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Construction Operations and Staff Training for Juvenile Confinement Facilities - January 2000

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									U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

                                                                            Juvenile Accountability Incentive
                                                                            Block Grants Program

                                                                                                         Shay Bilchik, Administrator
                                                                                                                          January 2000

  From the
  “If you build it, they will come”
                                            Construction, Operations, and
  appears to ring true when it
  comes to the construction of
                                            Staff Training for Juvenile
  new or expanded juvenile
  detention facilities. Before
  embarking on such a costly
                                            Confinement Facilities
  course of action, however, a
  community should carefully                David Roush and Michael McMillen
  assess its facility needs and
                                            This Bulletin is part of OJJDP’s Juvenile           hold juvenile offenders accountable for their
  ensure that it is effectively
                                            Accountability Incentive Block Grants               behavior. An indepth description of the
  using alternatives to secure
                                            (JAIBG) Best Practices Series. The basic            JAIBG program and a list of the 12 program
  confinement when appropriate.
                                            premise underlying the JAIBG program,               purpose areas appear in the overview Bulle-
  The Juvenile Accountability               initially funded in fiscal year 1998, is that       tin for this series.
  Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG)            young people who violate the law need to be
  program provides assistance in            held accountable for their offenses if society is   Overview
  building or expanding juvenile            to improve the quality of life in the Nation’s
                                                                                                JAIBG funds may be used to develop
  correction and detention facili-          communities. Holding a juvenile offender
                                                                                                programs in any of 12 program purpose
  ties and in training correctional         “accountable” in the juvenile justice system
                                                                                                areas established by Congress. The first
  staff. This Bulletin, one in a            means that once the juvenile is determined
                                                                                                of these areas—“building, expanding,
  series featuring JAIBG Best               to have committed law-violating behavior,
                                                                                                renovating, or operating temporary or
                                            by admission or adjudication, he or she is
  Practices, offers helpful infor-                                                              permanent juvenile correction or deten-
                                            held responsible for the act through conse-
  mation about such key aspects                                                                 tion facilities, including training of cor-
                                            quences or sanctions, imposed pursuant to
  as construction decisions,                                                                    rectional personnel”—addresses con-
                                            law, that are proportionate to the offense.
  master planning, facility                                                                     struction, operation, and training. Before
                                            Consequences or sanctions that are applied
  development, and training. It                                                                 beginning construction, however, juris-
                                            swiftly, surely, and consistently, and are
  also provides sources of                                                                      dictions should complete a master plan,
                                            graduated to provide appropriate and effec-
  additional information, includ-                                                               determine what type of facility will best
                                            tive responses to varying levels of offense
  ing useful publications.                                                                      meet their needs and expectations, and
                                            seriousness and offender chronicity, work
                                                                                                reach a decision to construct. Master
  Shay Bilchik                              best in preventing, controlling, and reducing
                                                                                                planning is a key component because it
  Administrator                             further law violations.
                                                                                                establishes the specific policies to prevent
                                            In an effort to help States and units of local      and reduce crowding and control the
                                            government develop programs in the 12 pur-          length of stay (DeMuro and Dunlap,
                                            pose areas established for JAIBG funding,           1998).
                                            Bulletins in this series are designed to present
                                                                                                To provide practitioners practical guid-
                                            the most up-to-date knowledge to juvenile
                                                                                                ance and advice on best practices under
                                            justice policymakers, researchers, and practi-
                                                                                                JAIBG Program Purpose Area 1, this
                                            tioners about programs and approaches that
paper addresses five main themes:              programming, and environmental                            through the programs and services
construction decisions, master plan-           needs. During facility development                        of the American Correctional Asso-
ning, facility development, opera-             and prior to the start of physical de-                    ciation (ACA), the Juvenile Justice
tions, and training.                           sign activities, jurisdictions should                     Trainers Association (JJTA), the
                                               also define cost parameters for staff-                    National Institute of Corrections
s Construction decisions. Construc-
                                               ing and construction and identify                         (NIC) Academy Division, the Na-
    tion under Program Purpose Area
                                               site issues.                                              tional Juvenile Detention Associa-
    1 includes building new facilities,
                                                                                                         tion (NJDA), the Office of Juvenile
    expanding existing capacity            s Operations. Program Purpose Area
                                                                                                         Justice and Delinquency Preven-
    through new construction, and              1 includes operations, which for
                                                                                                         tion’s (OJJDP’s) Training and Tech-
    renovating existing facilities.            juvenile detention and corrections
                                                                                                         nical Assistance Division (TTAD),
    There are many reasons to build,           facilities involves programs and
                                                                                                         and an increasing number of State-
    including the large number of ju-          services. Consistent with the com-
                                                                                                         operated training academies. Al-
    veniles currently incarcerated in          petency development aspect of the
                                                                                                         though this Bulletin presents several
    crowded facilities (Parent et al.,         Balanced and Restorative Justice
                                                                                                         training models and resources, it
    1994), the pressing need for secure        (BARJ) model,1 the operation of
                                                                                                         cannot capture all of the abundant
    beds in jurisdictions without juve-        juvenile facilities rests on the as-
                                                                                                         knowledge on best practices in this
    nile detention, and the deteriorat-        sumption that the best way to im-
                                                                                                         area. Summaries of effective pro-
    ing condition of many facilities.          prove public safety is by changing
                                                                                                         grams, along with a list of resources
                                               an offender’s behavior. Success in
    Because construction is expensive,                                                                   and an extensive bibliography, are
                                               doing so, however, is people-
    decisions to build, expand, or                                                                       provided to help practitioners re-
                                               driven and, therefore, expensive
    renovate facilities should be                                                                        trieve original works and supple-
                                               (with staff costs for salaries, ben-
    reached by using systematic,                                                                         mental materials.
                                               efits, and training constituting a
    data-driven, and rational meth-
                                               large part of operational costs). To
    ods. Decisionmakers, for example,                                                                Construction
                                               help jurisdictions develop effective
    should be able to provide empiri-
                                               operating practices, this Bulletin                    Decisions—Assessing
    cal evidence of a need for con-
                                               identifies the fundamental needs of
    struction. If data indicate a need
                                               facilities and the key elements of
                                                                                                     the Need To Build
    to build, then jurisdictions have a                                                              Juvenile detention and corrections
                                               operations, such as organizational
    strong rationale for construction.                                                               have become big business, with more
                                               prerequisites and program, staff-
s Master planning. Master planning             ing, and management principles.                       and more jurisdictions spending in-
    is a systematic process that in-                                                                 creasing amounts of time, energy, and
                                           s Staff Training. Accountability-based                    money to expand detention and cor-
    creases the effectiveness of long-
                                               interventions change juvenile of-                     rections capacity.3 As public agencies,
    term decisionmaking. Using a
                                               fenders’ behavior by providing them                   private organizations, architects, and
    team of juvenile justice specialists
                                               with opportunities to experience                      court systems approach construction
    and planners from outside a juris-
                                               positive relationships with healthy                   more aggressively than ever, more
    diction, the process leads key juve-
                                               adults in appropriate settings. Staff                 and larger juvenile facilities come off
    nile justice and community stake-
                                               training is the most cost-effective                   the drawing boards every day in a
    holders through activities that will
                                               way to integrate accountability-                      building surge that has begun to rival
    elicit a locally defined vision and
                                               based principles into staff develop-                  the exponential growth of adult facili-
    mission for the jurisdiction’s juve-
                                               ment in juvenile confinement and                      ties in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Facili-
    nile justice system. Data collection
                                               custody facilities.2 Staff training                   ties for young people are no longer an
    and operational recommendations
                                               technology has expanded greatly
    are then based on these core val-                                                                3
                                                                                                       Juvenile detention refers to the custody process that oc-
    ues and principles.                                                                              curs between the time of a juvenile’s arrest and the time of
                                             The Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) model, a
                                                                                                     his or her adjudication or disposition. It includes a range of
s Facility development. The facility       core component of the OJJDP Comprehensive Strategy,
                                                                                                     placement alternatives that vary in restrictiveness from
    development process, which begins      is a combination of the Balanced Approach and the
                                                                                                     home detention to secure detention. Correctional place-
                                           Restorative Justice models. It includes community
    with operational/architectural         protection, offender accountability, offender compe-
                                                                                                     ments, by contrast, take place after a juvenile has been
                                                                                                     adjudicated as an offender and a dispositional plan (or
    programming, involves document-        tency development, and restoration.
                                                                                                     sentence) has been determined. Correctional placement
    ing operational priorities and de-     2
                                             Confinement refers to a physically restricting place-   alternatives range from small and open residential settings
    termining spatial requirements and     ment, and custody describes places and programs           to large, State-operated, maximum-security corrections
                                           (such as shelter care, day treatment, and home deten-     facilities. Some jurisdictions allow the dispositional place-
    arrangements that will respond to      tion) that involve supervision but may allow youth to     ment of juveniles in detention facilities, an action that com-
    a facility’s management, daily         leave at specified times.                                 plicates the distinction between detention and corrections.

afterthought, buried in the recesses of    experienced an increase in juvenile         business-as-usual approach to secure
civic concern and public budgets; they     arrests overall and in arrests for in-      custody generates high bed-need
are “big-ticket” items occupying com-      creasingly serious offenses. In commu-      projections, which, in turn, result in
munities’ full and serious attention.      nities that have their own secure facili-   excess capacity. Excess capacity then
                                           ties, the increase has caused buildings     leads to continued overuse of secure
Reasons for Construction                   to become crowded and/or juveniles          custody for juveniles and an immedi-
                                           to be turned away. Jurisdictions that       ate and lasting strain on financial re-
Reasons for the recent explosion in
                                           rely on other communities for secure        sources. A jurisdiction may build its
construction of juvenile residential fa-
                                           beds are frequently told that no room       way out of problems, but only tempo-
cilities are found in both fact and per-
                                           is available. In both situations, one       rarily. The numbers usually catch up
ception. On the factual side, crowding
                                           immediate solution has been to con-         with the space available—and usually
is widespread (Parent et al., 1994),
                                           struct new bed space. With more             more quickly than anyone expected.
making affected residential programs
                                           beds, communities reason, there will
difficult to manage and not as safe as                                                 In response to these concerns, many
                                           be no crowding, operations will im-
those operating at recommended ca-                                                     jurisdictions are pursuing alternatives
                                           prove, and problems will go away.
pacities. Residents spend more time in                                                 to construction. This approach, which
lockdown, and program quality suf-         In many instances, communities have         uses a range of variably restrictive
fers (Previte, 1997). When staff must      been correct in perceiving a need for       residential and nonresidential ser-
focus primarily on safety and security,    added capacity. For example, in juris-      vices, is commonly called “the con-
effective intervention and treatment       dictions where population has               tinuum of care.” Similar to the gradu-
are compromised. In addition, because      doubled or tripled over the past 20         ated sanctions model set forth in
staffing levels rarely increase as         years (often with accompanying              OJJDP’s Comprehensive Strategy for Se-
quickly as the number of residents,        changes in juvenile offenders and in        rious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Of-
crowded facilities often do not have       the general social fabric), institutional   fenders (Wilson and Howell, 1993), the
enough staff to do the job well.           capacities may now be totally inad-         continuum-of-care approach requires
                                           equate. In many communities, espe-          jurisdictions to examine closely how
Another reason for the recent growth
                                           cially those where juvenile court           to direct resources toward managing
in construction is the large number of
                                           placement practices have not changed,       public safety and meeting the needs
aging and outdated physical plants,
                                           comprehensive master planning has           of the greatest number of juveniles
many built during the construction
                                           confirmed a need for additional capac-      (Bilchik, 1998). The continuum-of-
booms following World War II (see
                                           ity to respond to current and future        care approach commonly considers
Norman, 1961). Facilities built during
                                           needs. In other communities, however,       and implements a variety of services
the 1950’s, 1960’s, and 1970’s are fast
                                           studies have shown that juvenile fa-        (such as home detention, electronic
approaching the end of their useful
                                           cilities are housing youth who pose no      monitoring, afterschool and evening
lifespan, an end brought nearer by
                                           significant threat to community safety      report programs, day treatment, resti-
the ravages of crowding and (for
                                           or the court process and who could be       tution, shelter care, and staff-secure
many facilities) inadequate mainte-
                                           managed as effectively in less restric-     residential programs) as alternatives
nance and repair budgets. Such older
                                           tive and less costly programs and set-      to physically restrictive detention
facilities also were never intended to
                                           tings (Boersema, 1998; Boersema et al.,     custody (DeMuro, 1997; Guarino-
withstand the intense uses they now
                                           1997; Jones and Krisberg, 1994). In         Ghezzi and Loughran, 1996; Howell,
frequently must serve. While juvenile
                                           these instances, the perception that        1997).
facilities once served a largely non-
                                           secure custody is necessary for all ju-
violent and manageable population                                                      The JAIBG program raises two im-
                                           veniles being detained (and perhaps
(with few serious offenders), they                                                     portant questions related to maintain-
                                           many more) conflicts with the reality.
now serve juveniles with profound                                                      ing a strong continuum of services.
                                           When placement in a secure facility is
behavioral problems and learning                                                       First, given JAIBG’s endorsement of
                                           a jurisdiction’s primary or only treat-
deficits and significant mental health                                                 the concept of graduated sanctions,
                                           ment option, it becomes an expensive
needs, many of whom present secu-                                                      will jurisdictions develop and expand
                                           catchall, one that replaces less restric-
rity problems (Cocozza, 1992; Otto et                                                  the range of sanctions to serve as con-
                                           tive and equally (or more) appropriate
al., 1992). A large number of facilities                                               sequences for delinquency? Second,
                                           alternatives (Dunlap and Roush, 1995).
are inappropriately configured to                                                      will an overreliance on juvenile insti-
meet these needs.                                                                      tutions as a first or primary sanction
                                           Alternatives to Construction                occur that will weaken other sanctions
A need for increased capacity is an-
                                           When the perceived need for added           or the continuum itself? The develop-
other factor driving construction. Until
                                           capacity conflicts with reality, a          ment of a strong continuum of services
recently, jurisdictions nationwide have

would seem to help achieve JAIBG’s           planning process (National Clearing-                     the final recommendation was to
goal of having sanctions that are            house for Criminal Justice Planning                      build a new secure detention center
graduated, immediate, and account-           and Architecture, 1996; Taylor et al.,                   with a capacity that was 10 beds
ability oriented. In addition, a strong      1996; Voorhis, 1996). PONI work-                         higher than that of the existing facil-
continuum may address many juris-            shops for juvenile institutions are                      ity. The jurisdiction’s initial request,
dictions’ lack of dispositional options      currently available to juvenile justice                  by contrast, had been to construct a
(sanctions) between probation and            practitioners.                                           facility with almost twice the num-
incarceration. By providing juvenile                                                                  ber of new beds actually needed.
                                             Responding to crowding and a need
court judges with options, a strong                                                                   Without a systematic assessment by
                                             for less restrictive services, NJDA as-
continuum of care will improve the                                                                    individuals outside the system, the
                                             sembled teams of planners, architects,
juvenile justice system’s ability to de-                                                              jurisdiction would have signifi-
                                             juvenile justice systems specialists,
liver appropriate sanctions and hold                                                                  cantly overbuilt.
                                             and law enforcement specialists to
offenders accountable.
                                             develop juvenile justice master plans
                                             for several judicial circuits in Illinois                Planning Team Members
Master Planning—Getting                      (Boersema, 1998). In each circuit,                       Given the high cost of juvenile facility
the Numbers Right                            teams considered how many secure                         construction, a jurisdiction should
                                             detention beds would be needed in                        carefully review the qualifications of
In those instances when increased ca-
                                             the future and developed master                          master planning team members and
pacity is necessary, deciding to build a
                                             plans with a wide range of alterna-                      make sure that the team includes the
new facility is only the first of many
                                             tives, including construction of secure                  following: an architect experienced in
difficult and critical decisions that a
                                             and staff-secure detention beds.4 Even                   building juvenile facilities, a planner
jurisdiction must make. Because
                                             though the jurisdictions described                       with juvenile justice and master plan-
physical facilities exist for a long time,
                                             themselves as very similar to one an-                    ning experience who is knowledge-
jurisdictions should make every effort
                                             other, the planning process revealed                     able in data collection and analysis
to ensure that the process leading to
                                             significant differences to key stake-                    procedures, a juvenile justice systems
construction will produce the best and
                                             holders. Given these differences, the                    specialist experienced in operating
most appropriate buildings possible.
                                             assumption that “one size fits all” can                  model or effective programs and ser-
Master planning is the most important        be misleading and costly—especially                      vices, and a local law enforcement
step in the construction process (Elias      when the proposed solution requires                      specialist who can provide access to
and Ricci, 1997; Farbstein/Williams and      construction of new secure beds.                         information and services from local
Associates, 1981; Kimme et al., 1988;                                                                 law enforcement agencies.
                                             The master planning process can
McMillen and Hill, 1997). Juvenile
                                             change a jurisdiction’s understand-
justice system literature emphasizes                                                                  Planning Steps
                                             ing of its needs, including the size
the importance of using planning
                                             of the facility it thinks that it needs                  Jurisdictions assessing space needs
models to make responsible decisions
                                             (McMillen, 1998). In one jurisdic-                       should complete the following
about bed space and construction
                                             tion, for example, a review of intake                    important planning steps:
needs (Boersema, 1998; DeMuro,
                                             decisions prompted the chief juve-
1997; Jones and Steinhart, 1994).
                                             nile court judge and circuit court                       Step 1: Form an advisory group
Chinn (1996) outlines a planning
                                             administrator to modify the intake
strategy to find new solutions for                                                                    Each jurisdiction should form an ad-
                                             process for all juvenile justice sys-
housing habitually violent young                                                                      visory group to guide planning ef-
                                             tem components, including law en-
offenders. The National Center for                                                                    forts. Whether called a stakeholders
                                             forcement. This change led to an im-
Juvenile Justice recommends a 10-                                                                     group, steering committee, commu-
                                             mediate and lasting 40-percent drop
step master planning process to ad-                                                                   nity advisory group, or interagency
                                             in the detention facility’s average
dress a range of problems (Steenson                                                                   workgroup, the group should include
                                             daily population. Intake data not
and Thomas, 1997); and Barton                                                                         the jurisdiction’s chief probation of-
                                             previously considered also allowed
(1994), Guarino-Ghezzi and                                                                            ficer; its superintendent(s) of juvenile
                                             the jurisdiction to lower its bed-space
Loughran (1996), and Schwartz (1994)                                                                  confinement facilities; responsible
                                             projections. Given serious structural
commend the steps in the master                                                                       local juvenile justice advocates; and
                                             problems with the existing facility,
planning process as a strategy to ef-                                                                 representatives from the juvenile
fect broad systems reform. NIC con-          4
                                                                                                      court, local law enforcement, the
                                               The term “staff-secure” refers to security resulting
ducts Planning of New Institutions           from the presence of and measures taken by staff         public defender’s and prosecutor’s
(PONI) workshops and provides ma-            members, rather than conditions created by the pres-     offices, youth-serving agencies, place-
                                             ence of locks or other hardware.                         ment agencies for adjudicated youth,
terials that address the construction

and community organizations                 Counties (NACO), a jurisdiction’s           be easy to manage, supervise, and
(DeMuro and Dunlap, 1998).                  continuum of care may suffer when a         maintain, and it must resist the hard
                                            new facility is built (Office of Juvenile   use—and at times abuse—of the
Step 2: Define advisory                     Justice and Delinquency Prevention,         young people who reside there. It
group tasks                                 1998). In jurisdictions with limited        needs adequate space for required
                                            resources, a new facility can become a      and desired programs and services.
The community advisory group’s
                                            financial drain, leaving fewer re-          The space must be arranged in a way
main tasks are establishing goals for
                                            sources for alternatives (noninstitu-       that allows staff to do their jobs and
the planning process and monitoring
                                            tional) and prevention programs.            residents to do what is required of
progress toward those goals (Ricci,
                                                                                        them in a flexible manner.
1995). Establishing goals involves          Schwartz (1994) opposes the use of
agreeing on those goals that will ap-       architects or architectural planning        A review of plans and programs for
pear in a local juvenile justice system’s   firms to collect and analyze data be-       juvenile facilities reveals a variety of
vision and mission statements and           cause a potential conflict of interest      physical and operational approaches.
identifying the objectives, policies,       between an architect’s financial inter-     The approach chosen depends on a
procedures, and practices related to        ests and a jurisdiction’s best interests    community’s circumstances and atti-
those goals. Monitoring goals involves      may exist when a large construction         tudes. Architects generally try to be
considering how critical decisions and      project is involved. Other practition-      responsive to both the specific needs
outcomes will affect all stakeholders in    ers, however, cite examples of archi-       of their clients and the constraints im-
the system. Careful monitoring will         tectural planning firms that have           posed by budgets and sites.
keep decisionmaking balanced and            completed master plans and advised
                                                                                        Unfortunately, many facilities are
provide the accountability needed to        jurisdictions against building juvenile
                                                                                        designed without information on the
ensure that the process remains consis-     confinement facilities even when con-
                                                                                        specific expectations and needs of those
tent with a group’s vision and mission      struction would have benefited the
                                                                                        who will use and manage the build-
statements.                                 firms financially.
                                                                                        ings. In these instances, designers may
                                                                                        propose physical structures based on
Step 3: Collect and analyze data            Step 4: Obtain technical assistance         available juvenile or adult system mod-
Advisory groups should use data col-        Technical assistance regarding how          els, which may or may not be appro-
lection and analysis resources from         to create a master plan and assess a        priate. Without carefully considering
both within and outside their jurisdic-     jurisdiction’s need for new or ex-          the following factors, jurisdictions will
tions. Although local data experts may      panded facility construction is avail-      be unable to determine the best pos-
be familiar with local systems and          able through OJJDP and other sources        sible approach for the physical design
sources of information, consultants         listed in the “For Further Informa-         of their facilities:
from outside the area may possess           tion” section of this Bulletin.
                                                                                        s Diverse methods of managing ju-
broader knowledge of the quality and
                                                                                          venile behavior.
implications of data and various            Step 5: Involve staff
analysis strategies. The planning team                                                  s Resident and staff responses to the
                                            Planning teams and advisory groups
will oversee the data collection pro-                                                     physical environment.
                                            should involve facility staff, particu-
cess, but the community advisory
                                            larly line staff and first-level supervi-   s Daily program structure.
group should determine the quantity
                                            sors, in the master planning process
and quality of data to be collected. Be-                                                s Staffing patterns and costs.
                                            (Taylor et al., 1996). Experience indi-
cause many jurisdictions have inad-
                                            cates that youth can also play an im-       s Circulation and space-sharing pat-
equate information management sys-
                                            portant role.                                 terns in a facility.
tems and important data may be hard
to access or of poor quality, data col-                                                 s Responses to emergencies and
lection and analysis are often tedious      Facility Development—                         other situations.
steps in the master planning process.       Determining the Type of                     Considering these factors may lead
To address these obstacles, advisory
groups should include data collection
                                            Facility Needed                             planners to discover that a proposed
                                            For a secure juvenile facility to work      design provides security but fails to
procedures in the initial plan.
                                            well, it must first and foremost be a       achieve other essential goals. Because
Data analysis should encompass the          safe place. Residents should be able        a successful design is based on the
full range of services and programs         to leave and the public enter only at       operational priorities of a particular
available in the jurisdiction. Accord-      staff’s discretion. The facility must       project, rote design (i.e., one that
ing to the National Association of

proceeds without considering such          s Implementing behavior manage-              s Visual/physical connections
priorities) will only compromise a pro-      ment methods.                                 between activities.
ject’s goals and ultimate effectiveness.
                                           s Respecting juvenile rights and             s Resident circulation and movement.
There is no magical “best approach”          recognizing juvenile needs.
                                                                                        s Environmental priorities (sound,
to facility design. In developing any
                                           s Providing programs that address               lighting, furnishings, appearance,
new or expanded facility, jurisdictions
                                             juvenile, system, and family needs.           image).
and their planners must find their own
best approach, basing designs on their     s Implementing methods for foster-           s Maintenance and repair (durabil-
own expectations, rather than on pre-        ing resident accountability, coop-            ity, life cycle costs).
conceived architectural notions. The         eration, and participation.
                                                                                        s Staff communications and support.
architectural/operational program-
                                           s Recognizing the importance of
ming process described below permits                                                    s Potential staffing requirements and
                                             resident skills assessment and
such an individualized approach.                                                           costs.
                                                                                        s Staff qualifications and training
Architectural/Operational                  s Recognizing the importance of
                                             family involvement with residents.
                                                                                        s Codes and standards
With growing demands for improved          s Emphasizing effective intervention
security, program quality, and archi-        and treatment or punishment.
tectural sophistication, predesign                                                      s Operational flexibility.
                                           s Appreciating and responding to
planning has become increasingly im-         resident gender, culture, religion,        s Future expansion potential.
portant. Operational programming—            and ethnicity.
which should involve key agency and                                                     s Construction cost parameters.
community decisionmakers, court            s Recognizing the value of links to
                                                                                        A review of these specific issues will
representatives, service providers,          community and transition services.
                                                                                        help to determine a facility’s essential
and other community stakeholders—          s Emphasizing the importance of              operational concepts and identify de-
involves having these parties exam-          returning juveniles to productive          velopmental options that are respon-
ine closely what they intend to ac-          roles in the community.                    sive to these essential concepts.
complish with a proposed facility.
Failure to involve all concerned par-      These factors, among others, should          Following close on the heels of opera-
ties in the process can lead to confu-     guide the continuing development             tional programming, architectural
sion and dissension.                       and refinement of programs, staffing         planning takes all of the previously
                                           patterns, environmental quality, and         assembled information and begins
The operational programming pro-           spaces at a proposed facility. If a facil-   to enter real numbers and specific
cess typically begins with a review of     ity and its services are to succeed,         spaces into the equation.
a facility’s proposed vision and mis-      planners should address the use of
sion statements (e.g., to protect the                                                   Once a facility’s major functions have
                                           space only after all other priorities
public and prevent flight from pros-                                                    been identified, the architectural plan-
                                           have been established.
ecution, provide a safe and secure en-                                                  ning process examines the various ac-
vironment, deliver programming and         Next, operational programming                tivities that take place in different areas,
services consistent with legal require-    should investigate the following             the number of people involved, and the
ments, and ensure resident health          specific issues:                             times these activities occur. This analy-
and welfare). These statements may                                                      sis generates net area (square footage)
                                           s Security and supervision methods.
serve as the foundation for building a                                                  requirements for anticipated activities.
hierarchy of programs and spaces. In       s Optimal residential group size for         Net area requirements are then com-
many cases, however, the statements          housing and activities.                    bined with circulation and other re-
only begin to scratch the surface of                                                    quirements related to resident and
                                           s Classification.
expectations for a facility.                                                            staff movement within the building,
                                           s Special needs groups.                      the need for other spaces (mechanical
A comprehensive range of philo-                                                         rooms, electrical closets, and various
sophical and operational imperatives       s Scope of daily programs and
                                                                                        undefined spaces), and additional
should be established before physical        services.
                                                                                        space required for wall thickness and
planning activities begin. Such im-        s Scheduling of activities.                  other structural elements. This calcula-
peratives may include:                                                                  tion yields the gross building area or

total square footage required for the                 to make the best possible decisions              high priority because building codes
building. It is not unusual for the total             from the outset, before committing               and standards typically do little more
square footage required by a residential              plans to brick and mortar.                       than prescribe minimum spatial re-
facility to be up to 50-percent greater                                                                quirements (American Correctional
than the net area required for actual                 Space Considerations                             Association, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c).
user activities.                                                                                       Facility staff may require the flexibility
                                                      Defining the gross building area and
                                                                                                       to depart from certain professional stan-
While individual space require-                       general spatial arrangements makes it
                                                                                                       dards of practice to fulfill operational
ments for facility functions are be-                  possible to project capital construc-
                                                                                                       needs specific to their own facility.
ing developed (see table 1), archi-                   tion costs and related expenditures
tects should explore with facility                    for furnishings, fees, and site work.            Although spatial requirements for se-
operators factors—scheduling, po-                     Because these projections may form               cure juvenile facilities vary depending
tential circulation patterns, supervi-                the basis for funding procurement                on a facility’s capacity and scope of
sion and staffing requirements, and                   and for ensuring that a building is              activities, these requirements usually
options for connecting various                        constructed within budget, the re-               include more space per resident than
spaces and activity zones—to be                       lated analysis of space considerations           is required in facilities designed for
considered in determining spatial                     must be thorough. The process of ex-             adults. The demand for a high level
arrangements. Architects should                       amining space considerations and                 of service and activity at juvenile
then develop construction diagrams                    projecting costs must precede physi-             facilities—to keep juveniles occupied
that show the most efficient visual                   cal design efforts to ensure that all            during the day and to facilitate the
and physical connections (func-                       operational objectives are achieved              intervention process—requires more
tional adjacencies) and indicate                      and to prevent costly changes in                 space.
access control points and circulation                 scope during subsequent design
                                                                                                       In facilities with 50 or fewer residents,
patterns (see figure 1, page 8).                      phases (DeWitt, 1987).
                                                                                                       spatial allocations of 700 to 800 square
A facility’s design can succeed only                  The amount of space required for                 feet per resident are not uncommon.
to the extent that it meets the needs                 various facility functions depends on            Larger facilities, which achieve certain
and expectations of its users. Build-                 many factors, including State licens-            economies of scale, may reasonably
ing a residential facility is expen-                  ing and building codes, professional             average 600 to 700 square feet per resi-
sive and, once construction begins,                   standards of practice (American Cor-             dent. A design that significantly exceeds
there is generally no chance to cor-                  rectional Association, 1991a, 1991b,             these ranges without offering compel-
rect errors in design. Comprehen-                     1991c), and the operational priorities           ling justification may be seen as overly
sive operational programming and                      and methods governing where, when,               generous. On the other hand, one that
architectural planning provide fa-                    and how activities are to take place.            provides significantly less space may
cility planners with an opportunity                   Operational factors should be given              jeopardize a facility’s functionality.

Table 1: Sample Space Listing (Housing Component)
    Space                                                                            Square          Total Net
   Number                    Space/Area                        Quantity               Feet          Square Feet         Comments
     5.100            Bedrooms (Standard)                           9                   70             630           Single User, Toilet
     5.101            Bedroom (ADA Access)*                         1                  100             100           Single User, Toilet
     5.102            Quiet Living/Dayroom                          1                  500             500           10 Users, Natural Lighting
     5.103            Staff Desk                                    1                   30              30           Open Station, Telephone
     5.104            Restroom/Shower                               1                   70              70           Single User, ADA Access
     5.105            Shower                                        1                   40              40           Single User
     5.106            Storage/Janitor Closet                        1                   80              80           With Janitor Sink

                                                       Total Net Square Feet                         1,450
                                                       Six Units (60 Beds) @ 1,450 NSF/Unit          8,700
Note: Space Listing covers general population housing units with 10 beds.
Source: Mike McMillen, AIA
* Bedroom must be accessible according to standards of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA).

    Figure 1: Sample Spatial Relationships Diagram

                                                                   Primary Security Perimeter
                                                                                                                       Support Areas

               Future              Future           Housing      Laun-      Housing                                      Recreation
             Housing Unit        Housing Unit        Unit         dry        Unit               Outdoor
                  4                   5               1                       2                Recreation

                            Future Multipurpose               Multipurpose Activities Area           Dining

                                                                Control                                                                Public
                                                                              Exam                                    Vest    Lobby    Access

                                                    Housing                             Education           Kitchen
                               Outdoor               Unit            Admissions                                       Staff
                              Recreation              3

                                                                           Police                           Service
                                                                           Access                           Access

                     New Construction Diagram
                     30-Bed Initial Capacity With Expansion to 50 Beds

                        Secure Access Control        Secondary Access Control                Secure Areas

    Source: Mike McMillen, AIA

Design Issues                                     certain aspects of secure residential                correctional facilities are larger, bet-
An effective juvenile facility, through a         design are of universal importance.                  ter equipped with security hardware
combination of spaces, security fea-              These aspects are discussed below.                   and technology, and better able to
tures, and environment, allows staff to                                                                accommodate growth. They also
perform their jobs with ease and pro-             Security and safety                                  emphasize the use of materials that
fessionalism. Although operating an                                                                    resist abuse, destruction, and pen-
                                                  Having a secure and safe facility—the
effective residential program for juve-                                                                etration by residents. Although ma-
                                                  first requisite in secure juvenile
niles is never easy, the physical setting                                                              terials that create a less restrictive
                                                  confinement—involves more than
can help or hinder operations. If staff                                                                environment may be available, using
                                                  construction materials and hardware.
members have to struggle with a build-                                                                 durable materials is a way to ensure
                                                  True security and safety derive from
ing to accomplish their objectives, they                                                               that a building provides a first line
                                                  a combination of physical materials,
may not make the effort to do their jobs                                                               of defense that staff do not need to
                                                  management methods, resident su-
well or they may seek easier but less                                                                  worry about. If juveniles cannot es-
                                                  pervision, program features, staff
beneficial ways to perform their duties.                                                               cape or engage in damaging behav-
                                                  support, and access control.
In addition, a building with design                                                                    ior as a way to exert control or gain
                                                  A sharp philosophical shift in the                   attention, then both staff and resi-
elements that provoke undesired re-
                                                  planning and design of juvenile fa-                  dents will be able to focus on more
sponses from residents will only make
                                                  cilities has followed the general                    productive activities.
staff members’ jobs harder.
                                                  trend toward tougher penalties on
Although no single combination of                                                                      Most new facilities feature a secure
                                                  juvenile offenders (Niedringhous
spaces, security features, and environ-                                                                building perimeter that minimizes the
                                                  and Goedert, 1998). New juvenile
ment is appropriate for every situation,                                                               potential for unauthorized resident

egress, public access, and resident          juveniles to ensure effective involve-       crowding and restrictiveness that of-
contact with the public. Within the          ment and behavior management.                ten leads residents to engage in
building, major functional spaces            (Having 1 staff member supervise             thoughtless and unsafe behavior.
such as housing, education, recre-           40 juveniles would be a prescription
                                                                                          Despite the need for increasingly re-
ation, dining, and visiting areas are        for serious problems.) In addition,
                                                                                          strictive physical features, juvenile jus-
zoned so that staff can control resi-        almost all juvenile facilities use direct
                                                                                          tice professionals continue to empha-
dent access and maintain appropriate         supervision staffing patterns, with
                                                                                          size the need for facilities to reflect
group size and separation. Many fa-          staff physically present and directly
                                                                                          intense concern for the juveniles who
cilities control access between zones        involved with residents at all times.
                                                                                          reside in them. For example, profes-
remotely (from a central security or         Juveniles are not (and should not be)
                                                                                          sionals demand buildings that support
control station), making it unneces-         left to their own devices or managed
                                                                                          a wide range of activities and encour-
sary for staff to carry keys (often a        by remote control.
                                                                                          age ongoing contact between residents
target of residents). To ensure contin-
                                             Higher staff-resident ratios at juvenile     and staff. In this context, security and
uous visual contact between residents
                                             facilities allow for more effective inter-   safety are recognized as necessary to
and staff, walls of damage-resistant
                                             action. When staff have many oppor-          accommodate people and places—
glazing are used extensively in parti-
                                             tunities to work with residents, prob-       rather than as ways to create coercive
tions separating residential areas.
                                             lems can be identified and resolved          and restrictive confinement.
Nearly all housing in new facilities
                                             before they pose a threat to safety. Ju-
consists of single-occupancy bed-
                                             veniles themselves will feel safer, will     Group size/classification
rooms with integral sanitary fixtures.
                                             feel less exposed to unknown threats,
                                                                                          Another fundamental difference be-
If these features seem like those al-        and will be less likely to act out.
                                                                                          tween juvenile and adult facilities is
ready common in adult facilities,
                                             Another common and effective super-          the typical size of resident groups or
there is good reason. Juvenile justice
                                             vision strategy at juvenile facilities is    housing units. Although housing
practitioners today face many of the
                                             having residents participate regularly       units with capacities of 25 to 40 are
same safety and security problems
                                             in programs and services such as edu-        common at adult facilities, juvenile
that their adult system counterparts
                                             cation, recreation, and counseling. A        facilities rarely have units that house
have long faced, making a similar
                                             juvenile who is occupied and engaged         more than 12 to 16 residents and of-
level of protection necessary in juve-
                                             is far less likely to present behavior       ten have units that house as few as 8
nile facilities. In many ways, how-
                                             problems. He or she will also realize        residents. Juvenile programs avoid
ever, differences between juvenile
                                             general benefits in such areas as per-       larger resident groups for various rea-
and adult operations are more pro-
                                             sonal skills development, health main-       sons, including the following:
nounced now than in the past.
                                             tenance, academic achievement, and
                                                                                          s Larger groups of juveniles are
                                             cooperation (Glick and Goldstein, 1995;
Direct supervision                                                                          more difficult to manage.
                                             Henggeler, 1998; Rubenstein, 1991).
Direct supervision in adult correc-                                                       s It is harder for staff (who are often
                                             Normalization of the residential
tions (Farbstein, Liebert, and                                                              both counselors and supervisors)
                                             environment—both the physical and
Sigurdson, 1996; Nelson, 1993; Nelson                                                       to work effectively with individu-
                                             operational character of a facility—is
et al., 1984) is not the same as direct                                                     als in larger groups.
                                             another essential element in develop-
supervision in juvenile facilities. The
                                             ing a safe and secure setting. Al-           s It is more difficult to move larger
staffing ratio is one source of differ-
                                             though a secure detention facility is          groups for various program
ence. Adult facilities commonly use
                                             not an environment that most resi-             activities.
1 correctional officer for every 40 or
                                             dents would describe as normal,
more inmates (Nelson et al., 1984;                                                        An increasingly important reason for
                                             many facilities today are designed
Wright and Goodstein, 1989). To                                                           small group sizes at juvenile facilities
                                             with the intent of minimizing overtly
maintain safety and security with this                                                    relates to resident classification pri-
                                             institutional characteristics so that
ratio, adult facilities rely on electronic                                                orities. In the past, most juvenile fa-
                                             residents will not engage in the nega-
surveillance, security construction,                                                      cilities had relatively small capacities.
                                             tive behaviors that an institutional
and behavior management teams or                                                          These small facilities needed small
                                             environment may prompt. Spatial va-
therapeutic Special Weapons and Tac-                                                      resident groups in order to separate
                                             riety, movable furnishings, natural
tics (SWAT) teams charged with crisis                                                     boys from girls and older youth from
                                             lighting, acoustic control, housing/
management. By contrast, juvenile                                                         younger and to make it possible for
                                             group size, and opportunities for resi-
facilities usually need 1 staff person                                                    staff to work with residents on a more
                                             dent movement are design elements
working directly with every 8 to 10                                                       individualized basis. Today, juvenile
                                             that can help to reduce the sense of

facilities are becoming larger, but the     group sizes and staffing levels that         leaving a secure custodial setting is
need for more refined classification        support this approach.                       not an option for residents, the possi-
methods (and for the ability to place                                                    bility that they will plot such an
residents in small groups) is more          Environmental concerns                       action is a continuing source of staff
apparent than ever. Juvenile facilities                                                  concern.
                                            The wisdom of Vitruvius (the Greek
are receiving a higher percentage of
                                            scholar who explained that a building        Some secure residential facilities for
serious offenders, sexual offenders,
                                            may be judged by its adherence to the        juveniles are designed to inhibit or
juveniles with identified substance
                                            principles of commodity, firmness,           prevent these undesirable responses
abuse and mental health problems,
                                            and delight) has certain relevance to        by physically restricting residents at
and female offenders. Accordingly,
                                            environmental concerns that are per-         all times and using materials and
facilities need something other than
                                            tinent to juvenile facilities. By com-       spaces that allow no opportunity for
a one-size-fits-all management ap-
                                            modity, Vitruvius meant that a build-        entry or escape. Such buildings, how-
proach. They need an approach that
                                            ing must serve the function for which        ever, often evidence little consider-
includes specially structured pro-
                                            it was intended. By firmness, he             ation for the sensibilities of their oc-
gramming and services and the abil-
                                            meant that a building should be able         cupants. At the opposite extreme,
ity to classify and separate juveniles
                                            to withstand the rigors of wind, rain,       other buildings are completely non-
into small groups for housing and
                                            and inhabitants. By delight, he meant        restrictive and are designed for man-
program purposes. Although pro-
                                            that a building should provide enjoy-        agement methods that rely entirely
gram staff rarely, if ever, want to as-
                                            ment to its users.                           on staff and program structure to re-
semble large groups of juveniles, they
                                                                                         spond to and control any potential
should be able to do so when neces-         Although it is easy to see how the
                                                                                         problem behaviors.
sary or appropriate without being re-       concepts of commodity and firmness
stricted by the organization or spatial     apply to secure juvenile facilities, it is   The majority of juvenile facilities
limitations of a building.                  harder to see the connection between         fall somewhere in between these ex-
                                            secure juvenile facilities and the prin-     tremes, depending on the population
The issue of what housing unit size is
                                            ciple of delight. The concept of de-         being served and local attitudes. Most
best has by no means been resolved
                                            light, however, applies in many ways         are designed both to be physically du-
and probably never will be. Economic
                                            to these facilities. The spaces that         rable and to take human factors into
considerations (smaller units usually
                                            people live and work in profoundly           account. Providing residents opportu-
mean higher staffing costs) often con-
                                            affect their attitudes, comfort levels,      nities to cooperate and behave respon-
flict with operational needs (smaller
                                            and feelings about how good or bad           sibly encourages them to do so and to
units can mean better staff manage-
                                            their circumstances are. In turn, these      become more accountable for their ac-
ment of residents). Therefore, differ-
                                            perceptions influence people’s ap-           tions. The physical setting, while dis-
ent balances must be struck in differ-
                                            proaches to getting through each day.        couraging abuse or destruction of the
ent communities. Although most
                                            A person in an inhospitable, threaten-       building and its furnishings by resi-
programs call for smaller units (up to
                                            ing, or demeaning environment, for           dents, must also project an image that
12 residents), some prefer larger units
                                            example, may feel overcome by cir-           reinforces society’s positive expecta-
with multiple staff assigned to each
                                            cumstances and seek relief through           tions of juveniles (rather than one
unit to allow staff present to provide
                                            isolation. A person in a restrictive en-     that will provoke counterproductive
immediate support. Some jurisdic-
                                            vironment might try to exert control         responses).
tions insist on making all housing
                                            over his or her situation by attempt-
units in a single facility the same size,                                                Such a setting offers a normalized or
                                            ing to change things or simply trying
thereby permitting consistent and ef-                                                    noninstitutional environment, one
                                            to get up and leave.
ficient staff allocation (because it is                                                  whose features will moderate the per-
virtually impossible to predict how         In a secure juvenile facility, none of       ception of institutional confinement.
the number of residents in each clas-       these responses is desirable. Juveniles      Small group living arrangements re-
sification will change over time).          who isolate themselves (emotionally          lieve the sense of crowding and the
Others require the development of           or physically) become unreachable            strain of fitting in with other youth.
variable-size housing units so that         and pose special management prob-            Natural lighting and regular physical
certain groups of residents can be          lems. Juveniles who try to exert con-        and visual access to outdoor spaces
lodged in smaller groups, based on          trol through aggressive, confronta-          reduce impressions of confinement,
management and program needs. Al-           tional, or manipulative behavior             as does the ability to move among
though there is more than one way of        present a danger to staff and other          locations with varied spatial charac-
doing things correctly, juvenile facili-    residents and disrupt the smooth             ter. A quiet acoustic environment,
ties generally lean toward smaller          flow of daily activities. Although           achieved through carpeting and other

surface treatments, furnishings, and     management practices in a juvenile         other staff and prompt notification of
spatial configurations, can be used to   facility is the need for staff to work     others in the event of an emergency.
create the perception of a calm and      consistently and effectively with resi-
controlled setting.                      dents. To do so, staff must be confi-      Housing
                                         dent of both their personal safety and
In a 1998 keynote address to the                                                    Housing is a critical issue in design-
                                         the overall security of the facility.
American Institute of Architects Con-                                               ing a successful juvenile facility. As
                                         When staff are responsible for too
ference, James Bell, a staff attorney                                               discussed above (under “Group size/
                                         many residents, when they doubt the
for the Youth Law Center, described                                                 classification”), housing units for ju-
                                         availability of assistance in emergen-
the optimal features of a juvenile fa-                                              veniles tend to be smaller than those
                                         cies, or when they have a limited
cility as follows:                                                                  in adult facilities. The vast majority of
                                         number of responses to resident be-
                                                                                    units in juvenile facilities support 8 to
  While technology may be good           havior, they are likely to avoid close
                                                                                    12 residents—the maximum number,
  for adult incarceration, it has        contact with residents under their
                                                                                    according to juvenile authorities, that
  proven repeatedly to be a poor         care and rely on physically restrictive
                                                                                    a single staff person can manage ef-
  way to administer juvenile facili-     measures to achieve control. As a re-
                                                                                    fectively with a high level of staff in-
  ties. Use your designs as a tool to    sult, program quality suffers, and a
                                                                                    teraction and safety (Parent et al.,
  try to reduce warehousing of           more institutional character prevails.
                                                                                    1994). Although smaller units may
  young people, many of whom
                                         Appropriate group size is a decisive       result in less efficient staffing pat-
  have still not been adjudicated
                                         factor in staff members’ perception of     terns, they may be necessary for cer-
                                         control. The ability to keep groups        tain categories of offenders. Larger
  Make sure there is plenty of light     within various zones also contributes      housing units—though more com-
  and space. Juveniles in general        to a sense of control. Other design        mon in recent large facilities—are
  are mercurial, and they definitely     features affect staff perception of con-   generally considered unacceptable in
  are so while detained. A light,        trol. Housing and activity spaces, for     small facilities because it is harder to
  spacious setting can improve           example, should be arranged in a           classify residents when they are part
  their spirits when they return         way that promotes a high degree of         of larger groups.
  from court or from a visit that        visibility for staff within and outside
                                                                                    Housing units must support such
  goes poorly.                           those areas. Juveniles should not be
                                                                                    varied activities as sleeping, counsel-
                                         able to conceal themselves in corners
  Make sure there is enough space                                                   ing, studying, reading, writing, play-
                                         or rooms that are not directly super-
  for large muscle exercise and for                                                 ing board games, using a computer,
                                         vised. Resident circulation between
  classrooms and contact visiting.                                                  and watching television. Staff gener-
                                         physically controlled security zones
  Be wary of multiple use rooms                                                     ally want housing areas to be quiet
                                         (housing, education, recreation, visit-
  that are supposed to serve as the                                                 spaces that provide residents with a
                                         ing, dining) should also be direct and
  primary classroom. You can be-                                                    sense of calm, reflection, and privacy
                                         easily observed by staff. Residents
  lieve that any space not desig-                                                   after days filled with structured pro-
                                         should know that they are being ob-
  nated specifically for classrooms                                                 grams and activities. To control noise
                                         served at all times and that there are
  will probably not be used as such.                                                and intensity levels, active pursuits
                                         no gaps in surveillance—even when
  There are too many competing                                                      such as table games, exercise, and rec-
                                         staff are not working with them di-
  needs for any large space and                                                     reation often occur outside of, but
                                         rectly. Remote audio and visual moni-
  school will be one of the first                                                   close to, housing areas.
                                         toring systems should be used, as ap-
                                         propriate, to supplement direct            To create spatial flexibility and allow
  I know that you can design facili-     supervision and to ensure backup           for certain program activities in hous-
  ties that downplay the negative        during periods of low staffing.            ing areas, many housing unit designs
  aspects of confinement and pro-                                                   include living space beyond the mini-
                                         Staff members must also be able to
  vide positive space through your                                                  mum levels required by national stan-
                                         communicate immediately with one
  use of natural light, glass, colors,                                              dards. Many facilities also now incor-
                                         another at all times. Access to audio
  textures, and furnishings.                                                        porate easily accessible activity
                                         communication systems should be
                                                                                    spaces, both indoor and outdoor, in
                                         uncomplicated and widely available.
Staff support, communication,                                                       close proximity to housing.
                                         In many new facilities, staff are
and supervision                          equipped with cordless telephones or       Some new facilities feature housing
One of the great challenges in de-       other wireless communication de-           units based on the “unit management
veloping effective operations and        vices to ensure instant connection to      concept,” meaning that the majority

of resident activities (including din-      of multiple-occupancy sleeping rooms,        necessary. Doors, whether made of
ing and education) occur within the         practitioners have found that shared         heavy-gauge metal or solid wood,
housing unit. This approach mini-           sleeping spaces—even with intensive          should have vision panels. Although
mizes resident circulation. Most resi-      supervision—are often a source of in-        fire safety regulations may require
dential programs, however, involve          creased juvenile injuries, intimidation,     remote release doors, normal opera-
extensive movement of residents             and other undesirable behaviors. ACA         tions usually allow staff to control
among spaces and reserve housing            standards require facilities’ living         sleeping room doors with a key.
units for sleeping, studying, and en-       units to be designed primarily for
                                                                                         Suicide prevention is a paramount
gaging in certain small group activi-       single-occupancy sleeping, allowing
                                                                                         concern in designing facilities. The
ties. Although either approach can be       no more than 20 percent of housing
                                                                                         time that a juvenile spends in his or
successful, the decision to pursue one      capacity to be multiple-occupancy
                                                                                         her room, when contact with staff and
over the other should be carefully          sleeping rooms (American Correctional
                                                                                         other residents is limited, can be the
considered during project planning          Association, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c). The
                                                                                         most emotionally disturbing period of
phases because the two approaches           court in T.I. et al. v. Delia et al. (King
                                                                                         the juvenile’s entire incarceration
require radically different designs.        County, WA), for example, held that
                                                                                         (Hayes, 1998; Rowan, 1989). Recogniz-
                                            having three or more youth in one
Regardless of the amount of resident                                                     ing the potential for suicidal and other
                                            sleeping room constituted a potentially
movement envisioned, most housing                                                        dangerous behavior, most residential
                                            dangerous, and even unconstitutional,
areas in new juvenile facilities include                                                 programs seek to minimize the time
                                            threat to individual safety and ordered
the following:                                                                           that juveniles spend in their rooms. In
                                            a stop to multiple-occupancy sleeping
                                                                                         addition, programs attempt to elimi-
s Single-occupancy sleeping rooms.          rooms (i.e., those with three or more
                                                                                         nate protrusions and sharp edges in
                                            residents) in juvenile detention facili-
s Group living spaces.                                                                   sleeping rooms and limit residents’
                                            ties (cf., Puritz and Scali, 1998).
                                                                                         access to hardware or other materials
s Individual showers and restrooms.
                                            OJJDP’s Research Report Conditions           that might be used for self-destructive
s Storage spaces for clothes, linens,       of Confinement: Juvenile Detention and       purposes. Sleeping rooms today are
     and other items used on the unit.      Corrections Facilities (Parent et al.,       consequently more spartan than in the
                                            1994) has similarly linked increased         past, an environmental tradeoff con-
s Accessible janitor closets (which
                                            juvenile-on-juvenile injuries to large       sidered acceptable given the need for
     facilitate resident participation in
                                            dormitories (11 or more residents in         increased safety and the limited time
                                            one large room) and recommends               that residents spend there. By contrast,
Staff desk areas are often included in      eliminating dormitory sleeping ar-           group living spaces in housing units
housing areas to allow staff members        rangements in all juvenile facilities.       today are generally more open, less
to complete paperwork and related           Because of these concerns, many pro-         confining, and more easily supervised
activities in close proximity to resi-      gram operators faced with crowding           than in the past.
dents. According to the mandates of         refuse to place more than one resident
                                                                                         Most program operators favor single-
the 1990 Americans With Disabilities        in a sleeping room, opting instead to
                                                                                         level housing arrangements over
Act, housing unit designs must also         put extra mattresses in separate and
                                                                                         multilevel arrangements because
now include a certain number of bed-        easily supervised dayrooms or hall-
                                                                                         single-level arrangements permit
rooms with wheelchair access. Many          ways to minimize the potential for
                                                                                         easier access to and better supervi-
housing units and the areas within          injury or other dangers.
                                                                                         sion of sleeping rooms. Site restric-
and immediately adjacent to them
                                            Because sleeping rooms are the hard-         tions, staffing levels, cost constraints,
also have laundry facilities that allow
                                            est areas to supervise, they should be       and other factors, however, some-
resident participation, interview
                                            a facility’s most durable and abuse-         times require facilities to consider
rooms that may be used by social ser-
                                            resistant spaces. Hard finishes and          split-level or two-story housing ar-
vices and other staff members, addi-
                                            stainless steel sanitary fixtures are        rangements, with bedrooms stacked
tional storage space, and “timeout”
                                            commonly used, windows and                   vertically around a common living or
rooms that permit temporary separa-
                                            frames are designed to be durable,           dayroom area. Although many newer
tion of residents who are exhibiting
                                            and windows are designed and lo-             facilities have used this approach suc-
disruptive behavior.
                                            cated to prevent external communica-         cessfully (Dugan, 1998), it poses sig-
Single-occupancy sleeping rooms are         tion. Sleeping rooms should include          nificant design and operational chal-
preferred in most juvenile confine-         audio communications systems to al-          lenges, including potential difficulties
ment settings. Although professional        low residents to contact staff and staff     with vertical circulation, resident ac-
standards and case law permit the use       to contact and monitor residents as          cess, emergency egress, room checks

and supervision, and ADA compli-            each day or requiring them to com-         pursuits (e.g, computer games)
ance and the potential for behavior         plete self-directed learning packets       (Calloway, 1995; Grimm, 1998; Roush,
problems (e.g., jumping or throwing         and related activities, program opera-     1996c). Active recreational activities
objects from upper levels).                 tors usually believe that more exten-      (which involve vigorous competitive
                                            sive academic activities are necessary     and noncompetitive activities) are an
For the most part, secure detention
                                            to meet residents’ needs (Leone, Ru-       essential part of daytime and evening
housing spaces are intended to pro-
                                            therford, and Nelson, 1991; Wolford        programming (Bell, 1990, 1992, 1996;
vide a constant level of physical secu-
                                            and Koebel, 1995). The time that a ju-     Soler et al., 1990). The availability of
rity and supervision that supports
                                            venile spends in custody, when edu-        indoor space for these activities al-
flexible use (based on needs deter-
                                            cators can have his or her undivided       lows residents to pursue active exer-
mined by staff). Spatial and material
                                            attention, is often described as a         cise regardless of weather conditions.
distinctions are less important design
                                            “teachable moment,” a time when            Outdoor recreational opportunities
considerations than a facility’s ability
                                            considerable learning can take place       should also be available to relieve the
to use housing spaces in a variety of
                                            (Cavanagh, 1995). Given this oppor-        stress of constant indoor confinement.
ways that may be modified over time.
                                            tunity, many residential programs          For these, practitioners generally fa-
                                            feature hours of year-round educa-         vor easily supervised outdoor areas
Programs and Services                       tional activities (formal and informal)    that are close to housing and indoor
Having a full schedule of programs          that focus not only on standard            activity areas (for easy access) and
and services available to residents fa-     academic subjects, but also on the         suitable for small groups.
cilitates effective management of their     following:
behavior. Keenly aware that residents                                                  Visitation
                                            s Life skills development.
may find unproductive or damaging
                                                                                       Visitation with family members usu-
outlets for youthful energy when lim-       s Communications skills assessment.
                                                                                       ally involves scheduled periods for
ited opportunities for positive activ-
                                            s Remedial reading and writing             group contact visitation,5 supple-
ity are available, program staff in ju-
                                              instruction.                             mented by prearranged private visits
venile facilities believe that structured
                                                                                       as appropriate. Most facilities include
educational and recreational activities     s Conflict resolution skills develop-
                                                                                       group visiting rooms and private
are the best defense against misbe-           ment (including instruction on so-
                                                                                       visiting rooms (for meetings with
havior (Roush, 1996c).                        cial skills, anger management, and
                                                                                       family and legal counsel) within a
                                              healthy lifestyles).
In addition to their behavior manage-                                                  building’s secure perimeter but out-
ment benefits, program and service          s Computer literacy.                       side its primary residential areas.
opportunities are essential to resi-                                                   Some program operators oppose
                                            s Learning skills assessment.
dents’ health and well-being (Bell,                                                    bringing visitors into any residential
1990, 1992, 1996; National Commis-          Daytime learning activities frequently     areas, given the possible disruption of
sion on Correctional Health Care,           carry over into the evening and may        programming for juveniles receiving
1999; Soler et al., 1990). Facilities ac-   also include counseling and group          visitors, the need to control contra-
cordingly allow visitation and pro-         instruction in subjects such as anger      band, and other safety concerns.
vide comprehensive education, recre-        management, peer pressure re-              Some facilities also have a limited
ation, counseling, religious, and           sponses, and substance abuse resis-        number of noncontact visiting rooms
medical services (Roush, 1993). Al-         tance. A well-founded residential pro-     to be used in the rare circumstance
though specific requirements for pro-       gram seeks both to identify problems       when potential harm to residents or
grams in each of these areas are not        that may contribute to delinquency         visitors is anticipated.
always defined, professional stan-          and to initiate coordinated educa-
dards, case law, and State codes            tional responses to these problems.        Health care
mandate provision of these services                                                    Most juvenile facilities’ medical
(Roush, 1993), and best practices           Recreation                                 services include medical screening,
demand something more than a                                                           regular examinations, sick call, and
                                            Recreation includes such diverse ac-
minimalist approach.                                                                   distribution of medications (Morris,
                                            tivities as exercise and sports, con-
                                            structive leisure activities for indi-     Anderson, and Baker, 1996; National
Education                                   viduals and groups (e.g., crafts, cards,
Although educational programs may           and board games), intellectual activi-
meet the letter of the law by assigning     ties (e.g., reading, writing, and prob-     During contact visitation, a detained individual and
                                                                                       his or her visitor(s) are in the same area; in noncontact
residents a few hours of homework           lem solving), and certain less active      visits, they are separated by safety glass.

Commission on Correctional Health           selection should focus on identifying          Heavily industrialized areas are
Care, 1999; Owens, 1994). Because           locations that satisfy a range of              generally inappropriate, as are
they require round-the-clock medical        operational needs, including the               areas with traffic volumes that
staffing, infirmaries are provided in       following:                                     would threaten effective monitor-
only the largest facilities. Emergency                                                     ing of a site’s perimeter. Excessive
                                            s Public access. The site should
medical services and ongoing medi-                                                         noise (for example, from transpor-
                                              provide convenient access to fami-
cal supervision are usually provided                                                       tation or a nearby commercial en-
                                              lies, legal counsel, and local agen-
as needed at designated offsite loca-                                                      terprise) should also be avoided.
                                              cies that will have contact with
tions, except in the largest facilities.
                                              residents. It should be easily acces-     Site selection and land acquisition are
Because of the number and diversity           sible by private vehicle or public        often highly politicized processes and
of health-related problems experi-            transportation.                           may ultimately require compromise. It
enced by juveniles and the prolifera-                                                   is difficult to find a site that satisfies all
                                            s Adequate land area. The site
tion of medications being adminis-                                                      concerns (Ricci, 1995). Unfortunately,
                                              should have sufficient space for a
tered to juveniles in custody, the                                                      some institutions built in remote areas
                                              facility’s initial construction needs
availability of regular care and atten-                                                 because of economic incentives end
                                              and possible future expansion. Ad-
tion by qualified medical professionals                                                 up being staffed by underpaid and
                                              equate space for a buffer between
has become a matter of increasing con-                                                  undertrained individuals who differ
                                              public areas and secure residential
cern for juvenile facilities. The expand-                                               culturally and racially from the resident
                                              areas is also desirable. A site that is
ing scope of medical services needed                                                    population (Butterfield, 1998; Kearns,
                                              too small may necessitate undesir-
for juveniles in secure residential cus-                                                1998). To avoid such situations, plan-
                                              able vertical development and cir-
tody has resulted in increased space                                                    ners should make every effort to iden-
                                              culation or may limit outdoor rec-
needs. Many facilities also now in-                                                     tify the characteristics of critical con-
                                              reation capabilities and future
clude health education for juveniles                                                    cern to operators and address potential
                                              expansion potential.
as an integral part of their programs.                                                  obstacles before the site selection pro-
                                            s Proximity to population served.           cess is finalized.
Site Selection Issues                         Juvenile facilities should be located
                                              near the districts from which their       Construction Costs
Site selection is one of the most per-
                                              populations are drawn. Such prox-
plexing decisions jurisdictions face                                                    Almost every jurisdiction contemplat-
                                              imity ensures convenient access
when developing juvenile residential                                                    ing the construction of a new juvenile
                                              by families. It also helps facilities
facilities. Many projects encounter re-                                                 facility agonizes about the high costs
                                              recruit staff with cultural/ethnic
sistance from community members                                                         involved. Although there are ways of
                                              backgrounds similar to those of
who fear that placing a facility near                                                   reducing costs (e.g., through more
                                              the residents being confined. Un-
their homes will make their neighbor-                                                   efficient systems designs of physical
                                              fortunately, lower property costs
hoods unsafe and cause property val-                                                    plants and buildings), jurisdictions
                                              for land in remote locations some-
ues to plummet. Responses of this na-                                                   can go only so far in this direction
                                              times lead jurisdictions to select
ture are inevitable when a project is                                                   without compromising operational
                                              sites in areas that pose access and
announced without community input                                                       integrity and environmental quality.
                                              staffing difficulties.
and participation. Community involve-                                                   The costs of juvenile facilities are es-
ment should begin at a project’s earliest   s Proximity to courts. For facilities       pecially troubling to funding authori-
stages and should include meetings to         that hold youth prior to adjudica-        ties who compare such costs with the
provide background information and            tion, sites should be close to both       significantly lower relative costs (on a
public hearings to respond to citizen         the courts and the facilities where       per resident basis) of adult facilities.
concerns. Although involving the              youth may be placed after adjudi-         This comparison is unfair, however,
community will not guarantee a                cation and disposition. Such prox-        because juvenile facilities usually re-
facility’s acceptance, failure to address     imity will minimize the time that         quire substantially more square foot-
local concerns publicly and directly          staff and residents need to spend         age per resident.
will invite conflict.                         away from the facility and reduce
                                                                                        At present, juvenile facilities that are
                                              staffing needs and transportation
Unfortunately, the fear of political                                                    highly durable and include a full
backlash or community opposition                                                        complement of education and recre-
too often prompts planners to select        s Compatibility of adjacent land            ation areas and associated administra-
remote sites that are incompatible            uses. Site selection should focus on      tive, admissions, food service, and
with operational needs. From a                locations that support the residential    other support spaces cost an average
practical planning perspective, site          character of intended operations.         of $140 to $160 per square foot for the

building itself (McMillen, 1998). This                 These examples do not by any means          ment cost. To operate a facility, there-
amount includes all construction ma-                   encompass the complete range of de-         fore, jurisdictions must allocate ap-
terials, mechanical/electrical systems,                velopment costs for juvenile facilities.    proximately one-third of a building’s
security equipment, and hardware.                      A review of recent juvenile facility        cost for each year the building re-
It does not include additional costs                   projects, in fact, reveals that costs       mains open. (For example, a facility
for site work, parking, landscaping,                   vary considerably (above and below)         that costs $10 million to build will
architectural/engineering services, or                 those presented in table 2.                 cost approximately $3 million to op-
furnishings; nor does it allow for any                                                             erate each year.)
contingencies during construction (i.e.,               Operational Costs                           For a new facility that will be used for
changes required because of unfore-
                                                       As high as construction costs may be,       at least 30 years, total operating costs
seen circumstances). These additional
                                                       they represent only a fraction of the       over the lifetime of the facility will
costs can increase the cost of facility
                                                       costs that a jurisdiction developing        exceed construction costs by 10 times
development by 30 to 35 percent
                                                       expanded detention capacity will            or more. Expenditures will actually
(McMillen, 1998). Even higher costs
                                                       have to bear each year during the life      be even higher, because the operating
should be anticipated in locations with
                                                       of a facility. For example, the authors’    budget described above does not in-
high construction cost indexes (e.g.,
                                                       experience has shown that staffing          clude expenses associated with debt
large metropolitan areas).
                                                       expenses—which account for ap-              service of initial construction bonds
The cost per bed space is also influ-                  proximately 80 to 85 percent of an-         or the cost of the inevitable repair and
enced by a facility’s size. Small facilities           nual operating expenditures in facili-      replacement of structural and me-
(25 to 50 beds) require support spaces                 ties with a direct supervision staffing     chanical systems over the life of a
not appreciably smaller than those in                  pattern—require annual expenditures         building.
larger facilities (50 to 100 beds), which              amounting to about 25 to 27 percent
                                                                                                   A physical design based on staffing
are able to achieve economies of scale.                of a facility’s total development cost.
                                                                                                   efficiency—even if it will involve
For this reason, small facilities fre-                 The percentage is somewhat lower
                                                                                                   higher construction expenditures—is
quently average between 700 and 800                    for large facilities and somewhat
                                                                                                   of utmost importance. In the interest
square feet per resident, while larger                 higher for small facilities. Staffing ex-
                                                                                                   of fiscal responsibility, however, juris-
detention facilities average 600 to 700                penses include all direct supervision,
                                                                                                   dictions should carefully consider
square feet per resident. Long-term                    administration, and program and
                                                                                                   long-term operational costs through-
care facilities frequently provide more                support services staff that most facili-
                                                                                                   out the planning process. Only by
space in support of expanded pro-                      ties require. When other expenses
                                                                                                   examining all potential operational
gramming options.                                      (food, clothing, supplies, utilities,
                                                                                                   expenses rigorously will planners
                                                       communications, normal mainte-
Using average costs for construction                                                               achieve the best possible balance of
                                                       nance, travel, training, and related
and development expenses, table 2                                                                  physical design and supervision
                                                       items) are added to staffing expenses,
provides examples that illustrate total                                                            needs. The high cost of secure opera-
                                                       a facility’s total annual operating ex-
project costs expected for facilities with                                                         tions further underscores the impor-
                                                       penditures may approach 30 to 33
40- and 80-bed capacities.                                                                         tance of seeking cost-effective deten-
                                                       percent of the total facility develop-
                                                                                                   tion alternatives that reduce residential
                                                                                                   capacity needs while providing nec-
Table 2: Construction/Development Cost Examples                                                    essary supervision, management, and
                                                                                                   system flexibility (Moon, Applegate,
  Cost Factor                                     40-Bed Capacity               80-Bed Capacity
                                                                                                   and Latessa, 1997).
  Total Square Feet/Resident                                   750                       650
  Cost per Square Foot (1999)                                 $150                      $150
                                                                                                   Juvenile Facility
  Total Construction Cost                              $4,500,000                  $7,800,000
     Sitework @ ±9.5% of Construction                    $427,500                   $741,000
     Furnishings @ ±5.0% of Construction                 $225,000                   $390,000
     Arch./Eng. Fees @ ±8.5% of Construction             $382,500                   $663,000
                                                                                                   Fundamental Needs
     Contingency @ ±10.0% of Construction                $450,000                   $780,000       OJJDP’s Conditions of Confinement
                                                                                                   Research Report (Parent et al., 1994)
  Total Project Cost                                   $5,985,000                 $10,374,000
                                                                                                   provides a comprehensive analysis
  Total Cost per Resident                                $149,625                   $129,675       of conditions in juvenile confinement
                                                                                                   facilities. In particular, the study
Note: The table does not include financing/bond costs or administrative fees.                      measured facilities’ conformance to

46 assessment criteria that reflected        in improved conditions of confinement,        Organizational prerequisites
existing minimum national and pro-           suggesting the need for improved stan-        Safety and security. Safety and secu-
fessional standards in 12 areas:             dards and different ways to evaluate          rity are fundamental prerequisites of
                                             quality of life.                              program development. Programs
s Living space.
                                                                                           cannot grow and evolve unless resi-
s Health care.                               Key Elements for Operation                    dents and staff are safe and secure—
s Food, clothing, and hygiene.               JAIBG Program Purpose Area 1 sug-             both physically and emotionally.
                                             gests that a new facility’s operation         Physical aspects of safety and secu-
s Living accommodations.                                                                   rity include a new facility’s design
                                             should be as efficient as possible. Ide-
s Security.                                  ally, the facility should be a best prac-     and construction and policies and
                                             tices program. The idea of starting a         procedures that control or prevent
s Control of suicidal behavior.                                                            juveniles’ access to contraband and/
                                             program from scratch or building a
s Inspections and emergency                  facility or operation from the ground         or weapons. Emotional safety and se-
   preparedness.                             up appeals to most juvenile justice           curity means that residents and staff
                                             practitioners largely because it frees        feel safe from fear or harm.
s Education.
                                             them from all of the “baggage” of             Order and organization. Organiza-
s Recreation.                                past practices. Problems arise, how-          tion is the backbone of program de-
                                             ever, when practitioners must con-            velopment, the structure upon which
s Treatment services.
                                             ceptualize what kind of program they          effective programs are built. Previte
s Access to community.                       want (i.e., the principles of running         (1994) refers to this structure as “The
                                             an institution) and determine how to          Code” and identifies three compo-
s Limits on staff discretion.
                                             make it happen (i.e., the practice of         nents: order, tradition, and discipline.
The 12 areas were each placed in 1 of 4      institutional operations or process).
broad categories (basic needs, order                                                       s Order includes a building’s neat-
                                             If successful facility operations were          ness and cleanliness, its adherence
and safety, programming, and juvenile
                                             easy to develop, more model programs            to a daily routine or schedule, and
rights). The study examined each
                                             would exist. Although a model pro-              a feeling—among residents and
facility’s conformance with the 12 areas
                                             gram is difficult to develop, there are         staff—of knowing what will hap-
of conditions of confinement. The per-
                                             sufficient resources (knowledge de-             pen next. To achieve order, an in-
centage of facilities that conformed to
                                             rived from lessons learned and tech-            stitution must have a clear and
all criteria in any of the 12 areas ranged
                                             nology derived from best practices) to          comprehensive policy and proce-
from 25 to 85 percent, underscoring a
                                             guide the development of exemplary              dures manual. To develop the
disparity in practices and a national
                                             programs. This section serves as an             manual, facilities should refer to
need for improved operations.
                                             operations guide, setting forth steps to        the series of publications on ACA
Some special problems—such as sui-           take, knowledge and resources to ac-            standards (American Correctional
cidal behavior, injuries to residents, in-   quire, and people to talk to in order to        Association, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c,
juries to staff, and lawsuits—were at-       operate an effective facility. In particu-      1994), the series’ companion works
tributable to isolated events. The study     lar, it outlines three categories of infor-     (American Correctional Associa-
found, however, that most operational        mation: (1) organizational prerequisites        tion, 1987, 1992a, 1992b, 1992c),
problems were correlated with perva-         (components that must be in place               chapter 7 of the Desktop Guide to
sive deficiencies in conditions of con-      before program development can oc-              Good Juvenile Detention Practice
finement. To improve such conditions,        cur), (2) program principles to guide           (Roush, 1996b), and products from
the study recommended developing             operations, and (3) staffing and man-           the OJJDP-sponsored Performance-
performance-based standards for juve-        agement principles to guide implemen-           Based Standards Project managed
nile facilities. Conditions of confine-      tation. The information provided here           by the Council of Juvenile Correc-
ment, however, are only one part of the      does not include standards by which             tional Administrators (CJCA).
larger and more complex measure of           to measure or evaluate facility opera-
juvenile facilities commonly referred to     tions. Instead, this section identifies       s Tradition includes customs, rou-
as “quality of life.” The study’s recom-     key elements that should be addressed.          tines, songs, and other activities
mendation of performance-based stan-         If any one of these elements is miss-           unique to a facility. With a new fa-
dards resulted from the finding that         ing or not fully developed, a facility          cility, the possibilities for tradition
high levels of compliance with policy-       administrator should be prepared to             are endless. Traditions need not be
based criteria did not necessarily result    explain why.                                    large or complicated; they may be

   as simple as serving chocolate milk         s Access Issues. These issues concern a     tion, training, and development. Staff
   at meals or celebrating birthdays             confined juvenile’s right to have         training and development are ad-
   with cake and ice cream. The pur-             access to information and individu-       dressed in detail later in this Bulletin.
   pose of tradition is to generate an           als outside the facility (e.g., through
                                                                                           Second, through its policies and proce-
   identity within the facility.                 mail, telephone, visitation, and
                                                                                           dures, a facility must ensure that it has
                                                 communication with attorneys and
s Discipline, by identifying appropri-                                                     sufficient staff to sustain program-
                                                 the courts). Bell (1990, 1992, 1996)
   ate behaviors and correcting inap-                                                      ming. This is a controversial issue, be-
                                                 explains these rights and discusses
   propriate behaviors, is a facility’s                                                    cause staffing is the single largest cost
                                                 related standards and case law.
   method of building character,                                                           in a facility’s operational budget and
   pride, and integrity. It involves           s Programs. ACA standards again pro-        because best practices offer no hard-
   teaching a collectively endorsed set          vide guidance and direction. Ac-          and-fast rules about staffing levels.
   of appropriate behaviors and val-             cording to Soler et al. (1990), the       Staffing levels depend on many fac-
   ues for staff and residents. These            courts’ primary programming inter-        tors, including a program’s philoso-
   behaviors and values are explained            ests are recreation and education.        phy, the quality of interactions between
   in greater detail in the discussion           Information about recreation is           staff and residents, the education and
   of program principles below.                  available in the Desktop Guide            training levels of staff, and the physi-
                                                 (Roush, 1996b) and Calloway (1995).       cal plant. Best practices are typically
Conditions of confinement. Condi-
                                                 Developmentally appropriate best          associated with facilities that have a
tions of confinement, a model of orga-
                                                 practices are found in Barrueta-          small number of youth (6–10) under
nizational structure based on the Youth
                                                 Clement et al. (1984) and Kostelnik,      the direct supervision of any one line
Law Center’s C.H.A.P.T.E.R.S. model
                                                 Soderman, and Whiren (1999), and          staff member (Roush, 1997).
(Soler et al., 1990), identifies eight areas
                                                 guidance on correctional education
of institutional operations most likely                                                    Density. Density (the number of
                                                 programs is available in the Desktop
to be targets of litigation. NJDA recom-                                                   people per unit of space in a facility) is
                                                 Guide (Roush, 1996b); Gemignani
mends that facilities use this model to                                                    a significant factor in the effectiveness
                                                 (1994); Hodges, Giuliotti, and
assess their potential liability before                                                    of an institutional program (Roush,
                                                 Porpotage (1994); Leone, Ruther-
developing programs. Each area in the                                                      1999). When density creates problems
                                                 ford, and Nelson (1991); and
C.H.A.P.T.E.R.S. model is identified                                                       in a juvenile facility, the institution is
                                                 Wolford and Koebel (1995).
below, and sources of information rel-                                                     said to be crowded. The best facilities
evant to each area are cited.                  s Training. See “Training” section in       have plans, policies, procedures, or
                                                 this Bulletin.                            strategies to address crowding (Burrell
s Classification and Admissions. Classi-
                                                                                           et al., 1998; Previte, 1997).
   fication systems are explained in           s Environmental Issues. ACA stan-
   detail in Howell (1997) and OJJDP’s           dards address these issues, which
   Guide for Implementing the Compre-            include compliance with State and         Program principles
   hensive Strategy for Serious, Violent,        local regulations on health, safety,      Successful programs have core prin-
   and Chronic Juvenile Offenders                and sanitation.                           ciples or assumptions to guide prob-
   (Howell, 1995a). Information about                                                      lem solving and decisionmaking.
                                               s Confinement and Restraints. Infor-
   admissions appears in American                                                          These principles define a program’s
                                                 mation appears in the ACA stan-
   Correctional Association, 1987,                                                         purpose and content, articulate what
                                                 dards, the Desktop Guide (Roush,
   1992c; Christy, 1994; and Roush,                                                        an institution hopes to accomplish,
                                                 1996b), Mitchell and Varley (1991),
   1994, 1996c.                                                                            and specify the operations that it
                                                 and the NCCHC standards (1999).
                                                                                           will use to accomplish its goals. Fre-
s Medical and Health Care Services.
                                               s Safety. The best sources of informa-      quently called core values, program
   Although the National Commis-
                                                 tion on resident safety are Soler et      principles are decisions about the
   sion on Correctional Health Care
                                                 al. (1990), Hayes (1998), Rowan           type of facility required to accomplish
   (NCCHC) (1999) and ACA (1991a,
                                                 (1989), Parent et al. (1994), the ACA     program goals and the number and
   1991b, 1991c) both have standards
                                                 standards, and the Desktop Guide.         type of staff members needed to
   that address medical and healthcare
                                                                                           implement the program.
   services, NCCHC’s are more com-             Staff. Two organizational prerequisites
   prehensive. Additional informa-             relate to staff. First, through a central   Many different program models ad-
   tion on this topic appears in Mor-          personnel office or consultation with       dress a wide array of offenders and in-
   ris, Anderson, and Baker (1996)             personnel specialists, a new facility       tervention strategies. In completing a
   and Owens (1994).                           should develop an effective program         master plan, a jurisdiction identifies the
                                               for staff recruitment, selection, reten-    characteristics of its juvenile offender

population. It then chooses a program       Anger management. With violence            Drug and alcohol counseling pro-
model best suited to the offender popu-     becoming increasingly common in            grams are therefore important ancil-
lation. Research into best practices has    American society, youth in juvenile        lary services that can improve the ef-
revealed that the following program         confinement facilities are becoming        fectiveness of model programs (Agee,
components are successful in juvenile       more comfortable using violence as a       1995; Cellini, 1994; Howell, 1997).
detention and corrections:                  problem-solving strategy. Anger man-
                                                                                       Transition and aftercare services.
                                            agement, however, can be learned,
Effective assessment. The better the                                                   Without transition and aftercare pro-
                                            and it is a prerequisite for meaningful
match between offender needs and                                                       grams, changes occurring within an
                                            and lasting behavior change among
facility programs and services, the                                                    institutional setting are unlikely to
                                            youth who have exhibited violent
greater the likelihood of success. To                                                  have long-lasting effects. Transition
                                            behavior (American Psychological
assess offender needs, a facility must                                                 programs move youth back into the
                                            Association, 1993; Chinn, 1996;
use effective needs assessment strate-                                                 community gradually. Aftercare in-
                                            Dobbins and Gatowski, 1996).
gies (Agee, 1995; Bell, 1996; Howell,                                                  volves having a specially trained af-
1995b, 1997).                               Discipline. Discipline, a vital part of    tercare worker or probation officer
                                            effective programs, creates character,     work with youth in the community
Behavior contracting. The use of be-
                                            courage, pride, and integrity. An ines-    for an extended period of time (until
havior contracts with juvenile offenders
                                            capable part of every juvenile con-        the youth is comfortable being back
is effective, especially when contracts
                                            finement facility, discipline also sets    in the community or has met a spec-
focus on changing behaviors associated
                                            the tone for all other program interven-   ified set of criteria). As the number of
with criminal acts (Agee, 1995; Lipsey,
                                            tions. Effective discipline programs set   youth in the juvenile justice system
1992; Stumphauzer, 1979).
                                            high expectations for youth; employ        has increased, caseloads have become
Cognitive programs. Cognitive re-           graduated sanctions; emphasize cor-        so large that aftercare and parole ser-
structuring (i.e, changing a juvenile’s     rective measures; encourage and            vices officers have insufficient time
“self-talk”) has produced successful        celebrate appropriate behaviors,           to address all of the problems of the
outcomes for several decades. Adoles-       achievements, and accomplishments;         youth on their caseloads. Therefore,
cents, especially juvenile offenders,       and help youth to understand that          many youth’s problems are unad-
may have deficits in consequential          disciplinary procedures are in their       dressed or neglected; without super-
thinking and alternative thinking.          own best interest. Effective discipline    vision, youth often quickly return to
Their thinking is frequently illogical,     programs require strong and commit-        lives of drugs and crime (Agee, 1995;
and they have trouble changing irra-        ted staff members, who must make           Altschuler and Armstrong, 1995;
tional beliefs. Cognitive strategies that   discipline part of their own lives—not     Howell, 1997; Lipsey, 1992).
address these deficits further the goals    just part of their jobs.
                                                                                       When using any of the techniques
of JAIBG by emphasizing accountabil-
                                            Empathy training. Empathy training         above, facilities should explain re-
ity and personal responsibility (Agee,
                                            (one of the BARJ model’s restorative       lated expectations clearly to each ju-
1995; Gibbs et al., 1997; Glick, Stur-
                                            elements) includes helping juveniles       venile entering the facility. Expecta-
geon, and Venator-Santiago, 1998;
                                            become aware of and empathize with         tions should be systematic (use a
Lipsey, 1992; Traynelis-Yurek, 1997).
                                            their victims. Awareness and empa-         method to achieve goals); logical
Positive peer cultures. Although            thy are necessary precursors to feel-      (make sense); rigorous (place high
positive group dynamics is an impor-        ings of guilt, shame, and remorse.         expectations on youth for improved
tant part of successful programs, the                                                  performance); and balanced (empha-
                                            Social skills training. Most juvenile
ultimate empowerment for youth is                                                      size strengths while administering
                                            offenders lack adequate social skills.
having the opportunity to solve their                                                  sanctions/punishments).
                                            Many do not know how to relate to
own problems. Researchers have
                                            persons outside their family or gang.
shown that youth are more motivated                                                    Staffing and management
                                            Experience indicates that social skills
to behave appropriately when other                                                     principles
                                            programming is an important part of
youth participate in decisionmaking
                                            juvenile detention and corrections         Recruitment, selection, retention, and
about the intervention. They also gain
                                            programs (Roush, 1998).                    development of good staff members
a greater sense of self-worth when
                                                                                       are strengths of every successful pro-
they are able to help themselves and        Drug and alcohol abuse counseling.
                                                                                       gram. Several organizations and indi-
others (Brendtro and Ness, 1983;            Many youth entering juvenile confine-
                                                                                       viduals have examined the character-
Ferrara, 1992; Vorrath and Brendtro,        ment facilities are under the influence
                                                                                       istics of effective juvenile justice staff
1984; Wasmund, 1988).                       of alcohol and/or other drugs or have
                                                                                       (Glick, Sturgeon, and Venator-Santiago,
                                            a history of abusing these substances.

1998; Goldstein and Glick, 1987;                               increased safety. Being firm but fair    (residents are within earshot of or
Previte, 1994; Roush, 1996b). Lists of                         means several things. It means that      only a few feet away from staff) to
attributes compiled by researchers                             rules are enforced uniformly, with       actual staff participation in an activity.
have been fairly similar and include                           no second chances, excuses, or
                                                                                                        The essence of involvement in juve-
such traits as patience, the ability to                        warnings (unless rules call for
                                                                                                        nile facilities is the relationship be-
interact effectively with other people                         a warning). Rules are enforced
                                                                                                        tween residents and staff. Staff mem-
(i.e., social, communication, and rela-                        matter-of-factly, without emotion
                                                                                                        bers should be involved in juveniles’
tionship skills), cooperation, respect,                        on the part of staff. The staff mem-
                                                                                                        lives in a constructive way. In the best
empathy, the ability to work as a team                         ber’s role is simply to enforce rules,
                                                                                                        programs, staff members have chosen
player, alertness, physical strength,                          not to provide a lecture, sermon, or
                                                                                                        their jobs primarily because they like
and optimism.                                                  interrogation about a youth’s
                                                                                                        youth and genuinely want to help.
                                                               knowledge of the rules. Violating a
Once a facility hires good staff mem-                                                                   Without compromising a facility’s
                                                               rule is a youth’s choice; if the con-
bers, it needs to determine which                                                                       structure and order, these staff mem-
                                                               sequences for rule violations have
management principles are linked to                                                                     bers listen to the residents, and, as
                                                               been clearly specified in advance,
best practice operations. Four prin-                                                                    Previte (1994) explains, “Listening
                                                               the youth also chooses the conse-
ciples are presented below.6                                                                            creates hope, and hope is power.”
                                                               quence when he or she violates a
Consistency. Best practice programs                            rule. Being fair also means provid-      Emphasis on positive consequences.
have highly consistent management                              ing procedures for changing or           Successful programs emphasize the
principles. Consistency involves at                            eliminating unreasonable rules.          positive (Carrera, 1996). In fact, they
least three elements.                                                                                   use positive consequences at least
                                                             s A social order. A facility needs to
                                                                                                        four times more often than negative
s Rules that provide structure and de-                         develop a social order (i.e., consis-
                                                                                                        sanctions (Madsen, Becker, and Tho-
    pendability but do not overwhelm                           tent rules that govern everyone in
                                                                                                        mas, 1968). Effective programs must
    youth. Rules should be clear and                           the facility, including staff) (Roush,
                                                                                                        be both demanding and encouraging
    understandable. They should be                             1984). There will always be two
                                                                                                        and must communicate both positive
    few in number and general in na-                           sets of rules—one for staff (includ-
                                                                                                        and negative messages appropriately,
    ture. Realizing that not every mis-                        ing rules that apply to facility op-
                                                                                                        clearly, and without compromise.
    behavior can be addressed by a spe-                        eration) and one for residents. Best
    cific rule, best practices programs                        practices programs, however, have        To achieve the balance referred to in
    have rules based on general prin-                          certain rules of conduct that apply      the BARJ model, juvenile justice prac-
    ciples (e.g., cooperation, respect,                        to everyone. Such a social order         titioners must be open to including
    and responsibility). Rules and struc-                      encourages the development of            positive youth development pro-
    ture are the backbone of emotional                         respect and dignity.                     grams, rather than focusing exclu-
    and physical safety and provide the                                                                 sively on problems, needs, skill defi-
                                                             Involvement. Involvement means
    foundation for discipline and self-                                                                 cits, and other “negatives.” Matching
                                                             that a program includes activity, in-
    control in children (Humphrey,                                                                      programs and services to offender
                                                             teraction, and staff-resident relation-
    1984). According to Previte (1994),                                                                 needs and deficits may be effective;
                                                             ships. Regardless of their content, all
    rules are an institution’s way of                                                                   however, as Karen Pittman of the In-
                                                             effective programs are active—with
    saying “I care” to youth.                                                                           ternational Youth Foundation has ob-
                                                             youth in the best programs spending
                                                                                                        served, being problem free is not the
s Rule enforcement that is firm but fair.                    as many as 14 hours each day in
                                                                                                        same as being fully prepared (1996).
    Because adolescents are often con-                       structured and supervised activities
                                                                                                        A positive approach focusing on the
    cerned with fairness, facilities                         (American Correctional Association,
                                                                                                        strengths of youth—rather than one
    should enforce rules in a firm and                       1991a, 1991c). In addition to being
                                                                                                        focusing solely on their problems or
    fair manner. While perceptions of                        enjoyable, active programs are physi-
                                                                                                        needs—has produced effective out-
    unfairness generate feelings of an-                      cally and mentally challenging. They
                                                                                                        comes (Brendtro and Ness, 1995;
    ger and resentment, perceptions of                       are purposeful, educational, and
                                                                                                        Checkoway and Finn, 1992; Clark,
    fairness generate cooperation and                        helpful (Roush, 1993). They are also
                                                                                                        1995, 1996; Leffert et al., 1996; Seita,
                                                             outlets for youthful energy: youth in
                                                                                                        Mitchell, and Tobin, 1996). Positive
                                                             active programs are tired and ready
  For more information on management principles and                                                     youth development programs that
other operations issues, jurisdictions should call the       to sleep at the end of the day.
                                                                                                        can be used in juvenile confinement
OJJDP National Training and Technical Assistance Cen-
ter at 800–830–4031. Additional sources of information       Involvement also requires interaction      facilities include sports and recreation
on operating a juvenile facility also appear at the end of   between staff and residents, ranging       activities, camping programs, service
this Bulletin, under “For Further Information.”              from active supervision of an activity     programs, mentoring programs,

school-to-work programs, and sup-             juveniles’ rights, and limits or con-        and organizations—particularly the
port for teen parents.                        trols on staff discretion.                   American Correctional Association
                                                                                           (ACA); the Association for Staff Train-
Respect. No management principles             OJJDP’s Juvenile Detention Training
                                                                                           ing and Development (ASTD); the
will work without respect. Respect            Needs Assessment (Roush, 1996c) iden-
                                                                                           Juvenile Justice Trainers Association
means treating juveniles like worth-          tified factors that heighten the need
                                                                                           (JJTA) (a professional organization
while human beings, regardless of             for improved training. These factors in-
                                                                                           devoted entirely to training); the Na-
their behavior, appearance, offense           clude uneven levels of preemployment
                                                                                           tional Institute of Corrections (NIC)
history, psychological assessment, hy-        education among staff, high rates of
                                                                                           Academy Division (the training arm
giene, or volatility. It means refrain-       staff turnover, lateral shifts in person-
                                                                                           of the Federal Bureau of Prisons); and
ing from name calling, threats, put-          nel, increasingly complex needs of
                                                                                           the National Juvenile Detention Asso-
downs, and cursing. According to              juvenile offenders, worker liability
                                                                                           ciation (NJDA)—have expanded the
youth, respect is the single most im-         issues, and development of new tech-
                                                                                           network of skilled trainers. Third,
portant trait of a good staff member          nologies. According to detention ad-
                                                                                           OJJDP has provided strong leader-
in any type of program. A respectful          ministrators in Michigan, scarce
                                                                                           ship and support through its Training
and nonjudgmental approach sepa-              funding was the primary problem
                                                                                           and Technical Assistance Division.
rates the deed from the doer, allowing        facing facilities that wanted to im-
                                                                                           Some of the contributions to training
staff to treat youth with respect no          prove training (Michigan Juvenile De-
                                                                                           made by ACA, NJDA, JJTA, and
matter how reprehensible the youth’s          tention Association, 1981). More than
                                                                                           OJJDP are described below.
conduct may be.                               two-thirds of New Jersey detention
                                              facilities did not even have a training
Respect leads staff to focus on similari-                                                  ACA
                                              budget in 1990 (Lucas, 1991). Juvenile
ties (rather than differences) between
                                              facility staff cite scheduling difficul-     Through standards that specify an
themselves and the juveniles under
                                              ties (e.g., interruptions in training be-    annual minimum number of training
their care. For example, when staff of
                                              cause of staffing problems and               hours for each category of employee
the Utah County Juvenile Detention
                                              crowding) as the major obstacle to           at various periods in his or her em-
Center (Provo, UT) were asked to ex-
                                              implementing training programs               ployment, ACA has confirmed the im-
plain their motivation for working
                                              (Brown, 1982; Roush, 1996c).                 portance of staff training (American
with youth in the juvenile justice sys-
                                                                                           Correctional Association, 1991a,
tem, the majority stated, “These are
                                              Staff Training                               1991c). With facilities’ accreditation
my brothers and sisters who are in
                                                                                           dependent upon compliance with
trouble. I am here to help them.”             Even though juvenile facility staff train-
                                                                                           ACA training standards, comprehen-
                                              ing has made significant progress over
                                                                                           sive staff training programs have
Juvenile Facility Staff                       the past decade, and access to training
                                                                                           gained legitimacy, and training funds
                                              information, resources, and services
Training                                                                                   have increased. What was once thought
                                              has never been better, training remains
                                                                                           to be an excessive amount of time for
                                              one of the highest ranked needs among
Fundamental Needs                                                                          training (160 hours for new employees
                                              line staff. One promising sign that
                                                                                           during their first year) is now gener-
Citing numerous links between inad-           training is becoming more widely
                                                                                           ally accepted as a best practice (Roush,
equate staff training and serious             available is the rapid growth of State-
                                                                                           1996c). To sustain this level of training,
problems (e.g., suicidal behaviors by         operated training academies: only six
                                                                                           at least 2 to 4 percent of a facility’s an-
residents), OJJDP’s study on condi-           such academies existed in 1944, while
                                                                                           nual operations budget should be allo-
tions of confinement confirmed the            today more than half of the States op-
                                                                                           cated to staff training services. For more
need for additional staff training (Par-      erate academies.
                                                                                           information about accredited juvenile
ent et al., 1994). Many problems with
                                              The recent overall improvement in staff      justice facilities, practitioners should
conditions of confinement occurred in
                                              training is attributable to three factors.   contact the ACA Standards and Ac-
facilities where staff had deficits in
                                              First, knowledge about effective train-      creditation Division (800–222–5646)
specific knowledge and skill areas.
                                              ing in general has been applied to ju-       and request a list of facilities, contact
The study also reinforced the belief
                                              venile justice specifically, resulting in    persons, and phone numbers.
that juvenile institutions should give
                                              a knowledge base and technology that
priority to improving training for new                                                     ACA has also developed useful train-
                                              are specific to juvenile justice system
staff (given the high levels of staff turn-                                                ing materials, including videos and
                                              needs (National Training and Techni-
over) and adding training for all staff                                                    correspondence courses. ACA train-
                                              cal Assistance Center, 1998; Blair et al.,
in the areas of adolescent health care,                                                    ing videos address topics such as fa-
                                              undated; Cellini, 1995; Christy, 1989).
education, treatment, access issues,                                                       cility admissions, suicide prevention,
                                              Second, professional associations

and cultural diversity. Correspondence      NIC has also developed a 27-step             Step 1: Conduct a training needs
courses through ACA address basic           training implementation strategy.            assessment
careworker skills, behavior manage-         Combined with Training, Technical            A facility should first conduct a train-
ment, suicide prevention, and super-        Assistance, and Evaluation Protocols: A      ing needs assessment to identify gaps
vision of youthful offenders. Upon          Primer for OJJDP Training and Technical      between the knowledge, skills, and
successfully completing courses and         Assistance Providers, this strategy          abilities needed to perform jobs effec-
passing an examination, an employee         provides sufficient knowledge to gen-        tively and the knowledge, skills, and
receives a certificate from ACA.            erate a comprehensive staff training         abilities currently possessed by staff
                                            program. Facilities can secure infor-        members. The larger the gap, the
NJDA                                        mation on the entire network of re-          greater the training need. Assessment
                                            sources available by referring to the        instruments and procedures can be
NJDA research (Roush, 1996c) has af-
                                            Training and Technical Assistance Re-        used to collect this information, and
firmed ACA’s training requirements,
                                            source Catalog, updated and published        juvenile justice trainers are available
identified five discrete training catego-
                                            annually by the National Training            to conduct needs assessments for
ries for juvenile justice employees, and
                                            and Technical Assistance Center, or          agencies and organizations.
developed learning objectives to supp-
                                            by calling the center at 800–830–4031.
lement the training topics identified by
ACA. Through OJJDP grants, NJDA                                                          Step 2: Develop a formal
and JJTA developed and tested two 40-       OJJDP                                        training plan
hour training curriculums for line staff    In 1990, OJJDP entered into an inter-
                                                                                         Based on information revealed by its
in juvenile detention and corrections       agency agreement with the NIC Acad-
                                                                                         needs assessment, a facility should for-
facilities. The curriculums are based on    emy Division to provide leadership
                                                                                         malize its training strategy. This strat-
national training needs assessment          development programs for juvenile
                                                                                         egy generally takes the form of train-
data (Roush and Jones, 1996), and the       detention and corrections personnel.
                                                                                         ing policies and procedures in which
lesson plans developed follow the           Under the agreement, NIC offers cor-
                                                                                         the facility identifies who the trainers
Instructional Theory Into Practice          rectional leadership development
                                                                                         will be, what types of training will be
(ITIP) model recommended by NIC.            (CLD) programs for new chief execu-
                                                                                         offered, which staff members will be
NJDA also has developed a training          tive officers, managers, and supervi-
                                                                                         trained, and how many hours of train-
implementation model intended to            sors. OJJDP produced a video on lead-
                                                                                         ing are to be provided annually for
strengthen and expand facilities’ in-       ership in juvenile justice based on
                                                                                         each position. Training policies and
house training capabilities (Roush,         NIC’s leadership development cur-
                                                                                         procedures should also establish mini-
1996a). Through the use of the Training     riculum. NIC’s training-for-trainers
                                                                                         mum training requirements for staff at
Needs Assessment Inventory (TNAI)           workshop, which uses the ITIP model,
                                                                                         different levels and identify any ad-
and interchangeable lesson plans, insti-    is rated by juvenile justice practition-
                                                                                         ministrative, professional, and/or
tutions can tailor training interventions   ers as one of the best programs for
                                                                                         statutory standards or requirements
to meet their specific needs.               developing foundation skills for train-
                                                                                         that the facility will meet.
                                            ers. OJJDP also provides technical as-
JJTA                                        sistance resources for line staff training
                                            through NJDA’s Center for Research           Step 3: Adopt, adapt, or develop
With the development of Guidelines for                                                   a core curriculum
                                            and Professional Development (517–
Quality Training (Blair et al., undated)
                                            432–1242) and for management staff           Based on the training needs identified
and OJJDP Training, Technical Assis-
                                            training through the NIC Academy             and the training plan developed, a fa-
tance, and Evaluation Protocols: A Primer
                                            Division (800–995–6429).                     cility should adopt, adapt, or develop
for OJJDP Training and Technical Assis-
                                                                                         a core curriculum as its primary train-
tance Providers (National Training and
                                            Six Major Steps to                           ing vehicle. Several curriculums are
Technical Assistance Center, 1998),
                                                                                         available, including three developed
JJTA has provided basic information         Implementation                               by OJJDP grants: the National De-
about the necessary components of a         Several important steps must be com-         tention Careworker Curriculum, the
model staff training program. Com-          pleted to construct a model staff train-     Juvenile Corrections Careworker Cur-
posed primarily of staff development        ing program. As in the master plan-          riculum, and the National Training
and training specialists, JJTA provides     ning process, a facility should begin        Curriculum for Educators in Juvenile
a national network of information on        by articulating vision and mission           Confinement Facilities. To obtain cop-
training services and technical assis-      statements. The subsequent steps are         ies of these curriculums, practitioners
tance for juvenile justice trainers.        described below.                             should contact NJDA, listed in the
                                                                                         “For Further Information” section.

Step 4: Adopt an action strategy               Temporary Juvenile Detention Center           that can inform practitioners, policy-
A facility should next adopt an action         (Chicago, IL), for example, has a full-       makers, and the public in their quest to
strategy for delivering training               time training staff devoted to organiz-       develop and implement best practices
services. As discussed above, a major-         ing and delivering training services          in the areas of juvenile facility construc-
ity of States have training academies          that meet ACA standards. To improve           tion, operations, and staff training. This
responsible for training all personnel         ongoing training efforts, particularly        is really a search for “best knowledge”;
in State-operated juvenile correctional        in-service training, at the Bexar             once this knowledge is located, best
and detention facilities. Facilities not       County Juvenile Detention Center              practice is not far behind.
covered by a State training academy            (San Antonio, TX), Kossman (1990)
                                                                                             It is often easier to ascertain best
are responsible for devising their own         implemented an innovative, four-shift
                                                                                             practices in the area of construction
training delivery strategies.                  staffing pattern. Instead of the routine
                                                                                             because the physical structures that
                                               three-shift (a.m., p.m., and night)
Responding to the need for a training                                                        result are available for a wide array of
                                               scheduling assignments, he added a
delivery strategy for locally operated                                                       examination and analysis. This is not
                                               fourth shift as a replacement for those
juvenile facilities and facilities in States                                                 always the case when searching for
                                               shifts attending staff training. Using
without training academies, NJDA de-                                                         best practices in the areas of opera-
                                               the four-shift pattern, Kossman re-
veloped and tested a training imple-                                                         tions and staff training. In these areas,
                                               ported reductions in overtime costs
mentation strategy. NJDA’s strategy                                                          the search for models and examples
                                               and a greater commitment to training.
includes developing vision and mission                                                       of best practice is most productive
statements, conducting a training                                                            when it begins with people—as op-
                                               Step 6: Evaluate training                     posed to places. Best practice is found
needs assessment, developing a formal
training plan, and selecting a training        As a final step, facilities should evalu-     through best practitioners.
curriculum. NJDA’s strategy also ad-           ate training. Evaluations should in-
                                                                                             There has never been a better time to
dresses identification of key staff mem-       clude trainees’ reactions and sugges-
                                                                                             acquire knowledge from practition-
bers (middle managers, shift supervi-          tions for improvement and plans or
                                                                                             ers. The expansion of juvenile justice
sors, and lead workers) to serve as staff      commitments to implement training
                                                                                             has brought many new and talented
trainers. After completing a basic train-      lessons in daily practice. Facilities
                                                                                             people into the field. Communication
ing curriculum in a separate training          should conduct evaluations on an on-
                                                                                             technologies are also better than ever.
workshop, these key staff members are          going basis to determine whether
                                                                                             Professional organizations (including
divided into two groups: trainers and          staff behavior and institutional prac-
                                                                                             the Alliance for Juvenile Justice, the
mentors. Trainers complete a 40-hour           tices have changed as a result of
                                                                                             American Correctional Association,
program on building training founda-           training and whether the direction of
                                                                                             the American Probation and Parole
tion skills using the NIC model. Men-          any change is compatible with the
                                                                                             Association, the Council of Juvenile
tors (those key staff who do not want          goals of training. Results of evalua-
                                                                                             Corrections Administrators, the Juve-
or should not have staff training re-          tion efforts also provide information
                                                                                             nile Justice Trainers Association, the
sponsibilities) receive training on            about the nature and extent of a
                                                                                             National Association of Juvenile
mentoring so that they can help guide          facility’s training needs. This infor-
                                                                                             Correctional Agencies, the National
new employees through the training             mation, in turn, becomes data for
                                                                                             Council of Juvenile and Family Court
process. The NJDA strategy has proven          training needs assessment. The pro-
                                                                                             Judges, the National Council on
successful in strengthening in-house           cess has now come full circle, with
                                                                                             Crime and Delinquency, the National
training capabilities.                         evaluation data guiding future train-
                                                                                             Juvenile Court Services Association,
                                               ing needs assessment, annual revi-
                                                                                             and the National Juvenile Detention
                                               sions and modifications to the train-
Step 5: Schedule training                      ing plan, and updates to a facility’s
                                                                                             Association) offer access to abundant
The next major step is to schedule                                                           information, resources, and personal
                                               training curriculum.
training, a task that is extremely diffi-                                                    contacts. The excuses for not knowing
cult when a facility lacks sufficient                                                        are rapidly disappearing.
resources to provide coverage for staff        Conclusion
members attending training. The                Even though extensive literature on           References
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                                               difficult to define (Elliot, 1998). The       Agee, V.M. 1995. Managing clinical
expanding the cadre of in-house staff
                                               purpose of this Bulletin is not to pre-       programs for juvenile delinquents. In
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Vorrath, H., and Brendtro, L. 1984.          and practices includes OJJDP pub-         s The National Juvenile Detention
Positive peer culture, 2d ed. New York,      lications describing its Gould/             Association (517–432–1242) has
NY: Aldine Publishing.                       Wysinger Award recipients.                  collected information on innova-
                                                                                         tive programs and services for ju-
Wasmund, W.C. 1988. The social cli-        s The National Council of Juvenile
                                                                                         venile detention.
mates of peer group and other resi-          and Family Court Judges (702–
dential programs. Child & Youth Care         784–6012) has developed curricu-          s OJJDP’s National Training and
Quarterly 17(Fall):146–155.                  lum materials that explain many             Technical Assistance Center
                                             best practices concepts.                    (NTTAC) (800–830–4031) has infor-
Wilson, J.J., and Howell, J.C. 1993.
                                                                                         mation on individuals, agencies,
Comprehensive Strategy for Serious,        s The National Criminal Justice
                                                                                         associations, and grant recipients
Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders.     Reference Service (NCJRS) (800–
                                                                                         that address best practices in
Summary. Washington, DC: U.S. De-            851–3420) will conduct a computer
partment of Justice, Office of Justice       search of relevant criminal and ju-
Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice         venile justice literature.                s OJJDP’s JAIBG Technical Assis-
and Delinquency Prevention.                                                              tance Development Services
                                           s The National Institute of Correc-
                                                                                         Group (877–GO–JAIBG) provides
Wolford, B.I., and Koebel, L.L. 1995.        tions Academy Division (800–
                                                                                         and coordinates technical assistance
Reform education to reduce juvenile          995–6429) develops curriculum
                                                                                         within the 12 JAIBG purpose areas.
delinquency. Criminal Justice                materials that explain many best
(Winter):2–6, 54–56.                         practices concepts.
Wright, K.N., and Goodstein, L. 1989.
Correctional environments. In The
American Prison: Issues in Research and      Useful Publications
Policy, edited by L. Goodstein and
D.L. MacKenzie. New York, NY:                The following guides, handbooks,              Juvenile Detention Association
Plenum Press.                                and manuals provide valuable                  and edited by D. Roush and T.
                                             information on the construction               Wyss.
                                             and operation of juvenile detention
For Further Information                      and corrections facilities:
                                                                                         s OJJDP Training and Technical
The following sources of information                                                       Assistance Protocols: A Primer for
may be helpful before beginning the          s Best Practices: Excellence in Correc-       OJJDP Training and Technical
search for best knowledge and best              tions, a 1998 compilation of best          Assistance, a 1998 collection of
practices relating to juvenile facility         practices, edited by E. Rhine and          protocols compiled by the
operations:                                     published by the American                  National Training and Technical
                                                Correctional Association.                  Assistance Center and pub-
s American Correctional Associa-                                                           lished by OJJDP.
  tion (800–222–5646) has assembled          s Conflict Resolution Education: A
  and published information on a                Guide to Implementing Programs in        s Training and Technical Assistance
  variety of best practices.                    Schools,Youth-Serving Organiza-            Resource Catalog, a 1997
                                                tions, and Community and Juvenile          catalog of resources compiled
s American Institute of Architects
                                                Justice Settings, a 1996 guidebook         by the National Training and
  (202–626–7300), through its library,
                                                edited by D. Crawford and R.               Technical Assistance Center
  archives, and online services, is the
  preeminent source of information              Bodine and published by OJJDP.             and published by OJJDP.
  in the United States on the practice       s A Directory of Programs That Work,        s What Works: Promising Interven-
  and profession of architecture.               a 1996 directory compiled by the           tions in Juvenile Justice, a 1994
s The Juvenile Justice Clearing-                American Correctional Associa-             manual published by OJJDP
  house (JJC) (800–638–8736) sup-               tion and published in the August           and edited by I. Montgomery,
  plies information to the field                1996 issue of Corrections.                 P.M. Torbet, D.A. Malloy, L.P.
  through the dissemination of pub-                                                        Adamcik, M.J.Toner, and J.
                                             s Effective and Innovative Programs:
  lications, monographs, and re-                                                           Andrews.
                                                Resource Manual, a 1994 manual
  ports. Clearinghouse staff provide
                                                developed by the National
  some research services. Informa-
  tion relevant to best knowledge

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                                                  Points of view or opinions expressed in this
                                                  document are those of the authors and do          The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-
   Acknowledgments                                not necessarily represent the official position   quency Prevention is a component of the Of-
   This Bulletin was written by David             or policies of OJJDP or the U.S. Department       fice of Justice Programs, which also includes
                                                  of Justice.                                       the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau
   Roush, Ph.D., and Michael McMillen,
                                                                                                    of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of
   AIA. David Roush has provided leader-                                                            Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.
   ship in institutional programs and ser-
   vices for juveniles and staff since 1971.
   He is currently an assistant professor
   in the School of Criminal Justice at                 Share With Your Colleagues
   Michigan State University and Director               Unless otherwise noted, OJJDP publications are not copyright protected.
   of the National Juvenile Detention                   We encourage you to reproduce this document, share it with your col-
   Association’s Center for Research and                leagues, and reprint it in your newsletter or journal. However, if you reprint,
   Professional Development. Mike                       please cite OJJDP and the authors of this Bulletin. We are also interested in
   McMillen, Champaign, IL, has specialized             your feedback, such as how you received a copy, how you intend to use the
   in the design and planning of juvenile               information, and how OJJDP materials meet your individual or agency
   justice facilities for more than 23 years.           needs. Please direct your comments and questions to:
   In addition to providing operations
                                                                               Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
   analysis, architectural programming, and                                    Publication Reprint/Feedback
   facility design services for youth-related                                  P.O. Box 6000
   projects nationwide, he has developed                                       Rockville, MD 20849–6000
   and currently teaches seminars on                                           800–638–8736
   operational and architectural program-                                      301–519–5212 (fax)
   ming for the National Institute of Cor-                                     E-Mail:
   rections’ Planning of New Institutions
   for Juveniles (PONI) training program.

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