226        153            26         124               3                66           7
  Colorado            3          3             0           3               0                 0           0
  Idaho              19         13             1          12               0                 6           0
  Montana             6          4             2           1               1                 0           2
  Nevada             45         29             5          24               0                16           0
  New Mexico          2          2             0           2               0                 0           0
  Oregon             15         11             0          11               0                 2           2
  Utah                8          7             2           5               0                 1           0
  Washington          7          7             0           7               0                 0           0




144 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.10. Continued

                                                      Prisoners under sentence of death
                                                 With prior felony convictions              With
                                   Total with     Criminal     Other       Type of offenses no prior   Felony history
Region and State       Total       prior felonies homicide offenses unreported              felonies   not reported

Black prisoners
     U.S. total         1,197         798           111         643             44            318            81

   Federal                  3           2             0           2              0              1             0
   State                1,194         796           111         641             44            317            81

 Northeast                116           73           11          52             10             21            22
  Connecticut               2            1            0           0              1              0             1
  New Jersey                5            3            1           2              0              2             0
  Pennsylvania            109           69           10          50              9             19            21

 Midwest                  223         136            23         102             11             77            10
  Illinois                 98          67            13          52              2             27             4
  Indiana                  16           7             2           4              1              9             0
  Missouri                 37          23             3          16              4             11             3
  Nebraska                  2           2             1           0              1              0             0
  Ohio                     70          37             4          30              3             30             3

 South                    666         451            58         372             21            174            41
  Alabama                  59          37             8          28              1             15             7
  Arkansas                 15          15             0          14              1              0             0
  Delaware                  7           3             0           3              0              4             0
  Florida                 128         101            14          79              8             19             8
  Georgia                  43          29             3          25              1             11             3
  Kentucky                  6           3             0           3              0              3             0
  Louisiana                31          15             1          14              0             14             2
  Maryland                 11           8             1           6              1              2             1
  Mississippi              30          18             2          16              0             11             1
  North Carolina           54          29             3          25              1             24             1
  Oklahoma                 40          32             5          25              2              7             1
  South Carolina           28          12             1          11              0             13             3
  Tennessee                32          18             3          15              0              7             7
  Texas                   153         103            13          84              6             43             7
  Virginia                 29          28             4          24              0              1             0

 West                     189         136            19         115              2             45              8
  Arizona                  15          11             0          11              0              3              1
  California              147         109            17          90              2             33              5
  Nevada                   21          12             1          11              0              9              0
  Utah                      1           1             0           1              0              0              0
  Washington                2           1             0           1              0              0              1
                            3           2             1           1              0              0              1
Other prisoners*
   U.S. total              48           20             2         16              2             23              5

 Northeast                     7         3             0          3              0              3              1
  Pennsylvania                 7         3             0          3              0              3              1

 Midwest                       2         0             0          0              0              2              0
  Nebraska                     1         0             0          0              0              1              0
  Ohio                         1         0             0          0              0              1              0

 South                     22            8             1          6              1             12              2
  Alabama                   2            0             0          0              0              2              0
  North Carolina            2            2             0          2              0              0              0
  Oklahoma                 10            4             1          3              0              5              1
  Tennessee                 2            1             0          0              1              0              1
  Texas                     6            1             0          1              0              5              0

 West                      17            9             1          7              1              6              2
  Arizona                   6            3             0          3              0              1              2
  California                8            5             1          3              1              3              0
  Montana                   2            0             0          0              0              2              0
  Oregon                    1            1             0          1              0              0              0

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the *"Other prisoners" includes 23 American Indians, 17
following States reported no prisoner on death row at year- Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.
end 1994: New Hampshire and Wyoming.




                                                                                                                        Capital punishment in 1994 145
Table 7.11. Age of prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1994
                                    Prisoners received from court under sentence of death
Region              All    Under 20 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 55 years Median age
and State           ages   years     years     years     years     years    years    or older in years
All prisoners
      U.S. total     306      20       80       64       62       30       47         3         28

  Northeast           24       0        4        8        5        2        5         0         30
   New Jersey          3       0        0        1        1        0        1         0          *
   Pennsylvania       21       0        4        7        4        2        4         0         29

  Midwest             36       2       11        6       10        2        5         0         28
   Illinois           11       0        5        1        2        1        2         0         28
   Indiana             2       0        0        1        1        0        0         0          *
   Missouri            9       1        1        3        1        1        2         0         27
   Nebraska            1       0        0        0        1        0        0         0          *
   Ohio               13       1        5        1        5        0        1         0         28

  South              197      14       51       40       40       20       29         3         29
   Alabama            24       2        4        4        5        4        5         0         33
   Arkansas            8       1        1        1        2        0        2         1         34
   Florida            39       1       15        6        9        2        5         1         27
   Georgia             8       0        2        2        1        0        3         0         30
   Kentucky            4       0        0        0        0        1        2         1          *
   Louisiana           6       0        0        3        1        2        0         0         31
   Mississippi         5       0        1        3        0        0        1         0         26
   North Carolina     27       1        4        2       10        5        5         0         32
   Oklahoma           12       0        3        2        1        4        2         0         32
   South Carolina      7       1        1        2        1        0        2         0         27
   Tennessee           4       0        2        1        0        0        1         0          *
   Texas              43       8       13       10        9        2        1         0         25
   Virginia           10       0        5        4        1        0        0         0         24

  West                49       4       14       10        7        6        8         0         27
   Arizona            10       3        3        2        0        1        1         0         23
   California         22       0        6        5        5        2        4         0         29
   Nevada              8       1        4        1        1        1        0         0         23
   New Mexico          1       0        0        1        0        0        0         0          *
   Oregon              6       0        1        1        1        1        2         0         35
   Washington          2       0        0        0        0        1        1         0          *
Black prisoners
     U.S. total      136       6       45       32       31        7       15         0         27

  Northeast           15       0        2        4        5        1        3         0         31
   New Jersey          3       0        0        1        1        0        1         0          *
   Pennsylvania       12       0        2        3        4        1        2         0         32

  Midwest             17       0        7        3        5        0        2         0         27
   Illinois            6       0        3        1        1        0        1         0         26
   Indiana             1       0        0        0        1        0        0         0          *
   Missouri            4       0        0        2        1        0        1         0          *
   Ohio                6       0        4        0        2        0        0         0         22

  South               89       6       29       21       19        5        9         0         27
   Alabama            11       1        2        2        3        2        1         0         32
   Arkansas            3       0        1        1        0        0        1         0          *
   Florida            16       1        6        3        4        0        2         0         28
   Louisiana           3       0        0        2        1        0        0         0          *
   Mississippi         3       0        0        2        0        0        1         0          *
   North Carolina     15       1        4        1        5        1        3         0         32
   Oklahoma            7       0        3        2        1        1        0         0         28
   South Carolina      4       1        0        2        1        0        0         0          *
   Tennessee           2       0        2        0        0        0        0         0          *
   Texas              17       2        6        4        3        1        1         0         27
   Virginia            8       0        5        2        1        0        0         0         24

  West                15       0        7        4        2        1        1         0         25
   Arizona             2       0        2        0        0        0        0         0          *
   California         11       0        4        3        2        1        1         0         27
   Nevada              1       0        1        0        0        0        0         0          *
   Oregon              1       0        0        1        0        0        0         0          *




146 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.11. Continued

                                         Prisoners received from court under sentence of death
Region                  All     Under 20 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 55 years Median age
and State               ages    years    years     years      years    years    years     or older in years

White prisoners
     U.S. total           162      13         33        30         31    21        31         3         31

 Northeast                  7        0         2         3          0     1         1         0         26
  Pennsylvania              7        0         2         3          0     1         1         0         26

 Midwest                   19        2         4         3         5      2         3         0         30
  Illinois                  5        0         2         0         1      1         1         0         31
  Indiana                   1        0         0         1         0      0         0         0          *
  Missouri                  5        1         1         1         0      1         1         0         27
  Nebraska                  1        0         0         0         1      0         0         0          *
  Ohio                      7        1         1         1         3      0         1         0         30

 South                    105        8        21        19         21    13        20         3         32
  Alabama                  13        1         2         2          2     2         4         0         34
  Arkansas                  5        1         0         0          2     0         1         1         34
  Florida                  23        0         9         3          5     2         3         1         26
  Georgia                   8        0         2         2          1     0         3         0         30
  Kentucky                  4        0         0         0          0     1         2         1          *
  Louisiana                 3        0         0         1          0     2         0         0          *
  Mississippi               2        0         1         1          0     0         0         0          *
  North Carolina           11        0         0         1          5     3         2         0         33
  Oklahoma                  4        0         0         0          0     2         2         0          *
  South Carolina            3        0         1         0          0     0         2         0          *
  Tennessee                 2        0         0         1          0     0         1         0          *
  Texas                    25        6         6         6          6     1         0         0         25
  Virginia                  2        0         0         2          0     0         0         0          *

 West                      31        3         6         5         5      5         7         0         31
  Arizona                   5        2         0         1         0      1         1         0         28
  California               11        0         2         2         3      1         3         0         31
  Nevada                    7        1         3         1         1      1         0         0         24
  New Mexico                1        0         0         1         0      0         0         0          *
  Oregon                    5        0         1         0         1      1         2         0         38
  Washington                2        0         0         0         0      1         1         0          *

Other prisoners†
     U.S. total             8        1         2         2          0     2         1         0         27

 Northeast                  2        0         0         1          0     0         1         0           *
  Pennsylvania              2        0         0         1          0     0         1         0           *

 South                      3        0         1         0          0     2         0         0           *
  North Carolina            1        0         0         0          0     1         0         0           *
  Oklahoma                  1        0         0         0          0     1         0         0           *
  Texas                     1        0         1         0          0     0         0         0           *

 West                       3        1         1         1          0     0         0         0           *
  Arizona                   3        1         1         1          0     0         0         0           *

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the   *Medians were not calculated on fewer than 5
following States reported receiving from court no prisoners   cases.
                                                              †"
under sentence of death in 1994: Colorado, Connecticut,        Other prisoners" consists of 2 American Indians
Delaware, Idaho, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire,            (1 each in North Carolina and Oklahoma), 1 Asian
South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.                              (Texas), and 5 Hispanic persons of unspecified
                                                              race (2 in Pennsylvania and 3 in Arizona).




                                                                                                                 Capital punishment in 1994 147
Table 7.12. Level of education completed by prisoners received from court
under sentence of death, by race, 1994
                               Prisoners received from court under sentence of death
Region              Total     7th grade              9th to                    Any     Not
and State           number    or less 8th grade 11th grade 12th grade college          reported
All prisoners
       U.S. total      306       17         26          87           91        27         58

  Northeast             24        1          1           6            2          3        11
   New Jersey            3        0          0           2            0          0         1
   Pennsylvania         21        1          1           4            2          3        10

  Midwest               36        2          0           9           13          4         8
   Illinois             11        1          0           3            2          1         4
   Indiana               2        0          0           0            2          0         0
   Missouri              9        0          0           1            2          2         4
   Nebraska              1        0          0           0            0          1         0
   Ohio                 13        1          0           5            7          0         0

  South                197       12         22          59           54        17         33
   Alabama              24        2          4           2            6         4          6
   Arkansas              8        0          0           5            2         1          0
   Florida              39        2          6           8           10         2         11
   Georgia               8        1          0           2            2         3          0
   Kentucky              4        0          2           0            0         2          0
   Louisiana             6        1          0           2            3         0          0
   Mississippi           5        0          0           3            1         0          1
   North Carolina       27        2          5           5           14         1          0
   Oklahoma             12        0          0           6            3         0          3
   South Carolina        7        0          0           0            0         0          7
   Tennessee             4        1          0           1            0         0          2
   Texas                43        3          3          22            8         4          3
   Virginia             10        0          2           3            5         0          0

  West                  49        2          3          13           22          3         6
   Arizona              10        1          3           4            2          0         0
   California           22        1          0           6           12          2         1
   Nevada                8        0          0           2            4          1         1
   New Mexico            1        0          0           0            1          0         0
   Oregon                6        0          0           1            3          0         2
   Washington            2        0          0           0            0          0         2

Black prisoners
   U.S. total          136        8          9          38           46          6        29

  Northeast             15        1          0           4            1          2         7
   New Jersey            3        0          0           2            0          0         1
   Pennsylvania         12        1          0           2            1          2         6

  Midwest               17        1          0           4            8          1         3
   Illinois              6        1          0           1            2          0         2
   Indiana               1        0          0           0            1          0         0
   Missouri              4        0          0           0            2          1         1
   Ohio                  6        0          0           3            3          0         0

  South                 89        6          8          29           27          2        17
   Alabama              11        0          2           1            3          1         4
   Arkansas              3        0          0           2            1          0         0
   Florida              16        2          0           4            5          1         4
   Louisiana             3        1          0           0            2          0         0
   Mississippi           3        0          0           1            1          0         1
   North Carolina       15        2          4           3            6          0         0
   Oklahoma              7        0          0           4            2          0         1
   South Carolina        4        0          0           0            0          0         4
   Tennessee             2        0          0           1            0          0         1
   Texas                17        1          1          10            3          0         2
   Virginia              8        0          1           3            4          0         0

  West                  15        0          1           1           10          1         2
   Arizona               2        0          1           0            1          0         0
   California           11        0          0           1            8          1         1
   Nevada                1        0          0           0            1          0         0
   Oregon                1        0          0           0            0          0         1




148 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.12. Continued

                                    Prisoners received from court under sentence of death
Region                  Total       7th grade             9th to                 Any      Not
and State               number      or less    8th grade 11th grade 12th grade college reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total             162          9          15           47           43       20        28

  Northeast                   7          0           0            2            1        1         3
   Pennsylvania               7          0           0            2            1        1         3

  Midwest                    19          1           0            5            5        3         5
   Illinois                   5          0           0            2            0        1         2
   Indiana                    1          0           0            0            1        0         0
   Missouri                   5          0           0            1            0        1         3
   Nebraska                   1          0           0            0            0        1         0
   Ohio                       7          1           0            2            4        0         0

  South                     105          6          14           29           26       14        16
   Alabama                   13          2           2            1            3        3         2
   Arkansas                   5          0           0            3            1        1         0
   Florida                   23          0           6            4            5        1         7
   Georgia                    8          1           0            2            2        3         0
   Kentucky                   4          0           2            0            0        2         0
   Louisiana                  3          0           0            2            1        0         0
   Mississippi                2          0           0            2            0        0         0
   North Carolina            11          0           1            2            8        0         0
   Oklahoma                   4          0           0            1            1        0         2
   South Carolina             3          0           0            0            0        0         3
   Tennessee                  2          1           0            0            0        0         1
   Texas                     25          2           2           12            4        4         1
   Virginia                   2          0           1            0            1        0         0

  West                       31          2           1           11           11        2         4
   Arizona                    5          1           1            3            0        0         0
   California                11          1           0            5            4        1         0
   Nevada                     7          0           0            2            3        1         1
   New Mexico                 1          0           0            0            1        0         0
   Oregon                     5          0           0            1            3        0         1
   Washington                 2          0           0            0            0        0         2

Other prisoners
     U.S. total               8          0           2            2            2        1         1

  Northeast                   2          0           1            0            0        0         1
   Pennsylvania               2          0           1            0            0        0         1

  South                       3          0           0            1            1        1         0
   North Carolina             1          0           0            0            0        1         0
   Oklahoma                   1          0           0            1            0        0         0
   Texas                      1          0           0            0            1        0         0

  West                        3          0           1            1            1        0         0
   Arizona                    3          0           1            1            1        0         0

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the   *"Other prisoners" consists of 2 American
following States reported receiving from court no prison-     Indians (1 each in North Carolina and
ers under sentence of death in 1994: Colorado, Con-           Oklahoma), 1 Asian (Texas), and 5 His-
necticut, Delaware, Idaho, Maryland, Montana, New             panic persons of unspecified race (2 in
                                                              Pennsylvania and 3 in Arizona).
Hampshire, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.




                                                                                                          Capital punishment in 1994 149
Table 7.13. Marital status at time of imprisonment for prisoners received
from court under sentence of death, by race, 1994
                           Prisoners received from court under sentence of death
Region                                  Divorced or               Never      Not
and State            Total   Married separated       Widowed      married    reported

All prisoners
      U.S. total       306      67            47           4        151         37

  Northeast             24       8             1           1         13          1
   New Jersey            3       2             0           0          0          1
   Pennsylvania         21       6             1           1         13          0

  Midwest               36       8             4           1         21          2
   Illinois             11       2             0           0          7          2
   Indiana               2       0             0           0          2          0
   Missouri              9       1             1           1          6          0
   Nebraska              1       1             0           0          0          0
   Ohio                 13       4             3           0          6          0

  South                197      41            36           0         97         23
   Alabama              24       6             3           0          5         10
   Arkansas              8       1             2           0          5          0
   Florida              39       6             8           0         21          4
   Georgia               8       2             4           0          2          0
   Kentucky              4       2             2           0          0          0
   Louisiana             6       1             1           0          0          4
   Mississippi           5       1             1           0          1          2
   North Carolina       27       5             7           0         15          0
   Oklahoma             12       5             4           0          0          3
   South Carolina        7       3             0           0          4          0
   Tennessee             4       2             0           0          2          0
   Texas                43       6             4           0         33          0
   Virginia             10       1             0           0          9          0

  West                  49      10             6           2         20         11
   Arizona              10       1             1           0          2          6
   California           22       6             3           0         13          0
   Nevada                8       2             2           0          3          1
   New Mexico            1       0             0           0          1          0
   Oregon                6       1             0           1          1          3
   Washington            2       0             0           1          0          1

Black prisoners
   U.S. total          136      27            10           1         78         20

  Northeast             15       7             0           0          7          1
   New Jersey            3       2             0           0          0          1
   Pennsylvania         12       5             0           0          7          0

  Midwest               17       2             1           1         12          1
   Illinois              6       1             0           0          4          1
   Indiana               1       0             0           0          1          0
   Missouri              4       0             0           1          3          0
   Ohio                  6       1             1           0          4          0

  South                 89      15             9           0         50         15
   Alabama              11       1             1           0          2          7
   Arkansas              3       0             0           0          3          0
   Florida              16       3             1           0          9          3
   Louisiana             3       1             0           0          0          2
   Mississippi           3       0             0           0          1          2
   North Carolina       15       1             4           0         10          0
   Oklahoma              7       4             2           0          0          1
   South Carolina        4       1             0           0          3          0
   Tennessee             2       1             0           0          1          0
   Texas                17       2             1           0         14          0
   Virginia              8       1             0           0          7          0

  West                  15       3             0           0          9          3
   Arizona               2       0             0           0          0          2
   California           11       2             0           0          9          0
   Nevada                1       1             0           0          0          0
   Oregon                1       0             0           0          0          1




150 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.13. Continued

                                Prisoners received from court under sentence of death
Region                                        Divorced or             Never       Not
and State                 Total     Married separated      Widowed married        reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total              162       38          36           3         70         15

 Northeast                     7        1           1           1          4          0
  Pennsylvania                 7        1           1           1          4          0

 Midwest                      19        6           3           0          9          1
  Illinois                     5        1           0           0          3          1
  Indiana                      1        0           0           0          1          0
  Missouri                     5        1           1           0          3          0
  Nebraska                     1        1           0           0          0          0
  Ohio                         7        3           2           0          2          0

 South                       105       25          26           0         46          8
  Alabama                     13        5           2           0          3          3
  Arkansas                     5        1           2           0          2          0
  Florida                     23        3           7           0         12          1
  Georgia                      8        2           4           0          2          0
  Kentucky                     4        2           2           0          0          0
  Louisiana                    3        0           1           0          0          2
  Mississippi                  2        1           1           0          0          0
  North Carolina              11        3           3           0          5          0
  Oklahoma                     4        1           1           0          0          2
  South Carolina               3        2           0           0          1          0
  Tennessee                    2        1           0           0          1          0
  Texas                       25        4           3           0         18          0
  Virginia                     2        0           0           0          2          0

 West                         31        6           6           2         11          6
  Arizona                      5        0           1           0          2          2
  California                  11        4           3           0          4          0
  Nevada                       7        1           2           0          3          1
  New Mexico                   1        0           0           0          1          0
  Oregon                       5        1           0           1          1          2
  Washington                   2        0           0           1          0          1

Other prisoners
     U.S. total                8        2           1           0          3          2

 Northeast                     2        0           0           0          2          0
  Pennsylvania                 2        0           0           0          2          0

 South                         3        1           1           0          1          0
  North Carolina               1        1           0           0          0          0
  Oklahoma                     1        0           1           0          0          0
  Texas                        1        0           0           0          1          0

 West                          3        1           0           0          0          2
  Arizona                      3        1           0           0          0          2

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty   *"Other prisoners" consists of 2 American
statute, the following States reported receiv-   Indians (1 each in North Carolina and
ing from court no prisoners under sentence of    Oklahoma), 1 Asian (Texas), and 5 His-
death in 1994: Colorado, Connecticut, Dela-      panic persons of unspecified race (2 in
                                                 Pennsylvania and 3 in Arizona).
ware, Idaho, Maryland, Montana, New Hamp-
shire, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.




                                                                                             Capital punishment in 1994 151
Table 7.14. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners received
from court under sentence of death, by race, 1994
                                Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes
                                                                                Under sentence for another crime
Region              Not charged with or sen- Charged with               On                                                           Legal status
and State           tenced for another crime another crime       Total  probation On parole Escaped          In prison   Othera      not reported
All prisoners
      U.S. total              161                    21            91        33          47           2            7       2              33

  Northeast                     9                     4             5         2           2           1            0       0               6
   New Jersey                   1                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               1
   Pennsylvania                 8                     4             4         2           1           1            0       0               5

  Midwest                      30                     0             6         1           4           0            1       0               0
   Illinois                    10                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               0
   Indiana                      1                     0             1         1           0           0            0       0               0
   Missouri                     8                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               0
   Nebraska                     1                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   Ohio                        10                     0             3         0           2           0            1       0               0

  South                        90                    16            67        26          35           0            4       2              24
   Alabama                     10                     2             4         0           4           0            0       0               8
   Arkansas                     5                     1             2         0           0           0            2       0               0
   Florida                     20                     7             7         5           0           0            1       1               5
   Georgia                      1                     1             5         5           0           0            0       0               1
   Kentucky                     4                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   Louisiana                    3                     0             3         0           2           0            0       1               0
   Mississippi                  4                     1             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   North Carolina              16                     0            11         6           4           0            1       0               0
   Oklahoma                     3                     0             6         0           6           0            0       0               3
   South Carolina               5                     0             2         2           0           0            0       0               0
   Tennessee                    3                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               0
   Texas                       13                     2            21         5          16           0            0       0               7
   Virginia                     3                     2             5         3           2           0            0       0               0

  West                         32                     1            13         4           6           1            2       0               3
   Arizona                     10                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   California                  15                     0             7         1           4           0            2       0               0
   Nevada                       3                     1             3         2           0           1            0       0               1
   New Mexico                   0                     0             1         1           0           0            0       0               0
   Oregon                       4                     0             2         0           2           0            0       0               0
  Washington                    0                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               2

Black prisoners
     U.S. total                72                    10            41        13          24           0            4       0              13

  Northeast                     4                     4             3         1           2           0            0       0               4
   New Jersey                   1                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               1
   Pennsylvania                 3                     4             2         1           1           0            0       0               3

  Midwest                      16                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               0
   Illinois                     6                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   Indiana                      1                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   Missouri                     4                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   Ohio                         5                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               0

  South                        41                     6            33        12          18           0            3       0               9
   Arkansas                     6                     0             2         0           2           0            0       0               3
   Delaware                     1                     1             1         0           0           0            1       0               0
   Florida                      6                     3             5         4           0           0            1       0               2
   Louisiana                    2                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               0
   Mississippi                  3                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   North Carolina               9                     0             6         3           2           0            1       0               0
   Oklahoma                     2                     0             5         0           5           0            0       0               0
   South Carolina               4                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   Tennessee                    1                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               0
   Texas                        5                     0             8         2           6           0            0       0               4
   Virginia                     2                     2             4         3           1           0            0       0               0

  West                         11                     0             4         0           3           0            1       0               0
   Arizona                      2                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   California                   8                     0             3         0           2           0            1       0               0
   Nevada                       1                     0             0         0           0           0            0       0               0
   Washington                   0                     0             1         0           1           0            0       0               0




152 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.14. Continued

                                     Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes
                                                                                     Under sentence for another crime
Region                  Not charged with or sen- Charged with                On                                                             Legal status
and State               tenced for another crime another crime      Total    probation On parole         Escaped    In prison   Othera      not reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total                     84                     11            48          19            22         2           3         2            19

 Northeast                            3                     0             2           1             0         1           0         0             2
  Pennsylvania                        3                     0             2           1             0         1           0         0             2

 Midwest                            14                      0             5           1             3         0           1         0             0
  Illinois                           4                      0             1           0             1         0           0         0             0
  Missouri                           0                      0             1           1             0         0           0         0             0
  Nebraska                           4                      0             1           0             1         0           0         0             0
  Ohio                               1                      0             0           0             0         0           0         0             0
  South Dakota                       5                      0             2           0             1         0           1         0             0

 South                              49                     10            32          13            16         0           1         2            14
  Alabama                            4                      2             2           0             2         0           0         0             5
  Arkansas                           4                      0             1           0             0         0           1         0             0
  Florida                           14                      4             2           1             0         0           0         1             3
  Georgia                            1                      1             5           5             0         0           0         0             1
  Kentucky                           4                      0             0           0             0         0           0         0             0
  Louisiana                          1                      0             2           0             1         0           0         1             0
  Mississippi                        1                      1             0           0             0         0           0         0             0
  North Carolina                     7                      0             4           2             2         0           0         0             0
  Oklahoma                           1                      0             1           0             1         0           0         0             2
  South Carolina                     1                      0             2           2             0         0           0         0             0
  Tennessee                          2                      0             0           0             0         0           0         0             0
  Texas                              8                      2            12           3             9         0           0         0             3
  Virginia                           1                      0             1           0             1         0           0         0             0

 West                               18                      1             9           4             3         1           1         0             3
  Arizona                            5                      0             0           0             0         0           0         0             0
  California                         7                      0             4           1             2         0           1         0             0
  Nevada                             2                      1             3           2             0         1           0         0             1
  New Mexico                         0                      0             1           1             0         0           0         0             0
  Oregon                             4                      0             1           0             1         0           0         0             0
  Washington                         0                      0             0           0             0         0           0         0             2

Other prisonersb
     U.S. total                       5                     0             2           1             1         0           0         0             1

 Northeast                            2                     0             0           0             0         0           0         0             0
  Pennsylvania                        2                     0             0           0             0         0           0         0             0

 South                                0                     0             2           1             1         0           0         0             1
  North Carolina                      0                     0             1           1             0         0           0         0             0
  Oklahoma                            0                     0             0           0             0         0           0         0             1
  Texas                               0                     0             1           0             1         0           0         0             0

 West                                 3                     0             0           0             0         0           0         0             0
  Arizona                             3                     0             0           0             0         0           0         0             0

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty stat- a "Other" includes mandatory conditional release,   b"
                                                                                                          Other prisoners" consists of 2 American Indians
ute, the following States reported receiving from    bail, temporary leave, work release or furlough,    (1 each in North Carolina and Oklahoma), 1 Asian
court no prisoners under sentence of death in        halfway house, house arrest, and jail.              (Texas), and 5 Hispanic persons of unspecified
1994: Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho,                                                            race (2 in Pennsylvania and 3 in Arizona).
Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, South Da-
kota, Utah, and Wyoming.




                                                                                                                                 Capital punishment in 1994 153
Table 7.15. Felony history of prisoners received
from court under sentence of death, by race, 1994
                                        Prisoners received from court under sentence of death
                                             With prior felony convictions              With       Felony
Region                       Total with      Criminal Other         Type of offen-      no prior   history
and State            Total   prior felonies homicide offenses ses unreported            felonies   not reported

All prisoners
      U.S. total      306          167          16        145             6               101          38

 Northeast             24           14           0         13             1                 7           3
  New Jersey            3            2           0          2             0                 1           0
  Pennsylvania         21           12           0         11             1                 6           3

 Midwest               36           16           3         12             1                13           7
  Illinois             11            4           2          1             1                 7           0
  Indiana               2            1           0          1             0                 1           0
  Missouri              9            6           1          5             0                 0           3
  Nebraska              1            0           0          0             0                 1           0
  Ohio                 13            5           0          5             0                 4           4

 South                197          110          10         96             4                67          20
  Alabama              24           10           2          8             0                 7           7
  Arkansas              8            5           1          4             0                 3           0
  Florida              39           22           3         18             1                11           6
  Georgia               8            8           0          8             0                 0           0
  Kentucky              4            4           1          3             0                 0           0
  Louisiana             6            3           1          2             0                 3           0
  Mississippi           5            4           0          4             0                 0           1
  North Carolina       27           14           1         13             0                13           0
  Oklahoma             12            9           0          9             0                 0           3
  South Carolina        7            2           0          2             0                 5           0
  Tennessee             4            3           0          3             0                 1           0
  Texas                43           18           1         14             3                22           3
  Virginia             10            8           0          8             0                 2           0

 West                  49           27           3         24             0                14           8
  Arizona              10            2           0          2             0                 1           7
  California           22           13           3         10             0                 8           1
  Nevada                8            4           0          4             0                 4           0
  New Mexico            1            1           0          1             0                 0           0
  Oregon                6            5           0          5             0                 1           0
  Washington            2            2           0          2             0                 0           0

Black prisoners
     U.S. total       136           77           6         69             2                45          14

 Northeast             15            9           0          9             0                 4           2
  New Jersey            3            2           0          2             0                 1           0
  Pennsylvania         12            7           0          7             0                 3           2

 Midwest               17            7           1          5             1                 7           3
  Illinois              6            2           0          1             1                 4           0
  Indiana               1            0           0          0             0                 1           0
  Missouri              4            3           1          2             0                 0           1
  Ohio                  6            2           0          2             0                 2           2

  South                89           53           4         48             1                28           8
   Alabama             11            5           1          4             0                 3           3
   Arkansas             3            3           0          3             0                 0           0
   Florida             16           10           1          9             0                 3           3
   Louisiana            3            1           0          1             0                 2           0
   Mississippi          3            3           0          3             0                 0           0
   North Carolina      15            8           1          7             0                 7           0
   Oklahoma             7            7           0          7             0                 0           0
   South Carolina       4            0           0          0             0                 4           0
   Tennessee            2            2           0          2             0                 0           0
   Texas               17            7           1          5             1                 8           2
   Virginia             8            7           0          7             0                 1           0

  West                 15            8           1          7             0                 6           1
   Arizona              2            1           0          1             0                 0           1
   California          11            6           1          5             0                 5           0
   Nevada               1            0           0          0             0                 1           0
   Oregon               1            1           0          1             0                 0           0




154 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.15. Continued

                                              Prisoners received from court under sentence of death
                                                     With prior felony convictions          With          Felony
Region                              Total with      Criminal      Other     Type of offen-  no prior      history
and State                  Total    prior felonies homicide offenses ses unreported felonies              not reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total              162          87             10           73             4             54          21

  Northeast                    7            4             0            3             1              2           1
   Pennsylvania                7            4             0            3             1              2           1

  Midwest                     19           9              2            7             0              6           4
   Illinois                    5           2              2            0             0              3           0
   Indiana                     1           1              0            1             0              0           0
   Missouri                    5           3              0            3             0              0           2
   Nebraska                    1           0              0            0             0              1           0
   Ohio                        7           3              0            3             0              2           2

  South                      105          55              6           46             3             39          11
   Alabama                    13           5              1            4             0              4           4
   Arkansas                    5           2              1            1             0              3           0
   Florida                    23          12              2            9             1              8           3
   Georgia                     8           8              0            8             0              0           0
   Kentucky                    4           4              1            3             0              0           0
   Louisiana                   3           2              1            1             0              1           0
   Mississippi                 2           1              0            1             0              0           1
   North Carolina             11           5              0            5             0              6           0
   Oklahoma                    4           2              0            2             0              0           2
   South Carolina              3           2              0            2             0              1           0
   Tennessee                   2           1              0            1             0              1           0
   Texas                      25          10              0            8             2             14           1
   Virginia                    2           1              0            1             0              1           0

  West                        31          19              2           17             0              7           5
   Arizona                     5           1              0            1             0              0           4
   California                 11           7              2            5             0              3           1
   Nevada                      7           4              0            4             0              3           0
   New Mexico                  1           1              0            1             0              0           0
   Oregon                      5           4              0            4             0              1           0
   Washington                  2           2              0            2             0              0           0

Other prisoners*
     U.S. total                8            3             0            3             0              2           3

  Northeast                    2            1             0            1             0              1           0
   Pennsylvania                2            1             0            1             0              1           0

  South                        3            2             0            2             0              0           1
   North Carolina              1            1             0            1             0              0           0
   Oklahoma                    1            0             0            0             0              0           1
   Texas                       1            1             0            1             0              0           0

  West                         3            0             0            0             0              1           2
   Arizona                     3            0             0            0             0              1           2

Note: Of 37 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the fol-   *"Other prisoners" consists of 2 American Indians (1
lowing States reported receiving from court no prisoners un-       each in North Carolina and Oklahoma), 1 Asian
der sentence of death in 1994: Colorado, Connecticut,              (Texas), and 5 Hispanic persons of unspecified race
Delaware, Idaho, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire,                 (2 in Pennsylvania and 3 in Arizona).
South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.




                                                                                                                          Capital punishment in 1994 155
Table 7.16. Status of prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1994

                                                                            Prisoners removed death row
                                                                                                                                   All charges
                                Serving life                                             Awaiting                 Awaiting         on capital
Region                          sentencesa                          Died                 new trial                new sentence     offense dropped           Other
and State              Total   Total White Black            Total   White   Black   Total White      Black       Total White Black       White         Total White Black

     U.S. totalb        143      43     28       15           43      27      16      18      12        6          28     18    9           2             9    5     4

  Northeast               9       2       1       1            1       0       1       4        1       3           2      1    1           0             0    0     0
   Connecticut            1       0       0       0            0       0       0       0        0       0           1      1    0           0             0    0     0
   New Jersey             1       0       0       0            0       0       0       0        0       0           1      0    1           0             0    0     0
   Pennsylvania           7       2       1       1            1       0       1       4        1       3           0      0    0           0             0    0     0

  Midwest                14       4       3       1            4       2       2       2        2       0           4      2    2           0             0    0     0
   Illinois               7       0       0       0            2       2       0       1        1       0           4      2    2           0             0    0     0
   Indiana                2       1       1       0            1       0       1       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Missouri               1       0       0       0            0       0       0       1        1       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Nebraska               2       1       1       0            1       0       1       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Ohioa                  2       2       1       1            0       0       0       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0

  South                  97      31     19       12           31      20      11      10        8       2          16     11    4           2             7    3     4
   Alabamac               9       3      2        1            1       0       1       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             5    1     4
   Arkansas               5       0      0        0            5       4       1       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Delaware               1       0      0        0            1       0       1       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Floridad              22      13      9        4            5       4       1       2        2       0           0      0    0           1             1    1     0
   Georgia                6       3      0        3            1       0       1       1        0       1           1      1    0           0             0    0     0
   Kentucky               4       1      0        1            0       0       0       1        1       0           2      2    0           0             0    0     0
   Louisiana              2       1      1        0            0       0       0       0        0       0           1      0    1           0             0    0     0
   Maryland               1       0      0        0            1       1       0       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Mississippi            5       3      1        2            0       0       0       2        1       1           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   North Carolinae       15       0      0        0            1       1       0       2        2       0          11      7    3           0             1    1     0
   Oklahoma               5       3      3        0            0       0       0       2        2       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Tennessee              3       3      3        0            0       0       0       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Texas                 15       0      0        0           14      10       4       0        0       0           0      0    0           1             0    0     0
   Virginia               4       1      0        1            2       0       2       0        0       0           1      1    0           0             0    0     0

  West                   23       6       5       1            7       5       2       2        1       1           6      4    2           0             2    2     0
   Arizonaf               6       2       1       1            2       2       0       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             2    2     0
   California             4       1       1       0            3       1       2       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Idaho                  2       1       1       0            1       1       0       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Nevada                 6       1       1       0            0       0       0       2        1       1           3      1    2           0             0    0     0
   Oregon                 2       0       0       0            0       0       0       0        0       0           2      2    0           0             0    0     0
   Utah                   1       1       1       0            0       0       0       0        0       0           0      0    0           0             0    0     0
   Washington             2       0       0       0            1       1       0       0        0       0           1      1    0           0             0    0     0

                                                        b                                                    e
Note: The following States with death penalty             The totals include an American Indian in North       "Other status" consists of a man whose sen-
statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row        Carolina whose sentence was overturned and           tence was overturned in January 1994. He was
in 1994: Colorado, Montana, New Hampshire, New          who was awaiting a new sentence at yearend.          resentenced to death in March 1994. He is in-
Mexico, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Wyoming.      c                                                    cluded in both admission and release counts for
                                                          "Other status" consists of 5 men whose convic-
a                                                                                                            1994.
 One black man in Ohio was sentenced to death in        tions and sentences were overturned. No              f
                                                                                                               "Other status" consists of 2 men whose death
March 1994 and had his sentence commuted to life        further action was taken during 1994.                sentences were overturned; both were released
                                                        d
in prison in June 1994. He is included in both admis-     "Other status" consists of a man whose convic-     because the terms of their new sentences had
sion and release counts for 1994.                       tion and sentence were overturned; he was            expired.
                                                        found not guilty in retrial.




156 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.17. Means of removal for all prisoners from death row, by race, 1994

                                                                      Prisoners removed from death row
                                                                      Death by other        Sentence                    Sentence           Conviction
Region                    Total  a
                                               Executed               than executionb       commutedc                   vactatedd          vacatedd
and State         Total   White Black     Total White Black        Total White Black     Total White Black         Total White Black    Total White Black

   U.S. total       143     92       50     31      20     11        12       7      5        4      1         3    63    43    19       32    21      11

Northeast             9      3        6      0       0       0        1       0      1        0      0         0     6     2      4       2     1       1
 Connecticut          1      1        0      0       0       0        0       0      0        0      0         0     1     1      0       0     0       0
 New Jersey           1      0        1      0       0       0        0       0      0        0      0         0     1     0      1       0     0       0
 Pennsylvania         7      2        5      0       0       0        1       0      1        0      0         0     4     1      3       2     1       1

Midwest              14      9       5       3       1       2        1       1      0        1      0         1     7     5      2       2     2       0
 Illinois             7      5       2       1       1       0        1       1      0        0      0         0     4     2      2       1     1       0
 Indiana              2      1       1       1       0       1        0       0      0        0      0         0     1     1      0       0     0       0
 Missouri             1      1       0       0       0       0        0       0      0        0      0         0     0     0      0       1     1       0
 Nebraska             2      1       1       1       0       1        0       0      0        0      0         0     1     1      0       0     0       0
 Ohio                 2      1       1       0       0       0        0       0      0        1      0         1     1     1      0       0     0       0

South                97     63       33     26      17      9         5       3      2        2      0         2    38    27    10       25    16       9
 Alabama              9      3        6      0       0      0         1       0      1        0      0         0     1     1     0        7     2       5
 Arkansas             5      4        1      5       4      1         0       0      0        0      0         0     0     0     0        0     0       0
 Delaware             1      0        1      1       0      1         0       0      0        0      0         0     0     0     0        0     0       0
 Florida             22     17        5      1       1      0         4       3      1        0      0         0    11     7     4        6     6       0
 Georgia              6      1        5      1       0      1         0       0      0        1      0         1     0     0     0        3     1       2
 Kentucky             4      3        1      0       0      0         0       0      0        0      0         0     3     2     1        1     1       0
 Louisiana            2      1        1      0       0      0         0       0      0        0      0         0     1     1     0        1     0       1
 Maryland             1      1        0      1       1      0         0       0      0        0      0         0     0     0     0        0     0       0
 Mississippi          5      2        3      0       0      0         0       0      0        0      0         0     3     1     2        2     1       1
 North Carolina      15     11        3      1       1      0         0       0      0        0      0         0    12     8     3        2     2       0
 Oklahoma             5      5        0      0       0      0         0       0      0        0      0         0     3     3     0        2     2       0
 Tennessee            3      3        0      0       0      0         0       0      0        0      0         0     3     3     0        0     0       0
 Texas               15     11        4     14      10      4         0       0      0        0      0         0     0     0     0        1     1       0
 Virginia             4      1        3      2       0      2         0       0      0        1      0         1     1     1     0        0     0       0

West                 23     17       6       2       2       0        5       3      2        1      1         0    12     9      3       3     2       1
 Arizona              6      5       1       0       0       0        2       2      0        0      0         0     4     3      1       0     0       0
 California           4      2       2       0       0       0        3       1      2        0      0         0     1     1      0       0     0       0
 Idaho                2      2       0       1       1       0        0       0      0        0      0         0     1     1      0       0     0       0
 Nevada               6      3       3       0       0       0        0       0      0        1      1         0     3     1      2       2     1       1
 Oregon               2      2       0       0       0       0        0       0      0        0      0         0     2     2      0       0     0       0
 Utah                 1      1       0       0       0       0        0       0      0        0      0         0     0     0      0       1     1       0
 Washington           2      2       0       1       1       0        0       0      0        0      0         0     1     1      0       0     0       0

                                                   b                                                       d
Note: The following States with death penalty       White inmates died of natural causes in each of         Further legal proceedings may have followed the
statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row   the following States: Arizona, Florida, Illinois, and   vacating of sentences and of convictions and may
in 1994: Colorado, Montana, New Hampshire,         California; 1 white inmate in Florida committed         have resulted in new sentences of death. A white
New Mexico, South Carolina, South Dakota, and      suicide. Black inmates in Florida and Pennsylvania      male in North Carolina whose sentence was over-
                                                   died from natural causes; black inmates in Ala-         turned in January 1994 was resentenced to death
Wyoming.
a                                                  bama and California committed suicide; and 1            in March 1994. The death sentence of an American
 Total includes a black male in Georgia who was    black inmate in California was shot to death by         Indian in North Carolina was overturned, and he
removed upon a court judgment of retar-            a correctional officer during an altercation.           was awaiting a new sentence.
dation; he was resentenced to life in prison.      c
                                                    Commutation changed sentences from death to
                                                   life in prison or a term of years.




                                                                                                                                       Capital punishment in 1994   157
Table 7.18. Time between sentencing and removal
for prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1994

                                        Prisoners removed from death row
Region                      Less than     12-23      24-35    36-47     48-71   More than
and State           Total   12 months     months months months months           71 months

All prisoners
      U.S. total*    143         2           9        21        8       28          75

  Northeast             9        0           1         1        0        3           4
   Connecticut          1        0           0         0        0        0           1
   New Jersey           1        0           1         0        0        0           0
   Pennsylvania         7        0           0         1        0        3           3

  Midwest             14         1           0         3        0        4           6
   Illinois            7         0           0         2        0        3           2
   Indiana             2         0           0         0        0        0           2
   Missouri            1         0           0         1        0        0           0
   Nebraska            2         0           0         0        0        0           2
   Ohio                2         1           0         0        0        1           0

  South               97         1           6        15        6       17          52
   Alabama             9         0           1         1        1        3           3
   Arkansas            5         0           0         0        0        0           5
   Delaware            1         0           0         0        0        0           1
   Florida            22         1           2         5        3        4           7
   Georgia             6         0           1         0        0        0           5
   Kentucky            4         0           0         1        0        1           2
   Louisiana           2         0           0         1        0        0           1
   Maryland            1         0           0         1        0        0           0
   Mississippi         5         0           0         1        1        0           3
   North Carolina     15         0           1         5        1        3           5
   Oklahoma            5         0           0         0        0        2           3
   Tennessee           3         0           0         0        0        1           2
   Texas              15         0           1         0        0        2          12
   Virginia            4         0           0         0        0        1           3

  West                23         0           2         2        2        4          13
   Arizona             6         0           0         1        1        1           3
   California          4         0           0         0        1        0           3
   Idaho               2         0           1         0        0        0           1
   Nevada              6         0           1         1        0        0           4
   Oregon              2         0           0         0        0        2           0
   Utah                1         0           0         0        0        1           0
   Washington          2         0           0         0        0        0           2

Black prisoners
     U.S. total       50         1           4         6        5       10          24

  Northeast             6        0           1         1        0        3           1
   New Jersey           1        0           1         0        0        0           0
   Pennsylvania         5        0           0         1        0        3           1

  Midwest               5        1           0         0        0        2           2
   Illinois             2        0           0         0        0        2           0
   Indiana              1        0           0         0        0        0           1
   Nebraska             1        0           0         0        0        0           1
   Ohio                 1        1           0         0        0        0           0

  South               33         0           2         4        4        5          18
   Alabama             6         0           1         1        1        2           1
   Arkansas            1         0           0         0        0        0           1
   Delaware            1         0           0         0        0        0           1
   Florida             5         0           0         1        1        2           1
   Georgia             5         0           1         0        0        0           4
   Kentucky            1         0           0         0        0        0           1
   Louisiana           1         0           0         1        0        0           0
   Mississippi         3         0           0         0        1        0           2
   North Carolina      3         0           0         1        1        0           1
   Texas               4         0           0         0        0        0           4
   Virginia            3         0           0         0        0        1           2

  West                  6        0           1         1        1        0           3
   Arizona              1        0           0         0        1        0           0
   California           2        0           0         0        0        0           2
   Nevada               3        0           1         1        0        0           1




158 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.18. Continued

                                              Prisoners removed from death row
Region                           Less than      12-23      24-35    36-47     48-71       More than
and State             Total      12 months      months months months months               71 months

White prisoners
     U.S. total          92             1           4         15          3        18           51

 Northeast                 3            0           0          0          0         0            3
  Connecticut              1            0           0          0          0         0            1
  Pennsylvania             2            0           0          0          0         0            2

 Midwest                   9            0           0          3          0         2            4
  Illinois                 5            0           0          2          0         1            2
  Indiana                  1            0           0          0          0         0            1
  Missouri                 1            0           0          1          0         0            0
  Nebraska                 1            0           0          0          0         0            1
  Ohio                     1            0           0          0          0         1            0

 South                   63             1           3         11          2        12           34
  Alabama                 3             0           0          0          0         1            2
  Arkansas                4             0           0          0          0         0            4
  Florida                17             1           2          4          2         2            6
  Georgia                 1             0           0          0          0         0            1
  Kentucky                3             0           0          1          0         1            1
  Louisiana               1             0           0          0          0         0            1
  Maryland                1             0           0          1          0         0            0
  Mississippi             2             0           0          1          0         0            1
  North Carolina         11             0           0          4          0         3            4
  Oklahoma                5             0           0          0          0         2            3
  Tennessee               3             0           0          0          0         1            2
  Texas                  11             0           1          0          0         2            8
  Virginia                1             0           0          0          0         0            1

 West                    17             0           1          1          1         4           10
  Arizona                 5             0           0          1          0         1            3
  California              2             0           0          0          1         0            1
  Idaho                   2             0           1          0          0         0            1
  Nevada                  3             0           0          0          0         0            3
  Oregon                  2             0           0          0          0         2            0
  Utah                    1             0           0          0          0         1            0
  Washington              2             0           0          0          0         0            2

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes re-   *Includes 1 American Indian in North Caro-
ported no prisoners leaving death row in 1994:               lina removed from death row within 12-23
Colorado, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico,                months.
South Carolina, South Dakota, and Wyoming.




                                                                                                          Capital punishment in 1994   159
 Table 7.19. Age of prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1994

                                             Prisoners removed from death row
 Region              All    Under      20 to      25 to     30 to      35 to    40 to      55 years
 and State           ages   20 years   24 years 29 years 34 years 39 years      54 years   or older

 All prisoners
       U.S. total*   143        1         7         18        25        26         56         10

   Northeast           9        0         0          4         0         1          2          2
    Connecticut        1        0         0          0         0         1          0          0
    New Jersey         1        0         0          1         0         0          0          0
    Pennsylvania       7        0         0          3         0         0          2          2

   Midwest            14        0         1          1         4         2          6          0
    Illinois           7        0         0          1         2         1          3          0
    Indiana            2        0         0          0         1         0          1          0
    Missouri           1        0         0          0         0         1          0          0
    Nebraska           2        0         0          0         0         0          2          0
    Ohio               2        0         1          0         1         0          0          0

   South              97        1         6         11        15        20         39          5
    Alabama            9        0         1          2         3         0          3          0
    Arkansas           5        0         0          0         0         3          2          0
    Delaware           1        0         0          0         0         0          1          0
    Florida           22        1         2          3         3         3          8          2
    Georgia            6        0         0          1         1         1          3          0
    Kentucky           4        0         1          0         0         1          2          0
    Louisiana          2        0         0          1         0         1          0          0
    Maryland           1        0         0          0         0         0          1          0
    Mississippi        5        0         0          1         0         2          1          1
    North Carolina    15        0         2          1         0         6          5          1
    Oklahoma           5        0         0          1         0         0          3          1
    Tennessee          3        0         0          0         1         0          2          0
    Texas             15        0         0          1         4         3          7          0
    Virginia           4        0         0          0         3         0          1          0

   West               23        0         0          2         6         3          9          3
    Arizona            6        0         0          0         1         0          3          2
    California         4        0         0          0         1         0          2          1
    Idaho              2        0         0          0         2         0          0          0
    Nevada             6        0         0          1         1         2          2          0
    Oregon             2        0         0          1         0         0          1          0
    Utah               1        0         0          0         1         0          0          0
    Washington         2        0         0          0         0         1          1          0

 Black prisoners
      U.S. total      50        1         2          9        10        10         16          2

   Northeast           6        0         0          4         0         0          1          1
    New Jersey         1        0         0          1         0         0          0          0
    Pennsylvania       5        0         0          3         0         0          1          1

   Midwest             5        0         1          0         0         1          3          0
    Illinois           2        0         0          0         0         1          1          0
    Indiana            1        0         0          0         0         0          1          0
    Nebraska           1        0         0          0         0         0          1          0
    Ohio               1        0         1          0         0         0          0          0

   South              33        1         1          5         9         8          9          0
    Alabama            6        0         1          1         3         0          1          0
    Arkansas           1        0         0          0         0         1          0          0
    Delaware           1        0         0          0         0         0          1          0
    Florida            5        1         0          2         0         1          1          0
    Georgia            5        0         0          1         1         1          2          0
    Kentucky           1        0         0          0         0         1          0          0
    Louisiana          1        0         0          1         0         0          0          0
    Mississippi        3        0         0          0         0         2          1          0
    North Carolina     3        0         0          0         0         2          1          0
    Texas              4        0         0          0         2         0          2          0
    Virginia           3        0         0          0         3         0          0          0

   West                6        0         0          0         1         1          3          1
    Arizona            1        0         0          0         0         0          0          1
    California         2        0         0          0         0         0          2          0
    Nevada             3        0         0          0         1         1          1          0




160 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.19. Continued

                                                   Prisoners removed from death row
Region                  All      Under       20 to     25 to      30 to      35 to        40 to       55 years
and State               ages     20 years    24 years 29 years 34 years      39 years     54 years    or older

White prisoners
     U.S. total           92          0          4          9          15          16         40           8

 Northeast                 3          0          0          0           0           1           1          1
  Connecticut              1          0          0          0           0           1           0          0
  Pennsylvania             2          0          0          0           0           0           1          1

 Midwest                   9          0          0          1           4           1           3          0
  Illinois                 5          0          0          1           2           0           2          0
  Indiana                  1          0          0          0           1           0           0          0
  Missouri                 1          0          0          0           0           1           0          0
  Nebraska                 1          0          0          0           0           0           1          0
  Ohio                     1          0          0          0           1           0           0          0

 South                    63          0          4          6           6          12         30           5
  Alabama                  3          0          0          1           0           0          2           0
  Arkansas                 4          0          0          0           0           2          2           0
  Florida                 17          0          2          1           3           2          7           2
  Georgia                  1          0          0          0           0           0          1           0
  Kentucky                 3          0          1          0           0           0          2           0
  Louisiana                1          0          0          0           0           1          0           0
  Maryland                 1          0          0          0           0           0          1           0
  Mississippi              2          0          0          1           0           0          0           1
  North Carolina          11          0          1          1           0           4          4           1
  Oklahoma                 5          0          0          1           0           0          3           1
  Tennessee                3          0          0          0           1           0          2           0
  Texas                   11          0          0          1           2           3          5           0
  Virginia                 1          0          0          0           0           0          1           0

 West                     17          0          0          2           5           2           6          2
  Arizona                  5          0          0          0           1           0           3          1
  California               2          0          0          0           1           0           0          1
  Idaho                    2          0          0          0           2           0           0          0
  Nevada                   3          0          0          1           0           1           1          0
  Oregon                   2          0          0          1           0           0           1          0
  Utah                     1          0          0          0           1           0           0          0
  Washington               2          0          0          0           0           1           1          0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no *Includes 1 American Indian in North Carolina
prisoners leaving death row in 1994: Colorado, Montana, New        who was between ages 20 and 24 at the time
Hampshire, New Mexico, South Carolina, South Dakota, and           of removal.
Wyoming.




                                                                                                                   Capital punishment in 1994   161
Table 7.20. Level of education completed by prisoners removed
from death row, by race, 1994

                                         Prisoners removed from death row
Region              Total    7th grade               9th to                  Any       Not
and State           number   or less     8th grade   11th grade 12th grade   college   reported

All prisoners
      U.S. total*    143          17          12         45          40        18         11

  Northeast            9           0           0          2           2         3          2
   Connecticut         1           0           0          0           0         1          0
   New Jersey          1           0           0          0           1         0          0
   Pennsylvania        7           0           0          2           1         2          2

  Midwest             14           0           1          4           4         3          2
   Illinois            7           0           0          1           2         2          2
   Indiana             2           0           1          1           0         0          0
   Missouri            1           0           0          0           0         1          0
   Nebraska            2           0           0          0           2         0          0
   Ohio                2           0           0          2           0         0          0

  South               97          14           9         32          28         8          6
   Alabama             9           2           1          4           1         0          1
   Arkansas            5           1           0          2           2         0          0
   Delaware            1           0           0          1           0         0          0
   Florida            22           2           3          6           6         4          1
   Georgia             6           0           1          1           3         0          1
   Kentucky            4           1           1          1           1         0          0
   Louisiana           2           0           0          1           1         0          0
   Maryland            1           1           0          0           0         0          0
   Mississippi         5           0           1          2           0         0          2
   North Carolina     15           1           0          6           6         2          0
   Oklahoma            5           1           0          3           1         0          0
   Tennessee           3           1           1          0           0         0          1
   Texas              15           2           0          4           7         2          0
   Virginia            4           2           1          1           0         0          0

  West                23           3           2          7           6         4          1
   Arizona             6           0           2          3           0         1          0
   California          4           2           0          0           2         0          0
   Idaho               2           0           0          1           1         0          0
   Nevada              6           1           0          3           1         1          0
   Oregon              2           0           0          0           1         0          1
   Utah                1           0           0          0           1         0          0
   Washington          2           0           0          0           0         2          0

Black prisoners
     U.S. total       50           3           7         19          10         4          7

  Northeast            6           0           0          1           2         1          2
   New Jersey          1           0           0          0           1         0          0
   Pennsylvania        5           0           0          1           1         1          2

  Midwest              5           0           1          2           1         0          1
   Illinois            2           0           0          1           0         0          1
   Indiana             1           0           1          0           0         0          0
   Nebraska            1           0           0          0           1         0          0
   Ohio                1           0           0          1           0         0          0

  South               33           2           6         14           5         2          4
   Alabama             6           1           1          3           0         0          1
   Arkansas            1           0           0          1           0         0          0
   Delaware            1           0           0          1           0         0          0
   Florida             5           0           1          1           1         1          1
   Georgia             5           0           1          0           3         0          1
   Kentucky            1           0           1          0           0         0          0
   Louisiana           1           0           0          1           0         0          0
   Mississippi         3           0           1          1           0         0          1
   North Carolina      3           0           0          3           0         0          0
   Texas               4           0           0          2           1         1          0
   Virginia            3           1           1          1           0         0          0

  West                 6           1           0          2           2         1          0
   Arizona             1           0           0          1           0         0          0
   California          2           1           0          0           1         0          0
   Nevada              3           0           0          1           1         1          0




162 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994
Table 7.20. Continued

                                             Prisoners removed from death row
Region              Total      7th grade                 9th to                    Any       Not
and State           number     or less       8th grade 11th grade 12th grade       college   reported

White prisoners
     U.S. total        92            14            5          26           29        14          4

 Northeast               3             0           0           1            0         2          0
  Connecticut            1             0           0           0            0         1          0
  Pennsylvania           2             0           0           1            0         1          0

 Midwest                 9             0           0           2            3         3          1
  Illinois               5             0           0           0            2         2          1
  Indiana                1             0           0           1            0         0          0
  Missouri               1