U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants Program Shay Bilchik, Administrator January 2000 From the Administrator “If you build it, they will come” Construction, Operations, and appears to ring true when it comes to the construction of Staff Training for Juvenile new or expanded juvenile detention facilities. Before embarking on such a costly Confinement Facilities course of action, however, a community should carefully David Roush and Michael McMillen assess its facility needs and This Bulletin is part of OJJDP’s Juvenile hold juvenile offenders accountable for their ensure that it is effectively Accountability Incentive Block Grants behavior. An indepth description of the using alternatives to secure (JAIBG) Best Practices Series. The basic JAIBG program and a list of the 12 program confinement when appropriate. premise underlying the JAIBG program, purpose areas appear in the overview Bulle- The Juvenile Accountability initially funded in fiscal year 1998, is that tin for this series. Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) young people who violate the law need to be program provides assistance in held accountable for their offenses if society is Overview building or expanding juvenile to improve the quality of life in the Nation’s JAIBG funds may be used to develop correction and detention facili- communities. Holding a juvenile offender programs in any of 12 program purpose ties and in training correctional “accountable” in the juvenile justice system areas established by Congress. The first staff. This Bulletin, one in a means that once the juvenile is determined of these areas—“building, expanding, series featuring JAIBG Best to have committed law-violating behavior, renovating, or operating temporary or by admission or adjudication, he or she is Practices, offers helpful infor- permanent juvenile correction or deten- held responsible for the act through conse- mation about such key aspects tion facilities, including training of cor- quences or sanctions, imposed pursuant to as construction decisions, rectional personnel”—addresses con- law, that are proportionate to the offense. master planning, facility struction, operation, and training. Before Consequences or sanctions that are applied development, and training. It beginning construction, however, juris- swiftly, surely, and consistently, and are also provides sources of dictions should complete a master plan, graduated to provide appropriate and effec- additional information, includ- determine what type of facility will best tive responses to varying levels of offense ing useful publications. meet their needs and expectations, and seriousness and offender chronicity, work reach a decision to construct. Master Shay Bilchik best in preventing, controlling, and reducing planning is a key component because it Administrator further law violations. establishes the specific policies to prevent In an effort to help States and units of local and reduce crowding and control the government develop programs in the 12 pur- length of stay (DeMuro and Dunlap, pose areas established for JAIBG funding, 1998). Bulletins in this series are designed to present To provide practitioners practical guid- the most up-to-date knowledge to juvenile ance and advice on best practices under justice policymakers, researchers, and practi- JAIBG Program Purpose Area 1, this tioners about programs and approaches that paper addresses five main themes: programming, and environmental through the programs and services construction decisions, master plan- needs. During facility development of the American Correctional Asso- ning, facility development, opera- and prior to the start of physical de- ciation (ACA), the Juvenile Justice tions, and training. sign activities, jurisdictions should Trainers Association (JJTA), the also define cost parameters for staff- National Institute of Corrections s Construction decisions. Construc- ing and construction and identify (NIC) Academy Division, the Na- tion under Program Purpose Area site issues. tional Juvenile Detention Associa- 1 includes building new facilities, tion (NJDA), the Office of Juvenile expanding existing capacity s Operations. Program Purpose Area Justice and Delinquency Preven- through new construction, and 1 includes operations, which for tion’s (OJJDP’s) Training and Tech- renovating existing facilities. juvenile detention and corrections nical Assistance Division (TTAD), There are many reasons to build, facilities involves programs and and an increasing number of State- including the large number of ju- services. Consistent with the com- operated training academies. Al- veniles currently incarcerated in petency development aspect of the though this Bulletin presents several crowded facilities (Parent et al., Balanced and Restorative Justice training models and resources, it 1994), the pressing need for secure (BARJ) model,1 the operation of cannot capture all of the abundant beds in jurisdictions without juve- juvenile facilities rests on the as- knowledge on best practices in this nile detention, and the deteriorat- sumption that the best way to im- area. Summaries of effective pro- ing condition of many facilities. prove public safety is by changing grams, along with a list of resources an offender’s behavior. Success in Because construction is expensive, and an extensive bibliography, are doing so, however, is people- decisions to build, expand, or provided to help practitioners re- driven and, therefore, expensive renovate facilities should be trieve original works and supple- (with staff costs for salaries, ben- reached by using systematic, mental materials. efits, and training constituting a data-driven, and rational meth- large part of operational costs). To ods. Decisionmakers, for example, Construction help jurisdictions develop effective should be able to provide empiri- operating practices, this Bulletin Decisions—Assessing cal evidence of a need for con- identifies the fundamental needs of struction. If data indicate a need facilities and the key elements of the Need To Build to build, then jurisdictions have a Juvenile detention and corrections operations, such as organizational strong rationale for construction. have become big business, with more prerequisites and program, staff- s Master planning. Master planning ing, and management principles. and more jurisdictions spending in- is a systematic process that in- creasing amounts of time, energy, and s Staff Training. Accountability-based money to expand detention and cor- creases the effectiveness of long- interventions change juvenile of- rections capacity.3 As public agencies, term decisionmaking. Using a fenders’ behavior by providing them private organizations, architects, and team of juvenile justice specialists with opportunities to experience court systems approach construction and planners from outside a juris- positive relationships with healthy more aggressively than ever, more diction, the process leads key juve- adults in appropriate settings. Staff and larger juvenile facilities come off nile justice and community stake- training is the most cost-effective the drawing boards every day in a holders through activities that will way to integrate accountability- building surge that has begun to rival elicit a locally defined vision and based principles into staff develop- the exponential growth of adult facili- mission for the jurisdiction’s juve- ment in juvenile confinement and ties in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Facili- nile justice system. Data collection custody facilities.2 Staff training ties for young people are no longer an and operational recommendations technology has expanded greatly are then based on these core val- 3 Juvenile detention refers to the custody process that oc- ues and principles. curs between the time of a juvenile’s arrest and the time of 1 The Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) model, a his or her adjudication or disposition. It includes a range of s Facility development. The facility core component of the OJJDP Comprehensive Strategy, placement alternatives that vary in restrictiveness from development process, which begins is a combination of the Balanced Approach and the home detention to secure detention. Correctional place- Restorative Justice models. It includes community with operational/architectural protection, offender accountability, offender compe- ments, by contrast, take place after a juvenile has been adjudicated as an offender and a dispositional plan (or programming, involves document- tency development, and restoration. sentence) has been determined. Correctional placement ing operational priorities and de- 2 Confinement refers to a physically restricting place- alternatives range from small and open residential settings termining spatial requirements and ment, and custody describes places and programs to large, State-operated, maximum-security corrections (such as shelter care, day treatment, and home deten- facilities. Some jurisdictions allow the dispositional place- arrangements that will respond to tion) that involve supervision but may allow youth to ment of juveniles in detention facilities, an action that com- a facility’s management, daily leave at specified times. plicates the distinction between detention and corrections. 2 afterthought, buried in the recesses of experienced an increase in juvenile business-as-usual approach to secure civic concern and public budgets; they arrests overall and in arrests for in- custody generates high bed-need are “big-ticket” items occupying com- creasingly serious offenses. In commu- projections, which, in turn, result in munities’ full and serious attention. nities that have their own secure facili- excess capacity. Excess capacity then ties, the increase has caused buildings leads to continued overuse of secure Reasons for Construction to become crowded and/or juveniles custody for juveniles and an immedi- to be turned away. Jurisdictions that ate and lasting strain on financial re- Reasons for the recent explosion in rely on other communities for secure sources. A jurisdiction may build its construction of juvenile residential fa- beds are frequently told that no room way out of problems, but only tempo- cilities are found in both fact and per- is available. In both situations, one rarily. The numbers usually catch up ception. On the factual side, crowding immediate solution has been to con- with the space available—and usually is widespread (Parent et al., 1994), struct new bed space. With more more quickly than anyone expected. making affected residential programs beds, communities reason, there will difficult to manage and not as safe as In response to these concerns, many be no crowding, operations will im- those operating at recommended ca- jurisdictions are pursuing alternatives prove, and problems will go away. pacities. Residents spend more time in to construction. This approach, which lockdown, and program quality suf- In many instances, communities have uses a range of variably restrictive fers (Previte, 1997). When staff must been correct in perceiving a need for residential and nonresidential ser- focus primarily on safety and security, added capacity. For example, in juris- vices, is commonly called “the con- effective intervention and treatment dictions where population has tinuum of care.” Similar to the gradu- are compromised. In addition, because doubled or tripled over the past 20 ated sanctions model set forth in staffing levels rarely increase as years (often with accompanying OJJDP’s Comprehensive Strategy for Se- quickly as the number of residents, changes in juvenile offenders and in rious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Of- crowded facilities often do not have the general social fabric), institutional fenders (Wilson and Howell, 1993), the enough staff to do the job well. capacities may now be totally inad- continuum-of-care approach requires equate. In many communities, espe- jurisdictions to examine closely how Another reason for the recent growth cially those where juvenile court to direct resources toward managing in construction is the large number of placement practices have not changed, public safety and meeting the needs aging and outdated physical plants, comprehensive master planning has of the greatest number of juveniles many built during the construction confirmed a need for additional capac- (Bilchik, 1998). The continuum-of- booms following World War II (see ity to respond to current and future care approach commonly considers Norman, 1961). Facilities built during needs. In other communities, however, and implements a variety of services the 1950’s, 1960’s, and 1970’s are fast studies have shown that juvenile fa- (such as home detention, electronic approaching the end of their useful cilities are housing youth who pose no monitoring, afterschool and evening lifespan, an end brought nearer by significant threat to community safety report programs, day treatment, resti- the ravages of crowding and (for or the court process and who could be tution, shelter care, and staff-secure many facilities) inadequate mainte- managed as effectively in less restric- residential programs) as alternatives nance and repair budgets. Such older tive and less costly programs and set- to physically restrictive detention facilities also were never intended to tings (Boersema, 1998; Boersema et al., custody (DeMuro, 1997; Guarino- withstand the intense uses they now 1997; Jones and Krisberg, 1994). In Ghezzi and Loughran, 1996; Howell, frequently must serve. While juvenile these instances, the perception that 1997). facilities once served a largely non- secure custody is necessary for all ju- violent and manageable population The JAIBG program raises two im- veniles being detained (and perhaps (with few serious offenders), they portant questions related to maintain- many more) conflicts with the reality. now serve juveniles with profound ing a strong continuum of services. When placement in a secure facility is behavioral problems and learning First, given JAIBG’s endorsement of a jurisdiction’s primary or only treat- deficits and significant mental health the concept of graduated sanctions, ment option, it becomes an expensive needs, many of whom present secu- will jurisdictions develop and expand catchall, one that replaces less restric- rity problems (Cocozza, 1992; Otto et the range of sanctions to serve as con- tive and equally (or more) appropriate al., 1992). A large number of facilities sequences for delinquency? Second, alternatives (Dunlap and Roush, 1995). are inappropriately configured to will an overreliance on juvenile insti- meet these needs. tutions as a first or primary sanction Alternatives to Construction occur that will weaken other sanctions A need for increased capacity is an- When the perceived need for added or the continuum itself? The develop- other factor driving construction. Until capacity conflicts with reality, a ment of a strong continuum of services recently, jurisdictions nationwide have 3 would seem to help achieve JAIBG’s planning process (National Clearing- the final recommendation was to goal of having sanctions that are house for Criminal Justice Planning build a new secure detention center graduated, immediate, and account- and Architecture, 1996; Taylor et al., with a capacity that was 10 beds ability oriented. In addition, a strong 1996; Voorhis, 1996). PONI work- higher than that of the existing facil- continuum may address many juris- shops for juvenile institutions are ity. The jurisdiction’s initial request, dictions’ lack of dispositional options currently available to juvenile justice by contrast, had been to construct a (sanctions) between probation and practitioners. facility with almost twice the num- incarceration. By providing juvenile ber of new beds actually needed. Responding to crowding and a need court judges with options, a strong Without a systematic assessment by for less restrictive services, NJDA as- continuum of care will improve the individuals outside the system, the sembled teams of planners, architects, juvenile justice system’s ability to de- jurisdiction would have signifi- juvenile justice systems specialists, liver appropriate sanctions and hold cantly overbuilt. and law enforcement specialists to offenders accountable. develop juvenile justice master plans for several judicial circuits in Illinois Planning Team Members Master Planning—Getting (Boersema, 1998). In each circuit, Given the high cost of juvenile facility the Numbers Right teams considered how many secure construction, a jurisdiction should detention beds would be needed in carefully review the qualifications of In those instances when increased ca- the future and developed master master planning team members and pacity is necessary, deciding to build a plans with a wide range of alterna- make sure that the team includes the new facility is only the first of many tives, including construction of secure following: an architect experienced in difficult and critical decisions that a and staff-secure detention beds.4 Even building juvenile facilities, a planner jurisdiction must make. Because though the jurisdictions described with juvenile justice and master plan- physical facilities exist for a long time, themselves as very similar to one an- ning experience who is knowledge- jurisdictions should make every effort other, the planning process revealed able in data collection and analysis to ensure that the process leading to significant differences to key stake- procedures, a juvenile justice systems construction will produce the best and holders. Given these differences, the specialist experienced in operating most appropriate buildings possible. assumption that “one size fits all” can model or effective programs and ser- Master planning is the most important be misleading and costly—especially vices, and a local law enforcement step in the construction process (Elias when the proposed solution requires specialist who can provide access to and Ricci, 1997; Farbstein/Williams and construction of new secure beds. information and services from local Associates, 1981; Kimme et al., 1988; law enforcement agencies. The master planning process can McMillen and Hill, 1997). Juvenile change a jurisdiction’s understand- justice system literature emphasizes Planning Steps ing of its needs, including the size the importance of using planning of the facility it thinks that it needs Jurisdictions assessing space needs models to make responsible decisions (McMillen, 1998). In one jurisdic- should complete the following about bed space and construction tion, for example, a review of intake important planning steps: needs (Boersema, 1998; DeMuro, decisions prompted the chief juve- 1997; Jones and Steinhart, 1994). nile court judge and circuit court Step 1: Form an advisory group Chinn (1996) outlines a planning administrator to modify the intake strategy to find new solutions for Each jurisdiction should form an ad- process for all juvenile justice sys- housing habitually violent young visory group to guide planning ef- tem components, including law en- offenders. The National Center for forts. Whether called a stakeholders forcement. This change led to an im- Juvenile Justice recommends a 10- group, steering committee, commu- mediate and lasting 40-percent drop step master planning process to ad- nity advisory group, or interagency in the detention facility’s average dress a range of problems (Steenson workgroup, the group should include daily population. Intake data not and Thomas, 1997); and Barton the jurisdiction’s chief probation of- previously considered also allowed (1994), Guarino-Ghezzi and ficer; its superintendent(s) of juvenile the jurisdiction to lower its bed-space Loughran (1996), and Schwartz (1994) confinement facilities; responsible projections. Given serious structural commend the steps in the master local juvenile justice advocates; and problems with the existing facility, planning process as a strategy to ef- representatives from the juvenile fect broad systems reform. NIC con- 4 court, local law enforcement, the The term “staff-secure” refers to security resulting ducts Planning of New Institutions from the presence of and measures taken by staff public defender’s and prosecutor’s (PONI) workshops and provides ma- members, rather than conditions created by the pres- offices, youth-serving agencies, place- ence of locks or other hardware. ment agencies for adjudicated youth, terials that address the construction 4 and community organizations Counties (NACO), a jurisdiction’s be easy to manage, supervise, and (DeMuro and Dunlap, 1998). continuum of care may suffer when a maintain, and it must resist the hard new facility is built (Office of Juvenile use—and at times abuse—of the Step 2: Define advisory Justice and Delinquency Prevention, young people who reside there. It group tasks 1998). In jurisdictions with limited needs adequate space for required resources, a new facility can become a and desired programs and services. The community advisory group’s financial drain, leaving fewer re- The space must be arranged in a way main tasks are establishing goals for sources for alternatives (noninstitu- that allows staff to do their jobs and the planning process and monitoring tional) and prevention programs. residents to do what is required of progress toward those goals (Ricci, them in a flexible manner. 1995). Establishing goals involves Schwartz (1994) opposes the use of agreeing on those goals that will ap- architects or architectural planning A review of plans and programs for pear in a local juvenile justice system’s firms to collect and analyze data be- juvenile facilities reveals a variety of vision and mission statements and cause a potential conflict of interest physical and operational approaches. identifying the objectives, policies, between an architect’s financial inter- The approach chosen depends on a procedures, and practices related to ests and a jurisdiction’s best interests community’s circumstances and atti- those goals. Monitoring goals involves may exist when a large construction tudes. Architects generally try to be considering how critical decisions and project is involved. Other practition- responsive to both the specific needs outcomes will affect all stakeholders in ers, however, cite examples of archi- of their clients and the constraints im- the system. Careful monitoring will tectural planning firms that have posed by budgets and sites. keep decisionmaking balanced and completed master plans and advised Unfortunately, many facilities are provide the accountability needed to jurisdictions against building juvenile designed without information on the ensure that the process remains consis- confinement facilities even when con- specific expectations and needs of those tent with a group’s vision and mission struction would have benefited the who will use and manage the build- statements. firms financially. ings. In these instances, designers may propose physical structures based on Step 3: Collect and analyze data Step 4: Obtain technical assistance available juvenile or adult system mod- Advisory groups should use data col- Technical assistance regarding how els, which may or may not be appro- lection and analysis resources from to create a master plan and assess a priate. Without carefully considering both within and outside their jurisdic- jurisdiction’s need for new or ex- the following factors, jurisdictions will tions. Although local data experts may panded facility construction is avail- be unable to determine the best pos- be familiar with local systems and able through OJJDP and other sources sible approach for the physical design sources of information, consultants listed in the “For Further Informa- of their facilities: from outside the area may possess tion” section of this Bulletin. s Diverse methods of managing ju- broader knowledge of the quality and venile behavior. implications of data and various Step 5: Involve staff analysis strategies. The planning team s Resident and staff responses to the Planning teams and advisory groups will oversee the data collection pro- physical environment. should involve facility staff, particu- cess, but the community advisory larly line staff and first-level supervi- s Daily program structure. group should determine the quantity sors, in the master planning process and quality of data to be collected. Be- s Staffing patterns and costs. (Taylor et al., 1996). Experience indi- cause many jurisdictions have inad- cates that youth can also play an im- s Circulation and space-sharing pat- equate information management sys- portant role. terns in a facility. tems and important data may be hard to access or of poor quality, data col- s Responses to emergencies and lection and analysis are often tedious Facility Development— other situations. steps in the master planning process. Determining the Type of Considering these factors may lead To address these obstacles, advisory groups should include data collection Facility Needed planners to discover that a proposed For a secure juvenile facility to work design provides security but fails to procedures in the initial plan. well, it must first and foremost be a achieve other essential goals. Because Data analysis should encompass the safe place. Residents should be able a successful design is based on the full range of services and programs to leave and the public enter only at operational priorities of a particular available in the jurisdiction. Accord- staff’s discretion. The facility must project, rote design (i.e., one that ing to the National Association of 5 proceeds without considering such s Implementing behavior manage- s Visual/physical connections priorities) will only compromise a pro- ment methods. between activities. ject’s goals and ultimate effectiveness. s Respecting juvenile rights and s Resident circulation and movement. There is no magical “best approach” recognizing juvenile needs. s Environmental priorities (sound, to facility design. In developing any s Providing programs that address lighting, furnishings, appearance, new or expanded facility, jurisdictions juvenile, system, and family needs. image). and their planners must find their own best approach, basing designs on their s Implementing methods for foster- s Maintenance and repair (durabil- own expectations, rather than on pre- ing resident accountability, coop- ity, life cycle costs). conceived architectural notions. The eration, and participation. s Staff communications and support. architectural/operational program- s Recognizing the importance of ming process described below permits s Potential staffing requirements and resident skills assessment and such an individualized approach. costs. development. s Staff qualifications and training Architectural/Operational s Recognizing the importance of requirements. family involvement with residents. Programming s Codes and standards With growing demands for improved s Emphasizing effective intervention requirements. security, program quality, and archi- and treatment or punishment. tectural sophistication, predesign s Operational flexibility. s Appreciating and responding to planning has become increasingly im- resident gender, culture, religion, s Future expansion potential. portant. Operational programming— and ethnicity. which should involve key agency and s Construction cost parameters. community decisionmakers, court s Recognizing the value of links to A review of these specific issues will representatives, service providers, community and transition services. help to determine a facility’s essential and other community stakeholders— s Emphasizing the importance of operational concepts and identify de- involves having these parties exam- returning juveniles to productive velopmental options that are respon- ine closely what they intend to ac- roles in the community. sive to these essential concepts. complish with a proposed facility. Failure to involve all concerned par- These factors, among others, should Following close on the heels of opera- ties in the process can lead to confu- guide the continuing development tional programming, architectural sion and dissension. and refinement of programs, staffing planning takes all of the previously patterns, environmental quality, and assembled information and begins The operational programming pro- spaces at a proposed facility. If a facil- to enter real numbers and specific cess typically begins with a review of ity and its services are to succeed, spaces into the equation. a facility’s proposed vision and mis- planners should address the use of sion statements (e.g., to protect the Once a facility’s major functions have space only after all other priorities public and prevent flight from pros- been identified, the architectural plan- have been established. ecution, provide a safe and secure en- ning process examines the various ac- vironment, deliver programming and Next, operational programming tivities that take place in different areas, services consistent with legal require- should investigate the following the number of people involved, and the ments, and ensure resident health specific issues: times these activities occur. This analy- and welfare). These statements may sis generates net area (square footage) s Security and supervision methods. serve as the foundation for building a requirements for anticipated activities. hierarchy of programs and spaces. In s Optimal residential group size for Net area requirements are then com- many cases, however, the statements housing and activities. bined with circulation and other re- only begin to scratch the surface of quirements related to resident and s Classification. expectations for a facility. staff movement within the building, s Special needs groups. the need for other spaces (mechanical A comprehensive range of philo- rooms, electrical closets, and various sophical and operational imperatives s Scope of daily programs and undefined spaces), and additional should be established before physical services. space required for wall thickness and planning activities begin. Such im- s Scheduling of activities. other structural elements. This calcula- peratives may include: tion yields the gross building area or 6 total square footage required for the to make the best possible decisions high priority because building codes building. It is not unusual for the total from the outset, before committing and standards typically do little more square footage required by a residential plans to brick and mortar. than prescribe minimum spatial re- facility to be up to 50-percent greater quirements (American Correctional than the net area required for actual Space Considerations Association, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c). user activities. Facility staff may require the flexibility Defining the gross building area and to depart from certain professional stan- While individual space require- general spatial arrangements makes it dards of practice to fulfill operational ments for facility functions are be- possible to project capital construc- needs specific to their own facility. ing developed (see table 1), archi- tion costs and related expenditures tects should explore with facility for furnishings, fees, and site work. Although spatial requirements for se- operators factors—scheduling, po- Because these projections may form cure juvenile facilities vary depending tential circulation patterns, supervi- the basis for funding procurement on a facility’s capacity and scope of sion and staffing requirements, and and for ensuring that a building is activities, these requirements usually options for connecting various constructed within budget, the re- include more space per resident than spaces and activity zones—to be lated analysis of space considerations is required in facilities designed for considered in determining spatial must be thorough. The process of ex- adults. The demand for a high level arrangements. Architects should amining space considerations and of service and activity at juvenile then develop construction diagrams projecting costs must precede physi- facilities—to keep juveniles occupied that show the most efficient visual cal design efforts to ensure that all during the day and to facilitate the and physical connections (func- operational objectives are achieved intervention process—requires more tional adjacencies) and indicate and to prevent costly changes in space. access control points and circulation scope during subsequent design In facilities with 50 or fewer residents, patterns (see figure 1, page 8). phases (DeWitt, 1987). spatial allocations of 700 to 800 square A facility’s design can succeed only The amount of space required for feet per resident are not uncommon. to the extent that it meets the needs various facility functions depends on Larger facilities, which achieve certain and expectations of its users. Build- many factors, including State licens- economies of scale, may reasonably ing a residential facility is expen- ing and building codes, professional average 600 to 700 square feet per resi- sive and, once construction begins, standards of practice (American Cor- dent. A design that significantly exceeds there is generally no chance to cor- rectional Association, 1991a, 1991b, these ranges without offering compel- rect errors in design. Comprehen- 1991c), and the operational priorities ling justification may be seen as overly sive operational programming and and methods governing where, when, generous. On the other hand, one that architectural planning provide fa- and how activities are to take place. provides significantly less space may cility planners with an opportunity Operational factors should be given jeopardize a facility’s functionality. Table 1: Sample Space Listing (Housing Component) Space Square Total Net Number Space/Area Quantity Feet Square Feet Comments 5.100 Bedrooms (Standard) 9 70 630 Single User, Toilet 5.101 Bedroom (ADA Access)* 1 100 100 Single User, Toilet 5.102 Quiet Living/Dayroom 1 500 500 10 Users, Natural Lighting 5.103 Staff Desk 1 30 30 Open Station, Telephone 5.104 Restroom/Shower 1 70 70 Single User, ADA Access 5.105 Shower 1 40 40 Single User 5.106 Storage/Janitor Closet 1 80 80 With Janitor Sink Total Net Square Feet 1,450 Six Units (60 Beds) @ 1,450 NSF/Unit 8,700 Note: Space Listing covers general population housing units with 10 beds. Source: Mike McMillen, AIA * Bedroom must be accessible according to standards of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA). 7 Figure 1: Sample Spatial Relationships Diagram Primary Security Perimeter Support Areas Indoor Future Future Housing Laun- Housing Recreation Housing Unit Housing Unit Unit dry Unit Outdoor 4 5 1 2 Recreation Stor- age Future Multipurpose Multipurpose Activities Area Dining Visiting Control Public Exam Vest Lobby Access Housing Education Kitchen Outdoor Unit Admissions Staff Recreation 3 Adminis- tration Police Service Access Access New Construction Diagram 30-Bed Initial Capacity With Expansion to 50 Beds Secure Access Control Secondary Access Control Secure Areas Source: Mike McMillen, AIA Design Issues certain aspects of secure residential correctional facilities are larger, bet- An effective juvenile facility, through a design are of universal importance. ter equipped with security hardware combination of spaces, security fea- These aspects are discussed below. and technology, and better able to tures, and environment, allows staff to accommodate growth. They also perform their jobs with ease and pro- Security and safety emphasize the use of materials that fessionalism. Although operating an resist abuse, destruction, and pen- Having a secure and safe facility—the effective residential program for juve- etration by residents. Although ma- first requisite in secure juvenile niles is never easy, the physical setting terials that create a less restrictive confinement—involves more than can help or hinder operations. If staff environment may be available, using construction materials and hardware. members have to struggle with a build- durable materials is a way to ensure True security and safety derive from ing to accomplish their objectives, they that a building provides a first line a combination of physical materials, may not make the effort to do their jobs of defense that staff do not need to management methods, resident su- well or they may seek easier but less worry about. If juveniles cannot es- pervision, program features, staff beneficial ways to perform their duties. cape or engage in damaging behav- support, and access control. In addition, a building with design ior as a way to exert control or gain A sharp philosophical shift in the attention, then both staff and resi- elements that provoke undesired re- planning and design of juvenile fa- dents will be able to focus on more sponses from residents will only make cilities has followed the general productive activities. staff members’ jobs harder. trend toward tougher penalties on Although no single combination of Most new facilities feature a secure juvenile offenders (Niedringhous spaces, security features, and environ- building perimeter that minimizes the and Goedert, 1998). New juvenile ment is appropriate for every situation, potential for unauthorized resident 8 egress, public access, and resident juveniles to ensure effective involve- crowding and restrictiveness that of- contact with the public. Within the ment and behavior management. ten leads residents to engage in building, major functional spaces (Having 1 staff member supervise thoughtless and unsafe behavior. such as housing, education, recre- 40 juveniles would be a prescription Despite the need for increasingly re- ation, dining, and visiting areas are for serious problems.) In addition, strictive physical features, juvenile jus- zoned so that staff can control resi- almost all juvenile facilities use direct tice professionals continue to empha- dent access and maintain appropriate supervision staffing patterns, with size the need for facilities to reflect group size and separation. Many fa- staff physically present and directly intense concern for the juveniles who cilities control access between zones involved with residents at all times. reside in them. For example, profes- remotely (from a central security or Juveniles are not (and should not be) sionals demand buildings that support control station), making it unneces- left to their own devices or managed a wide range of activities and encour- sary for staff to carry keys (often a by remote control. age ongoing contact between residents target of residents). To ensure contin- Higher staff-resident ratios at juvenile and staff. In this context, security and uous visual contact between residents facilities allow for more effective inter- safety are recognized as necessary to and staff, walls of damage-resistant action. When staff have many oppor- accommodate people and places— glazing are used extensively in parti- tunities to work with residents, prob- rather than as ways to create coercive tions separating residential areas. lems can be identified and resolved and restrictive confinement. Nearly all housing in new facilities before they pose a threat to safety. Ju- consists of single-occupancy bed- veniles themselves will feel safer, will Group size/classification rooms with integral sanitary fixtures. feel less exposed to unknown threats, Another fundamental difference be- If these features seem like those al- and will be less likely to act out. tween juvenile and adult facilities is ready common in adult facilities, Another common and effective super- the typical size of resident groups or there is good reason. Juvenile justice vision strategy at juvenile facilities is housing units. Although housing practitioners today face many of the having residents participate regularly units with capacities of 25 to 40 are same safety and security problems in programs and services such as edu- common at adult facilities, juvenile that their adult system counterparts cation, recreation, and counseling. A facilities rarely have units that house have long faced, making a similar juvenile who is occupied and engaged more than 12 to 16 residents and of- level of protection necessary in juve- is far less likely to present behavior ten have units that house as few as 8 nile facilities. In many ways, how- problems. He or she will also realize residents. Juvenile programs avoid ever, differences between juvenile general benefits in such areas as per- larger resident groups for various rea- and adult operations are more pro- sonal skills development, health main- sons, including the following: nounced now than in the past. tenance, academic achievement, and s Larger groups of juveniles are cooperation (Glick and Goldstein, 1995; Direct supervision more difficult to manage. Henggeler, 1998; Rubenstein, 1991). Direct supervision in adult correc- s It is harder for staff (who are often Normalization of the residential tions (Farbstein, Liebert, and both counselors and supervisors) environment—both the physical and Sigurdson, 1996; Nelson, 1993; Nelson to work effectively with individu- operational character of a facility—is et al., 1984) is not the same as direct als in larger groups. another essential element in develop- supervision in juvenile facilities. The ing a safe and secure setting. Al- s It is more difficult to move larger staffing ratio is one source of differ- though a secure detention facility is groups for various program ence. Adult facilities commonly use not an environment that most resi- activities. 1 correctional officer for every 40 or dents would describe as normal, more inmates (Nelson et al., 1984; An increasingly important reason for many facilities today are designed Wright and Goodstein, 1989). To small group sizes at juvenile facilities with the intent of minimizing overtly maintain safety and security with this relates to resident classification pri- institutional characteristics so that ratio, adult facilities rely on electronic orities. In the past, most juvenile fa- residents will not engage in the nega- surveillance, security construction, cilities had relatively small capacities. tive behaviors that an institutional and behavior management teams or These small facilities needed small environment may prompt. Spatial va- therapeutic Special Weapons and Tac- resident groups in order to separate riety, movable furnishings, natural tics (SWAT) teams charged with crisis boys from girls and older youth from lighting, acoustic control, housing/ management. By contrast, juvenile younger and to make it possible for group size, and opportunities for resi- facilities usually need 1 staff person staff to work with residents on a more dent movement are design elements working directly with every 8 to 10 individualized basis. Today, juvenile that can help to reduce the sense of 9 facilities are becoming larger, but the group sizes and staffing levels that leaving a secure custodial setting is need for more refined classification support this approach. not an option for residents, the possi- methods (and for the ability to place bility that they will plot such an residents in small groups) is more Environmental concerns action is a continuing source of staff apparent than ever. Juvenile facilities concern. The wisdom of Vitruvius (the Greek are receiving a higher percentage of scholar who explained that a building Some secure residential facilities for serious offenders, sexual offenders, may be judged by its adherence to the juveniles are designed to inhibit or juveniles with identified substance principles of commodity, firmness, prevent these undesirable responses abuse and mental health problems, and delight) has certain relevance to by physically restricting residents at and female offenders. Accordingly, environmental concerns that are per- all times and using materials and facilities need something other than tinent to juvenile facilities. By com- spaces that allow no opportunity for a one-size-fits-all management ap- modity, Vitruvius meant that a build- entry or escape. Such buildings, how- proach. They need an approach that ing must serve the function for which ever, often evidence little consider- includes specially structured pro- it was intended. By firmness, he ation for the sensibilities of their oc- gramming and services and the abil- meant that a building should be able cupants. At the opposite extreme, ity to classify and separate juveniles to withstand the rigors of wind, rain, other buildings are completely non- into small groups for housing and and inhabitants. By delight, he meant restrictive and are designed for man- program purposes. Although pro- that a building should provide enjoy- agement methods that rely entirely gram staff rarely, if ever, want to as- ment to its users. on staff and program structure to re- semble large groups of juveniles, they spond to and control any potential should be able to do so when neces- Although it is easy to see how the problem behaviors. sary or appropriate without being re- concepts of commodity and firmness stricted by the organization or spatial apply to secure juvenile facilities, it is The majority of juvenile facilities limitations of a building. harder to see the connection between fall somewhere in between these ex- secure juvenile facilities and the prin- tremes, depending on the population The issue of what housing unit size is ciple of delight. The concept of de- being served and local attitudes. Most best has by no means been resolved light, however, applies in many ways are designed both to be physically du- and probably never will be. Economic to these facilities. The spaces that rable and to take human factors into considerations (smaller units usually people live and work in profoundly account. Providing residents opportu- mean higher staffing costs) often con- affect their attitudes, comfort levels, nities to cooperate and behave respon- flict with operational needs (smaller and feelings about how good or bad sibly encourages them to do so and to units can mean better staff manage- their circumstances are. In turn, these become more accountable for their ac- ment of residents). Therefore, differ- perceptions influence people’s ap- tions. The physical setting, while dis- ent balances must be struck in differ- proaches to getting through each day. couraging abuse or destruction of the ent communities. Although most A person in an inhospitable, threaten- building and its furnishings by resi- programs call for smaller units (up to ing, or demeaning environment, for dents, must also project an image that 12 residents), some prefer larger units example, may feel overcome by cir- reinforces society’s positive expecta- with multiple staff assigned to each cumstances and seek relief through tions of juveniles (rather than one unit to allow staff present to provide isolation. A person in a restrictive en- that will provoke counterproductive immediate support. Some jurisdic- vironment might try to exert control responses). tions insist on making all housing over his or her situation by attempt- units in a single facility the same size, Such a setting offers a normalized or ing to change things or simply trying thereby permitting consistent and ef- noninstitutional environment, one to get up and leave. ficient staff allocation (because it is whose features will moderate the per- virtually impossible to predict how In a secure juvenile facility, none of ception of institutional confinement. the number of residents in each clas- these responses is desirable. Juveniles Small group living arrangements re- sification will change over time). who isolate themselves (emotionally lieve the sense of crowding and the Others require the development of or physically) become unreachable strain of fitting in with other youth. variable-size housing units so that and pose special management prob- Natural lighting and regular physical certain groups of residents can be lems. Juveniles who try to exert con- and visual access to outdoor spaces lodged in smaller groups, based on trol through aggressive, confronta- reduce impressions of confinement, management and program needs. Al- tional, or manipulative behavior as does the ability to move among though there is more than one way of present a danger to staff and other locations with varied spatial charac- doing things correctly, juvenile facili- residents and disrupt the smooth ter. A quiet acoustic environment, ties generally lean toward smaller flow of daily activities. Although achieved through carpeting and other 10 surface treatments, furnishings, and management practices in a juvenile other staff and prompt notification of spatial configurations, can be used to facility is the need for staff to work others in the event of an emergency. create the perception of a calm and consistently and effectively with resi- controlled setting. dents. To do so, staff must be confi- Housing dent of both their personal safety and In a 1998 keynote address to the Housing is a critical issue in design- the overall security of the facility. American Institute of Architects Con- ing a successful juvenile facility. As When staff are responsible for too ference, James Bell, a staff attorney discussed above (under “Group size/ many residents, when they doubt the for the Youth Law Center, described classification”), housing units for ju- availability of assistance in emergen- the optimal features of a juvenile fa- veniles tend to be smaller than those cies, or when they have a limited cility as follows: in adult facilities. The vast majority of number of responses to resident be- units in juvenile facilities support 8 to While technology may be good havior, they are likely to avoid close 12 residents—the maximum number, for adult incarceration, it has contact with residents under their according to juvenile authorities, that proven repeatedly to be a poor care and rely on physically restrictive a single staff person can manage ef- way to administer juvenile facili- measures to achieve control. As a re- fectively with a high level of staff in- ties. Use your designs as a tool to sult, program quality suffers, and a teraction and safety (Parent et al., try to reduce warehousing of more institutional character prevails. 1994). Although smaller units may young people, many of whom Appropriate group size is a decisive result in less efficient staffing pat- have still not been adjudicated factor in staff members’ perception of terns, they may be necessary for cer- delinquent. control. The ability to keep groups tain categories of offenders. Larger Make sure there is plenty of light within various zones also contributes housing units—though more com- and space. Juveniles in general to a sense of control. Other design mon in recent large facilities—are are mercurial, and they definitely features affect staff perception of con- generally considered unacceptable in are so while detained. A light, trol. Housing and activity spaces, for small facilities because it is harder to spacious setting can improve example, should be arranged in a classify residents when they are part their spirits when they return way that promotes a high degree of of larger groups. from court or from a visit that visibility for staff within and outside Housing units must support such goes poorly. those areas. Juveniles should not be varied activities as sleeping, counsel- able to conceal themselves in corners Make sure there is enough space ing, studying, reading, writing, play- or rooms that are not directly super- for large muscle exercise and for ing board games, using a computer, vised. Resident circulation between classrooms and contact visiting. and watching television. Staff gener- physically controlled security zones Be wary of multiple use rooms ally want housing areas to be quiet (housing, education, recreation, visit- that are supposed to serve as the spaces that provide residents with a ing, dining) should also be direct and primary classroom. You can be- sense of calm, reflection, and privacy easily observed by staff. Residents lieve that any space not desig- after days filled with structured pro- should know that they are being ob- nated specifically for classrooms grams and activities. To control noise served at all times and that there are will probably not be used as such. and intensity levels, active pursuits no gaps in surveillance—even when There are too many competing such as table games, exercise, and rec- staff are not working with them di- needs for any large space and reation often occur outside of, but rectly. Remote audio and visual moni- school will be one of the first close to, housing areas. toring systems should be used, as ap- casualties. propriate, to supplement direct To create spatial flexibility and allow I know that you can design facili- supervision and to ensure backup for certain program activities in hous- ties that downplay the negative during periods of low staffing. ing areas, many housing unit designs aspects of confinement and pro- include living space beyond the mini- Staff members must also be able to vide positive space through your mum levels required by national stan- communicate immediately with one use of natural light, glass, colors, dards. Many facilities also now incor- another at all times. Access to audio textures, and furnishings. porate easily accessible activity communication systems should be spaces, both indoor and outdoor, in uncomplicated and widely available. Staff support, communication, close proximity to housing. In many new facilities, staff are and supervision equipped with cordless telephones or Some new facilities feature housing One of the great challenges in de- other wireless communication de- units based on the “unit management veloping effective operations and vices to ensure instant connection to concept,” meaning that the majority 11 of resident activities (including din- of multiple-occupancy sleeping rooms, necessary. Doors, whether made of ing and education) occur within the practitioners have found that shared heavy-gauge metal or solid wood, housing unit. This approach mini- sleeping spaces—even with intensive should have vision panels. Although mizes resident circulation. Most resi- supervision—are often a source of in- fire safety regulations may require dential programs, however, involve creased juvenile injuries, intimidation, remote release doors, normal opera- extensive movement of residents and other undesirable behaviors. ACA tions usually allow staff to control among spaces and reserve housing standards require facilities’ living sleeping room doors with a key. units for sleeping, studying, and en- units to be designed primarily for Suicide prevention is a paramount gaging in certain small group activi- single-occupancy sleeping, allowing concern in designing facilities. The ties. Although either approach can be no more than 20 percent of housing time that a juvenile spends in his or successful, the decision to pursue one capacity to be multiple-occupancy her room, when contact with staff and over the other should be carefully sleeping rooms (American Correctional other residents is limited, can be the considered during project planning Association, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c). The most emotionally disturbing period of phases because the two approaches court in T.I. et al. v. Delia et al. (King the juvenile’s entire incarceration require radically different designs. County, WA), for example, held that (Hayes, 1998; Rowan, 1989). Recogniz- having three or more youth in one Regardless of the amount of resident ing the potential for suicidal and other sleeping room constituted a potentially movement envisioned, most housing dangerous behavior, most residential dangerous, and even unconstitutional, areas in new juvenile facilities include programs seek to minimize the time threat to individual safety and ordered the following: that juveniles spend in their rooms. In a stop to multiple-occupancy sleeping addition, programs attempt to elimi- s Single-occupancy sleeping rooms. rooms (i.e., those with three or more nate protrusions and sharp edges in residents) in juvenile detention facili- s Group living spaces. sleeping rooms and limit residents’ ties (cf., Puritz and Scali, 1998). access to hardware or other materials s Individual showers and restrooms. OJJDP’s Research Report Conditions that might be used for self-destructive s Storage spaces for clothes, linens, of Confinement: Juvenile Detention and purposes. Sleeping rooms today are and other items used on the unit. Corrections Facilities (Parent et al., consequently more spartan than in the 1994) has similarly linked increased past, an environmental tradeoff con- s Accessible janitor closets (which juvenile-on-juvenile injuries to large sidered acceptable given the need for facilitate resident participation in dormitories (11 or more residents in increased safety and the limited time cleaning). one large room) and recommends that residents spend there. By contrast, Staff desk areas are often included in eliminating dormitory sleeping ar- group living spaces in housing units housing areas to allow staff members rangements in all juvenile facilities. today are generally more open, less to complete paperwork and related Because of these concerns, many pro- confining, and more easily supervised activities in close proximity to resi- gram operators faced with crowding than in the past. dents. According to the mandates of refuse to place more than one resident Most program operators favor single- the 1990 Americans With Disabilities in a sleeping room, opting instead to level housing arrangements over Act, housing unit designs must also put extra mattresses in separate and multilevel arrangements because now include a certain number of bed- easily supervised dayrooms or hall- single-level arrangements permit rooms with wheelchair access. Many ways to minimize the potential for easier access to and better supervi- housing units and the areas within injury or other dangers. sion of sleeping rooms. Site restric- and immediately adjacent to them Because sleeping rooms are the hard- tions, staffing levels, cost constraints, also have laundry facilities that allow est areas to supervise, they should be and other factors, however, some- resident participation, interview a facility’s most durable and abuse- times require facilities to consider rooms that may be used by social ser- resistant spaces. Hard finishes and split-level or two-story housing ar- vices and other staff members, addi- stainless steel sanitary fixtures are rangements, with bedrooms stacked tional storage space, and “timeout” commonly used, windows and vertically around a common living or rooms that permit temporary separa- frames are designed to be durable, dayroom area. Although many newer tion of residents who are exhibiting and windows are designed and lo- facilities have used this approach suc- disruptive behavior. cated to prevent external communica- cessfully (Dugan, 1998), it poses sig- Single-occupancy sleeping rooms are tion. Sleeping rooms should include nificant design and operational chal- preferred in most juvenile confine- audio communications systems to al- lenges, including potential difficulties ment settings. Although professional low residents to contact staff and staff with vertical circulation, resident ac- standards and case law permit the use to contact and monitor residents as cess, emergency egress, room checks 12 and supervision, and ADA compli- each day or requiring them to com- pursuits (e.g, computer games) ance and the potential for behavior plete self-directed learning packets (Calloway, 1995; Grimm, 1998; Roush, problems (e.g., jumping or throwing and related activities, program opera- 1996c). Active recreational activities objects from upper levels). tors usually believe that more exten- (which involve vigorous competitive sive academic activities are necessary and noncompetitive activities) are an For the most part, secure detention to meet residents’ needs (Leone, Ru- essential part of daytime and evening housing spaces are intended to pro- therford, and Nelson, 1991; Wolford programming (Bell, 1990, 1992, 1996; vide a constant level of physical secu- and Koebel, 1995). The time that a ju- Soler et al., 1990). The availability of rity and supervision that supports venile spends in custody, when edu- indoor space for these activities al- flexible use (based on needs deter- cators can have his or her undivided lows residents to pursue active exer- mined by staff). Spatial and material attention, is often described as a cise regardless of weather conditions. distinctions are less important design “teachable moment,” a time when Outdoor recreational opportunities considerations than a facility’s ability considerable learning can take place should also be available to relieve the to use housing spaces in a variety of (Cavanagh, 1995). Given this oppor- stress of constant indoor confinement. ways that may be modified over time. tunity, many residential programs For these, practitioners generally fa- feature hours of year-round educa- vor easily supervised outdoor areas Programs and Services tional activities (formal and informal) that are close to housing and indoor Having a full schedule of programs that focus not only on standard activity areas (for easy access) and and services available to residents fa- academic subjects, but also on the suitable for small groups. cilitates effective management of their following: behavior. Keenly aware that residents Visitation s Life skills development. may find unproductive or damaging Visitation with family members usu- outlets for youthful energy when lim- s Communications skills assessment. ally involves scheduled periods for ited opportunities for positive activ- s Remedial reading and writing group contact visitation,5 supple- ity are available, program staff in ju- instruction. mented by prearranged private visits venile facilities believe that structured as appropriate. Most facilities include educational and recreational activities s Conflict resolution skills develop- group visiting rooms and private are the best defense against misbe- ment (including instruction on so- visiting rooms (for meetings with havior (Roush, 1996c). cial skills, anger management, and family and legal counsel) within a healthy lifestyles). In addition to their behavior manage- building’s secure perimeter but out- ment benefits, program and service s Computer literacy. side its primary residential areas. opportunities are essential to resi- Some program operators oppose s Learning skills assessment. dents’ health and well-being (Bell, bringing visitors into any residential 1990, 1992, 1996; National Commis- Daytime learning activities frequently areas, given the possible disruption of sion on Correctional Health Care, carry over into the evening and may programming for juveniles receiving 1999; Soler et al., 1990). Facilities ac- also include counseling and group visitors, the need to control contra- cordingly allow visitation and pro- instruction in subjects such as anger band, and other safety concerns. vide comprehensive education, recre- management, peer pressure re- Some facilities also have a limited ation, counseling, religious, and sponses, and substance abuse resis- number of noncontact visiting rooms medical services (Roush, 1993). Al- tance. A well-founded residential pro- to be used in the rare circumstance though specific requirements for pro- gram seeks both to identify problems when potential harm to residents or grams in each of these areas are not that may contribute to delinquency visitors is anticipated. always defined, professional stan- and to initiate coordinated educa- dards, case law, and State codes tional responses to these problems. Health care mandate provision of these services Most juvenile facilities’ medical (Roush, 1993), and best practices Recreation services include medical screening, demand something more than a regular examinations, sick call, and Recreation includes such diverse ac- minimalist approach. distribution of medications (Morris, tivities as exercise and sports, con- structive leisure activities for indi- Anderson, and Baker, 1996; National Education viduals and groups (e.g., crafts, cards, Although educational programs may and board games), intellectual activi- 5 meet the letter of the law by assigning ties (e.g., reading, writing, and prob- During contact visitation, a detained individual and his or her visitor(s) are in the same area; in noncontact residents a few hours of homework lem solving), and certain less active visits, they are separated by safety glass. 13 Commission on Correctional Health selection should focus on identifying Heavily industrialized areas are Care, 1999; Owens, 1994). Because locations that satisfy a range of generally inappropriate, as are they require round-the-clock medical operational needs, including the areas with traffic volumes that staffing, infirmaries are provided in following: would threaten effective monitor- only the largest facilities. Emergency ing of a site’s perimeter. Excessive s Public access. The site should medical services and ongoing medi- noise (for example, from transpor- provide convenient access to fami- cal supervision are usually provided tation or a nearby commercial en- lies, legal counsel, and local agen- as needed at designated offsite loca- terprise) should also be avoided. cies that will have contact with tions, except in the largest facilities. residents. It should be easily acces- Site selection and land acquisition are Because of the number and diversity sible by private vehicle or public often highly politicized processes and of health-related problems experi- transportation. may ultimately require compromise. It enced by juveniles and the prolifera- is difficult to find a site that satisfies all s Adequate land area. The site tion of medications being adminis- concerns (Ricci, 1995). Unfortunately, should have sufficient space for a tered to juveniles in custody, the some institutions built in remote areas facility’s initial construction needs availability of regular care and atten- because of economic incentives end and possible future expansion. Ad- tion by qualified medical professionals up being staffed by underpaid and equate space for a buffer between has become a matter of increasing con- undertrained individuals who differ public areas and secure residential cern for juvenile facilities. The expand- culturally and racially from the resident areas is also desirable. A site that is ing scope of medical services needed population (Butterfield, 1998; Kearns, too small may necessitate undesir- for juveniles in secure residential cus- 1998). To avoid such situations, plan- able vertical development and cir- tody has resulted in increased space ners should make every effort to iden- culation or may limit outdoor rec- needs. Many facilities also now in- tify the characteristics of critical con- reation capabilities and future clude health education for juveniles cern to operators and address potential expansion potential. as an integral part of their programs. obstacles before the site selection pro- s Proximity to population served. cess is finalized. Site Selection Issues Juvenile facilities should be located near the districts from which their Construction Costs Site selection is one of the most per- populations are drawn. Such prox- plexing decisions jurisdictions face Almost every jurisdiction contemplat- imity ensures convenient access when developing juvenile residential ing the construction of a new juvenile by families. It also helps facilities facilities. Many projects encounter re- facility agonizes about the high costs recruit staff with cultural/ethnic sistance from community members involved. Although there are ways of backgrounds similar to those of who fear that placing a facility near reducing costs (e.g., through more the residents being confined. Un- their homes will make their neighbor- efficient systems designs of physical fortunately, lower property costs hoods unsafe and cause property val- plants and buildings), jurisdictions for land in remote locations some- ues to plummet. Responses of this na- can go only so far in this direction times lead jurisdictions to select ture are inevitable when a project is without compromising operational sites in areas that pose access and announced without community input integrity and environmental quality. staffing difficulties. and participation. Community involve- The costs of juvenile facilities are es- ment should begin at a project’s earliest s Proximity to courts. For facilities pecially troubling to funding authori- stages and should include meetings to that hold youth prior to adjudica- ties who compare such costs with the provide background information and tion, sites should be close to both significantly lower relative costs (on a public hearings to respond to citizen the courts and the facilities where per resident basis) of adult facilities. concerns. Although involving the youth may be placed after adjudi- This comparison is unfair, however, community will not guarantee a cation and disposition. Such prox- because juvenile facilities usually re- facility’s acceptance, failure to address imity will minimize the time that quire substantially more square foot- local concerns publicly and directly staff and residents need to spend age per resident. will invite conflict. away from the facility and reduce At present, juvenile facilities that are staffing needs and transportation Unfortunately, the fear of political highly durable and include a full costs. backlash or community opposition complement of education and recre- too often prompts planners to select s Compatibility of adjacent land ation areas and associated administra- remote sites that are incompatible uses. Site selection should focus on tive, admissions, food service, and with operational needs. From a locations that support the residential other support spaces cost an average practical planning perspective, site character of intended operations. of $140 to $160 per square foot for the 14 building itself (McMillen, 1998). This These examples do not by any means ment cost. To operate a facility, there- amount includes all construction ma- encompass the complete range of de- fore, jurisdictions must allocate ap- terials, mechanical/electrical systems, velopment costs for juvenile facilities. proximately one-third of a building’s security equipment, and hardware. A review of recent juvenile facility cost for each year the building re- It does not include additional costs projects, in fact, reveals that costs mains open. (For example, a facility for site work, parking, landscaping, vary considerably (above and below) that costs $10 million to build will architectural/engineering services, or those presented in table 2. cost approximately $3 million to op- furnishings; nor does it allow for any erate each year.) contingencies during construction (i.e., Operational Costs For a new facility that will be used for changes required because of unfore- As high as construction costs may be, at least 30 years, total operating costs seen circumstances). These additional they represent only a fraction of the over the lifetime of the facility will costs can increase the cost of facility costs that a jurisdiction developing exceed construction costs by 10 times development by 30 to 35 percent expanded detention capacity will or more. Expenditures will actually (McMillen, 1998). Even higher costs have to bear each year during the life be even higher, because the operating should be anticipated in locations with of a facility. For example, the authors’ budget described above does not in- high construction cost indexes (e.g., experience has shown that staffing clude expenses associated with debt large metropolitan areas). expenses—which account for ap- service of initial construction bonds The cost per bed space is also influ- proximately 80 to 85 percent of an- or the cost of the inevitable repair and enced by a facility’s size. Small facilities nual operating expenditures in facili- replacement of structural and me- (25 to 50 beds) require support spaces ties with a direct supervision staffing chanical systems over the life of a not appreciably smaller than those in pattern—require annual expenditures building. larger facilities (50 to 100 beds), which amounting to about 25 to 27 percent A physical design based on staffing are able to achieve economies of scale. of a facility’s total development cost. efficiency—even if it will involve For this reason, small facilities fre- The percentage is somewhat lower higher construction expenditures—is quently average between 700 and 800 for large facilities and somewhat of utmost importance. In the interest square feet per resident, while larger higher for small facilities. Staffing ex- of fiscal responsibility, however, juris- detention facilities average 600 to 700 penses include all direct supervision, dictions should carefully consider square feet per resident. Long-term administration, and program and long-term operational costs through- care facilities frequently provide more support services staff that most facili- out the planning process. Only by space in support of expanded pro- ties require. When other expenses examining all potential operational gramming options. (food, clothing, supplies, utilities, expenses rigorously will planners communications, normal mainte- Using average costs for construction achieve the best possible balance of nance, travel, training, and related and development expenses, table 2 physical design and supervision items) are added to staffing expenses, provides examples that illustrate total needs. The high cost of secure opera- a facility’s total annual operating ex- project costs expected for facilities with tions further underscores the impor- penditures may approach 30 to 33 40- and 80-bed capacities. tance of seeking cost-effective deten- percent of the total facility develop- tion alternatives that reduce residential capacity needs while providing nec- Table 2: Construction/Development Cost Examples essary supervision, management, and system flexibility (Moon, Applegate, Cost Factor 40-Bed Capacity 80-Bed Capacity and Latessa, 1997). Total Square Feet/Resident 750 650 Cost per Square Foot (1999) $150 $150 Juvenile Facility Total Construction Cost $4,500,000 $7,800,000 Operations Sitework @ ±9.5% of Construction $427,500 $741,000 Furnishings @ ±5.0% of Construction $225,000 $390,000 Arch./Eng. Fees @ ±8.5% of Construction $382,500 $663,000 Fundamental Needs Contingency @ ±10.0% of Construction $450,000 $780,000 OJJDP’s Conditions of Confinement Research Report (Parent et al., 1994) Total Project Cost $5,985,000 $10,374,000 provides a comprehensive analysis Total Cost per Resident $149,625 $129,675 of conditions in juvenile confinement facilities. In particular, the study Note: The table does not include financing/bond costs or administrative fees. measured facilities’ conformance to 15 46 assessment criteria that reflected in improved conditions of confinement, Organizational prerequisites existing minimum national and pro- suggesting the need for improved stan- Safety and security. Safety and secu- fessional standards in 12 areas: dards and different ways to evaluate rity are fundamental prerequisites of quality of life. program development. Programs s Living space. cannot grow and evolve unless resi- s Health care. Key Elements for Operation dents and staff are safe and secure— s Food, clothing, and hygiene. JAIBG Program Purpose Area 1 sug- both physically and emotionally. gests that a new facility’s operation Physical aspects of safety and secu- s Living accommodations. rity include a new facility’s design should be as efficient as possible. Ide- s Security. ally, the facility should be a best prac- and construction and policies and tices program. The idea of starting a procedures that control or prevent s Control of suicidal behavior. juveniles’ access to contraband and/ program from scratch or building a s Inspections and emergency facility or operation from the ground or weapons. Emotional safety and se- preparedness. up appeals to most juvenile justice curity means that residents and staff practitioners largely because it frees feel safe from fear or harm. s Education. them from all of the “baggage” of Order and organization. Organiza- s Recreation. past practices. Problems arise, how- tion is the backbone of program de- ever, when practitioners must con- velopment, the structure upon which s Treatment services. ceptualize what kind of program they effective programs are built. Previte s Access to community. want (i.e., the principles of running (1994) refers to this structure as “The an institution) and determine how to Code” and identifies three compo- s Limits on staff discretion. make it happen (i.e., the practice of nents: order, tradition, and discipline. The 12 areas were each placed in 1 of 4 institutional operations or process). broad categories (basic needs, order s Order includes a building’s neat- If successful facility operations were ness and cleanliness, its adherence and safety, programming, and juvenile easy to develop, more model programs to a daily routine or schedule, and rights). The study examined each would exist. Although a model pro- a feeling—among residents and facility’s conformance with the 12 areas gram is difficult to develop, there are staff—of knowing what will hap- of conditions of confinement. The per- sufficient resources (knowledge de- pen next. To achieve order, an in- centage of facilities that conformed to rived from lessons learned and tech- stitution must have a clear and all criteria in any of the 12 areas ranged nology derived from best practices) to comprehensive policy and proce- from 25 to 85 percent, underscoring a guide the development of exemplary dures manual. To develop the disparity in practices and a national programs. This section serves as an manual, facilities should refer to need for improved operations. operations guide, setting forth steps to the series of publications on ACA Some special problems—such as sui- take, knowledge and resources to ac- standards (American Correctional cidal behavior, injuries to residents, in- quire, and people to talk to in order to Association, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c, juries to staff, and lawsuits—were at- operate an effective facility. In particu- 1994), the series’ companion works tributable to isolated events. The study lar, it outlines three categories of infor- (American Correctional Associa- found, however, that most operational mation: (1) organizational prerequisites tion, 1987, 1992a, 1992b, 1992c), problems were correlated with perva- (components that must be in place chapter 7 of the Desktop Guide to sive deficiencies in conditions of con- before program development can oc- Good Juvenile Detention Practice finement. To improve such conditions, cur), (2) program principles to guide (Roush, 1996b), and products from the study recommended developing operations, and (3) staffing and man- the OJJDP-sponsored Performance- performance-based standards for juve- agement principles to guide implemen- Based Standards Project managed nile facilities. Conditions of confine- tation. The information provided here by the Council of Juvenile Correc- ment, however, are only one part of the does not include standards by which tional Administrators (CJCA). larger and more complex measure of to measure or evaluate facility opera- juvenile facilities commonly referred to tions. Instead, this section identifies s Tradition includes customs, rou- as “quality of life.” The study’s recom- key elements that should be addressed. tines, songs, and other activities mendation of performance-based stan- If any one of these elements is miss- unique to a facility. With a new fa- dards resulted from the finding that ing or not fully developed, a facility cility, the possibilities for tradition high levels of compliance with policy- administrator should be prepared to are endless. Traditions need not be based criteria did not necessarily result explain why. large or complicated; they may be 16 as simple as serving chocolate milk s Access Issues. These issues concern a tion, training, and development. Staff at meals or celebrating birthdays confined juvenile’s right to have training and development are ad- with cake and ice cream. The pur- access to information and individu- dressed in detail later in this Bulletin. pose of tradition is to generate an als outside the facility (e.g., through Second, through its policies and proce- identity within the facility. mail, telephone, visitation, and dures, a facility must ensure that it has communication with attorneys and s Discipline, by identifying appropri- sufficient staff to sustain program- the courts). Bell (1990, 1992, 1996) ate behaviors and correcting inap- ming. This is a controversial issue, be- explains these rights and discusses propriate behaviors, is a facility’s cause staffing is the single largest cost related standards and case law. method of building character, in a facility’s operational budget and pride, and integrity. It involves s Programs. ACA standards again pro- because best practices offer no hard- teaching a collectively endorsed set vide guidance and direction. Ac- and-fast rules about staffing levels. of appropriate behaviors and val- cording to Soler et al. (1990), the Staffing levels depend on many fac- ues for staff and residents. These courts’ primary programming inter- tors, including a program’s philoso- behaviors and values are explained ests are recreation and education. phy, the quality of interactions between in greater detail in the discussion Information about recreation is staff and residents, the education and of program principles below. available in the Desktop Guide training levels of staff, and the physi- (Roush, 1996b) and Calloway (1995). cal plant. Best practices are typically Conditions of confinement. Condi- Developmentally appropriate best associated with facilities that have a tions of confinement, a model of orga- practices are found in Barrueta- small number of youth (6–10) under nizational structure based on the Youth Clement et al. (1984) and Kostelnik, the direct supervision of any one line Law Center’s C.H.A.P.T.E.R.S. model Soderman, and Whiren (1999), and staff member (Roush, 1997). (Soler et al., 1990), identifies eight areas guidance on correctional education of institutional operations most likely Density. Density (the number of programs is available in the Desktop to be targets of litigation. NJDA recom- people per unit of space in a facility) is Guide (Roush, 1996b); Gemignani mends that facilities use this model to a significant factor in the effectiveness (1994); Hodges, Giuliotti, and assess their potential liability before of an institutional program (Roush, Porpotage (1994); Leone, Ruther- developing programs. Each area in the 1999). When density creates problems ford, and Nelson (1991); and C.H.A.P.T.E.R.S. model is identified in a juvenile facility, the institution is Wolford and Koebel (1995). below, and sources of information rel- said to be crowded. The best facilities evant to each area are cited. s Training. See “Training” section in have plans, policies, procedures, or this Bulletin. strategies to address crowding (Burrell s Classification and Admissions. Classi- et al., 1998; Previte, 1997). fication systems are explained in s Environmental Issues. ACA stan- detail in Howell (1997) and OJJDP’s dards address these issues, which Guide for Implementing the Compre- include compliance with State and Program principles hensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, local regulations on health, safety, Successful programs have core prin- and Chronic Juvenile Offenders and sanitation. ciples or assumptions to guide prob- (Howell, 1995a). Information about lem solving and decisionmaking. s Confinement and Restraints. Infor- admissions appears in American These principles define a program’s mation appears in the ACA stan- Correctional Association, 1987, purpose and content, articulate what dards, the Desktop Guide (Roush, 1992c; Christy, 1994; and Roush, an institution hopes to accomplish, 1996b), Mitchell and Varley (1991), 1994, 1996c. and specify the operations that it and the NCCHC standards (1999). will use to accomplish its goals. Fre- s Medical and Health Care Services. s Safety. The best sources of informa- quently called core values, program Although the National Commis- tion on resident safety are Soler et principles are decisions about the sion on Correctional Health Care al. (1990), Hayes (1998), Rowan type of facility required to accomplish (NCCHC) (1999) and ACA (1991a, (1989), Parent et al. (1994), the ACA program goals and the number and 1991b, 1991c) both have standards standards, and the Desktop Guide. type of staff members needed to that address medical and healthcare implement the program. services, NCCHC’s are more com- Staff. Two organizational prerequisites prehensive. Additional informa- relate to staff. First, through a central Many different program models ad- tion on this topic appears in Mor- personnel office or consultation with dress a wide array of offenders and in- ris, Anderson, and Baker (1996) personnel specialists, a new facility tervention strategies. In completing a and Owens (1994). should develop an effective program master plan, a jurisdiction identifies the for staff recruitment, selection, reten- characteristics of its juvenile offender 17 population. It then chooses a program Anger management. With violence Drug and alcohol counseling pro- model best suited to the offender popu- becoming increasingly common in grams are therefore important ancil- lation. Research into best practices has American society, youth in juvenile lary services that can improve the ef- revealed that the following program confinement facilities are becoming fectiveness of model programs (Agee, components are successful in juvenile more comfortable using violence as a 1995; Cellini, 1994; Howell, 1997). detention and corrections: problem-solving strategy. Anger man- Transition and aftercare services. agement, however, can be learned, Effective assessment. The better the Without transition and aftercare pro- and it is a prerequisite for meaningful match between offender needs and grams, changes occurring within an and lasting behavior change among facility programs and services, the institutional setting are unlikely to youth who have exhibited violent greater the likelihood of success. To have long-lasting effects. Transition behavior (American Psychological assess offender needs, a facility must programs move youth back into the Association, 1993; Chinn, 1996; use effective needs assessment strate- community gradually. Aftercare in- Dobbins and Gatowski, 1996). gies (Agee, 1995; Bell, 1996; Howell, volves having a specially trained af- 1995b, 1997). Discipline. Discipline, a vital part of tercare worker or probation officer effective programs, creates character, work with youth in the community Behavior contracting. The use of be- courage, pride, and integrity. An ines- for an extended period of time (until havior contracts with juvenile offenders capable part of every juvenile con- the youth is comfortable being back is effective, especially when contracts finement facility, discipline also sets in the community or has met a spec- focus on changing behaviors associated the tone for all other program interven- ified set of criteria). As the number of with criminal acts (Agee, 1995; Lipsey, tions. Effective discipline programs set youth in the juvenile justice system 1992; Stumphauzer, 1979). high expectations for youth; employ has increased, caseloads have become Cognitive programs. Cognitive re- graduated sanctions; emphasize cor- so large that aftercare and parole ser- structuring (i.e, changing a juvenile’s rective measures; encourage and vices officers have insufficient time “self-talk”) has produced successful celebrate appropriate behaviors, to address all of the problems of the outcomes for several decades. Adoles- achievements, and accomplishments; youth on their caseloads. Therefore, cents, especially juvenile offenders, and help youth to understand that many youth’s problems are unad- may have deficits in consequential disciplinary procedures are in their dressed or neglected; without super- thinking and alternative thinking. own best interest. Effective discipline vision, youth often quickly return to Their thinking is frequently illogical, programs require strong and commit- lives of drugs and crime (Agee, 1995; and they have trouble changing irra- ted staff members, who must make Altschuler and Armstrong, 1995; tional beliefs. Cognitive strategies that discipline part of their own lives—not Howell, 1997; Lipsey, 1992). address these deficits further the goals just part of their jobs. When using any of the techniques of JAIBG by emphasizing accountabil- Empathy training. Empathy training above, facilities should explain re- ity and personal responsibility (Agee, (one of the BARJ model’s restorative lated expectations clearly to each ju- 1995; Gibbs et al., 1997; Glick, Stur- elements) includes helping juveniles venile entering the facility. Expecta- geon, and Venator-Santiago, 1998; become aware of and empathize with tions should be systematic (use a Lipsey, 1992; Traynelis-Yurek, 1997). their victims. Awareness and empa- method to achieve goals); logical Positive peer cultures. Although thy are necessary precursors to feel- (make sense); rigorous (place high positive group dynamics is an impor- ings of guilt, shame, and remorse. expectations on youth for improved tant part of successful programs, the performance); and balanced (empha- Social skills training. Most juvenile ultimate empowerment for youth is size strengths while administering offenders lack adequate social skills. having the opportunity to solve their sanctions/punishments). Many do not know how to relate to own problems. Researchers have persons outside their family or gang. shown that youth are more motivated Staffing and management Experience indicates that social skills to behave appropriately when other principles programming is an important part of youth participate in decisionmaking juvenile detention and corrections Recruitment, selection, retention, and about the intervention. They also gain programs (Roush, 1998). development of good staff members a greater sense of self-worth when are strengths of every successful pro- they are able to help themselves and Drug and alcohol abuse counseling. gram. Several organizations and indi- others (Brendtro and Ness, 1983; Many youth entering juvenile confine- viduals have examined the character- Ferrara, 1992; Vorrath and Brendtro, ment facilities are under the influence istics of effective juvenile justice staff 1984; Wasmund, 1988). of alcohol and/or other drugs or have (Glick, Sturgeon, and Venator-Santiago, a history of abusing these substances. 18 1998; Goldstein and Glick, 1987; increased safety. Being firm but fair (residents are within earshot of or Previte, 1994; Roush, 1996b). Lists of means several things. It means that only a few feet away from staff) to attributes compiled by researchers rules are enforced uniformly, with actual staff participation in an activity. have been fairly similar and include no second chances, excuses, or The essence of involvement in juve- such traits as patience, the ability to warnings (unless rules call for nile facilities is the relationship be- interact effectively with other people a warning). Rules are enforced tween residents and staff. Staff mem- (i.e., social, communication, and rela- matter-of-factly, without emotion bers should be involved in juveniles’ tionship skills), cooperation, respect, on the part of staff. The staff mem- lives in a constructive way. In the best empathy, the ability to work as a team ber’s role is simply to enforce rules, programs, staff members have chosen player, alertness, physical strength, not to provide a lecture, sermon, or their jobs primarily because they like and optimism. interrogation about a youth’s youth and genuinely want to help. knowledge of the rules. Violating a Once a facility hires good staff mem- Without compromising a facility’s rule is a youth’s choice; if the con- bers, it needs to determine which structure and order, these staff mem- sequences for rule violations have management principles are linked to bers listen to the residents, and, as been clearly specified in advance, best practice operations. Four prin- Previte (1994) explains, “Listening the youth also chooses the conse- ciples are presented below.6 creates hope, and hope is power.” quence when he or she violates a Consistency. Best practice programs rule. Being fair also means provid- Emphasis on positive consequences. have highly consistent management ing procedures for changing or Successful programs emphasize the principles. Consistency involves at eliminating unreasonable rules. positive (Carrera, 1996). In fact, they least three elements. use positive consequences at least s A social order. A facility needs to four times more often than negative s Rules that provide structure and de- develop a social order (i.e., consis- sanctions (Madsen, Becker, and Tho- pendability but do not overwhelm tent rules that govern everyone in mas, 1968). Effective programs must youth. Rules should be clear and the facility, including staff) (Roush, be both demanding and encouraging understandable. They should be 1984). There will always be two and must communicate both positive few in number and general in na- sets of rules—one for staff (includ- and negative messages appropriately, ture. Realizing that not every mis- ing rules that apply to facility op- clearly, and without compromise. behavior can be addressed by a spe- eration) and one for residents. Best cific rule, best practices programs practices programs, however, have To achieve the balance referred to in have rules based on general prin- certain rules of conduct that apply the BARJ model, juvenile justice prac- ciples (e.g., cooperation, respect, to everyone. Such a social order titioners must be open to including and responsibility). Rules and struc- encourages the development of positive youth development pro- ture are the backbone of emotional respect and dignity. grams, rather than focusing exclu- and physical safety and provide the sively on problems, needs, skill defi- Involvement. Involvement means foundation for discipline and self- cits, and other “negatives.” Matching that a program includes activity, in- control in children (Humphrey, programs and services to offender teraction, and staff-resident relation- 1984). According to Previte (1994), needs and deficits may be effective; ships. Regardless of their content, all rules are an institution’s way of however, as Karen Pittman of the In- effective programs are active—with saying “I care” to youth. ternational Youth Foundation has ob- youth in the best programs spending served, being problem free is not the s Rule enforcement that is firm but fair. as many as 14 hours each day in same as being fully prepared (1996). Because adolescents are often con- structured and supervised activities A positive approach focusing on the cerned with fairness, facilities (American Correctional Association, strengths of youth—rather than one should enforce rules in a firm and 1991a, 1991c). In addition to being focusing solely on their problems or fair manner. While perceptions of enjoyable, active programs are physi- needs—has produced effective out- unfairness generate feelings of an- cally and mentally challenging. They comes (Brendtro and Ness, 1995; ger and resentment, perceptions of are purposeful, educational, and Checkoway and Finn, 1992; Clark, fairness generate cooperation and helpful (Roush, 1993). They are also 1995, 1996; Leffert et al., 1996; Seita, outlets for youthful energy: youth in Mitchell, and Tobin, 1996). Positive active programs are tired and ready 6 For more information on management principles and youth development programs that other operations issues, jurisdictions should call the to sleep at the end of the day. can be used in juvenile confinement OJJDP National Training and Technical Assistance Cen- ter at 800–830–4031. Additional sources of information Involvement also requires interaction facilities include sports and recreation on operating a juvenile facility also appear at the end of between staff and residents, ranging activities, camping programs, service this Bulletin, under “For Further Information.” from active supervision of an activity programs, mentoring programs, 19 school-to-work programs, and sup- juveniles’ rights, and limits or con- and organizations—particularly the port for teen parents. trols on staff discretion. American Correctional Association (ACA); the Association for Staff Train- Respect. No management principles OJJDP’s Juvenile Detention Training ing and Development (ASTD); the will work without respect. Respect Needs Assessment (Roush, 1996c) iden- Juvenile Justice Trainers Association means treating juveniles like worth- tified factors that heighten the need (JJTA) (a professional organization while human beings, regardless of for improved training. These factors in- devoted entirely to training); the Na- their behavior, appearance, offense clude uneven levels of preemployment tional Institute of Corrections (NIC) history, psychological assessment, hy- education among staff, high rates of Academy Division (the training arm giene, or volatility. It means refrain- staff turnover, lateral shifts in person- of the Federal Bureau of Prisons); and ing from name calling, threats, put- nel, increasingly complex needs of the National Juvenile Detention Asso- downs, and cursing. According to juvenile offenders, worker liability ciation (NJDA)—have expanded the youth, respect is the single most im- issues, and development of new tech- network of skilled trainers. Third, portant trait of a good staff member nologies. According to detention ad- OJJDP has provided strong leader- in any type of program. A respectful ministrators in Michigan, scarce ship and support through its Training and nonjudgmental approach sepa- funding was the primary problem and Technical Assistance Division. rates the deed from the doer, allowing facing facilities that wanted to im- Some of the contributions to training staff to treat youth with respect no prove training (Michigan Juvenile De- made by ACA, NJDA, JJTA, and matter how reprehensible the youth’s tention Association, 1981). More than OJJDP are described below. conduct may be. two-thirds of New Jersey detention facilities did not even have a training Respect leads staff to focus on similari- ACA budget in 1990 (Lucas, 1991). Juvenile ties (rather than differences) between facility staff cite scheduling difficul- Through standards that specify an themselves and the juveniles under ties (e.g., interruptions in training be- annual minimum number of training their care. For example, when staff of cause of staffing problems and hours for each category of employee the Utah County Juvenile Detention crowding) as the major obstacle to at various periods in his or her em- Center (Provo, UT) were asked to ex- implementing training programs ployment, ACA has confirmed the im- plain their motivation for working (Brown, 1982; Roush, 1996c). portance of staff training (American with youth in the juvenile justice sys- Correctional Association, 1991a, tem, the majority stated, “These are Staff Training 1991c). With facilities’ accreditation my brothers and sisters who are in dependent upon compliance with trouble. I am here to help them.” Even though juvenile facility staff train- ACA training standards, comprehen- ing has made significant progress over sive staff training programs have Juvenile Facility Staff the past decade, and access to training gained legitimacy, and training funds information, resources, and services Training have increased. What was once thought has never been better, training remains to be an excessive amount of time for one of the highest ranked needs among Fundamental Needs training (160 hours for new employees line staff. One promising sign that during their first year) is now gener- Citing numerous links between inad- training is becoming more widely ally accepted as a best practice (Roush, equate staff training and serious available is the rapid growth of State- 1996c). To sustain this level of training, problems (e.g., suicidal behaviors by operated training academies: only six at least 2 to 4 percent of a facility’s an- residents), OJJDP’s study on condi- such academies existed in 1944, while nual operations budget should be allo- tions of confinement confirmed the today more than half of the States op- cated to staff training services. For more need for additional staff training (Par- erate academies. information about accredited juvenile ent et al., 1994). Many problems with The recent overall improvement in staff justice facilities, practitioners should conditions of confinement occurred in training is attributable to three factors. contact the ACA Standards and Ac- facilities where staff had deficits in First, knowledge about effective train- creditation Division (800–222–5646) specific knowledge and skill areas. ing in general has been applied to ju- and request a list of facilities, contact The study also reinforced the belief venile justice specifically, resulting in persons, and phone numbers. that juvenile institutions should give a knowledge base and technology that priority to improving training for new ACA has also developed useful train- are specific to juvenile justice system staff (given the high levels of staff turn- ing materials, including videos and needs (National Training and Techni- over) and adding training for all staff correspondence courses. ACA train- cal Assistance Center, 1998; Blair et al., in the areas of adolescent health care, ing videos address topics such as fa- undated; Cellini, 1995; Christy, 1989). education, treatment, access issues, cility admissions, suicide prevention, Second, professional associations 20 and cultural diversity. Correspondence NIC has also developed a 27-step Step 1: Conduct a training needs courses through ACA address basic training implementation strategy. assessment careworker skills, behavior manage- Combined with Training, Technical A facility should first conduct a train- ment, suicide prevention, and super- Assistance, and Evaluation Protocols: A ing needs assessment to identify gaps vision of youthful offenders. Upon Primer for OJJDP Training and Technical between the knowledge, skills, and successfully completing courses and Assistance Providers, this strategy abilities needed to perform jobs effec- passing an examination, an employee provides sufficient knowledge to gen- tively and the knowledge, skills, and receives a certificate from ACA. erate a comprehensive staff training abilities currently possessed by staff program. Facilities can secure infor- members. The larger the gap, the NJDA mation on the entire network of re- greater the training need. Assessment sources available by referring to the instruments and procedures can be NJDA research (Roush, 1996c) has af- Training and Technical Assistance Re- used to collect this information, and firmed ACA’s training requirements, source Catalog, updated and published juvenile justice trainers are available identified five discrete training catego- annually by the National Training to conduct needs assessments for ries for juvenile justice employees, and and Technical Assistance Center, or agencies and organizations. developed learning objectives to supp- by calling the center at 800–830–4031. lement the training topics identified by ACA. Through OJJDP grants, NJDA Step 2: Develop a formal and JJTA developed and tested two 40- OJJDP training plan hour training curriculums for line staff In 1990, OJJDP entered into an inter- Based on information revealed by its in juvenile detention and corrections agency agreement with the NIC Acad- needs assessment, a facility should for- facilities. The curriculums are based on emy Division to provide leadership malize its training strategy. This strat- national training needs assessment development programs for juvenile egy generally takes the form of train- data (Roush and Jones, 1996), and the detention and corrections personnel. ing policies and procedures in which lesson plans developed follow the Under the agreement, NIC offers cor- the facility identifies who the trainers Instructional Theory Into Practice rectional leadership development will be, what types of training will be (ITIP) model recommended by NIC. (CLD) programs for new chief execu- offered, which staff members will be NJDA also has developed a training tive officers, managers, and supervi- trained, and how many hours of train- implementation model intended to sors. OJJDP produced a video on lead- ing are to be provided annually for strengthen and expand facilities’ in- ership in juvenile justice based on each position. Training policies and house training capabilities (Roush, NIC’s leadership development cur- procedures should also establish mini- 1996a). Through the use of the Training riculum. NIC’s training-for-trainers mum training requirements for staff at Needs Assessment Inventory (TNAI) workshop, which uses the ITIP model, different levels and identify any ad- and interchangeable lesson plans, insti- is rated by juvenile justice practition- ministrative, professional, and/or tutions can tailor training interventions ers as one of the best programs for statutory standards or requirements to meet their specific needs. developing foundation skills for train- that the facility will meet. ers. OJJDP also provides technical as- JJTA sistance resources for line staff training through NJDA’s Center for Research Step 3: Adopt, adapt, or develop With the development of Guidelines for a core curriculum and Professional Development (517– Quality Training (Blair et al., undated) 432–1242) and for management staff Based on the training needs identified and OJJDP Training, Technical Assis- training through the NIC Academy and the training plan developed, a fa- tance, and Evaluation Protocols: A Primer Division (800–995–6429). cility should adopt, adapt, or develop for OJJDP Training and Technical Assis- a core curriculum as its primary train- tance Providers (National Training and Six Major Steps to ing vehicle. Several curriculums are Technical Assistance Center, 1998), available, including three developed JJTA has provided basic information Implementation by OJJDP grants: the National De- about the necessary components of a Several important steps must be com- tention Careworker Curriculum, the model staff training program. Com- pleted to construct a model staff train- Juvenile Corrections Careworker Cur- posed primarily of staff development ing program. As in the master plan- riculum, and the National Training and training specialists, JJTA provides ning process, a facility should begin Curriculum for Educators in Juvenile a national network of information on by articulating vision and mission Confinement Facilities. To obtain cop- training services and technical assis- statements. The subsequent steps are ies of these curriculums, practitioners tance for juvenile justice trainers. described below. should contact NJDA, listed in the “For Further Information” section. 21 Step 4: Adopt an action strategy Temporary Juvenile Detention Center that can inform practitioners, policy- A facility should next adopt an action (Chicago, IL), for example, has a full- makers, and the public in their quest to strategy for delivering training time training staff devoted to organiz- develop and implement best practices services. As discussed above, a major- ing and delivering training services in the areas of juvenile facility construc- ity of States have training academies that meet ACA standards. To improve tion, operations, and staff training. This responsible for training all personnel ongoing training efforts, particularly is really a search for “best knowledge”; in State-operated juvenile correctional in-service training, at the Bexar once this knowledge is located, best and detention facilities. Facilities not County Juvenile Detention Center practice is not far behind. covered by a State training academy (San Antonio, TX), Kossman (1990) It is often easier to ascertain best are responsible for devising their own implemented an innovative, four-shift practices in the area of construction training delivery strategies. staffing pattern. Instead of the routine because the physical structures that three-shift (a.m., p.m., and night) Responding to the need for a training result are available for a wide array of scheduling assignments, he added a delivery strategy for locally operated examination and analysis. This is not fourth shift as a replacement for those juvenile facilities and facilities in States always the case when searching for shifts attending staff training. Using without training academies, NJDA de- best practices in the areas of opera- the four-shift pattern, Kossman re- veloped and tested a training imple- tions and staff training. In these areas, ported reductions in overtime costs mentation strategy. NJDA’s strategy the search for models and examples and a greater commitment to training. includes developing vision and mission of best practice is most productive statements, conducting a training when it begins with people—as op- Step 6: Evaluate training posed to places. Best practice is found needs assessment, developing a formal training plan, and selecting a training As a final step, facilities should evalu- through best practitioners. curriculum. NJDA’s strategy also ad- ate training. Evaluations should in- There has never been a better time to dresses identification of key staff mem- clude trainees’ reactions and sugges- acquire knowledge from practition- bers (middle managers, shift supervi- tions for improvement and plans or ers. The expansion of juvenile justice sors, and lead workers) to serve as staff commitments to implement training has brought many new and talented trainers. After completing a basic train- lessons in daily practice. Facilities people into the field. Communication ing curriculum in a separate training should conduct evaluations on an on- technologies are also better than ever. workshop, these key staff members are going basis to determine whether Professional organizations (including divided into two groups: trainers and staff behavior and institutional prac- the Alliance for Juvenile Justice, the mentors. Trainers complete a 40-hour tices have changed as a result of American Correctional Association, program on building training founda- training and whether the direction of the American Probation and Parole tion skills using the NIC model. Men- any change is compatible with the Association, the Council of Juvenile tors (those key staff who do not want goals of training. Results of evalua- Corrections Administrators, the Juve- or should not have staff training re- tion efforts also provide information nile Justice Trainers Association, the sponsibilities) receive training on about the nature and extent of a National Association of Juvenile mentoring so that they can help guide facility’s training needs. This infor- Correctional Agencies, the National new employees through the training mation, in turn, becomes data for Council of Juvenile and Family Court process. The NJDA strategy has proven training needs assessment. The pro- Judges, the National Council on successful in strengthening in-house cess has now come full circle, with Crime and Delinquency, the National training capabilities. evaluation data guiding future train- Juvenile Court Services Association, ing needs assessment, annual revi- and the National Juvenile Detention sions and modifications to the train- Step 5: Schedule training ing plan, and updates to a facility’s Association) offer access to abundant The next major step is to schedule information, resources, and personal training curriculum. training, a task that is extremely diffi- contacts. The excuses for not knowing cult when a facility lacks sufficient are rapidly disappearing. resources to provide coverage for staff Conclusion members attending training. The Even though extensive literature on References NJDA makes scheduling easier by juvenile justice exists, best practices are difficult to define (Elliot, 1998). The Agee, V.M. 1995. Managing clinical expanding the cadre of in-house staff purpose of this Bulletin is not to pre- programs for juvenile delinquents. In trainers. scribe a specific best practice. Rather, it Managing Delinquency Programs That Several scheduling strategies have seeks to identify resources (especially Work, edited by B. Glick and A.P. been successful. The Cook County knowledge, principles, and people) Goldstein. Laurel, MD: American Correctional Association. 22 Altschuler, D.M., and Armstrong, T.L. Effects of the Perry Preschool Program on Brendtro, L.K., and Ness, A.E. 1983. 1995. Managing aftercare services for Youth Through Age 19. Ypsilanti, MI: Re-educating Troubled Youth: Environ- delinquents. In Managing Delinquency High/Scope Educational Research ments for Teaching and Treatment. New Programs That Work, edited by B. Foundation. York, NY: Aldine Publishing. Glick and A.P. Goldstein. Laurel, MD: Barton, W.H. 1994. Implementing de- Brendtro, L.K., and Ness, A.E. 1995. American Correctional Association. tention policy changes. In Reforming Fixing flaws or building strengths? American Correctional Association. Juvenile Detention: No More Hidden Reclaiming Children and Youth 4:2–7. 1987. Admissions in Juvenile Detention: Closets, edited by I.M. Schwartz and Brown, M., Jr. 1982. Training officers The Critical Hour. Videotape. Wash- W.H. Barton. Columbus, OH: Ohio in juvenile detention. Corrections To- ington, DC: Capitol Communication State University Press. day (June):14–16, 18. Systems, Inc. Bell, J.R. 1990. Litigation in juvenile Burrell, S., DeMuro, P., Dunlap, E., American Correctional Association. justice: A tool for advancement. Cor- Sanniti, C., and Warboys, L. 1998. 1991a. Standards for Juvenile Detention rections Today (August):22–23, 26, 28. Crowding in Juvenile Detention Centers: A Facilities, 3d ed. Laurel, MD: Ameri- Bell, J.R. 1992. Rights and responsi- Problem-Solving Manual. Washington, can Correctional Association. bilities of juveniles. In Juvenile Care- DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office American Correctional Association. worker Resource Guide. Laurel, MD: of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile 1991b. Standards for Juvenile Training American Correctional Association. Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Schools, 3d ed. Laurel, MD: American Bell, J.R. 1996. Rights and responsi- Butterfield, F. 1998. Hard times: Prof- Correctional Association. bilities of staff and youth. In Desktop its at a juvenile prison come with a American Correctional Association. Guide to Good Juvenile Detention Prac- chilling cost. The New York Times on 1991c. Standards for Small Juvenile De- tice, edited by D.W. Roush. Washing- the Web (July 15):1–17. tention Facilities. Laurel, MD: Ameri- ton, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Calloway, J. 1995. Managing recre- can Correctional Association. Office of Justice Programs, Office of ation and leisure for juvenile delin- Juvenile Justice and Delinquency American Correctional Association. quents. In Managing Delinquency Pro- Prevention. 1992a. Guidelines for the Development of grams That Work, edited by B. Glick Policies and Procedures: Juvenile Deten- Bell, J.R. 1998. National perspectives and A.P. Goldstein. Laurel, MD: tion Facilities. Laurel, MD: American on juvenile justice. Keynote address American Correctional Association. Correctional Association. to the American Institute of Architec- Carrera, M.A. 1996. Lessons for Life- ture Conference. American Correctional Association. guards: Working with Teens When the 1992b. Handbook on Facility Planning Bilchik, S. 1998. A Juvenile Justice Sys- Topic Is Hope. NewYork, NY: Donkey and Design for Juvenile Corrections. tem for the 21st Century. Bulletin. Press. Laurel, MD: American Correctional Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Cavanagh, M.F. 1995. Remarks. Jour- Association. Justice, Office of Justice Programs, nal for Juvenile Justice and Detention Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin- American Correctional Association. Services 10(Fall):37–40. quency Prevention. 1992c. Juvenile Careworker Resource Cellini, H.R. 1994. Management and Guide. Laurel, MD: American Correc- Blair, J., Collins, B., Gurnell, B., treatment of institutionalized violent tional Association. Satterfield, F., Smith, M.G., Yeres, S., juveniles. Corrections Today (July):98, and Zuercher, R. Undated. Guidelines American Correctional Association. 100–102. for Quality Training. Ithaca, NY: Juve- 1994. 1994 Standards Supplement. nile Justice Trainers Association. Cellini, H.R. 1995. Training programs Laurel, MD: American Correctional and staff development. In Managing Association. Boersema, C. 1998. Strategic planning Delinquency Programs That Work, ed- as a means to address detention over- American Psychological Association ited by B. Glick and A.P. Goldstein. crowding. Journal for Juvenile Justice Commission on Violence and Youth. Laurel, MD: American Correctional and Detention Services 13(Spring):20–31. 1993. Violence and Youth: Psychology’s Association. Response. Washington, DC: American Boersema, C., Dunlap, E., Gulley, J., Checkoway, B., and Finn, J. 1992. Psychological Association. and Roush, D.W. 1997. Juvenile Justice Young People as Community Builders. System Master Plan for Detention Ser- Barrueta-Clement, J.R., Schweinhart, Ann Arbor, MI: Center for the Study of vices: Final Report. Richmond, KY: Na- L.J., Barnett, W.S., Epstein, A., and Youth Policy, University of Michigan. tional Juvenile Detention Association. Weikart, D. 1984. Changed Lives: The 23 Chinn, K.L. 1996. National trends in Department of Justice, Office of Jus- Gibbs, J., Potter, B., Goldstein, A., and juvenile violence. Corrections Today tice Programs, National Institute of Brendtro, L. 1997. Equipping youth to (July):70, 72–73. Corrections. think and act constructively. 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New York, lications describing its Gould/ Association (517–432–1242) has NY: Aldine Publishing. Wysinger Award recipients. collected information on innova- tive programs and services for ju- Wasmund, W.C. 1988. The social cli- s The National Council of Juvenile venile detention. mates of peer group and other resi- and Family Court Judges (702– dential programs. Child & Youth Care 784–6012) has developed curricu- s OJJDP’s National Training and Quarterly 17(Fall):146–155. lum materials that explain many Technical Assistance Center best practices concepts. (NTTAC) (800–830–4031) has infor- Wilson, J.J., and Howell, J.C. 1993. mation on individuals, agencies, Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, s The National Criminal Justice associations, and grant recipients Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. Reference Service (NCJRS) (800– that address best practices in Summary. Washington, DC: U.S. De- 851–3420) will conduct a computer operations. partment of Justice, Office of Justice search of relevant criminal and ju- Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice venile justice literature. s OJJDP’s JAIBG Technical Assis- and Delinquency Prevention. tance Development Services s The National Institute of Correc- Group (877–GO–JAIBG) provides Wolford, B.I., and Koebel, L.L. 1995. tions Academy Division (800– and coordinates technical assistance Reform education to reduce juvenile 995–6429) develops curriculum within the 12 JAIBG purpose areas. delinquency. Criminal Justice materials that explain many best (Winter):2–6, 54–56. practices concepts. Wright, K.N., and Goodstein, L. 1989. Correctional environments. In The American Prison: Issues in Research and Useful Publications Policy, edited by L. Goodstein and D.L. MacKenzie. New York, NY: The following guides, handbooks, Juvenile Detention Association Plenum Press. and manuals provide valuable and edited by D. Roush and T. information on the construction Wyss. and operation of juvenile detention For Further Information and corrections facilities: s OJJDP Training and Technical The following sources of information Assistance Protocols: A Primer for may be helpful before beginning the s Best Practices: Excellence in Correc- OJJDP Training and Technical search for best knowledge and best tions, a 1998 compilation of best Assistance, a 1998 collection of practices relating to juvenile facility practices, edited by E. Rhine and protocols compiled by the operations: published by the American National Training and Technical Correctional Association. Assistance Center and pub- s American Correctional Associa- lished by OJJDP. tion (800–222–5646) has assembled s Conflict Resolution Education: A and published information on a Guide to Implementing Programs in s Training and Technical Assistance variety of best practices. Schools,Youth-Serving Organiza- Resource Catalog, a 1997 tions, and Community and Juvenile catalog of resources compiled s American Institute of Architects Justice Settings, a 1996 guidebook by the National Training and (202–626–7300), through its library, edited by D. Crawford and R. Technical Assistance Center archives, and online services, is the preeminent source of information Bodine and published by OJJDP. and published by OJJDP. in the United States on the practice s A Directory of Programs That Work, s What Works: Promising Interven- and profession of architecture. a 1996 directory compiled by the tions in Juvenile Justice, a 1994 s The Juvenile Justice Clearing- American Correctional Associa- manual published by OJJDP house (JJC) (800–638–8736) sup- tion and published in the August and edited by I. Montgomery, plies information to the field 1996 issue of Corrections. P.M. Torbet, D.A. Malloy, L.P. through the dissemination of pub- Adamcik, M.J.Toner, and J. s Effective and Innovative Programs: lications, monographs, and re- Andrews. Resource Manual, a 1994 manual ports. Clearinghouse staff provide developed by the National some research services. Informa- tion relevant to best knowledge 27 U.S. Department of Justice PRESORTED STANDARD Office of Justice Programs POSTAGE & FEES PAID DOJ/OJJDP Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention PERMIT NO. G–91 Washington, DC 20531 Official Business Penalty for Private Use $300 NCJ 178928 Points of view or opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors and do The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin- Acknowledgments not necessarily represent the official position quency Prevention is a component of the Of- This Bulletin was written by David or policies of OJJDP or the U.S. Department fice of Justice Programs, which also includes of Justice. the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau Roush, Ph.D., and Michael McMillen, of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of AIA. David Roush has provided leader- Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime. ship in institutional programs and ser- vices for juveniles and staff since 1971. He is currently an assistant professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Share With Your Colleagues Michigan State University and Director Unless otherwise noted, OJJDP publications are not copyright protected. of the National Juvenile Detention We encourage you to reproduce this document, share it with your col- Association’s Center for Research and leagues, and reprint it in your newsletter or journal. However, if you reprint, Professional Development. Mike please cite OJJDP and the authors of this Bulletin. We are also interested in McMillen, Champaign, IL, has specialized your feedback, such as how you received a copy, how you intend to use the in the design and planning of juvenile information, and how OJJDP materials meet your individual or agency justice facilities for more than 23 years. needs. Please direct your comments and questions to: In addition to providing operations Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse analysis, architectural programming, and Publication Reprint/Feedback facility design services for youth-related P.O. Box 6000 projects nationwide, he has developed Rockville, MD 20849–6000 and currently teaches seminars on 800–638–8736 operational and architectural program- 301–519–5212 (fax) ming for the National Institute of Cor- E-Mail: email@example.com rections’ Planning of New Institutions for Juveniles (PONI) training program.