AAS Abbreviation for atomic absorption spec- Absorbents Materials or substances that are capable
troscopy. of absorption. Uses of absorbents include incorpora-
Abalones Marine gastropod molluscs belonging to tion within food packaging (to absorb oxygen as a
the family Haliotidae, which contains around 70 spe- preservation technique, to control humidity, and to
cies; widely distributed, but found mainly in the West- manage aroma and flavour problems in packaged
ern Pacific (Japan and Australia), and also off Califor- foods) and for purification of foods and beverages,
nia and Southern Africa. Only the adductor muscle is such as drinking water and liquid foods.
edible, having a mild sweet flavour; this muscle is Absorption Process involving molecules of one sub-
normally tenderized to soften the naturally tough, rub- stance being taken directly into another substance. Ab-
bery texture. Marketed in a variety of forms, including sorption may be either a physical or a chemical proc-
powdered, brined and canned products. ess, physical absorption involving such factors as solu-
Abate Alternative term for the pesticide temephos. bility and vapour-pressure relationships, and chemical
Abattoirs Types of slaughterhouses where animals absorption involving chemical reactions between the
are slaughtered for meat and offal. Abattoirs usually absorbed substance and the absorbing medium. Ab-
include lairage (a holding area for live animals), a sorption includes such processes as the passage of nu-
slaughtering line and cold stores. Facilities for process- trients and other substances from the gastrointesti-
ing of by-products (blood, intestines, skins, fat, bristle, nal tract into the blood and lymph, and also the up-
unusable waste products), and treatment of waste water take of water, fats and other substances into foods.
and air are often included. Acacia Plants of the genus Acacia (family Fabaceae),
Abondance cheese French semi-hard mountain mostly tropical shrubs and trees. Acacia seeds are used
cheese made from milk of cows of the breeds Abon- as foods, and shoots may be used in soups, curries,
dance, Montbeliard and Tarine. Characterized by a omelettes and stir fries. Acacia honey has a mild flow-
strong aroma and a complex flavour. The crust and a ery flavour. Several species of Acacia yield gums, such
grey layer beneath are removed before consumption. as gum acacia which is also known as gum arabic.
Abreh Alternative term for abrey. Acai Small, dark purple fruits from the palms Eu-
Abrey Sudanese, non-alcoholic, fermented bever- terpe oleraceae. The pulps and juices may be used in
ages made from sorghum. beverages, as well as in functional foods. Rich in
dietary fibre and fatty acids, and have strong anti-
Abscisic acid Plant growth regulator, important in
ripening of fruits and cereals.
Acanthamoeba Genus of free-living amoebae
Absidia Genus of fungi of the class Zygomycetes.
which occur in soil and fresh water. Some species
Occur as saprotrophs on decaying vegetable matter,
may be opportunistic pathogens.
grains, soil or dung, and meat, or as parasites or
pathogens of plants or animals. Some species may Acaricides Pesticides used to control mites and
be used in the production of chitosan (e.g. Absidia ticks (family Acaridae), many of which are responsible
coerulea, A. glauca and A. atrospora). Other applica- for animal diseases and spoilage of stored crops.
tions include the production of enzymes for use in Examples include amitraz, bromopropylate, couma-
the food industry (e.g. -galactosidases). phos and fluvalinate. Residues in foods may repre-
sent a health hazard to consumers.
Absinthe Spirits flavoured with aniseed and
wormwood. Widely believed to exhibit neurotoxic- ACC Abbreviation for the plant growth regulator, 1-
ity as a result of thujone derived from wormwood. aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid.
The spirit was prohibited in many countries early in the Acceptability The degree to which the quality of a
20th century. However, legal manufacture and sale of food is regarded as satisfactory.
the beverage have become more widespread since the Acceptable daily intake A safety level for sub-
1990s. stances used as food additives. Usually calculated as
1/100th of the maximum dose of the substance that bles and flowers, and in soil. Used industrially in the
causes no adverse effects in appropriate test organisms. manufacture of vinegar. May cause spoilage of
Abbreviated to ADI. beer and wines.
Acceptance The willingness to regard the quality of a Acetic fermentation The process by which acetic
food as satisfactory. acid bacteria such as Acetobacter and Glucono-
ACE inhibitors Enzyme inhibitors which inhibit bacter spp. metabolize an alcoholic substrate to form
activity of peptidyl-dipeptidase A, EC 18.104.22.168, acetic acid, the main constituent of vinegar. Alco-
also known as angiotensin converting enzyme or ACE. holic substrates can be obtained from a variety of
Inhibition of this enzyme in vivo leads to reduced sources, such as fruits, vegetables and grain.
vasoconstriction, thus ACE inhibitors exhibit anti- Acetobacter Genus of Gram negative, strictly aero-
hypertensive activity and are components of some bic, rod-shaped acetic acid bacteria of the family
functional foods. Acetobacteraceae, that are capable of oxidizing etha-
Acephate One of a number of systemic organo- nol to acetic acid. Occur on fruits and flowers. May
phosphorus insecticides used to control a wide be responsible for spoilage of beer and wines.
range of chewing and sucking insects (e.g. aphids, Acetobacter aceti and A. pasteurianus are used in
sawflies and leafhoppers) in fruits and vegetables. commercial production of vinegar.
Classified by WHO as slightly hazardous (WHO III). Acetoin Flavour compound found commonly in dairy
Acerola Alternative term for Barbados cherries. products and wines. Synonyms include 3-
hydroxy-2-butanone and acetylmethylcarbinol.
Acesulfame K One of the non-nutritive artificial
sweeteners (trade name Sunett). A white crystal- -Acetolactate Molecular formula, C5H8O4; syno-
line powder, approx. 200 times sweeter than sucrose. nym, 2-acetoxypropanoic acid. Precursor of the fla-
Often blended with other sweeteners to give a more vour compounds diacetyl and acetoin which are
sugar-like taste and to mask aftertaste. Stable under valuable in dairy products but which cause off fla-
heat, and moderately acid or basic conditions. Used in vour in sake and beer.
foods and beverages since 1983 and approved by >100 Acetolactate decarboxylases EC 22.214.171.124. Decar-
countries worldwide. Used in beverages, dairy prod- boxylases used to reduce maturation times in
ucts, preserves, bakery products, confection- winemaking by converting acetolactate to acetoin,
ery, salad dressings and breakfast cereals. and in brewing to reduce levels of diacetyl, a cause
Acetaldehyde Aldehyde, synonym ethanal. One of of taints in beer. Also used to analyse diacetyl and
the common flavour compounds in many foods and acetoin concentrations in beer. Diacetyl produces a de-
beverages. May cause taints in some foods. Toxic sirable aroma in dairy products, and development
at excessive concentrations. of lactic acid bacteria with reduced levels of these
enzymes has been attempted.
Acetals Group of diethers which occur as natural fla-
Acetolactate synthases EC 126.96.36.199. Transferases
vour compounds in foods such as fruits and
which catalyse the conversion of pyruvic acid to -
herbs, and alcoholic beverages. May be used in
acetolactate in the presence of its cofactor, thiamine
diphosphate. These enzymes can also catalyse forma-
Acetan Anionic, xanthan-like exopolysaccha- tion of 2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxobutanoate from pyru-
rides formed by Acetobacter xylinum. Of potential vate and 2-oxobutanoate. Involved in synthesis of
use in thickeners or gelling agents. amino acids (valine, isoleucine and leucine) and
Acetates Salts or esters of acetic acid. Flavour flavour compounds, including acetoin and diace-
compounds in many foods and beverages. May be tyl.
used as preservatives. Acetomonas Former name for the genus Glucono-
Acetic acid Member of the short chain fatty acids bacter.
group, which occurs in a range of foods and bever- Acetone Smallest of the ketones, synonym pro-
ages. May be one of the flavour compounds, or panone. Widely used as a solvent in food analyses,
cause taints, depending on food or beverage type and particularly for lipids and related compounds. Pro-
the concentration at which it is present. Acetic acid is duced along with butanol and ethanol as a microbial
the main constituent of vinegar. It may be used for fermentation product from unconventional feed-
preservation or flavouring of foods. stocks including food processing wastes.
Acetic acid bacteria Any aerobic, rod-shaped Gram Acetophenone Aromatic ketone and one of the fla-
negative bacteria, e.g. Acetobacter spp. and Glu- vour compounds in honeys and a variety of other
conobacter spp., capable of oxidizing ethanol to foods and beverages. A precursor for phenylethanol.
acetic acid. Occur on the surface of fruits, vegeta-
Acetylacetone Ketone which occurs in the flavour tribute to antibacterial activity in egg shell
compounds of foods and beverages, including beer, membranes and to autolysis due to autolysins in
coffee and fermented dairy products. Also some bacteria.
widely used as an analytical reagent, e.g. in the deter- -N-acetylhexosaminidases EC 188.8.131.52. Glyco-
mination of formaldehyde. Synonym is penta- sidases which catalyse the hydrolysis of terminal
nedione. non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-
Acetylation Introduction of acetyl groups into a com- acetyl- -D-hexosaminides. Substrates include N-
pound or substance. Usually achieved by reaction with acetylglucosides and N-acetylgalactosides. Involved in
acetic anhydride, acetic acid or an acetate such as degradation of polysaccharides including chitin.
vinyl acetate. Sometimes used to protect hydroxyl N-Acetyllactosamine synthases Alternative term
groups during organic syntheses. Such modification is for lactose synthases.
also used to alter the physicochemical properties, Acetylmethylcarbinol Flavour compound found
functional properties or nutritional quality of sub- commonly in dairy products and wines. Synonym
stances such as starch, proteins and carbohy- of acetoin.
drates. N-Acetylneuraminic acid One of the organic ac-
Acetylcholinesterases EC 184.108.40.206. Esterases ids, synonym sialic acid. A nitrogen-containing
which convert the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to sugar derivative with a carbonyl functional group
choline and acetates. Act on a variety of other ace- found ubiquitously in complex carbohydrates.
tic esters and also possess transacetylase activity. In- Acetyltransferases Acyltransferases which are
hibition of these enzymes can be a marker for neu- members of the class EC 2.3.1 and catalyse transfer of
rotoxicity. Some acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are acetyl groups, usually from acetyl-coenzyme A.
used medically, e.g. to treat Alzheimer's disease,
Acha Species of cereal crop, Digitaria exilis, indige-
and some are used as pesticides. These enzymes can
nous to West and North Africa and grown for its grain.
be used analytically to detect pesticide residues in
foods and beverages. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory Achromobacter Genus of strictly aerobic, rod-
activity has been found in essential oils and plant shaped, non spore forming Gram negative bacteria
foods. Also known as cholinesterases. of the family Alcaligenaceae. Occur in soil and water.
Some species produce pigments and enzymes of
N-Acetyl-L-cysteine One of the antioxidant com-
pounds used as food additives, e.g. to minimise
browning and off flavour formation in fruit juices, Acid casein Casein produced by acid precipitation
other fruit products and vegetable products, and from milk at its isoelectric point, pH 4.7. Acidification
to inhibit haemagglutinins in legume meal. Also can be achieved by direct addition of an acid or
used to inhibit formation of biofilms on food contact through the action of lactic acid bacteria.
surfaces. Commercially available as a food supplement Acid curd cheese A cheese produced by microbial
claiming to provide detoxification effects and benefits ripening of quarg, ripening proceeding from the out-
to the immune system. side of the cheese. Cultures used include bacteria,
Acetylene Hydrocarbon which acts as a plant growth fungi and yeasts, the selection depending on the type
regulator and can be used to control ripening of of cheese being made.
fruits. Acidification Process by which the pH of a substance
N-Acetylglucosamine Derivative of the amino sugar is decreased to below 7 making it acidic.
glucosamine in which the amino group is acetylated. Acidity The degree to which a substance or solution is
Component of cell walls and chitin. acidic, being dependent upon the concentration of hy-
drogen ions. Level of acidity is expressed using pH.
Acetylglucosaminidases Comprise -N-
acetylglucosaminidases (EC 220.127.116.11), which hydro- Acidocins Bacteriocins produced by Lactobacil-
lyse terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine lus acidophilus.
residues in N-acetyl- -D-glucosaminides, and manno- Acidolysis Esterification reactions of acids with
syl-glycoprotein endo- -N-acetylglucosamidases (EC esters. Used to produce structured lipids (e.g. aci-
18.104.22.168), which catalyse endo-hydrolysis of the N,N - dolysis of tristearin with long chain fatty acids) or
diacetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose glycopeptides to modify the lipid composition of fats and oils (e.g.
and glycoproteins containing the [Man(GlcNAc)2]Asn acidolysis of seal blubber oils with lauric acid and
structure; one N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residue remains interesterification of butterfat with CLA). Cata-
attached to the protein, while the rest of the oligosac- lysed by lipases or chemical catalysts.
charide is released intact. These glycosidases are Acidophilin Fermented milk prepared by fermenta-
involved in chitin degradation applications, and con- tion of milk with a mixture of lactic acid bacteria,
Acidophilus milk Acremonium
including Lactobacillus acidophilus, and kefir oils and fats. Commonly used acidulants in the food
grains. industry include citric acid, acetic acid, propionic
Acidophilus milk Fermented milk produced by acid and lactic acid.
fermentation of milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus. Acid values The level of free fatty acids present in
Consumption of acidophilus milk has beneficial effects lipids. The acid value, also known as the acid number,
on the intestine. is determined by measuring the amount of KOH in
Acidophilus pastes Cultured milk products milligrammes that neutralizes 1 g of the lipid. Acid
made using curd resulting from milk acidification values of fresh edible fats tend to be low and increase
with Lactobacillus acidophilus. with storage as the glycerides present in the lipids
break down to generate free fatty acids.
Acid phosphatases EC 22.214.171.124. Hydrolases with
wide specificity which catalyse hydrolysis of ortho- Acid whey Whey produced by acid coagulation of
phosphoric monoesters into an alcohol and orthphos- milk during cheesemaking.
phate. Also catalyse transphosphorylation. Widely dis- Acinetobacter Genus of aerobic, rod-shaped, psy-
tributed in nature, and therefore found in a range of chrotrophic Gram negative bacteria of the family
foods. Involved in acidity regulation in fruits, and in Moraxellaceae. Occur in soil, water and raw milk, and
flavour development, e.g. in cheese. Also used as a on the surfaces of chilled meat and fish. Some spe-
marker of thermal processing in meat. Produced cies may be used in production of lipases (e.g. Acine-
by microbial fermentation for commercial applica- tobacter radioresistens and A. calcoaceticus).
tions. Ackee Common name for Blighia sapida, also known
Acid rain Rain which has low pH caused by formation as akee. This fruit was introduced to the West Indies
of acids due to interaction of industrial gas emissions from West Africa and is particularly popular in Ja-
with water. Studies with simulated acid rain have maica. Fruits are pear shaped and can be consumed
shown adverse effects on yield and quality of exposed raw, cooked, or in canned or frozen forms. Unripe
crops, especially fruits such as apples, pears and ackee contains hypoglycine A, a toxic amino acid,
peaches. Fruit marketability and composition were which can cause the potentially fatal Jamaican vomit-
affected. ing sickness. Levels of hypoglycine A rapidly diminish
Acids Chemical compounds which release hydrogen at maturity, but damaged or fallen fruit should not be
ions when dissolved in water, or whose H can be re- consumed.
placed by metal atoms or basic radicals, or which react Aconitic acid One of the organic acids found in
with bases to form salts and water. Include both or- sugar cane. Used in flavourings and acidulants
ganic acids and inorganic acids. Inorganic acids for the food industry and also in the manufacture of
may be used in food processing or cleaning of equip- emulsifying agents, plastics and detergents.
ment. Organic acids of many types are constituents of Acorns Nuts obtained from the oak tree (Quercus
a wide range of foods, both as natural constituents and spp.). Widely available, and used as a source of food
as processing aids. Important types of organic acids in by some populations, particularly in times of need. Can
foods include fatty acids, amino acids and car- be pounded into meal for use in baked goods or used
boxylic acids. as coffee substitutes. Acorns are high in starch
-Acids The main bitter compounds of hops res- and are used in Korea to produce an edible starch gel
ins, used to impart a bitter taste to beer. Converted to known as mook. They also represent a source of edi-
the more soluble and more bitter iso- -acids during ble oils.
boiling of worts. Also known as humulones. Acoustics Study of the physical properties of sound;
-Acids Low-solubility resin constituents in hops also refers to techniques based on transmission, gen-
which have little bittering capacity in beer. Also eration or reception of sound. Acoustic devices have
known as lupulones. been used to detect insects infestation of grain.
Acids resistance Ability of organisms to withstand Acoustics has also been employed in examining the
acidic conditions. Important for survival of microor- structure of materials, e.g. pasta, and as the basis of
ganisms in acid environments such as the gastroin- non-destructive methods to determine the texture of
testinal tract and during fermentation of foods. foods, such as fruits, cheese and bakery prod-
Acidulants Organic acids used in foods to control
pH and fulfil a variety of functions. Applications in- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Epi-
clude preservation of meat products, flavour en- demic disease commonly abbreviated to AIDS.
hancement, prevention of discoloration in sliced Acremonium Genus of fungi of the phylum Asco-
fruits, and prevention of development of rancidity in mycota. May be used in biotechnology for the pro-
Acrocomia Activation energy
duction of cellulases (e.g. Acremonium cellulolyticus Actinomycetales Order of aerobic Gram positive
and A. alcalophilum). bacteria. Occur in soil, composts and aquatic habi-
Acrocomia Genus of palms, including Acrocomia tats. Most species are free-living and saprophytic, but
mexicana, which has edible fruits, and is used as a some form symbiotic associations and others are
source of palm oils (oil of coyal) and in manufacture pathogenic to man, other animals, and plants.
of palm wines. Also includes A. sclerocarpa, which Actinomycetes Obsolete name for Actinobacteria, a
has edible fruits that are used as a source of coconut- class of aerobic Gram positive bacteria which oc-
like oils. cur in soil and water. Some species are used in the
Acrolein Aldehyde, synonym propenal. Formed by production of enzymes (e.g. lipases and cellu-
microbial fermentation from the precursor 3- lolytic enzymes). This class also includes some
hydroxypropionaldehyde. Causes bitter, acrid off plant and animal pathogens.
odour or off flavour problems in spirits and cider.
Actinoplanes Genus of Gram positive, aerobic bac-
Also occurs in overheated fats. Precursor for
teria of the family Actinoplanaceae. Occur in soil,
plant litter and aquatic habitats. Actinoplanes mis-
Acrylamide Synonym 2-propenamide (C3H5NO).
souriensis may be used in production of enzymes
Member of the amides which is a neurotoxin and ex-
(e.g. glucose isomerases and xylose isom-
hibits carcinogenicity in animal models. Formed
in foods during thermal processing as a product of
the Maillard reaction between asparagine and re- Actinospectacin Alternative term for the antibiotic
active carbonyl compounds, e.g. in reducing spectinomycin.
sugars. Forms gels of polyacrylamides on polym- Actins A family of multifunctional intracellular pro-
erization under specified conditions which are used teins, best known as a myofibrillar component of stri-
for PAGE. ated muscle fibres. They constitute about 13% of mus-
Acrylonitrile Monomer used in manufacture of a cle proteins and are the major components of the I-
range of plastics used in packaging materials or band or thin filament of the sarcomere. Actins contain
other food contact applications. Acrylonitrile residues high levels of the amino acid proline. Imino-groups
may migrate out of plastics items and cause contami- within proline contribute to the folding of actin mole-
nation of foods. cules and result in formation of G-actin (globular ac-
F-actin Filamentous actins, formed by longitudinal tin). G-actin, a spherical molecule approximately 5.5
polymerization of G-actin (globular actin) mono- nm in diameter, constitutes the monomeric form of ac-
mers. Two strands of F-actin coil spirally around one tin. In the presence of potassium chloride and ATP, G-
another to form the superhelix, which is characteristic actin polymerizes into long fibres of F-actin. Most ver-
of actin myofilaments within myofibrils. tebrate genomes contain numerous actin genes with
Actinidains EC 126.96.36.199. Cysteine endopeptidases high sequence homology in protein coding regions, but
(proteinases) found in kiwifruit (Chinese gooseber- considerable variability in intron size and number. This
ries) with specificity similar to that of papain. One of genetic diversity can be utilized for livestock speci-
the major allergens in these fruits. Produced in mi- ation and meat authenticity tests. Determination of
crobial fermentations as recombinant enzymes for actin content has been proposed as a means of calculat-
commercial uses, which include tenderization of ing the meat content of meat products.
meat. Also known as actinidins. Activated C Alternative term for activated carbon.
Actinidins Alternative term for actinidains.
Activated carbon Amorphous forms of elemental
Actinomucor Genus of fungi of the family Mu-
carbon, particularly charcoal, which have been
coraceae. Occur as saprotrophs on decaying vegetable
treated, e.g. by acid or heat, to improve their powers of
matter, soil or dung, or as parasites or pathogens
absorption. Used for a variety of food and industrial
of plants or animals. Actinomucor elegans and A. tai-
applications, including drinking water purification, de-
wanensis are used in production of East Asian special-
coloration of sugar solutions and sorption of residues
ity foods, such as sufu and meitauza.
of pesticides from wines.
Actinomyces Genus of facultatively anaerobic Gram
positive bacteria of the family Actinomycetaceae. Activation energy Minimum energy required for a
Occur as the normal flora of the mouth and throat or as chemical reaction to proceed; the difference in energy
pathogens in humans and cattle. Actinomyces pyo- between that of the reactants and that at the transition
genes is the cause of summer mastitis in cattle, and state of the reaction. Activation energy determines the
can therefore contaminate their milk. way in which the rate of a reaction varies with tem-
Active packaging S-Adenosyl-l-methionine
Active packaging Packaging materials which acceptor molecule. Includes transferases involved in
have functions additional to their basic barrier action. transfer of amino-acyl groups (EC 2.3.2.-), acyl groups
Used for packaging a wide range of foods and bever- other than amino-acyl groups (EC 2.3.1.-), and acyl
ages. Types of active packaging include: packs groups that are converted to alkyl groups on transfer
which adsorb ethylene to control ripening of fruits; (EC 2.3.3.-). Involved in a variety of metabolic path-
packs which regulate moisture levels; packs which ways, including lipids and sterols.
contain oxygen scavengers; packs which contain Additives Ingredients added in low quantities to foods
CO2 scavengers or generators; packs which release or during processing for one or more specific purposes.
absorb flavours or aromas; antimicrobial packaging These include prevention of chemical and microbial
(e.g. packs which release ethanol to control the growth spoilage, enhancement of flavour or colour, im-
of fungi); packs with special microwave heating prop- provement of nutritional values or as an aid to
erties; and packaging with monitoring systems processing. The most common types of additives in-
(time/temp. exposure indicators or temp. control). clude preservatives, colorants, sweeteners, fla-
Active sites Locations on the surface of catalysts at vourings, emulsifiers, thickeners and stabiliz-
which reactions occur. On enzymes, substrates are ers.
bound at the active sites, the shape of the site being Adenine Purine, synonym 6-aminopurine. Component
important for strong and specific binding to occur. base of nucleic acids, nucleosides and nucleo-
Actomyosin A complex of the two major muscle tides.
proteins, actins and myosin. Actomyosin is Adenosine Nucleoside of adenine and ribose, syno-
formed during muscle contraction with simultaneous nym adenine riboside. Constituent of nucleotides
hydrolysis of ATP to ADP. Within myofibrils during and nucleic acids.
contraction, each myosin head region on a thick myo- Adenosine diphosphate Phosphorylated adenoside
filament attaches to a G-actin molecule within a thin derivative, and breakdown product of the nucleotide
myofilament. This interaction leads to formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Level may be used
crossbridges between actin and myosin, and to forma- as an indicator of freshness in foods such as meat
tion of the actomyosin complex. Formation of actomy- and fish. Usually abbreviated to ADP.
osin results in rigidity and lack of extensibility in mus- Adenosine monophosphate Nucleotide formed by
cles. In the presence of ATP, as in living animals, the breakdown of nucleic acids, adenosine triphos-
actomyosin complex dissociates rapidly; however, post phate (ATP) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
mortem, actomyosin is the dominant form of myofi- Level may be used as an indicator of freshness in
brillar protein and it plays a major role in the develop- foods such as meat and fish. Commonly abbreviated to
ment of rigor mortis. During post mortem storage, AMP.
tenderness of meat is affected by modification of Adenosinetriphosphatases Alternative term for
the actin-myosin interaction. Thermal denaturation of ATPases.
actomyosin occurs at temp. between 30 and 50 C. Adenosine triphosphate Nucleotide which is im-
Acylamidases Alternative term for amidases. portant in energy metabolism. Ratios of adenosine
Acylases Alternative term for amidases and ami- triphosphate to its decomposition products may be
noacylases. used as indicators of freshness in foods such as
meat and fish. Levels may also be used as an indica-
Acylation Introduction of acyl groups into a com-
tor of microbial counts in foods. Commonly abbrevi-
pound or substance. Usually achieved by reaction with
ated to ATP.
an acyl halide or carboxylic acid anhydride. Such
modification is used to alter the physicochemical S-Adenosyl-L-methionine One of the coenzymes
properties, functional properties or nutritional involved in methyl group transfer. Plays an important
quality of substances such as starch, proteins and role in several human metabolic pathways. Even
sugars. though it is synthesized in the liver, relatively low lev-
els are found in individuals suffering from coronary
Acylglycerols Systematic name for fatty acid es-
heart diseases, Alzheimer's disease, liver cir-
ters of glycerol, such as monoacylglycerols,
rhosis and depression. This has lead to its use as a food
diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols. Major com-
supplement and its potential application as an ingredi-
ponents of natural fats and oils (particularly as tria-
ent of functional foods. Not widely available in the
cylglycerols); also used as emulsifiers. Synonym for
diet. Produced during fermentation of various micro-
organisms, including Bifidobacterium bifidum and
Acyltransferases EC 2.3. Enzymes which catalyse Kluyveromyces lactis.
transfer of acyl groups from a donor molecule to an
Adenoviruses Double stranded DNA-containing Adipose tissues Connective tissues which func-
viruses of the genus Mastadenovirus and family tion as an energy reserve and insulation layer com-
Adenoviridae which can infect mammals and birds. posed of cells (adipocytes) which synthesize and
Infection of humans, which can occur via ingestion of store large lipid globules.
faecally contaminated water or shellfish, can cause Adjunct cultures Non-starter cultures used in addi-
gastroenteritis. tion to starters, mainly in cheesemaking, to pro-
Adherence Binding of microorganisms specifi- duce a specific benefit, e.g. smoother texture, im-
cally or non-specifically to a substratum or to other proved flavour or accelerated ripening of cheese.
cells. May be mediated by specialized microbial com- In production of yoghurt, adjunct cultures have been
ponents or structures (e.g. adhesins and prostheca). used to manufacture products with increased levels of
Adherence to a particular host tissue is a preliminary nutrients such as folates.
stage in pathogenesis for many pathogens.
Adjuvants Ingredients added to a mixture to improve
Adhesins Bacterial cell surface appendages or ex-
the effectiveness of the primary ingredient. For exam-
tracellular macromolecular components that facilitate
ple colour adjuvants are used to enhance food colour.
adherence of a cell to a surface or to other cells. Im-
portant in the colonization of mucous membranes, e.g. Adlay Alternative term for Jobs tears.
the intestinal mucous membranes by enteropathogenic ADP Abbreviation for adenosine diphosphate.
Escherichia coli. Also facilitate adherence of bacte-
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases Alternative
ria to surfaces such as glass, ceramics and synthetics.
term for glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltrans-
Adhesion Attachment and sticking together of one or
more substance. Adhesives may be used to promote
adhesion, e.g. in packaging materials. Sometimes -Adrenergic agonists Group of non-hormonal
used to refer to adherence of microorganisms to a growth promoters. Used to enhance growth rates
substratum or other cells. This may be mediated by and improve feed efficiency and lean meat content of
specialized microbial components or structures such as animals; also used in veterinary medicine as bron-
adhesins or prostheca. This type of adhesion is im- chodilatory and tocolytic agents. In general, rapidly
portant for the action of the microorganism, e.g. a pre- excreted from the body; non-authorized use during
liminary step in pathogenesis of pathogens. withdrawal period has resulted in cases of human food
Adhesives Substances used to stick items together. poisoning. Banned for use as growth-promoting
Most adhesives form a bond by filling in the minute agents in farm animals in many countries, including
pits and fissures normally present even in very smooth European Union member states and the USA. Com-
surfaces. Effectiveness of an adhesive depends on sev- monly used examples are clenbuterol and racto-
eral factors, including resistance to slippage and pamine.
shrinkage, malleability, cohesive strength, and surface Adsorbents Substances that are capable of adsorp-
tension, which determines how far the adhesive pene- tion. Used widely in the food and biotechnology in-
trates the tiny depressions in the bonding surfaces. dustries. Uses include removal of unwanted materials
Adhumulone -Acids fraction of the bitter com- in foods and beverages that affect either food safety or
pounds of hops. food quality. Examples include removal of proteins
ADI Abbreviation for acceptable daily intake. from white wines, pathogens from drinking wa-
Adipic acid Synonym for hexanedioic acid. Used in ter sources, radioelements from foods, oxidation
acidulants, antimicrobial preservatives or starch- products from frying oils allowing oil recovery and
modifying agents. Adipic acid esters are used as reuse, and bitter compounds from fruit juices.
plasticizers in plastics. Other applications include: for isolation of compounds
with potential use in foods; in the immobilization of
Adipocytes Cells found in adipose tissues. These
enzymes; as agents in analytical techniques such
cells are specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat
as gas analysis and chromatography; and for re-
(lipid) globules. The fats are usually stored in the
moval of unwanted aroma and flavour in packaged
form of triglycerides and serve as a source of en-
ergy. Also known as fat cells.
Adipogenesis The formation of adipose tissues. Adsorption Adhesion of the molecules of liquids,
Also called lipogenesis. gases and dissolved substances to the surfaces of sol-
ids, in contrast to absorption, in which the molecules
Adiponectin One of the hormones produced and
actually enter the medium. Adsorption is employed in
secreted by adipocytes. Regulates metabolism of
hydrogenation of oils, in gas analysis, and in
lipids and glucose.
Adulteration Aflatoxin B2
Adulteration Addition of substances to foods, or sub- particularly fish and fermented foods, and may also
stitution of food ingredients with inferior substances, be used in the production of lactate 2-
with the intent of lowering the quality and costs of monooxygenases.
producing the food and defrauding the purchaser, e.g. Aerolysins Cytolytic toxins secreted by Aeromo-
addition of starch to spices, and of water to milk nas hydrophila. Form channels in cell lipid bilayers,
or beer. leading to destruction of the membrane permeability
Adzuki beans Common name for seeds produced by barrier and osmotic lysis.
Vigna angularis, also known as azuki beans. Small red Aeromonas Genus of facultatively anaerobic, rod-
beans with a mild, sweet flavour, which are widely shaped Gram negative bacteria of the Aeromo-
cultivated in Japan and China. Traditionally consumed nadaceae family. Occur in salt and fresh water, sewage
boiled, ground into meal or used to make sweet bean and soil. Aeromonas hydrophila, frequently found in
pastes known as ann or an. Seeds may also be germi- fish and shellfish and occasionally in red meat and
nated to produce bean sprouts. poultry meat, may cause septicaemia, meningitis and
Aerated confectionery Confectionery produced gastroenteritis in humans.
with incorporation of air as an ingredient. Use of air Aerosol packs Containers for pressurized liquids,
adds bulk to the product without increasing its weight, which are released in the form of a spray or foam when
improving product texture and flavour. Aeration of a valve is pressed. Aerosol propellants, usually lique-
confectionery results in a range of products with densi- fied gases, are used in the packs. Used as dispensers
ties ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 g/cm3. Such products in- for a variety of foods.
clude chews, mallows, honeycomb and meringues.
Aerosols Substances, including foods, stored under
Aeration Introduction of air into a product to enhance pressure in a container (for example in aerosol cans)
texture, mouthfeel, rheology and visual appeal. containing a propellant and released as a fine spray or
The following methods are used to aerate foods: fer- froth. Also, in a chemical sense, suspensions of submi-
mentation; whipping or shaking of low-medium croscopic particles dispersed in air or gas.
viscosity liquids; mixing of doughs or high viscosity
Afalon Alternative term for the herbicide linuron.
pastes, in which air bubbles are entrapped as surfaces
come together; steam generation during slow to mod- Affination The first stage in processing of raw sugar,
erate cooking, baking or frying; entrapment of air in which the layer of mother liquor surrounding the
between sheeted layers, as in pastries and crois- crystals is softened and removed. Raw sugar is mixed
sants, or between pulled strands, as in pulled taffy with a warm, concentrated syrup of slightly higher pu-
and candy; frying in very hot oils, such that internal rity than the syrup layer so that it will not dissolve the
steam rapidly forms, causing the product to puff; use crystals. The resulting magma is centrifuged to sepa-
of chemical raising agents such as baking pow- rate the crystals from the syrup, thus removing the
ders or sodium bicarbonate; rapid dry heating of greater part of the impurities from the input sugar and
small or thin products to induce blistering or slight leaving the crystals ready for dissolving before further
puffing; gas injection (e.g. air, carbon dioxide, ni- treatment. The liquor which results from dissolving the
trogen and nitrous oxide); expansion extrusion; washed crystals still contains some colour, fine parti-
pressure beating (dissolution of air or gas under pres- cles, gums and resins, and other non-sugars.
sure in a syrup, fat mixture or chocolate); puffing, in Affinity chromatography Chromatography tech-
which products such as breakfast cereals containing nique in which an immobilized ligand is used to retain
superheated moisture are subjected to a sudden release an analyte that is later eluted under conditions where
of pressure; and vacuum expansion, followed by rapid the binding affinity is reduced. The ligand, which may
cooling to set the expanded products. be a substance such as an enzyme, hormone or antigen,
Aerobacter Obsolete genus of Gram negative, rod- is bound to a matrix such as silica.
shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Aflatoxicosis Mycotoxicosis caused by ingestion
the species of which have now been reclassified into of aflatoxins in contaminated foods or feeds.
the genera Enterobacter and Klebsiella. Aflatoxin B1 Potent hepatotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic,
Aerobes Organisms that require atmospheric oxygen mutagenic and teratogenic mycotoxins produced by
to live. Often refers to aerobic bacteria or other mi- Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Formed during
croorganisms. Facultative anaerobes are aerobes growth on a wide range of crops, including peanuts,
that can also grow under anaerobic conditions. corn and other cereals, and oilseeds. Metabolized
Aerococcus Genus of Gram positive, coccoid lactic to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1.
acid bacteria of the family Aerococcaceae. Aerococ- Aflatoxin B2 Moderately potent hepatotoxic, hepato-
cus viridans has been isolated from a variety of foods, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic mycotoxins
Aflatoxin B3 African yam beans
produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. peanuts) and oilseeds (e.g. soybeans). Con-
Dihydroxy derivatives of aflatoxin B1. Formed dur- tamination can take place both pre- and postharvest.
ing growth on the same commodities as aflatoxin B1 Host crops are particularly susceptible to infection
(including peanuts, corn and other cereals, and following prolonged exposure to high humidities or
oilseeds), but in smaller amounts. Metabolized to damage during drought conditions. Once ingested,
aflatoxin M2, and excreted in milk in this form. aflatoxins are metabolized by the liver to a reactive in-
Aflatoxin B3 Toxic mycotoxins produced by older termediate, aflatoxin M1. Hepatotoxic and hepatocar-
cultures of Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus. Al- cinogenic in humans and animals, and can result in
ternative name for parasiticol. aflatoxicosis.
Aflatoxin D1 Carboxylated product of aflatoxin B1, African breadfruit seeds Kernels of fruits pro-
produced by the reaction between aflatoxin B1 and duced by the tree Treculia africana. Eaten roasted as
heated ammonium hydroxide. Possesses lower toxic- nuts or ground into meal which is used to fortify
ity than aflatoxin B1. foods or to prepare porridges.
Aflatoxin G1 Potent carcinogenic and genotoxic my- African locust beans Seeds produced by Parkia
cotoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. filicoidea or P. biglobosa. Not eaten raw, but fer-
Formed during growth on a wide range of crops, in- mented to produce food flavourings or protein-rich
cluding peanuts, corn and other cereals, and oil- iru or dawadawa. The yellowish pulp surrounding
seeds. Possess toxicity and structure similar to those the seeds can also be eaten, either raw or as an ingredi-
of aflatoxin B1. ent in soups, stews and beverages.
African mangoes Common name for the African tree
Aflatoxin G2 Mildly carcinogenic and genotoxic my-
species, Irvingia gabonensis. Also known as bush
cotoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. Oc-
mango or wild mango. Fruits resemble cultivated
cur in a wide range of foods, including nuts, seeds,
mangoes, but they are botanically unrelated. Pulp of
beans, spices and fruits. Dihydroxy derivative of
the fruit is eaten fresh or used for the preparation of
aflatoxin G1, with lower toxicity.
products such as juices and jams. African mango
Aflatoxin M1 The toxic, 4-hydroxy derivative of afla- seeds, also known as dika nuts, have a variety of
toxin B1, found in the livers, kidneys, blood, faeces, food uses.
urine and milk of mammals that have consumed afla-
African mango seeds Seeds from the tropical
toxin B1 contaminated feeds or foods. Subsequently
African tree Irvingia gabonensis which are rich in fats
occurs in dairy products, particularly cheese, and
and are used in Africa to make dika bread as well as a
human milk. Produced in small quantities by As-
type of butter. Alternative term for dika nuts.
pergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and can occur in
corn, nuts and soybeans. Associated with liver African nutmeg Seeds of the African tree, Monodora
damage and cancer. Possesses lower toxicity than myristica. Used as spices in Nigeria and other parts
aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin M1 can be degraded by UV ra- of Africa.
diation. African oil beans Edible oilseeds of the legumi-
nous tree Pentaclethra macrophylla, native to tropical
Aflatoxin M2 The toxic, 4-dihydroxy derivative of
Africa. Cooked seeds are fermented to produce ugba.
aflatoxin B2, found in the livers, kidneys, blood,
faeces, urine and milk of mammals that have con- African spider herb Common name for Cleome
sumed aflatoxin B2 contaminated feeds or foods. Also gynandra, also known as cat's whiskers. The plant
occurs in human milk. Aflatoxin M2 is considerably grows wild in most tropical countries, and is mainly
less toxic than aflatoxin M1. Produced in small quan- consumed as a leafy vegetable. Leaves are a rich
tities by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. source vitamin A, vitamin C and minerals such as
calcium and iron. Leaves also contain glucosi-
Aflatoxin P1 Demethylated and hydroxylated product
nolates and phenols, which can impart astrin-
of aflatoxin B1, and the principal urinary metabolic
product found in animals. Considerably less toxic than
African yam beans Beans produced by
Sphenostylis stenocarpa. Popular grain legume of West
Aflatoxin Q1 The 3-hydroxy derivative and major me- Africa and other areas of tropical Africa. Beans have a
tabolite of aflatoxin B1 in humans, rats and primates. distinctive flavour and are high in starch and moder-
Considerably less toxic than aflatoxin B1. ately high in proteins. Prolonged cooking time is rec-
Aflatoxins Mycotoxins produced by certain strains ommended to inactivate antinutritional factors pre-
of Aspergillus, most notably A. flavus and A. para- sent in the beans. The plant also produces edible tu-
siticus. Formed during growth of these fungi on com- bers.
modities such as cereals (e.g. corn), nuts (e.g.
Aftertaste A flavour, often unpleasant, that lingers in minty flavour and aroma, whilst A. foeniculum (an-
the mouth after a food has been swallowed. ise hyssop) tastes like liquorice.
Afuega'l Pitu cheese Unpasteurized Spanish Agave Plants of the genus Agave, the flowers, leaves,
cheese usually made mainly from cow milk. Fresh stalks and sap of which are used as a source of food or
red chillies are added to the cheese and more are beverages. Starch in buds is converted into sugar
rubbed into the rind as the cheese is allowed to mature, causing a sweet nectar to be exuded from the flowers.
giving the rind a buff to deep orange colour. The rind Sap is used to make a refreshing beverage or can be
also has a dusting of white mould. boiled to make sugar syrups. Fermentation of the
Agar Extract obtained from various species of red sap produces vinegar or the alcoholic beverage
seaweeds belonging to Eucheuma, Gelidium and pulque. Fermented sap from A. tequilana is distilled
Graciliria genera. Contains agarose and agaropectin to make tequila.
polysaccharides. Sets following dissolution in Ageing Process in which properties change over time.
warm water to form agar gels, which are widely used Ageing includes the intentional storage of foods and
as thickeners and stabilizers in the food industry. beverages to induce desirable changes in sensory
Additionally used in gelling agents to prepare cul- properties, such as for wines and cheese (also re-
ture media for bacteriological plate counts. Also ferred to as ripening). The term is also used to denote
known as agar-agar. the artificial hastening of this process, such as treat-
Agar-agar Alternative term for agar. ment of flour with ammonium persulfate to produce a
more resilient dough.
Agarases Enzymes, often produced by marine bac-
Agglomerates Masses or collections of particles or
teria, including -agarases (EC 188.8.131.52) and -
agarases (EC 184.108.40.206). -Agarases are derived from
organisms such as Thalassomonas spp., and catalyse Agglomeration The process by which particles or
endohydrolysis of 1,3- -L-galactosidic linkages in items are collected together and formed into a mass.
agarose, forming agarotetraose as the major product. Agglutination The clumping together of cells, such as
-Agarases cleave the 1,4- -D-galactosidic linkages in bacteria, due to cross-linking by proteins such as an-
agarose in a random manner, forming the tetramer as tibodies. Agglutination is utilized in immunologi-
the predominant product. Polysaccharides formed cal techniques for detecting bacteria in foods. In
have potential for use in foods. Both enzymes are also food processing, however, agglutination of starters,
able to hydrolyse porphyran. such as those used in the manufacture of dairy prod-
Agar gels Gels formed by dissolving agar in water. ucts including certain cheese varieties, can have det-
Widely used as thickeners and stabilizers, e.g. in rimental consequences for the process outcome.
ice cream, soups, jellies, sauces, glazes and Agglutination tests Immunological techniques
meat products. in which antigens on the surface of particulate mate-
rial, such as bacteria, or inorganic particles, such as
Agaricus Genus which includes some edible fungi,
latex, are precipitated with antibodies. Antibodies
such as the widely cultivated common mushroom,
react with the antigens causing the cells to clump to-
Agaricus bisporus, which is sold commercially in flat,
gether and form visible aggregates or agglutinates.
cup or button forms. Other edible species include the
Applications include detection of Escherichia coli
wild mushrooms A. campestris (field mushroom)
and A. arvensis (horse mushroom).
Agglutinins Substances, such as antibodies and
Agaritine Genotoxic substance present in raw mush-
lectins found in plant seeds, which cause agglutina-
tion of cells to form clumps.
Agarose Purified gelling fraction of agar, a complex Aggregation The process for forming a whole by
polysaccharide produced by algae of the class Rhodo- combining several different elements or items.
phyceae. Agarose is a neutral, linear polymer com-
Agitation The process of stirring, shaking or disturb-
posed of alternating -D-galactopyranose and 3,6-
ing briskly, particularly applied to a liquid.
anhydro- -L-galactose sugars. Used as a matrix in
gel electrophoresis for the separation of large Aglycones The part of a glycosides molecule which
molecules such as DNA, as well as in purification of is not a sugar residue, e.g. the anthocyanidins com-
fermentation products such as enzymes. ponent of anthocyanins.
Agmatine One of the biogenic amines, which oc-
Agastache A genus of herbs to which several spe-
curs in a wide range of foods, including fish, cheese
cies belong, most of which are native to North Amer-
and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations in foods
ica. The leaves may be used as flavourings or to pre-
may increase with increasing storage time.
pare herb tea. Agastache rugosa (Korean mint) has a
Agricultural produce Albacore
Agricultural produce Collective name for crops and ing branch of the airline company or a contracted
other commodities obtained as a result of agriculture foods service operator. Chilled or frozen items are
and used for provision of food, fibre or other materials. then reheated in special ovens during the flight.
Examples include fruits, cereals, cotton and livestock. Air quality Measure of the condition of the air, espe-
Used in a similar way to the term agricultural prod- cially with respect to the requirements for specific en-
ucts. vironments. In food processing and packaging facili-
Agricultural products Term used in a similar way to ties, air quality is important for food safety and shelf
agricultural produce. Collective name for crops life, and health of personnel. Special filtration systems
and other commodities obtained as a result of agricul- are used to remove airborne hazards such as micro-
ture and used for provision of food, fibre or other ma- organisms, insects and dust from the atmosphere.
terials. Examples include fruits, cereals, cotton and Air speed Velocity of air, of particular importance
livestock. during food processing operations such as air drying
Agrobacterium Genus of Gram negative, aerobic, and air cooling. In a more general context, it also re-
rod-shaped bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae. Oc- fers to the speed of a body (e.g. aircraft, missile) rela-
cur in soil. Typically plant pathogens that form galls or tive to the air through which it is moving.
tumours on roots or stems. Agrobacterium rhizogenes Ajowan Common name for the umbelliferous plant,
causes hairy root, A. rubi causes cane gall and A. tume- Trachyspermum ammi (syn. Carum copticum). Culti-
faciens causes crown gall. vated in parts of Egypt and Asia for its pungent, aro-
Agrocybe Genus including edible fungi such as matic seeds, typically used in flavourings for In-
Agrocybe cylindracea, a mushroom with similar char- dian foods. Related to caraway and cumin, but has a
acteristics to matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake), A. strong flavour of thyme. Also used as a source of
aegerita and A. parasitica. thymol.
AIDS Common abbreviation for acquired immunodefi- Akamu Cereal products produced by boiling the
ciency syndrome, an epidemic disease caused by infec- starchy extract from fermented corn, millet or sor-
tion with human immunodeficiency viruses ghum until complete gelatinization occurs.
(HIV) and spread through direct contact with body flu- Akara Deep fried pastes made from cowpeas, sea-
ids. The HIV retroviruses cause immune system fail- soned and flavoured with chopped capsicums, on-
ure. HIV can be transmitted from infected mothers to ions and salt. Popular foods in West Africa, where
infants through breast feeding. they are consumed as snack foods, side dishes or
Aiele fruits Olive-like fruits produced by the aiele fast foods. Steamed cowpea paste is known as
tree (Canarium schweinfurthii) which are widely con- moinmoin.
sumed in West African countries. Pulp and kernel are Alachlor Selective systemic chloroacetanilide herbi-
rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid. Oils produced cide used pre-emergence to control annual grasses and
from the fruits show similarities to olive oils. Also broad-leaved weeds among various vegetables, nuts
known as African black olives, mbeu or black fruit. and corn. Classified by WHO as slightly hazardous
Air cooling A process for reducing the temperature (WHO III).
of foods or other items by increasing the flow of air Alanine One of the non-essential amino acids. Oc-
over them using fans or other devices. The air used curs in most food proteins.
must be lower in temperature than the item to be Alar Alternative term for the plant growth regulator
Air drying Removal of moisture or liquid from a sub- Alaska pollack Commercially important marine
stance using air, or to preserve an item by evaporation. fish species (Theragra chalcogramma) belonging to
Airflow properties Characteristics of the flow of air the cod family (Gadidae); widely distributed in the Pa-
through, or across the surface of, a substance or piece cific Ocean. Flesh has a moderate to low fat content
of equipment. Airflow properties are utilized in design- and a mild, slightly sweet flavour. Normally marketed
ing ovens and driers and in determining the most in frozen form and processed into fillets, blocks and
appropriate ways of storing large quantities of foods surimi, but also sold fresh or as a cured product. Also
such as fruits, vegetables, cereals and carcasses in or- known as walleye pollack.
der to minimize spoilage. Albacore Marine fish species (Thunnus alalunga)
Airline meals Meals provided for consumption dur- belonging to the tuna family which is widely distrib-
ing aircraft travel, designed to be served and consumed uted in tropical and temperate waters. Flesh is lighter
in a limited amount of space. Menu items are prepared in colour and has a milder flavour than that from
and packaged at a central location either by the cater- other tuna species. Widely considered to be the best
tuna species for canning, but is also marketed fresh, substrates can be used to produce alcoholic bever-
smoked and frozen. ages, e.g. grain for production of beer, and grapes
Albendazole Anthelmintic widely used in sheep and and other fruits for production of wines. However,
cattle for treating roundworms and flukes. Along with the constituent sugars must be released from these
its various metabolites, is normally depleted rapidly substrates prior to fermentation. Fermentation can be
from edible tissues and milk. carried out by endogenous yeasts or by addition of
starters. The most common yeasts used in the manu-
Albumen Alternative term for egg whites.
facture of alcoholic beverages are Saccharomyces
Albumins Proteins which are soluble in water or cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis. Synonymous with
dilute salt solutions and coagulable by heat. Albumins ethanolic fermentation.
occurring in foods include conalbumin, lactalbu-
mins and ovalbumins. Alcoholic soft drinks Beverages with flavour and
other properties typical of soft drinks (e.g. fruit fla-
Alcaligenes Genus of aerobic, rod-shaped Gram
voured beverages), but with addition of a significant
negative bacteria of the family Alcaligenaceae. Oc-
concentration of alcohol, usually approx. 5%. Com-
cur in the intestinal tracts of vertebrates, soil, water,
monly known as alcopops or flavoured alcoholic
milk, and as part of the normal skin flora. May cause
drinks. Introduced during the 1990s, the first product
ropiness in milk and cheese. Some strains are also
was alcoholic lemonade. A new wave of second gen-
used in biotechnology for the industrial production
eration products has revitalized the market recently.
Concern exists that underage drinkers find these prod-
Alcohol Common name for ethanol, especially in the ucts appealing and easy to drink.
context of alcoholic beverages.
Alcohol O-acetyltransferases EC 220.127.116.11. Mem-
Alcohol dehydrogenases Group of enzymes cata-
bers of the acyltransferases which catalyse forma-
lysing the oxidation of alcohols. Alcohol dehydro-
tion of acetyl esters from acetyl-CoA and short-chain
genases (EC 18.104.22.168) catalyse the oxidation of alcohols
aliphatic alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol.
to aldehydes or ketones with concomitant reduc-
Involved in formation of volatile ester aroma com-
tion of NAD+. Also known as aldehyde reductases,
pounds e.g. isoamyl acetate in fruits and also al-
these enzymes act on primary and secondary alcohols,
coholic beverages produced as a result of alco-
and also on hemi-acetals. Catalyse the final step of al-
holic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
coholic fermentation. Alcohol dehydrogenases
which expresses these enzymes.
(NADP+), EC 22.214.171.124, catalyse the oxidation of alco-
hols to aldehydes with concomitant reduction of Alcohol oxidases EC 126.96.36.199. Flavoprotein oxi-
NADP+. Some members act only on primary alcohols, dases which catalyse conversion of primary alco-
while others also act on secondary alcohols. Alcohol hols in the presence of O2 to aldehydes and hydro-
dehydrogenases (NAD(P)+), EC 188.8.131.52, catalyse the gen peroxide. Act on lower primary alcohols and
oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes with concomitant unsaturated higher alcohols, but not branched chain or
reduction of NAD(P)+. Reduce aliphatic aldehydes of secondary alcohols. Uses include in biosensors and
carbon chain length 2-14, with greatest activity on C4, assays for determination of primary alcohols. Term
C6 and C8 aldehydes. Also known as retinal reductases, also used generally to describe any of the enzymes
since they can reduce retinal to retinol. Alcohol dehy- which oxidize alcohols, including long-chain alcohol
drogenases (acceptor), EC 184.108.40.206, catalyse the oxida- oxidases (EC 220.127.116.11) and secondary-alcohol oxidases
tion of primary alcohols to aldehydes in the presence (EC 18.104.22.168).
of an acceptor. Alcohol reduced beer Beer in which the ethanol
Alcohol free beverages Beverages of types nor- content has been reduced.
mally containing ethanol, which have been formu-
Alcohol reduced beverages Beverages in which
lated or processed to be free from ethanol.
the ethanol content has been reduced.
Alcoholic beverages Beverages containing a sig-
nificant concentration of ethanol. Major types include Alcohol reduced wines Wines in which the etha-
beer, wines, spirits, liqueurs and rice wines. nol content has been reduced.
Alcoholic fermentation Process by which certain Alcohols Alkyl or aromatic compounds contain-
microorganisms (mainly yeasts) metabolize sug- ing a hydroxyl (OH) group. Classes of alcohols impor-
ars anaerobically to produce alcohols. In this process, tant in the context of foods include aliphatic alcohols,
glucose is converted to pyruvic acid, which is de- e.g. methanol, ethanol and higher alcohols, poly-
carboxylated to acetaldehyde. The acetaldehyde is ols, glycols, aromatic alcohols, terpene alcohols and
subsequently reduced to ethanol. A wide variety of sterols.
Alcoholysis Esterification reactions involving es- Ale Historically, a beer type made without hops; in
ters and alcohols. Includes the breakdown of modern usage, a range of British-style beers, com-
triglycerides to form monoglycerides, and reac- monly brewed with top-fermenting brewers yeasts.
tions with methanol (methanolysis) and glycerol Aleurone Layer of cells found under the bran coat
(glycerolysis). Catalysed by lipases or chemical and outside the endosperm of cereal grains. Rich in
catalysts. Can be used to improve the health promot- cereal proteins and minerals as well as containing
ing properties of fats (e.g. glycerolysis of tuna oils non-digestible carbohydrates and phytic acid.
to generate monoacylglycerols rich in PUFA). Can
also be used to produce fatty acid esters for applica- Alewife Marine fish species (Alosa pseudoharengus)
tion as preservatives or emulsifiers. belonging to the herring family (Clupeidae); occurs in
Al compounds Alternative term for aluminium marine and estuarine waters along the Atlantic coast of
compounds. North America. Marketed in fresh, dried/salted,
smoked and frozen form; popularly consumed as a
Aldehyde dehydrogenases Include members of
subclass EC 1.2. Dehydrogenases which catalyse
oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding acids. In Alexandrium Genus of dinoflagellates responsible
most cases, the acceptor is NAD+ or NADP+. Used in for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning.
techniques to determine aldehyde levels in foods and Common species include Alexandrium catenella, A.
beverages. minutum and A. tamarense.
Aldehyde reductases EC 22.214.171.124. Enzymes with Alfalfa Common name for the leguminous plant, Medi-
wide specificity, catalysing the conversion of alditols cago sativa, also known as lucerne, generally grown
and NAD(P)+ to the corresponding aldoses and as a fodder plant, although young leaves and alfalfa
NAD(P)H. Can be used to convert xylose to xylitol, sprouts can be used as a vegetable, e.g. in Chinese
useful as a food sweetener. cooking.
Aldehydes Carbonyl compounds containing the
Alfalfa seeds Seeds produced by alfalfa (Medicago
CHO radical. Many are important for flavour or off
sativa) which are germinated to make alfalfa sprouts
flavour in foods and beverages. Aldehydes formed by
for human consumption. Sprouts are generally eaten
oxidation of fatty acids are important causes of fla-
raw in sandwiches and salads.
vour deterioration of lipid-rich foods.
Aldicarb Systemic insecticide, acaricide and nemato- Alfalfa sprouts Crisp sprouts obtained by germi-
cide used for control of chewing and sucking insects nation of alfalfa seeds. Popular in salads and
(especially aphids, whitefly, leaf miners and soil- sandwiches.
dwelling insects) in a wide range of fruit and vegetable Al foils Abbreviation for aluminium foils.
crops. Classified by WHO as extremely hazardous
Algae A heterogeneous group of unicellular and multi-
cellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms which
Alditols General term for polyols, sugar alcohols most occur in aquatic habitats. Includes both micro-
produced by reduction of sugars on an aldehyde algae and macroscopic forms (e.g. seaweeds). Cer-
group. Examples of alditols include D-sorbitol, D- tain algae are harvested for commercial production of
mannitol and xylitol. thickeners (e.g. agar, alginates, carrageenans)
Aldolases Alternative term for fructose- or proteins (e.g. single cell proteins). They are also
bisphosphate aldolases. a source of pigments and may be cultured to generate
Aldose 1-epimerases EC 126.96.36.199. Convert -D- -3 fatty acids. Some algae produce toxins that ac-
glucose to -D-glucose but also act on L-arabinose, D- cumulate in fish and shellfish, and may cause food
xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose. Have been poisoning in humans via consumption of these foods.
used extensively as components of biosensors for
Algal oils Oils derived from single cell organisms,
analysis of sugars. Also known as mutarotases and
such as Spirulina platensis. Also known as single cell
oils. Claimed to represent a cleaner and more concen-
Aldrin Cyclodiene organochlorine insecticide that has trated source of -3 fatty acids, particularly doco-
been used to control root worms, beetles and termites sahexaenoic acid, than fish oils. Used as ingredi-
in soils around fruits and vegetables. Oxidized in ents of functional foods. Possess anti-
insects to form the active compound dieldrin, a po- inflammatory activity.
tent neurotoxin. Subject to the Stockholm Convention
on Persistent Organic Pollutants and has been banned Algicides Chemicals used to control growth of algae
for use on crops in most countries. in water bodies or water containers. Examples include
bethoxazin, dichlone, quinoclamine and simazine.
Alginate gels Allantoin
Alginate gels Gels derived from alginates. Cal- and dairy products, and detection of phosphates
cium alginate gels are commonly used for immobiliza- in drinking water.
tion of biocatalysts. Alkalinity The degree to which a substance is alkaline.
Alginate lyases Alternative term for poly( -D- Level of alkalinity is expressed using pH.
mannuronate) lyases. Alkalization Process by which the pH of a substance
Alginates Any of several derivatives of alginic acid is increased to above 7 making it alkaline.
(e.g. sodium, calcium or potassium salts or propylene Alkaloids Organic nitrogenous bases. Many have
glycol alginate). Used as stabilizers, thickeners pharmacological activity. Some foods contain toxic
and gelling agents in foods. alkaloids, e.g. solanine in potatoes. Some alka-
Alginic acid Polysaccharide (polymer of D- loids are desirable food constituents, e.g. the purine
mannuronic acid) obtained from brown algae such as alkaloids caffeine and theobromine in tea, coffee,
Macrocystis pyrifera or Laminaria. Possesses sig- chocolate and cocoa.
nificant hydrocolloidal properties making it suitable Alkanes Saturated hydrocarbons of the methane
for thickening, emulsifying and stabilizing applica- series, including methane, ethane, propane and butane.
tions. Authorized for use in foods in various forms, in-
cluding as sodium, calcium and potassium alginates. Alkenes Acyclic hydrocarbons having the general
formula CnH2n and a single C to C double bond. Pre-
Alicyclobacillus Genus of aerobic or facultatively sent in many foods, frequently in the volatile com-
anaerobic, rod-shaped, spore-forming Gram positive pounds fraction. Ethylene (C2H4) is particularly im-
bacteria. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and A. aci- portant in ripening of fruits. Synonymous with ole-
docaldarius may cause spoilage of fruit juices. fins.
Alimentary pastes Alternative term for pasta. Alkylcyclobutanones Ketones produced from
Aliphatic compounds All organic compounds triglycerides by radiolysis that are thus used as a
which do not possess an aromatic (Kekule ring) struc- marker for irradiation of foods containing fats, e.g.
ture. Includes many types of hydrocarbons includ- meat, eggs and dairy products. Potential car-
ing acyclic, cyclic, saturated and unsaturated com- cinogens, their presence has raised concerns about
pounds. the safety of irradiated foods.
Alitame One of the high intensity, dipeptide artificial Alkylphenols Alkyl substituted phenols with oes-
sweeteners (trade name Aclame), formed from L- trogenic activity classed as endocrine disrupt-
aspartic acid, D-alanine and a novel amine. Has good ers. Present as environmental contaminants. May
water solubility, no aftertaste, does not contain be produced via biodegradation of alkylphenol
phenylalanine, and sweetness is approximately 2000 polyethoxylates which are widely used non-ionic sur-
times that of sucrose at typical usage levels. Offers factants (e.g. nonylphenol and octylphenol), or from
good stability at elevated temperatures and over a degradation of antioxidants used in packaging
broad pH range, and has good shelf life. Alitame is (e.g. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol). Some, e.g. cresols and
permitted for use at a max. level of 40-300 mg/kg in a ethylphenols, may be formed from conjugated alkyl-
wide range of foods and beverages, such as bakery phenols in milk and act as flavour compounds in
products, dairy products, frozen desserts, cheese.
chewing gums, hot and cold beverages, beverage Alkylresorcinols Phenols with antifungal activity
mixes and tabletop sweeteners. found in rye and other cereals, cashew nut shells and
Alkalies Bases which are soluble in water and include some bacteria and algae. Similar in structure to
the strongly basic hydroxides of sodium, potassium or commercially used antioxidants such as BHA and
ammonium. Neutralize, or are neutralized by, acids. BHT. Like other resorcinolic lipids, display biological
Solutions have a pH higher than 7. Alkalies are used in properties and have been reported also to have anti-
the food industry during processing (e.g. peeling of tumour activity, antimicrobial activity and anti-
potatoes) or in cleaning applications. Alternative parasitic activity.
spelling is alkalis. Allantoin Member of the imidazoles class of hetero-
Alkaline phosphatases EC 188.8.131.52. Catalyse forma- cyclic organic nitrogen compounds having the
tion of orthophosphate and an alcohol from an ortho- chemical formula C4H6N4O3. Product of the metabo-
phosphoric monoester, and also catalyse transphos- lism of purines, excreted in urine and milk. Has
phorylation. Enzymes with wide specificity. Uses in- therapeutic uses for treating wounds and ulcers. Can be
clude analysis of tannins in grapes and red wines, utilized as a nitrogen source by microorganisms and
detection of the adequacy of pasteurization of milk some legumes, including soybean plants.
Alleles Almond oils
Alleles Alternative forms of genes or DNA se- They are hunted or farmed (free-range or indoor pro-
quences that occupy the same position (locus) on either duction systems) for alligator meat and skins.
of two homologous chromosomes in a diploid or- Alliin One of the organic sulfur compounds con-
ganism. If both chromosomes have the same allele, tributing to the flavour compounds fraction in gar-
then the organism is homozygous for this allele. If the lic and Allium spp. vegetables.
allele is different, the organism is heterozygous for this Alliinases Alternative term for alliin lyases.
Alliin lyases EC 184.108.40.206. Also known as alliinases,
Allergenicity The ability of substances to act as al- these lyases are found in onions and garlic, where
lergens. they are responsible for formation of the characteristic
flavour. They also catalyse formation of allicin,
Allergens Antigens that are capable of inducing an
thought to have a number of health benefits. Have been
allergic reaction when they come in contact with spe-
used to determine alliin contents in garlic extracts.
cific tissues of susceptible individuals. Allergens may
induce formation of reaginic antibodies. Common Allium Genus of low-growing perennial plants, that
food allergens include proteins from shellfish, includes cultivated vegetables such as onions,
nuts, eggs, fish and milk. leeks, shallots and garlic, and many wild edible
species. Noted for their distinctive flavour and pun-
Allergies Hypersensitivity states induced by the body gency, due to the presence of organic sulfur com-
in reaction to foreign antigens that are harmless to pounds such as alliin. These compounds are also as-
other individuals in similar doses. Allergic reactions sociated with the therapeutic properties noted for garlic
are of four basic types and can be immediate or de- and other Allium spp.
layed in their onset. Type I reactions, which involve
Allspice Spice obtained from the dried fruits of the
release of histamine from mast cells by immunoglobu-
tropical tree Pimenta officinalis (syn. P. dioica). Fla-
lin E, can be induced by many food allergens often re-
vour resembles a blend of cinnamon, cloves, nut-
sulting in respiratory and dermatological symptoms.
meg, ginger and pepper. Used in flavourings for
Severe type I reactions include anaphylaxis. Most
meat products and bakery products. Also known
foods have been demonstrated to produce allergic reac-
as pimento or Jamaican pepper.
tions in certain individuals, however, common causes
Allura Red General-purpose, water-soluble artificial
of food allergy in adults include shellfish, nuts and
colorant. Also known as FDC red 40. Used to impart
eggs. In children, the pattern of food allergy differs
a reddish-yellow colour to foods such as desserts,
from that in adults, with allergies to eggs, milk, pea-
confectionery and cereal products.
nuts and fruits being common. In contrast to adults,
children can outgrow allergies, especially to milk and S-Allylcysteine Sulfur containing amino acid which
soy infant formulas. is one of the major organic sulfur compounds in
garlic. Responsible in part for some of the health
Allicin One of the organic sulfur compounds benefits of garlic, including hypolipaemic activity,
occurring in onions and other Allium spp. vegeta- anticarcinogenicity and radical scavenging ac-
bles. Important flavour compounds fraction with tivity.
antibacterial properties. Allyl isothiocyanate Naturally occurring volatile
Alligator meat Meat from alligators. Most of the organic sulfur compounds found in Brassica
meat from alligator carcasses is in the tail; however, vegetables and some other plants, such as cassava.
jaw meat is favoured because of its very low content of Largely responsible for the pungency of foods such
fats and eating quality. Usually, alligator meat is as mustard and horseradish. Possess antimicrobial
trimmed heavily of fat because the fat has an unpleas- properties and are used in food preservatives and as
ant flavour. Each carcass includes both light and dark antifermentative agents in winemaking. Like other
meat. In comparison with free-range alligator farming, isothiocyanates, display goitrogenic properties.
indoor farming may be associated with an increased Allyl sulfides Organic sulfur compounds found
prevalence of salmonellae. Due to biomagnification, in garlic, onions and leeks. Also flavour com-
alligators living in polluted areas can accumulate pounds. Demonstrate anticarcinogenicity, anti-
substantial concentrations of heavy metals. tumour activity and antioxidative activity. In-
Alligator pears Alternative term for avocados. clude diallyl disulfide.
Almond oils Oils rich in oleic acid and low in cho-
Alligators Large semi-aquatic predatory reptiles in the
lesterol derived mainly from the seeds of bitter al-
genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae. There are
monds (Prunus dulcis). Used in cooking and in
two species, namely the American alligator (A. missis-
foods as well as in the cosmetics industry.
sippiensis) and the Chinese alligator (A. sinensis).
Almonds Alzheimer's disease
Almonds One of the most widely grown type of nuts. Alum Double salts of aluminium sulfate combined
Produced on the tree Prunus dulcis (syn. P. amygdalus, with sulfates from monovalent metals. Used as co-
Amygdalus communis). Sweet almonds (P. dulcis agulants for purification of water, including drink-
var. dulcis) are grown for their edible nuts which are ing water. Also used in the coagulation stages of
important ingredients in many confectionery prod- tofu manufacture and as an adjuvant in immuniza-
ucts, such as marzipan, macaroons and sugar al- tions.
monds. Bitter varieties (P. dulcis. var. amara) are
Aluminium Light metal, chemical symbol Al, which
cultivated for their almond oils, which are used as
may be used in food packs or food processing equip-
ment. Occurs in the trace elements fraction in the
Aloe Plants of the genus Aloe (family Lilaceae), such diet; there is no known nutritional requirement. There
as Aloe vera. Used in the manufacture of foods, bever- is concern that excessive intake may be toxic, and die-
ages, and pharmaceutical and cosmetic products due to tary aluminium has been implicated as a causative fac-
their characteristic flavour, aroma and biological tor in Alzheimer's disease.
activity (attributed mainly to the presence of aloins).
Aluminium compounds Chemical compounds of
Aloin Bitter tasting compound which is a major com-
aluminium. May be food constituents, additives or
ponent of aloe leaves. An anthroquinone which on its
contaminants. There is concern about possible ad-
own is used as a laxative but which also displays anti-
verse health effects of high intakes of aluminium com-
fungal activity and analgesic effects.
pounds via foods or beverages.
Alpacas Long-necked, sheep-like, domesticated ani-
mals of the family Camelidae that are native to South Aluminium foils Aluminium packaging materials
America. Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) are larger than the which are used to decorate, protect and preserve foods,
wild vicuna, but smaller than the other camelids, and providing a barrier to external factors, such as light,
are bred mainly for their fibre. Alpaca meat is edible, oxygen and water vapour. Food applications include:
and is rich in proteins and low in cholesterol. foil containers and lids; metallized films; and wrap-
Alternan Glucans fraction derived from fungi of the pings. Also used in laminated packaging to enhance
genus Alternaria. Has potential for use in thicken- the barrier properties and rigidity of other packag-
ers or stabilizers for foods. ing materials such as plastics and paper. There is
very little migration of aluminium from aluminium
Alternansucrases EC 220.127.116.11. Glycosyltrans-
foil containers into food. Environmental considerations
ferases that transfer -D-glucosyl residues to the non-
include the importance of recycling and the use of
reducing terminal residues of -D-glucans, producing
aluminium foil laminates to fuel incineration proc-
glucans with alternating -1,6- and -1,3- linkages.
Enzyme from Leuconostoc mesenteroides produces
alternan, a glucan with potential applications in food Aluminium phosphide Synonym for phostoxin.
additives. Used in fumigants for stored grain, as it releases the
Alternaria Genus of fungi belonging to the Pleospo- toxic gas phosphine.
raceae family. Occur in soil and vegetable matter. Alveograms Records of air pressure inside bubbles
Many species are pathogenic to plants. Alternaria so- formed by inflating pieces of dough until rupture, a
lani may cause early blights of potatoes and toma- test performed on alveographs.
toes. Some species (e.g. A. alternata, A. citri, A. so-
lani and A. tenuis) may produce mycotoxins, includ- Alveographs Apparatus used to analyse the physical
ing alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, on properties of dough and the baking properties of
foods such as rice, fruits and vegetables. wheat. A piece of dough is inflated using air until it
forms a bubble and bursts. Traces of the pressure in-
Alternariol One of the mycotoxins produced by
side the bubble (alveograms) are used to indicate
Alternaria spp. These fungi are present in soils and
dough strength, stability and distensibility.
on plants and hence as contaminants of plant
foods, e.g. cereals, oilseeds, fruits and vegeta- Alzheimer's disease One of several brain disorders
bles, and products produced from them, including that are classified as neurodegenerative diseases.
beverages. Causes cytotoxicity and carcinogenic- It is a progressive, irreversible disease that gradually
ity. impairs cognitive performance, ultimately destroy-
Alteromonas Genus of aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram ing a person's memory and ability to learn, reason,
negative bacteria occurring in coastal and marine make judgments, communicate and carry out daily ac-
habitats. Some species may cause spoilage of fish tivities. It is the most common form of dementia
and other sea foods. among older people. Maintaining good nutrition may
delay the progression of disease.
Amadori compounds Amine oxidases
Amadori compounds Intermediates of the Maillard stroying Angel) and A. verna (Fool's Mushroom)). In-
reaction occurring between amino groups and re- gestion results in abdominal pain, persistent vomiting
ducing sugars. Amadori compounds are produced and watery diarrhoea, usually followed by death due to
by rearrangement of nitrogen-containing carbohydrate organ failure.
ring structures and their fate is dependent on the condi- Ambaritsa Raw dry sausages, traditionally made in
tions present in the reaction medium. Acid hydrolysis Bulgaria. They are prepared primarily from pork, but
of these compounds can result in unsaturated ring sys- include smaller amounts of beef. Moisture content
tems that have a characteristic flavour and aroma, should be <33% (by wt.).
which under less acidic conditions may polymerize to Amberjack Alternative term for yellowtail.
form an insoluble dark-coloured material.
Ambient storage Storage in surrounding atmos-
Amala Traditional Nigerian paste-like product made pheric conditions. Ambient temperature is often in-
by reconstituting yam meal in boiling water. Some- terchangeable with room temperature. Various pack-
times fortified with legume meal, e.g. cowpea meal aging and preservation approaches have been em-
or soy meal, to improve the protein content and nutri- ployed to enable foods to be stored safely and without
tional quality. Typically, amala is dark brown in col- significant quality deterioration under ambient condi-
our and is eaten with soups. tions.
Amanita Genus of soft, fleshy fungi, which includes American groundnuts Common name for seeds
both edible and highly poisonous species. Edible spe- produced by Apios Americana, a legume native to
cies include Amanita rubescens, which should not be North America, which also produces small edible tu-
eaten raw, and A. caesarea. Care should be taken in the bers. The tubers can be dried and ground into a pow-
identification of these mushrooms as many cases of der which is added to flour or used in sweeteners
poisoning have occurred due to unintentional ingestion and thickeners.
of related, lethal species, such as A. phalloides (death
American lobsters Lobsters of the species Homa-
rus americanus. Found in the north Atlantic Ocean.
Amanitins Class of amatoxins. Also known as ama- Also known as Atlantic lobsters or true lobsters.
nitoxins or amantines.
Ames test Technique used to assess the mutagenic-
Amaranth Red food colorants which are stable to ity of chemicals. Samples are incubated in medium
light. Made from small, pigmented flowers of plants of containing liver homogenate and derivatives formed
the genus Amaranthus. are mixed with a mutant strain of Salmonella Ty-
Amaranth flour Amaranth grain that is milled for phimurium that lacks autotrophic properties towards
food use. histidine. These properties are restored by metabolic
Amaranth grain Seeds from plants of the genus derivatives formed in the sample during incubation in
Amaranthus, which are high in starch, proteins, the presence of liver enzymes.
lysine and minerals. Also known as grain amaranth. Amidases EC 18.104.22.168. Convert monocarboxylic acid
Amaranth starch Starch extracted from amaranth amides to monocarboxylates and ammonia. Have
grain. Most commonly utilized in parts of South been used for production of D-alanine from DL-
America, Africa and Asia where amaranth is cultivated alaninamide.
as a food crop. Amidation Addition of amide groups or amino ac-
Amaranthus Genus of dicotyledenous plants of the ids to molecules to improve their functional prop-
family Amaranthaceae. Certain species of Amaranthus erties or physicochemical properties. For exam-
are grown for amaranth grain or grain amaranth, ple, amidation of pectins for use as food additives,
which is high in starch, proteins, lysine and min- modification of fatty acids with diethanolamine
erals. Other species are grown for their spinach-like forming diethanolamides for use as emulsifiers, re-
leaves, which are good sources of protein, vitamin C, moval of the electrically charged free carboxy termi-
minerals and -carotene. nals of synthetic peptides to make them more like
Amasi Traditional Zimbabwean fermented milk natural peptides, and amidation of lactoferrin and -
resembling thick curd. Fermentation is performed lactoglobulin to improve their antimicrobial ac-
at ambient temperature and naturally fermented cream tivity.
may be added to improve viscosity. Often eaten with Amides Organic nitrogen compounds containing
stiff corn porridges. the CO.NH2 radical which are common constituents of
Amatoxins Powerful mycotoxins produced by sev- foods. Include capsaicin and urea.
eral species of mushrooms of the genus Amanita Amine oxidases Two enzymes: EC 22.214.171.124 (flavin-
(e.g. Amanita phalloides (Death Cap), A. virosa (De- containing), also known as monoamine oxidases and
tyramine oxidases; and EC 126.96.36.199 (copper-containing), tural isomers ( , , , ) and has the chemical for-
also known as diamine oxidases. The former act on mula C4H9NO2. -Aminobutyric acid, commonly ab-
primary, and usually secondary and tertiary, amines breviated to GABA, is a non-protein amino acid and
to form aldehydes, while the latter act on primary inhibitory neurotransmitter with antihypertensive
monoamines, diamines and histamine. Several bac- activity. GABA is produced from L-glutamic acid
teria are able to degrade biogenic amines through in a reaction catalysed by glutamate decarboxy-
production of diamine oxidases and these enzymes lases, and is found naturally in foods, including soy-
have been used in biosensors for determination of beans and cereals. Certain strains of lactic acid
biogenic amines in foods. bacteria and yeasts produce GABA, and thus can be
Amines Organic nitrogen compounds derived used to enrich fermented foods.
from NH3 by substitution of organic radicals for the H 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidases
atoms. Depending on whether 1, 2 or 3 H atoms are EC 188.8.131.52. Accepted name now aminocyclopropan-
replaced, they are classed as primary, secondary or ter- ecarboxylate oxidases, but commonly referred to as
tiary amines. Include a wide range of compounds im- ACC oxidases. These oxidases catalyse the final step
portant for flavour and aroma of foods. Amines are in ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants, converting
formed during breakdown of proteins and contribute to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)
the characteristic odour of spoiled foods such as fish. to ethylene, and are involved in ripening of fruits.
Biogenic amines such as histamine may be toxic. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases
Amino acid oxidases Oxidases which catalyse the EC 184.108.40.206. Catalyse the rate-limiting step in ethyl-
oxidative deamination of amino acids in the pres- ene biosynthesis in higher plants which leads to rip-
ence of water and O2 to form oxo-acids. Includes EC ening of fruits.
220.127.116.11 (L-amino-acid oxidase) and EC 18.104.22.168 (D- 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid Plant
amino-acid oxidase) which act on L- and D-amino ac- growth regulator important in ripening of fruits. Of-
ids, respectively. Involved in metabolism of amino ten abbreviated to ACC.
acids. Uses include in bioconversions of D- to L-
amino acids, in biosensors, including those for de- Aminoethanol Synonym for ethanolamine. Amine
tection of amino acids, and for production of keto acids which in pure form exists as a colourless, combustible,
such as -ketoglutaric acid. hygroscopic liquid with an aroma of ammonia. A
member of the biogenic amines group, which oc-
Amino acids Organic acids characterized by pos-
curs in various foods, including wines and cheese.
session of one or more COOH and NH2 groups. Amino
acids are the main constituents of proteins. 10 amino Aminoethoxyvinylglycine Plant growth regulator
acids (arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, which acts by blocking ethylene synthesis through
methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and inhibition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-
valine) are essential nutrients in the human diet. carboxylate synthases.
D-Amino acids Amino acid enantiomers with a Amino N Nitrogen which is present in foods and other
specific configuration around a chosen chiral element, substances in the form of amino (NH2) groups.
usually the -carbon atom. These amino acids have -Amino N Index of the amino acid N content of
the opposite configuration to L-amino acids. Many D- foods, beverages or their raw materials and intermedi-
amino acids are naturally occurring in microorgan- ate materials. Used, for example, in brewing.
isms, plants and animals, and some are of especial in- Aminopeptidases EC 3.4.11. Exo-acting pro-
terest for the synthesis of novel sweeteners. teinases that hydrolyse peptide bonds and remove
Aminoacylases EC 22.214.171.124. Hydrolyse N-acyl-L- amino acids one at a time from the chains of pro-
amino acids, releasing the corresponding L-amino ac- teins, working from the amino terminus. Used for re-
ids. Can be used for purification of L-amino acids from ducing the bitterness of protein hydrolysates,
racemic mixtures of the corresponding N-acyl-DL- and important in flavour development in dairy
amino acids. Can also be used for acylation of amino products and meat.
acids in organic solvents.
Amino sugars General term for sugars substituted
Aminobenzoic acid Aromatic acid used in antim- with an amino group at the carbon-2 position. Exam-
icrobial preservatives for use in foods. ples of amino sugars include galactosamine, glu-
2-Aminobutane Alternative term for (RS)-sec- cosamine and furosine, an important indicator of
butylamine. Maillard reaction in dairy products.
Aminobutyric acid Member of the organic acids, Aminotransferases Alternative term for transami-
this organic nitrogen compound encompasses 4 struc- nases, EC 2.6.1.-.
Amitraz Non-systemic formamidine acaricide and detectable in livers and kidneys of animals 5 days
insecticide used for control of mites, scale insects, after withdrawal.
whitefly and aphids on various fruits and vegeta- Amoxycillin Alternative spelling for amoxicillin.
bles. Also employed in veterinary applications. Clas-
AMP Abbreviation for adenosine monophos-
sified by WHO as slightly hazardous (WHO III).
Amla Fruits of the sub-tropical deciduous tree Em- Amperometry Technique based on measurement of
blica officinalis Gaertn. (syn. Phyllanthus emblica), current resulting from oxidation or reduction of an
also known as aonla or Indian gooseberry. Fruits are electroactive species. A constant potential is main-
usually processed into products such as pickles, fruit tained at a working electrode or on an array of elec-
juices and syrups, as the raw fruits are highly acidic trodes with respect to a reference electrode. The cur-
and astringent. Amla are a rich source of vitamin C rent is correlated with the content of the electroactive
and also contain tannins, alkaloids, auxins and species.
minerals. Reported to have hypocholesterolaemic and
Ampicillin Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin
antioxidative activity and are widely used in tradi-
antibiotic used in the treatment of several diseases in
tional Indian medicine.
cattle, swine, sheep and poultry. Rapidly excreted,
Ammonia Gas, chemical formula NH3, which is primarily in unchanged form in the urine; relatively
formed on breakdown of nitrogen-containing com- small amounts are excreted in milk.
pounds such as proteins, peptides and amino ac-
Amycolatopsis Genus of aerobic Gram positive
ids. Has a characteristic pungent odour and is toxic at
bacteria, type species Amycolatopsis orientalis, of the
high concentrations in air. May be used in refriger-
family Pseudonocardiaceae. Isolated from soil, vegeta-
ants for freezing or cooling systems.
ble matter and clinical specimens. Some species pro-
Ammonium compounds Group of compounds con- duce antibiotics or biotechnologically significant
taining the NH4 radical. In the context of foods, impor- enzymes. One strain has been used in biotransfor-
tant members include betaine, inorganic ammonium mations to produce vanillin from ferulic acid.
salts (e.g. ammonium bicarbonate used as a leaven-
Amygdalin Glycosides fraction present in bitter
ing agent and ammonium salts used as nutrients for
almonds which is hydrolysed by water to yield hy-
yeasts) and quaternary ammonium compounds
drocyanic acid and benzaldehyde.
used as disinfectants.
Amyl alcohol Synonym for pentanol. One of the
Amnesic shellfish poisoning Disease resulting higher alcohols, comprising five carbon atoms and a
from ingestion of shellfish (commonly mussels) single alcohol group. Of importance in the flavour
containing the neurotoxin domoic acid (produced by compounds fraction of alcoholic beverages.
certain toxigenic marine diatoms). Symptoms include Forms part of the toxic fusel oils fraction of spirits.
abdominal cramps, vomiting, disorientation and mem- Used as a solvent and as a substrate for production of
ory loss. the flavouring amyl acetate.
Amoebae Common name for a number of species of Amylases Enzymes that hydrolyse the -1,4 glyco-
unicellular, usually microscopic, organisms of the or- sidic linkages in both amyloses and amylopectins.
der Amoebida and the class Sarcodina. Occur in fresh Act on starch, glycogen, and related polysaccha-
and salt water, moist soil, and as parasites in humans rides and oligosaccharides. Specific types are -
and animals. Characterized by ability to alter their amylases and -amylases.
shape, generally by the extrusion of one or more pseu-
-Amylases EC 126.96.36.199. Glycosidases which cata-
lyse endohydrolysis of 1,4- -D-glucosidic linkages in
Amoebiasis Specifically refers to an infection of the polysaccharides containing three or more 1,4- -
intestine, liver or other sites with Entamoeba histo- linked D-glucose units. Act on starch, glycogen,
lytica, a pathogenic amoeba, acquired by ingesting and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in
contaminated water or foods. In general, may be any a random manner; reducing groups are liberated in the
infection caused by any amoebic parasite. Character- configuration. Present in a wide range of foods, in-
ized by severe bloody diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fe- cluding cereals, fruits and vegetables, and in mi-
ver, vomiting and ulceration of the colon. Also known croorganisms used in food fermentations such as
as amoebic dysentery. Saccharomyces and Lactobacillus spp. Isolated
Amoxicillin Penicillin antibiotic used against a wide -amylases can be used to convert starch to dextrins
variety of bacterial infections in farm animals. Be- in the production of corn syrups, as a flour supple-
comes widely distributed in animal tissues following ment to aid growth of yeasts and gas production in
administration, but is rapidly eliminated; typically un- dough making, and for solubilization of brewing
-Amylases Anabolic steroids
adjuncts. Can cause allergies, particularly in the slow or absent, thus pastes of gelatinized waxy starch
baking and milling industries. are non-gelling but gum-like.
-Amylases EC 188.8.131.52. Amylases which hydrolyse Amyloses Polysaccharides composed of chains of
1,4- -D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides, re- -1,4-linked glucopyranose residues that, together with
moving successive maltose units from the non- amylopectins are constituents of starch. Amyloses
reducing ends of the chains. Act on starch, glyco- have much lower molecular weights than amylopectins
gen, and related polysaccharides and oligosaccha- (at least 100-fold less) and are non-branched. In con-
rides, producing -maltose by an inversion reaction. trast to amylopectins, retrogradation of cooked amy-
Used for production of high maltose syrups. loses is rapid, and thus gel formation occurs.
Amylases inhibitors Substances that inhibit the Amylovorins Small, heat-stable and strongly hydro-
activity of amylases (including -amylases and - phobic bacteriocins synthesized by Lactobacillus
amylases) which catalyse the breakdown of starch amylovorus. Show a relatively narrow inhibitory spec-
into sugars. -Amylases inhibitors present in trum, mainly against related Lactobacillus species, al-
foods can act as antinutritional factors by inhibit- though some species of Clostridium and Listeria are
ing the breakdown of starch into sugars by amylases also sensitive.
present in the saliva and pancreatic secretions. Amyrin Triterpene alcohols fraction which occurs in
-Amylases inhibitors Components of foods that the unsaponifiable fraction of some fats, and may be
inhibit -amylases. Presence of -amylase inhibitors used as a marker of origin or authenticity of fats (e.g.
in starch-rich foods can reduce the rate of starch di- for detection of cocoa butter substitutes in
gestion and release of glucose into the bloodstream. chocolate).
Types of -amylase inhibitor include proteins of An Alternative term for ann.
higher plants (such as cereals and legumes), and
polypeptides and nitrogen-containing carbohy- Anabaena Genus of filamentous cyanobacteria of
drates produced by Streptomyces spp. the Nostocaceae family. Major components of fresh-
water plankton. Some species, such as Anabaena
Amylodextrins Acyclic, branched polysaccha-
flos-aquae and A. circinalis, can form algal blooms in
rides composed of glucose monomers. Produced by
fresh water, producing anatoxins, which are neuro-
partial hydrolysis of starch. Uses include as fat
Anabolic agents Natural and synthetic hormonal-
Amyloglucosidases Alternative term for glucan
type growth promoting substances. Most are deriva-
tives of reproductive steroid hormones (oestro-
Amylograms Records of results obtained using amy- gens, progesterone and testosterone), but non-
lographs to investigate flour or starch viscosity steroidal compounds (naturally or non-naturally occur-
as a function of temperature. ring) such as zeranol and stilbene oestrogens are also
Amylographs Instruments used to measure the vis- available. Widely used in many countries to promote
cosity of cereal flours or other starch-based products weight gain and feed efficiency in farm animals (prin-
during variations in temperature. Samples are mixed at cipally in cattle). Their use is not permitted in the EU,
a constant speed and viscosity is recorded on charts although many types may be being used illegally. Also
(amylograms). known as anabolic drugs.
Amylolytic enzymes Term encompassing enzymes Anabolic drugs Chemical substances based on natu-
that degrade starch, in particular -amylases, - ral or synthetic growth promoting hormones. Most are
amylases, glucan 1,4- -glucosidases, pullu- derived from reproductive steroids (oestrogens,
lanases and -glucosidases. progesterone and testosterone) while a few are
Amylomyces rouxii Species of filamentous fungi of based on polypeptide hormones (e.g. recombinant bo-
the class Zygomycetes. Used in the production of vine somatotropin). Used to promote weight gain
Asian fermented foods such as tape. and feed efficiency in farm animals. Use is not permit-
Amylopectins High molecular weight polymers that, ted in the EU, although illegal use has been reported.
together with amyloses, form starch. Composed of Anabolic steroids Anabolic agents derived from
-1,4-linked glucopyranose chains connected by -1,6- or similar in structure to reproductive steroid hor-
linkages. 3-6% of glucose residues are -1,6-linked, mones. Examples of naturally produced steroids used
giving rise to a highly branched polymer. Starch that is in animal production include oestradiol-17 and pro-
almost exclusively composed of amylopectin is termed gesterone (female steroids), and testosterone
waxy, e.g. waxy corn (>99% amylopectin and <1% (male steroid). Synthetic examples include
amylose); in starch of this type, retrogradation is melengestrol acetate and trenbolone acetate. Used
to promote growth and feed conversion efficiency in a lants to a number of Indian foods including chut-
range of farm animals. Anabolic steroids are banned neys and curries.
for use in animal production in the EU, although many Anasazi Ancient variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, rein-
may be being used illegally. troduced onto the market following the successful cul-
Anacystis Obsolete name for Synechococcus. tivation of samples discovered in a New Mexico cave.
The purple and white beans have a delicate flavour,
Anaemia Diseases caused by a reduction in the size
similar to that of pinto beans, and a relatively low
or number of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and/or
content of indigestible sugars compared with other
the quantity of haemoglobin. Results in reduced
ability of blood to transfer oxygen to the tissues. The
most prevalent form of anaemia worldwide is that of Anatoxins Neurotoxins produced in fresh water by
iron deficiency, although there are many other causes, some species of filamentous cyanobacteria of the
including deficiencies of folates and vitamin B12, genus Anabaena, especially A. flos-aquae. Include
infection and conditions that result in excessive de- the alkaloids anatoxin-a and anatoxin-a(s). Extremely
struction or insufficient production of red blood cells. poisonous, sometimes killing animals drinking con-
Common symptoms include tiredness, lethargy, dizzi- taminated water within a few minutes. May represent a
ness and breathlessness. Food fortification ap- hazard for drinking water safety.
proaches have been proposed for reducing the preva- Anchoveta Small herring-like fish which occurs
lence of anaemia due to nutritional causes. abundantly in Pacific waters off the western coast of
Anaerobes Organisms that do not require atmospheric South America. Anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) are a
oxygen to live, or cannot survive in the presence of commercially important source of fish meal and fish
oxygen. Often refers to anaerobic bacteria or other oils.
microorganisms. Facultative aerobes refer to an- Anchovy Group of herring-like marine fish species
aerobes that can also grow under aerobic conditions. belonging to the family Engraulidae. Commercially
important species include European anchovy (Engrau-
Anaerobic digestion Type of bioremediation
lis encrasicolus), northern anchovy (E. mordax) and
process based on microbial metabolism which occurs
Japanese anchovy (E. japonica). Anchovy are mar-
in the absence of oxygen. Any biological material can
keted in fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen forms
be treated via this process, including agricultural and
and are also used to make anchovy pastes.
food wastes and effluents, to produce biogas and a
digestate which may be used in fertilizers. Bioreac- Anchovy oils Oils derived from the muscle of En-
tors in which this process in performed industrially graulis spp. which are rich in eicosapentaenoic
are termed anaerobic digesters, with UASB bioreac- acid and docosahexaenoic acid.
tors being a type of these. Depending on the tempera- Anchovy pastes Processed fish products comprising
ture at which it is performed, the digestion may be ground anchovy (Engraulis and Anchoa spp.) mixed
classified as mesophilic (30-35 C) or thermophilic with ingredients such as vegetable oils and sea-
(55 C). sonings. Often used in toppings for pizzas and as
a component of pasta sauces and salad dressings.
Analogues In relation to foods, products that are
made to resemble and act as substitutes for specific Androgens A class of steroid hormones that are
commodities. Similar to simulated foods. Reasons associated with the development and maintenance of
for producing analogues include to provide alternatives male secondary sex characteristics, such as facial and
to meat for vegetarians, for consumption by those body hair, deepening of the voice and muscle devel-
with special dietary requirements or to reduce costs. opment. Testosterone is the most abundant andro-
gen in the male body. Also the precursor of oestro-
Analysers Instruments used in analysis. gens.
Analytical techniques Methods used in analysis. Androlla Dry cured pork sausages traditionally
Anaphylaxis A severe type I allergic reaction occur- made in Galicia, Spain.
ring rapidly in sensitized individuals following expo- Androstenone Steroid hormone with a characteristic
sure to small amounts of allergens. Symptoms can odour; implicated in boar taint occurring in pork
range from itching and angioedema to widespread tis- produced from non-castrated male swine.
sue oedema, airway constriction, respiratory distress Anencephaly A lethal neural tube defect character-
and circulatory collapse. Foods that can induce ana- ized by the absence of the cranial vault and the major-
phylaxis include peanuts, eggs and sea foods. ity or all of the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres.
Anardana Dried seeds of wild pomegranates (Pu- Anencephaly results from failure of the neural tube to
nica granatum). Added in condiments or acidu- close during embryogenesis. The risk for developing
Anethole Animal stress
anencephaly, as with other neural tube defects, is casses are also called dressed carcasses. Major animal
reduced by increasing the level of folic acid in the carcass meats in Europe and the USA are produced
maternal diet during pregnancy. from cattle, sheep and swine, whilst in the Middle
Anethole Synonym for p-allylphenyl methyl ether. East, Africa and Asia, water buffaloes, camels and
One of the flavour compounds which occurs in goats are more important. Conditioning or ageing of
herbs and spices, especially anise and fennel. carcasses results in break down of muscle glycogen
Aneurin Alternative term for thiamin (vitamin B1), into lactic acid, which tends to improve tenderness
used commonly in Europe. Alternative spelling is and shelf life of meat.
aneurine. Animal diseases Pathological conditions that occur
Aneurine Alternative spelling for aneurin (thiamin). in animals that are used as sources of foods and may
affect the quality or safety of the foods. Examples that
Angel cakes Very light, airy sponge cakes made
affect food quality or safety include mastitis and ma-
with stiffly beaten egg whites and no egg yolks or
fats. Also known as angel food cakes.
Angelica Herb obtained from umbelliferous plants of Animal fats Lipid products derived from animal
the genus Angelica, particularly A. archangelica, sources. Include butter, lard, tallow, suet and fish
which is grown extensively in southern Europe. The oils.
young celery-like stalks are crystallized and used for Animal foods Foods derived from sources in the ani-
decorating cakes and confectionery products. mal kingdom. Examples include aquatic foods (sea
Leaves are occasionally used for flavouring stews, foods and aquaculture products), dairy prod-
while roots and seeds are used as flavourings for ucts, eggs and egg products, animal fats, in-
some types of gin and liqueurs, respectively. sect foods, meat and meat products, and other
Angiogenesis The formation of new blood vessels animals such as worms (earthworms).
from pre-existing vessels. A natural physiological Animal models Animals used to simulate human
process that has an important role in growth and devel- physiological and pathological processes. Animal
opment, as well as wound healing. However, some models allow investigations that would not be ethical
diseases cause the body to lose control over this or practical in humans.
process resulting in excessive or insufficient growth of Animal proteins Proteins that are derived from
new blood vessels. Angiogenesis performs a critical animal sources such as meat, fish, eggs and dairy
role in cancer development. Several dietary compo- products.
nents may possess anti-angiogenic properties, includ- Animal rennets Proteinases present in the aboma-
ing genistein, selenium and tea polyphenols. sum of young ruminants, e.g. calves, and used for
Angiogenin A polypeptide that is a potent mediator of clotting of milk during cheesemaking. Comprise a
new blood vessel formation. It exhibits ribonuclease mixture of the main enzyme, chymosin, and pep-
activity and has been implicated in tumour angio- sins, the ratio of these enzymes affecting the final
genesis. Present in milk, and has potential applica- properties of the cheese. Due to shortages of animal
tion as a bioactive component of foods, pharmaceuti- rennets and the increasing popularity of vegetarian
cals and cosmetics. cheeses, microbial rennets, genetically-engineered
Angiotensin I-converting enzymes Alternative enzyme preparations synthesized by various microor-
term for peptidyl-dipeptidase A. ganisms and milk clotting enzymes of plant origin
Angkak Red pigment produced by fermentation of rice (vegetable rennets) have been developed.
with Monascus spp. Used in natural food colorants Animals Eukaryotic, generally multicellular, hetero-
in the Far East. trophic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Meta-
Anhydrous milk fats Milk fats with a very high fat zoa. Many are hunted for meat or farmed for milk,
content and negligible moisture content. Sometimes meat or eggs. Animal cells are distinguished from
called water free milk fats. those of plants, algae and fungi by a lack of cell
Aniline Synonym for aminobenzene or phenylamine. walls.
Toxic amines fraction which is used in chemical syn- Animal science Discipline relating to the science and
theses, e.g. for dyes. Aniline may occur as a contami- technology of the production, management and distri-
nant in foods. bution of animals, including those intended for food
Animal carcasses Dead bodies of animals, particu- use.
larly those used for meat production. The term is used Animal stress Any unusual events or conditions
by butchers to describe animal bodies after removal of which bring about physiological or behavioural
the heads, limbs, hides and offal; these processed car- changes in animals. In addition to fear and physical
Animal welfare Anthracene
trauma, it includes environmental factors such as cold, used. Typically prepared by boiling and pounding the
heat, humidity, light, sound and wind. The term stress beans and adding syrups to form a paste.
also describes the results of such events or conditions. Annatto Yellowish red natural colorant obtained from
Stress often occurs when animals are faced with unfa- seeds of the tropical tree Bixa orellana. Contains a fat-
miliar, threatening or harmful situations. Transport to soluble component (bixin) and a water-soluble com-
markets or abattoirs and poor pre-slaughter manage- ponent (norbixin). Used to add colour to cheese,
ment of animals are widely recognized as causes of sausage casings and bakery products.
animal stress. Animal stress is not only an animal Annealing Heating an item and allowing it to cool
welfare issue, but is also associated with various de- slowly, so as to remove internal stresses.
fects in meat including the DFD defect and the PSE
Anserine Synonym for N- -alanyl-1-methylhistidine.
defect. Susceptibility to stress differs greatly between
Peptide which occurs in fish and meat, and may con-
species, breeds, genders and individual animals.
tribute to their sensory properties.
Animal welfare Protection of the rights of animals,
whether in the wild or in captivity. For animals used in Antelope meat Meat from antelopes, sometimes
agriculture as food sources, conditions (and possibly referred to as venison. Antelope meat has a lower
food quality) can be improved by high quality care and content of fats than lean beef, but has a similar con-
humane use. Implementation of high standards of care tent of essential amino acids. It may be cooked by
for animals used in research is believed to improve the roasting, but requires basting to prevent the meat
quality of the resultant scientific data. from becoming too dry.
Anion exchange Type of ion exchange in which Antelopes Various species of swift running, deer-like,
hydrogen ions and anions may be displaced from the hollow-horned, hoofed ruminant mammals of the sub-
ion exchange resin. family Antilopinae. The major well-known species in-
clude elands, gnus, gazelles and impala. Many are
Anions Negatively charged particles that have gained
hunted for their meat and some species, for example
one or more electrons. These ions migrate towards
the blackbuck antelope (Antilope cervicapra), have
positively charged electrodes (anodes).
been farmed successfully to produce antelope meat
Anisakiasis Infection in humans caused by the third of a high quality.
larval stage of the parasitic nematode Anisakis sim-
Anthelmintics Drugs used to treat internal infections
plex, usually as a result of eating contaminated raw or
of animals caused by parasitic worms (nematodes
undercooked sea foods. Pseudoterranova larvae
and cestodes). Most frequently used in younger farm
have also been implicated as causative organisms. Also
animals which are more susceptible to parasitic infec-
known as anisakidosis.
tions. Residues are most likely to be found in milk
Anisakidosis Alternative term for anisakiasis. when withdrawal periods have not been strictly ob-
Anisakis Genus of parasitic nematodes of the family served; livers may also contain residues. Examples
Anisakidae. Anisakis simplex has been implicated in include albendazole, dichlorvos, ivermectin and
anisakiasis, an infection caused by consumption of thiabendazole.
contaminated raw or undercooked sea foods. Anthocyanidins Flavylium salts which are the agly-
Anisaldehyde Common name for p- cone component of pigments of the anthocyanins
methoxybenzaldehyde. One of the flavour com- group.
pounds occurring in a wide range of foods.
Anthocyanins Class of organic pigments (gly-
Anise Alternative term for aniseed. cosides of malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin,
Aniseed Liquorice-flavoured, fragrant seeds of cyanidin, delphinidin and petunidin) giving pink,
Pimpinella anisum. Used as spices and flavourings red, blue and purple colour to many foods and bev-
for many foods and beverages, including confec- erages of plant origin (including fruits and red
tionery and alcoholic beverages such as ani- wines). Extracted anthocyanins may be used as food
sette. colorants. Colour is pH-sensitive, and stability dif-
Anisette Aniseed-flavoured liqueurs manufactured fers from that of artificial colorants.
in France. Anthocyanogens Alternative term for leucoantho-
Anisole Phenolic compounds which occur naturally in cyanins. Anthocyanins found in a range of plant
a range of foods. Chlorinated anisole derivatives may foods, and also in wines. In a polymerized form, con-
cause taints, e.g. in corks and wines. stituents of polyphenols and condensed tannins.
Ann Traditional Japanese bean jams used as the base Anthracene One of the polycyclic aromatic hy-
for many confectionery products. Usually made drocarbons (PAH). Occurs as an environmental con-
from adzuki beans, although other beans may be taminant in a wide range of foods, water and packag-
Anthracnose Antifreeze proteins
ing materials. May also be formed during smoking Antibiotics resistance Ability of microorgan-
or cooking of foods. isms to be unaffected by treatment with specific an-
Anthracnose Any of several plant diseases caused tibiotics. Resistance can result from a range of
by fungi (particularly Colletotrichum spp.). Charac- mechanisms, including decreased permeability of the
terized by dark spots that appear on leaves, stems or organism to the drug, modification of drug or receptor,
fruits. One of the main postharvest diseases, affecting and production of a modified protein that is unaffected
the quality of stored produce such as bananas, citrus by the antibiotic. Organisms can become resistant ei-
fruits and mangoes. ther by undergoing spontaneous mutations or by ac-
Anthraquinones Pigments of the quinones group quiring resistance genes from other resistant organisms
which occur in a range of plants and plant products. through the processes of conjugation and transduction.
Anthrax Disease caused by the spore-forming bacte- Plasmids containing multiple resistance genes can be
rium Bacillus anthracis and transmitted through transferred not only amongst similar, but also quite dif-
foods, skin abrasions and inhalation of spores. Gas- ferent, bacteria.
trointestinal anthrax is usually transmitted through Antibodies Proteins, also known as immu-
consumption of meat from infected animals. B. an- noglobulins, that are produced by the body in re-
thracis is considered to be a potential bioterrorism sponse to foreign substances (antigens) and are capa-
agent. ble of forming complexes with the antigens. Mecha-
Anthropometric parameters Measurements of the nisms by which antibodies protect the body include
human body, including length, height, body mass agglutination or precipitation of foreign antigens,
index, body weight, head circumference, waist-to-hip lysis of foreign cells and neutralization of toxins.
ratio, percentage body fat and skinfold thickness. Anticaking agents Anhydrous compounds that are
Commonly used as indices of growth and development added in small amounts to dry foods (e.g. salt, bak-
in infants, children and adolescents, and in nutritional ing powders, pudding mixes) to prevent the parti-
assessment for examining an individual's nutri- cles caking together and thus ensure the product re-
tional status, degree of obesity and risk for various mains dry and free-flowing. Typical anticaking agents
diseases. for the food industry include magnesium and calcium
Antiallergic activity Ability to prevent or ameliorate carbonates, magnesium stearate, calcium silicate and
allergies. Certain foods and food components may calcium stearate.
possess antiallergic activity. Anticarcinogenicity Ability of a food or food com-
ponent to slow, inhibit or reverse the process of car-
Antiatherogenic activity Ability of foods or food
cinogenesis, in particular, the ability to attenuate
components to slow, inhibit or reverse the process of
atherosclerosis, the pathological process underlying carcinoma formation in response to application of
cardiovascular disease. Consumption of foods possess- known carcinogens. Anticarcinogenicity of a sub-
stance can be determined in vitro using cell culture or
ing antiatherogenic activity is potentially beneficial for
in vivo using animals treated with carcinogens or a car-
health as a result of the consequent decreased risk for
cinoma cell line.
Anticarcinogens Substances that inhibit the forma-
Antibacterial activity Ability to kill or inhibit the
tion of carcinomas induced by application of car-
growth of bacteria.
cinogens. Potential dietary anticarcinogens include
Antibacterial compounds Compounds that possess
phytoestrogens (isoflavonoids, lignans), fla-
antibacterial activity, e.g. certain antibiotics, an-
vonoids, lycopene, glucosinolates, terpenes,
tiseptics and disinfectants.
allyl sulfides and simple phenols.
Antibiotics Substances produced by microorgan-
Antifoaming agents Used in a similar manner to
isms that can kill or inhibit other microorganisms;
defoaming agents to control foams formation dur-
used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in humans
ing food processing. Examples include dimethyl-
and animals. Grouped into several different classes, the
most widely used being -lactam antibiotics (in-
Antifreeze proteins Proteins occurring naturally in
cluding penicillins and cephalosporins). Other
a range of organisms (especially cold water fish),
classes include aminocyclitols, aminoglycosides, am-
which prevent or minimize freezing of tissues on expo-
phenicols, macrolides, nitrofurans and quinolones.
sure to low temperatures. Of potential use in the food
Residues may occur in animal foods; toxic effects are
industry for lowering the freezing point of foods and
unlikely, but potential hazards include allergic re-
inhibiting recrystallization of ice. Possible applications
sponses in consumers and development of resistant
include in ice cream, frozen foods or chilled meat
strains of bacteria.
Antifungal activity Antiproliferative activity
Antifungal activity Ability to kill or inhibit the lard reaction products and other polyphenols.
growth of fungi. Antimutagens are also produced by certain probiotic
Antifungal agents Substances that possess antifun- bacteria and bacteria used to produce fermented
gal activity. Also known as antimycotics. foods.
Antifungal compounds Compounds that possess Antimycotics Alternative term for antifungal
antifungal activity. agents.
Antigenicity Ability of substances to act as antigens Antinutritional factors Substances that reduce the
by eliciting an antibody-mediated or cellular immune nutritional value of a food by reducing its nutrients
response. content, bioavailability, digestibility or utilization.
Antigenotoxicity Ability to prevent damage to DNA Antinutritional factors include enzyme inhibitors
caused by genotoxins. (proteinases inhibitors and amylases inhibitors
Antigens Substances that induce an immune re- present in a wide range of foods and microorganisms),
sponse, either by stimulating formation of antibod- inositol and its derivatives (including phytates and
ies or by eliciting a cellular response. phytic acid present in legumes and cereals) and
antivitamins such as thiaminase, dicoumarol, theo-
Antihypertensive activity Ability of a substance to
alleviate or reduce high blood pressure (hyperten- phylline.
sion). Food components that demonstrate antihyper- Antioxidant compounds Natural compounds pre-
tensive activity often act as ACE inhibitors. Potential sent in foods that exhibit antioxidative activity.
dietary antihypertensive agents include bioactive Antioxidants Substances used in the preservation
peptides in dairy products and plant foods, and of foods which act by retarding deterioration, rancid-
garlic constituents. ity or discoloration due to oxidation. The most
Anti-inflammatory activity Ability to inhibit or commonly used synthetic food antioxidants include
counteract the inflammatory response, which is an in- BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (buty-
nate immune response to tissue injury by stimuli lated hydroxytoluene) and propyl gallate. Natu-
such as chemicals, trauma, extremes of temperature or rally occurring antioxidant compounds include
microbial attack. Many foods and food components tocopherols and ascorbic acid. Consumption of a
possess anti-inflammatory activity. These include diet rich in natural antioxidants is considered benefi-
some fatty acids, tocotrienol, lactoferrin, colos- cial for health and for the prevention of degenerative
trum, wines and honeys. diseases.
Antimicrobial activity Ability to kill or inhibit the Antioxidant status A facet of nutritional status,
growth of microorganisms. which relates to the state of the body in terms of the
Antimicrobial compounds Compounds that possess consumption, utilization and stores of antioxidant nu-
antimicrobial activity. trients, as well as levels and activity of antioxidant
Antimicrobial packaging films Packaging films, enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutases, glutathione
e.g. polyethylene films, that contain antimicrobial peroxidases, glutathione reductases and catalases).
compounds, such as enzymes, zeolites, bacte- Many dietary components possess antioxidative ac-
riocins, organic acids and chlorine dioxide. The tivity and can contribute to antioxidant status, includ-
aim of using such films for packaging foods is to in- ing vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and carote-
hibit microbial growth on the foods and thus extend noids.
their shelf life. Antioxidative activity Ability of a substance to in-
Antimony Toxic member of the trace elements hibit oxidation. Substances possessing antioxidative
group, chemical symbol Sb, which may occur in foods. activity can be utilized in foods, such as oils, to inhibit
Antimutagenicity Ability of a substance to reduce oxidation, thus improving shelf life and quality.
either spontaneous mutation rates or mutation rates in- Foods possessing a high antioxidative activity have
duced by known mutagens. Antimutagenicity of a also been investigated as potentially health promoting
substance against a mutagen can be determined using foods, as lipid oxidation has been associated with a
the Ames test. range of pathological processes, including athero-
sclerosis. Also known as antioxidative properties.
Antimutagens Substances capable of reducing back-
ground spontaneous mutation rates or reducing the Antioxidative properties Alternative term for anti-
ability of known mutagens to cause DNA damage. oxidative activity.
There is a wide range of antimutagens in foods and Antiproliferative activity Ability to slow or inhibit
beverages, such as fruits, vegetables, spices and cell proliferation, especially proliferation of tumour
green tea, including catechols, flavonoids, Mail- cells during cancer development. Many foods and
Antisense technology Apoptosis
food components have been shown to exhibit antipro- Antiviral activity Ability to kill or inhibit the growth
liferative activity, including a variety of flavonoids of viruses. Many food components possess antiviral
present in plant foods. activity. These include lactoferrin and other constitu-
Antisense technology A type of gene silencing ents of milk and other dairy products, polyphe-
which uses DNA or RNA sequences to bind in vivo to nols, tannins and polysaccharides from some
complementary DNA or mRNA strands, respectively, mushrooms.
preventing correct gene expression. Can be used to Antivitamins Antinutritional factors that destroy
turn off selectively production of certain proteins. or inhibit the metabolic effects of vitamins. Examples
Has been used to delay ripening in fruits, modify the of antivitamins in foods include thiaminase (antivita-
composition of fatty acids in oilseeds and modify min B1, present in raw fish and other animal foods),
the starch contents of potato tubers. caramel colorants (antivitamin B6) and dicoumarol
Antiseptics Antimicrobial compounds used to (antivitamin K).
treat human and animal body surfaces (particularly Ants Common name for narrow-waisted, generally
skin). wingless insects of the family Formicidae. May be
consumed as insect foods. Can also act as insect
Antisera Sera which contain antibodies that are
either specific to antigens (monovalent antisera) or
reactive against more than one antigen (polyvalent an- Anu Common name for Tropaeolum tuberosum, also
tisera). Antisera can be produced by immunization of known as mashua. An important tuber crop of the An-
an animal either by injection of antigen(s) or infection des, which is closely related to the garden nasturtium.
with microorganisms that contain the antigen(s). Consumption of the raw tuber is limited due to the bit-
ter taste, associated with isothiocyanates, but fla-
Antisprouting agents Plant growth regulators
vour generally becomes milder when the tubers are
used to prevent sprouting of crops (especially root
boiled. Nutrient contents compare well with those of
or bulb crops, e.g. potatoes) during storage. Also
other tubers. Anu flowers are also edible.
known as sprouting inhibitors.
Aonla Alternative term for amla.
Antithrombotic activity Ability to prevent or regu-
late the formation of blood clots or thrombi, and thus Aperitifs Alcoholic beverages intended to be con-
protect against coronary heart diseases and car- sumed before meals to promote appetite. Proprietary
diovascular diseases such as stroke. Foods and aperitifs include products based on flavoured wines or
beverages displaying antithrombotic activity include spirits.
plant derived products, fish oils and dairy products Aphids Common name for plant parasites of the fam-
containing bioactive peptides. ily Aphididae. Includes insects that suck plant sap
Antithyroid agents Drugs that inhibit the produc- and exude sugary secretions favoured by ants. Some
tion of hormones produced in the thyroid gland; used species are important vectors of plant viruses.
to increase meat yield in animals by reducing their Apiculture The practice of keeping bees, often with
basal metabolism, lowering gastrointestinal motility the intention of producing honeys, propolis, bees-
and stimulating extracellular water retention. May wax or royal jelly. Bees may also be kept for use in
cause excess accumulation of water in muscle tissues, farming systems for pollination of crops.
resulting in poorer quality meat; residues may be a po- Apigenin Yellow pigments of the flavonoids
tential risk to consumer health. Examples include group which occur in a wide range of plants and plant-
thiouracil and methimazole. derived foods.
Antitranspirants Plant growth regulators which Apocarotenal Member of the carotenoids group of
reduce the intensity of transpiration of food crops; used natural pigments which occurs in oranges and other
to improve yield, and product quality or shelf life. plant foods. May be used in natural colorants.
Antitumorigenicity Ability of a substance to slow, Apoproteins Term describing the protein component
inhibit or reverse the process of tumorigenesis, in par- of conjugated proteins, e.g. the globin component of
ticular, the ability to attenuate tumour formation in the haemoglobin.
presence of tumour promoters or carcinogens. Anti- Apoptosis Controlled destruction of cells which oc-
tumorigenicity of foods and food components can be curs as a natural process during tissue growth and de-
determined either in vitro using cell culture or in vivo velopment. Also referred to as programmed cell death.
using animal models. Failure of apoptosis is thought to be involved in uncon-
Antitumour activity Ability of a substance to inhibit trolled cell growth in some types of cancer, and also
or reverse the progression of established tumours. autoimmune diseases.
Apparent density Apricots
Apparent density Weight of a porous material per mon domesticated apple is an interspecific hybrid des-
unit volume. Apparent density of a porous substance is ignated Malus domestica. Many varieties are grown for
always lower than the theoretical density of its con- use as dessert, cooking, ornamental or cider apples.
stituents. Fruits are large round pomes that range in flavour
Appearance Perception of the outward form of a from sweet to sharp, and in colour from green and
substance. The appearance of a food contributes to its yellow to red and brown. Useful source of vitamin C,
overall sensory properties. potassium and dietary fibre. Cooking apples are
Appenzeller cheese Swiss semi-hard cheese made usually green, and larger and more acidic than dessert
from cow milk. It can be made with skim milk and apples. Crab apples grow wild in many regions; these
brine cured for 12 months, or with whole milk and are barely edible, but can be used to make jelly.
cured with brine, pepper and sediment from white Apple sauces Sauces made by stewing chopped
winemaking. apples with sugar to form a pulp. Available in
Appetite A natural longing to satisfy bodily needs, canned or bottled form. Used in desserts and as an
particularly, but not exclusively, the recurring desire accompaniment to meat dishes, especially pork.
for food. Appetite is increased in the state of hunger Apple vinegar Vinegar made using apples as the
and decreased during satiety. Appetite for foods, in starting material. Similar to cider vinegar.
general, and for particular foods, may become modi- Apple wines Alternative term for cider.
fied over time. A particularly intense appetite for cer- Apricot jams Jams made from fresh or dried apri-
tain foods occurs during cravings. cots. Used as spreads, as glazes for pies and
Apple brandy Spirits manufactured by distillation cakes, or as confectionery ingredients.
of fermented mashes based on apples. Well known Apricot juices Fruit juices extracted from apricots
apple brandy types include calvados. (Prunus armeniaca).
Apple cider Used in the US to refer to unfermented Apricot kernels Constituents of apricot seeds, rich
apple juices. In the UK, an alternative name for ci- in oils and proteins, but limited in use by the pres-
der. ence of amygdalin (yielding toxic hydrogen cya-
Apple juice concentrates Apple juices which nide (HCN)). Detoxified apricot kernels are used in
have been concentrated. May be diluted to produce the manufacture of bitter almond oils, persipan
normal strength apple juices or used in the manufac- and marzipan substitutes. Also consumed as roasted,
ture of other beverages or foods. salted or dried products in some countries.
Apple juices Fruit juices extracted from apples Apricot nectars Fruit nectars prepared by addition
(Pyrus malus, syn. Malus domestica). Commonly con- of water and/or sugar to apricot juices.
sumed as beverages, but may be fermented to cider or Apricot pulps Soft, succulent flesh from apricots,
used in manufacture of apple brandy. which is used in a range of processed foods, such as
Apple musts Alternative term for apple juices, fruit juices, ice cream and infant foods. Sheets of
especially those to be fermented in manufacture of ci- apricot pulp are dried to make apricot leathers.
der. Apricot purees Flesh of apricots that has been
Apple pectins Pectins obtained from apples. Ap- mashed to a thick, paste-like consistency by various
ple pomaces are one of the main commercial means, such as sieving, mashing or processing in a
sources of pectins. blender. Used in a range of products including infant
Apple peel Outer skins of apples; used as a source of foods, cakes and fruit juices.
apple pectins. Apricots Stone fruits from Prunus armeniaca (syn.
Apple pomaces The solids residue remaining after Armeniaca vulgaris), a tree which originated in ancient
extraction of apple juices or apple musts. China and is now widely cultivated in warm temperate
Apple pulps Soft mass prepared from the flesh of zones. The orange/yellow coloured fruits are utilized in
apples by processes such as slicing, chopping and a similar manner to peaches and are eaten fresh,
mashing. Typically available in dried, frozen or canned canned or dried. The distinctive aroma makes the fruit
forms and used in products such as sauces, infant suitable for manufacture into apricot jams and apri-
foods and desserts. cot juices or for incorporation into flavourings for
products such as ice cream, desserts and infant
Apple purees Thick, smooth preparations made from
foods. Compared with other fruits, apricots have a
cooked, strained apples. Used in products such as in-
high nutritional value, including high amounts of vi-
fant foods and apple sauces.
tamin A, carotenes, proteins, potassium and
Apples One of the most widely grown and economi-
cally important fruits of temperate regions. The com-
Apricot seeds Arachin
Apricot seeds Hard seeds found in the centre of the pentosans. Found associated with the pectic sub-
flesh of apricots. The kernels within the outer casing stances in plant cell walls. Present in fruits and
are utilized as a source of oils and in making a form of fruit juices, and may be used as food additives,
marzipan substitute as well as being eaten roasted, e.g. as bulking agents. Also known as arabans.
salted or dried. Also called apricot stones. -N-Arabinofuranosidases EC 184.108.40.206. These
Apricot wines Fruit wines manufactured by alco- glycosidases hydrolyse terminal, non-reducing -L-
holic fermentation of mashes prepared from ap- arabinofuranoside residues in -L-arabinosides. Re-
ricots (Prunus armeniaca). lease arabinose from -L-arabinofuranosides, -L-
Aquaculture Production of aquatic organisms under arabinans containing (1,3)- and/or (1,5)-linkages, ara-
controlled or semi-controlled conditions; mainly for binoxylans and arabinogalactans. Occur naturally
food purposes. A wide range of aquaculture prod- in plant foods including fruits and cereals, where
ucts, including farmed fish, farmed shellfish, they are involved in the degradation of pectins and
aquatic plants and algae are produced commercially lignocelluloses. Isolates, mainly microbial, are also
across the world. used, e.g. in the production of fruit juices, wines
Aquaculture products Aquatic organisms (such as and bread. Also known as arabinosidases.
fish, shellfish and aquatic plants) produced by Arabinogalactans Polysaccharides in which the
aquaculture for food or industrial purposes. main constituent sugars are arabinose and galac-
Aqualysins Thermostable bacterial proteinases, in tose. Occur in the pectic substances fractions of a
particular aqualysin I (EC 220.127.116.11), an alkaline ser- wide range of plant foods, including fruits, vegeta-
ine endopeptidase secreted by Thermus aquaticus. bles and cereals. May be of importance for the proc-
Aquatic foods Foods derived from aquatic organ- essing properties of plant foods.
isms, including fish, shellfish, aquatic plants and al- Arabinose Monosaccharide of five carbon atoms
gae. (pentoses) found predominantly in plants as a com-
Aquavit Scandinavian spirits, distilled from fer- ponent of complex polysaccharides, such as gums
mented mashes based on grain or potatoes, and and pectins.
commonly flavoured with aromatic seeds and spices. Arabinose isomerases Isomerases which cata-
Also known as akvavit. lyse the conversion of D- or L-isomers of arabinose
Aqueous two phase systems Solvent systems (EC 18.104.22.168 and EC 22.214.171.124, respectively), to the corre-
comprising 2 aqueous polymer solutions or aqueous sponding isomers of ribulose. Also act on fucose,
polymer and salt solutions which are immiscible at cer- galactose and altrose. EC 126.96.36.199 enzymes from bac-
tain concentrations. Used for extraction, purification, teria have been used to catalyse isomerization of D-
concentration, downstream processing, etc. of galactose to D-tagatose, a low-calorie sugar.
biomolecules. Polyethylene glycol is a commonly Arabinosidases Alternative term for -N-
employed polymer with phosphates or sulfates used as arabinofuranosidases.
salts. Other polymers used include dextran, ethylene
Arabinoxylans Polysaccharides in which the main
oxide-propylene oxide co-polymers and surfactants.
constituent sugars are arabinose and xylose. Form
The degree of partitioning of biomolecules between
part of the pentosans fraction in cereals and ce-
the immiscible aqueous solutions is determined by
real products, and may be of importance for techno-
their size, charge and hydrophobicity. Particularly
logical properties in processes such as baking and
suitable for isolation of enzymes and other pro-
teins, since extractions are performed under mild
conditions which do not cause denaturation. Arabitol Polyol synthesized by reduction of arabi-
Arabans Alternative term for arabinans. nose or produced by microbial fermentation of
Arabic bread Flat round bread composed of yeasts-
leavened dough which, when baked, is easily split to Arachidic acid One of the saturated fatty acids
make sandwiches. Also known as pita bread. with 20 carbon atoms. Occurs at low concentrations in
a wide range of fats, oils and tissue lipids.
Arabidopsis Non-commercial genus of the mustard
(Brassicaceae) family of plants. Arabidopsis thaliana Arachidonic acid One of the -6 polyunsaturated
is commonly used as a model for plant research stud- fatty acids with 20 carbon atoms. Widely distributed
ies, including lipid synthesis studies in related Brassica in foods and essential in the human diet.
plants such as oilseed rape. Arachin One of the two major globulins present in
Arabinans Polysaccharides in which the main peanuts, the other being conarachin. As well as
constituent sugar is arabinose, and thus classified as having good nutritional quality, both globulins play an
Arachis oils Aroma concentrates
important role in flavour development during peanut Stems are utilized for starch (sago), while young
processing. buds are consumed as a vegetable. Seed kernels have
Arachis oils Alternative term for groundnut oils. been reported to have potential as a source of vegeta-
Arak Asian spirits which may be manufactured from ble fats.
a range of raw materials, including palm juices, sugar Arenga Genus of palms, some of which are used as a
juices, dates or rice. Also know as arrack. source of edible fruits, palm sugar and palm wines.
Arare Alternative term for rice cakes. Arepas Alternative name used in Colombia for tortil-
las: round, thin unleavened pancakes which are tra-
Arbutin 4-Hydroxyphenyl- -D-glucopyranoside,
chemical formula C12H16O7. Member of the phenols ditionally made with corn flour and baked on a hot
and glucosides chemical classes, and present in surface.
plant foods. Particularly characteristic of pears, and Argemone oils Oils derived from any species of the
used as a marker to detect adulteration with pear genus Argemone (prickly poppies) which are found in
products of more expensive fruit products. Acts as North America and the West Indies.
an inhibitor of tyrosinases, hence purified prepara- Arginine One of the basic amino acids, present in
tions are used as skin whitening agents. Has therapeu- most food proteins and essential in the human diet.
tic use as a diuretic. Arkshells A group of bivalve molluscs similar to
Arbutus berries Fruits of the Mediterranean shrub cockles. Edible species include Scapharca subcre-
Arbutus unedo, also known as strawberry tree nata, Arca noae and Anadara broughtoni.
fruits or madrona fruits. The bitter-tasting red ber- Armagnac A high-quality brandy manufactured in a
ries are rarely eaten fresh, but are used in a range of specified region of the Gers district in southwest
fruit products, including jellies, jams and wines. France.
Also used to make liqueurs in France and Portugal. Armillaria Genus of mainly lignicolous fungi belong-
Archaea Group of prokaryotes first identified in the ing to the family Agaricales and once called Armil-
1970s which are taxonomically distinct from bacte- lariella. Species include the edible fungi Armillaria
ria. These microorganisms are morphologically mellea, also known as the honey fungus, bootlace fun-
similar to bacteria, but genetically very different. In- gus and shoestring fungus.
cludes methanogens and species isolated from extreme Armillariella Former name for the genus of fungi
environments, such as halophiles, thermophiles Armillaria which includes edible species.
and psychrophiles. Pyrococcus, Sulfolobus and Army rations Foods intended for use by soldiers.
Thermococcus are all genera of archaea. Enzymes Various categories are available for use in different
from archaea can show excellent stability under harsh scenarios. The foods are packaged so that they are
conditions and are therefore of use in biotechnology compact and light, and so that they have a long shelf
and food processing applications. life (at least 6 months at 38 C, 3 years or more at
Arcobacter Genus of microaerophilic, rod-shaped 27 C). Canned foods and dried foods are com-
Gram negative bacteria of the family Campylobac- mon. All rations, with the exception of restricted ra-
teraceae. Occur in the reproductive and intestinal tracts tions which are intended only for short term use, must
of animals and humans. Some species are pathogenic, meet military RDA for nutrients.
e.g. Arcobacter butzleri which frequently contaminates Arochlor Commercial name for a range of poly-
raw chicken meat. Raw milk is also a source of in- chlorinated biphenyls (PCB) which occur as con-
fections. taminants in foods.
Arctic char A salmonid fish (Salvelinus alpinus) Aroma Physiological sensation, also known as smell,
from northern Europe and North America which oc- that results from stimulation of olfactory receptors in
curs in fresh and marine water; some forms are land- the nasal mucosae and the interpretation of this infor-
locked, spending their whole lives in freshwater, while mation by a specialized area of the cerebral cortex.
highly migratory forms spend most of their lives at sea. Food aroma, which is generated by release of volatile
Flesh flavour is highly regarded. Marketed fresh, aroma compounds from the food, makes a marked
smoked, canned and frozen. contribution to overall flavour.
Areca Any of various Asiatic palm trees of the genus Aroma compounds Volatile compounds that are
Areca, including A. catechu, the source of betel nuts. present in foods and contribute towards aroma.
Areca nuts Alternative term for betel nuts. Aroma concentrates Concentrates typically ob-
Arecastrum Genus of palms which includes Arecas- tained by extracting and/or concentrating volatile
trum romanzoffianum (syn. Syagrus romanzoffi- compounds from a source material, e.g. fruit
anum), also known as queen palm or pindo palm. juices, coffee or butter. Can be used as flavour-
Aromatic compounds Artichokes
ings in various foods or to restore aroma lost during Arrowroot Starch obtained from rhizomes of Ma-
processing. Other methods of producing aroma con- ranta arundinacea, a West Indian plant. Neutral in
centrates include fermentation and enzymic modifi- flavour and easily digestible, it is used as a thickener
cation (e.g. for cheese flavour concentrates). in invalid diets, and also in fruit sauces, pie fillings
Aromatic compounds Organic compounds and desserts, where it imparts a clear finish. Can also
characterized by a cyclic, conjugated structure, such as refer to starch obtained from roots or rhizomes of sev-
occurs in benzene. Some aromatic compounds, such eral other tropical plants.
as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Arrowtooth flounder A relatively under-exploited
may occur as toxic or carcinogenic contaminants in flatfish species (Atheresthes stomias) occuring in
foods. Also refers, more generally, to flavour com- north to mid-Pacific waters. Flesh texture is less firm
pounds or aroma compounds present in foods than that of most other flatfish, due to presence of a
and beverages. cysteine proteinase in flesh; this species therefore has a
Aromatization Procedure for increasing the aroma low market value compared with other flatfish. Mar-
of a food or beverage. Strategies include the addition keted in fillet form; also frozen into blocks and proc-
of aroma compounds to the product or container, essed into portions.
and the facilitation of aroma compound release through Arsenates Toxic salts of arsenic acid, which may
chemical or mechanical means. Also refers to the occur as contaminants, especially in drinking wa-
chemical conversion of non-aromatic compounds into ter.
aromatic compounds. Arsenic Toxic element which may occur as a con-
Aromatized wines Wines, often fortified wines, taminant in a range of substances, including water and
which have been flavoured with herbs, spices or sea foods. Chemical symbol As.
other plant-derived ingredients.
Arsenicals Molecules or compounds which contain
Aromatizing agents Alternative term for flavour- arsenic atoms or ions. Includes organic and inorganic
ings. arsenic species. Potentially toxic contaminants of
Aroma volatiles Alternative term for aroma com- foods, particularly sea foods and water.
pounds. Arsenobetaine Organic arsenic species, major form
Aronia Genus of plants of the family Rosaceae. Violet- of arsenic found in sea foods and other biological
black berries produced by Aronia melanocarpa, also materials. Chemical formula C5H11AsO2. Has rela-
known as black chokeberries, contain high amounts tively low toxicity.
of anthocyanins, folic acid and minerals, and are
Artemisia Genus of plants used as the source of
believed to possess health giving properties. Used as a
spices. Includes davana (Artemisia pallensis), tar-
source of juices and in the production of natural food
ragon (A. dracunculus), wormwood (A. absinthium)
colorants. May also be used to impart colour and
and mugwort (A. vulgaris).
flavour to other beverages, dairy products, con-
fectionery and snack foods. Arthritis Inflammation of one or more joints result-
ing in swelling, redness and pain. A range of condi-
Arracacha Common name for Arracacia xanthor-
tions that includes rheumatoid, autoimmune, infectious
rhiza, a member of the umbellifer family, which is
and osteoarthritides. Increased risk for certain arthriti-
grown in South and Central America, primarily for its
des has been linked with dietary and nutritional factors,
large, starchy, edible roots, which resemble carrots or
including poor nutrition and consumption of meat,
parsnips in appearance. Roots, which are also known
fried foods and fats. Oils rich in -3 fatty acids,
as Peruvian carrots or Peruvian parsnips, are cooked
such as fish oils, borage oils and evening prim-
and consumed as a vegetable or processed into a vari-
rose oils, vegetarian diets and nutrients with anti-
ety of products including infant foods, soups,
oxidative activity have been associated with symp-
bakery products and alcoholic beverages, such
as chicha. The young stems can be used in salads
and have similar characteristics to celery. Arthrobacter Genus of obligately aerobic Gram
Arrack Alternative term for arak. positive bacteria of the family Micrococcaceae
which occur in soil. Some species, including A. nico-
Arrowhead Common name for Sagittaria sagittifolia,
tianae, may be used as cheese starters in the pro-
a perennial herb with arrowhead-shaped leaves which
duction of smear cheese. Other species may be used
grows in ponds, rice fields and swamps in parts of
in the production of industrial enzymes.
South-East Asia. The starchy roots (corms) are peeled,
sliced and cooked in stews or fried. Widely cultivated Artichokes Term generally applied to the edible buds
in China and Japan. from Cynara scolymus (globe artichokes). May also
refer to the edible tubers from Helianthus tuberosus
Artificial colorants Ascorbic acid
(Jerusalem artichokes), Stachys sieboldii (Japa- Asafoetida Bitter, strong smelling resin extracted
nese artichokes) and S. affinis (Chinese artichokes). from the roots of the umbelliferous plant Ferula
Artificial colorants Colorants which have been foetida. The pungent garlic-like aroma and flavour
manufactured synthetically, as opposed to those ex- are due to the presence of sulfur compounds. Used in
tracted from natural sources (natural colorants). spices for Asian foods, pickles and Worcester-
Tend to be less expensive and have better colour in- shire sauces.
tensity, uniformity and stability than natural colorants. Asbestos Fibrous magnesium calcium silicates, which
Examples include azo dyes and FDC colours. may be used for thermal insulation or in filter aids.
Artificial flavourings Flavourings which contain Some types are carcinogenic. Asbestos fibres may oc-
one or more artificial components not yet identified in cur as contaminants in substances such as water.
a natural material. Synthetic flavourings containing the Ascidians Small marine filter feeding organisms
same chemicals as those found in a natural product are which are primitive chordates of the class Ascidiacea
known as nature-identical. Synthetic flavourings are and are widely distributed around the seas of the
usually less expensive than natural flavourings, and world. Also known as sea squirts. Benthic non-
less likely to vary in quality, availability and process- motile organisms, often attached to outer surfaces of
ing stability. boats, jetties and oil rigs. Some species are utilized as
Artificial foods Alternative term for simulated sea foods, particularly Halocynthia roretzi, Styela
foods. clava and S. plicata.
Artificial neural networks Systems of computer Ascochyta Genus of fungi of the subphylum Pe-
programs and data structures which are modelled on zizomycotina and phylum Ascomycota. Species cause
the human nervous system and brain. Incorporate large diseases in many crops, including grasses, pulses
numbers of processors operating in parallel, each with (e.g. chick peas, beans) and cereals.
an individual sphere of knowledge which has been fed Ascomycetes Former term for a large class of fungi
into it along with rules about relationships. Networks containing approximately 2000 genera. Still commonly
can use this information to recognize patterns in large used to describe members of the subdivision Ascomy-
amounts of data. Used in the food industry in model- cotina. Typically terrestrial saprotrophs or parasites.
ling of processes and predicting the behaviour of foods Includes most yeasts, the edible morels (Morchella)
under specific conditions. Also known as neural and truffles (Tuber), the cup fungi, the powdery mil-
networks. dews, the black mildews and the sooty moulds.
Artificial sweeteners Synthetic non-nutritive Ascorbases Alternative term for L-ascorbate oxi-
sweeteners, also known as high-intensity sweeten- dases.
ers, usually many times sweeter than sucrose. Exam-
ples include aspartame, saccharin, sucralose, Ascorbate oxidases Alternative term for L-
acesulfame K and alitame. Widespread applications ascorbate oxidases.
include low calorie foods, soft drinks and sugar L-Ascorbate oxidases EC 188.8.131.52. Enzymes
free foods. which oxidize ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic
Arxula adeninivorans Species of thermotolerant acid. These oxidases can be used to determine the
yeasts of the class Saccharomycetes. Used in bio- levels of vitamin C in foods and beverages, and as
technology applications for the production of en- part of an antioxidant protection system for food
zymes such as lipases and glucan 1,4- - preservation.
glucosidases. Ascorbates Salts of ascorbic acid, including so-
Aryl-alcohol oxidases EC 184.108.40.206. Oxidases which dium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate, which can
catalyse the oxidation of primary alcohols with aro- be used as food additives. Food uses include as an-
matic rings to form aromatic aldehydes, including tioxidants in products such as meat products, as
some aroma compounds and flavour com- browning inhibitors for fruits and vegetables,
pounds, such as benzaldehyde, and hydrogen and as bakery additives.
peroxide. Involved in lignin degradation by white Ascorbic acid Synonym for vitamin C, an antioxi-
rot fungi. dant nutrient present in a wide range of foods. Neces-
Arzua cheese Spanish semi-soft cheese made from sary for growth of bones and teeth, for maintenance of
pasteurized cow milk. Elastic fine rind and creamy blood vessel walls and subcutaneous tissues, and for
body. Eaten as a dessert with honey, as a sandwich fill- wound healing; dietary deficiency results in scurvy.
ing or in cooking. Used for the fortification of foods, and as food ad-
As Chemical symbol for arsenic. ditives, including as bakery additives, browning
inhibitors in cut fruits, curing agents in meat
Ascorbyl palmitate Aspartate transaminases
processing, and as stabilizers in beverages such as Asparaginases EC 220.127.116.11. Hydrolases which cata-
beer. lyse the conversion of L-asparagine to L-aspartic
Ascorbyl palmitate One of the fatty acid esters acid and ammonia. Involved in metabolism of
that are used as food antioxidants. Formed by es- amino acids in vivo. Potentially useful for reducing
terification of ascorbic acid and palmitic acid. the acrylamide content of cooked foods, through re-
Particular applications include in oils and meat moval of asparagine which is a precursor of this toxin.
products. Asparagine One of the non-essential amino acids,
occurring in most food proteins.
Aseptic packaging Packaging technique in which an
aseptic product is placed into an aseptic container in an Asparagus Lilaceous plants of the genus Asparagus,
aseptic environment. The sealed container is designed particularly A. officinalis, which is widely cultivated in
to maintain aseptic conditions until the seal is broken. Europe and the USA for its edible young shoots
Used to enhance shelf life of foods, e.g. fruit juices. (spears). Lightly cooked asparagus spears are regarded
Advantages over conventional sterilization tech- as a luxury vegetable and can be eaten hot or cold.
niques include high product quality, optimization of They are also widely used in soups.
sterilization, minimum energy consumption and low Asparagus beans Common name for seeds pro-
production costs. Aseptic packaging is not suitable for duced by Vigna sesquipedalis. Long thin legumes
use with products containing large particles, and shelf that resemble string beans, but which are actually
life stability is shorter than for sterilized foods. related to cowpeas. Flavour is similar to that of
Aseptic processing High-temperature, short-time string beans and has also been likened to that of as-
process which results in products with improved tex- paragus. Also known as sitao, Chinese long beans or
ture, colour, flavour and nutritional values com- yard-long beans due to their ability to grow up to 3 feet
pared with conventional canning. This technology in length. Asparagus beans are picked before reaching
involves filling of pre-sterilized containers with a this stage and used in salads or stir-fries. Young
commercially sterile cooled product, followed by asep- leaves and stems are steamed and consumed as vege-
tic hermetic sealing with a pre-sterilized closure in an tables.
atmosphere free of microorganisms. Asparagus peas Common name for Lotus tetra-
Ash Mineral content of foods, determined by combus- gonolobus, a southern European plant, occasionally
tion of the sample under defined conditions and weigh- grown for its edible pods, which are harvested before
ing of the residue. maturity and consumed as a vegetable (usually
Ashbya gossypii Species of filamentous fungi of
Aspartame One of the low calorie artificial sweet-
the class Saccharomycetes. Used in biotechnology
eners (chemical name aspartyl phenylalanine methyl
applications for the production of riboflavin using
ester; trade names NutraSweet and Canderel). A
vegetable oils as a carbon source.
dipeptide (aspartic acid and phenylalanine) ester,
Asiago cheese Unpasteurized Italian hard cheese approximately 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose.
originally made from ewe milk, but now made en- Non-cariogenic and without an aftertaste. Loses
tirely from cow milk. Two types of Asiago are made, sweetness on prolonged storage and exposure to heat
i.e. a lightly pressed cheese made from whole milk (unsuitable for baking). Safe for diabetics, but not for
and matured for 20-30 days (Asiago Pressato individuals with phenylketonuria as phenylalanine
cheese) and a mature cheese made with skim milk is released during metabolism of aspartame. An ingre-
(Asiago d'Allevo). An intense flavour develops in dient of many foods and beverages sold worldwide,
cheese matured for 2 years. and commonly used in diet soft drinks and sugar-free
Asiago Pressato cheese Type of Asiago cheese chewing gums. Often blended with acesulfame K
that is mild and delicately flavoured. Interior of this to give a more sugar-like taste and to increase potency.
fresh cheese is white with a hint of straw colouring. Aspartate aminotransferases Alternative term for
Asian pears Pears produced by Pyrus pyrifolia and aspartate transaminases.
P. serotina. Grown extensively in Asia, particularly Aspartate transaminases EC 18.104.22.168. Also known
Japan, China and Korea, and currently gaining popu- as aspartate aminotransferases. One of the trans-
larity in the West, partly because of their distinctive ferases, this enzyme catalyses the reaction of the
crisp texture, which remains unchanged after picking amino acid L-aspartic acid with 2-oxoglutaric acid to
and long-term cold storage. Frequently called apple produce oxaloacetic acid and L-glutamic acid.
pears due to their crisp, juicy qualities, they are also Also acts on the aromatic amino acids L-tyrosine,
known as Oriental pears or Japanese pears. L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan. Raised plasma
Aspartic acid Atlantic salmon
levels of these enzymes are indicative of hepatic dam- gers include sulfites and sulfiting agents found in a
age, and thus may be measured to investigate the range of foods, and known food allergens.
hepatotoxicity of a substance.
Astringency A sensation of dryness in the mouth
Aspartic acid One of the non-essential amino ac- combined with roughening of the oral epithelium and
ids, occurring in most food proteins. puckering of the muscles of the face and cheeks. It is
Aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester Systematic induced by foods containing chemicals such as tan-
name for aspartame. nins and other polyphenols, acids and aluminium
salts. Sensory perception of astringency has been at-
Aspergillic acid Antifungal compound produced by
tributed to binding of tannins to salivary proteins.
Aspergillus Genus of fungi of the class Hyphomy- Astrocaryum Genus of palms including Astro-
cetes. Some species can cause food spoilage (e.g. As- caryum vulgare which, along with other palms, is a
pergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. niger). Many source of tucuma oils and edible fruits.
species produce mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, Atherosclerosis A pathological process resulting in
cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins, patulin). Cer- thickening and hardening of the walls of medium and
tain species are used in production of industrial en- large arteries due to formation of atherosclerotic
zymes (e.g. synthesis of amylases, catalases, plaques. Cardiovascular diseases produced by oc-
proteinases and lipases by A. niger). Also involved clusion of the affected arteries can be of gradual onset
in production of fermented foods (e.g. manufacture (angina, peripheral vascular disease) or sudden onset
of koji, miso, sake and soy sauces by A. oryzae) (stroke, myocardial infarction). Rate of develop-
and other agents for the food industry (e.g. citric acid ment of atherosclerosis is affected by many factors in-
and gluconic acid production by A. niger). cluding lifestyle and diet.
Aspic Savoury clear jelly made from meat or fish Athletes Persons who participate in sporting events,
stocks, often made with gelatin. Used as a setting especially those performed in competitive contexts. A
gel or for glazes on foods such as meat and vegetables. variety of sports foods, sports drinks and sports
Also available in powdered form. supplements are available to athletes which claim to
Aspirators Instruments or equipment for drawing enhance exercise performance or to improve re-
fluids by suction from vessels or cavities. covery after physical activity.
Ass milk Milk obtained from asses. Close in composi- Atlantic halibut Marine flatfish species (Hippoglos-
tion to human milk. sus hippoglossus) of the family Pleuronectidae that is
Astacene Pigments fraction of the carotenoids native to the northern Atlantic ocean, but endangered
group, derived from astaxanthin. Occurs in crusta- due to overfishing. Aquaculture means the fish is
cea and may be extracted from wastes generated by still available for food use. When cooked, the firm,
processing sea foods such as shrimps. tender flesh flakes easily and has a mild flavour.
Whole fish, fish fillets and fish steaks are available in
Astaxanthin Pigments fraction of the carotenoids
both fresh and frozen forms.
group, occurring naturally in certain crustacea, fish
(e.g. salmon and trout), microalgae and yeasts. Atlantic mackerel Commercially important pelagic
Used as a feed additive in aquaculture and fed to marine fish species (Scomber scombrus) which oc-
laying chickens to improve the pigmentation of curs abundantly in cold and temperate coastal waters,
egg yolks. One of several colorants listed as food often forming large shoals near the surface. Flesh is
dyes within the E number system operated in Europe firm and fatty with a distinctive savoury flavour. The
(E161j) and also marketed in nutraceutical products. species is marketed in fresh, frozen, smoked and
Exhibits good radical scavenging activity and po- canned forms and is popularly consumed fried, grilled
tential health benefits. or baked.
Asthma A breathing disorder that results from spasm Atlantic salmon A well known freshwater
of the muscles surrounding the airways of the lungs fish/marine fish species (Salmo salar) of high com-
(bronchospasm) that is generally reversible. Narrowed mercial importance; indigenous to geographical areas
airways cause shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing linked to the Atlantic ocean but also cultured in other
and congestion. Atopic (allergic) asthma is most com- areas. World Atlantic salmon production is more than
mon and can be associated with food allergies. A half a million tonnes per year. Flesh has a highly val-
wide range of asthma triggers have been identified, in- ued flavour. It is marketed and consumed in a wide
cluding environmental pollutants, drugs, cold air and range of forms, including fresh, frozen, smoked and
exercise. Asthma triggered by foods is rare; food trig- canned products.
Atomic absorption spectrophotometry Autolysis
Atomic absorption spectrophotometry Alterna- saka and curries. Also known as egg plants in North
tive term for atomic absorption spectroscopy. America and brinjal in India and Africa.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy Technique in Aureobasidium Genus of yeast-like fungi of the
which the mineral composition of a sample is deter- family Dothioraceae, which occur in fruits, vegeta-
mined from the absorption of light by atoms. A mono- bles and sea foods. A. pullulans may be used as a
chromatic source of light at a specific absorption postharvest biocontrol agent in fruits to inhibit
wavelength is passed through the sample following at- spoilage fungi, as well as for the industrial produc-
omization by various means. Often abbreviated to tion of pullulan and various enzymes including pul-
Atomic emission spectroscopy Technique in Auricularia Genus of fungi of the class Agaricomy-
which the mineral composition of a sample is deter- cetes. Includes edible species, e.g. Auricularia auri-
mined from the emission of light from excited atoms at cula-judae (wood ear fungus) and A. polytricha (cloud
wavelengths characteristic of the atoms. ear fungus) which grow on dead wood and are popular
Atomic force microscopy Imaging technique in in Asian cusine.
which the surface of the sample is scanned using a Austamide Tremorigenic mycotoxins produced by
small tip to construct a 3-dimensional image. The tip Aspergillus ustus. One of the indole alkaloids.
may be in contact with or just above the surface. Mo- Australian chestnuts Seeds produced by the tree,
lecular forces exerted against the tip by the surface are Castanospermum australe. Also known as Moreton
used by image processing software to give infor- Bay chestnuts or blackbeans. Poisonous when fresh,
mation about the surface. but can be consumed after roasting to remove tox-
Atomizers Devices that convert a substance into very ins. Common to some parts of Australia, where they
fine particles or droplets. are consumed by aborigines. Contain castanospermine,
ATP Abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate. an antiviral which has been investigated for possible
use in AIDS therapy.
ATPases Include EC 22.214.171.124 and members of EC 3.6.3
and EC 3.6.4. Hydrolases which catalyse the hy- Authenticity The genuineness of foods and beverages;
drolysis of ATP to ADP as a fundamental energy- can be with respect to various factors, such as ingredi-
producing reaction in all living organisms. Can be used ent content, processing methods and geographical ori-
to assess denaturation of proteins in meat and gin. For certain foods and beverages, labelling schemes
fish during storage. In microorganisms, these en- have been implemented to indicate authenticity. A
zymes are widely measured in metabolic studies, and range of methods is used to test authenticity depending
are involved in acids resistance and tolerance to on the potential method of adulteration.
ethanol. Autoclaves Strong containers employed in processes
using high pressures and temperatures, e.g. steam
Atrazine Selective systemic triazine herbicide used for
pre- and post-emergent control of annual grasses and
broad-leaved weeds in a range of cereals (particularly Autofluorescence Natural fluorescence emitted
corn and sorghum), fruits, vegetables, coffee, by substances, including many biomolecules. Can be
oil palms and sugar cane. Often used in combina- exploited in development of analytical techniques
tion with other herbicides. Classified by WHO as for their detection. However, can also be a problem
unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use. when labelling biomolecules or cells with fluorescent
probes, e.g. in fluorescence microscopy, since it
Atta Indian wholemeal wheat flour used in prepara-
increases background fluorescence.
tion of Indian bread.
Autolysins Endogeneous enzymes found in cell
Attalea Genus of palms, including Attalea colenda
walls which can hydrolyse certain structural cell com-
and A. cohune, used as a source of palm oils.
ponents (e.g. peptidoglycans in bacteria) to bring
Attieke A traditional product of the Ivory Coast made about autolysis.
by fermentation and steam-cooking of cassava
Autolysis Process by which the structural components
of cells are degraded by their autolysins. Usually oc-
Aubergines Egg-shaped fruits of Solanum melon- curs after the cells have experienced a traumatic event
gena, a native plant of tropical Asia, but now culti- such as injury or death. May result in the release of in-
vated widely in tropical and warm temperate regions. tracellular enzymes from cells, which may play an im-
Fruits are usually black or dark purple in colour, al- portant role in cheese ripening. Can be responsible
though green, creamy white or yellow varieties are also for inactive cultures or for sensory defects (by auto-
available. Consumed as a vegetable, typically fried or lytic products) in wines and beer.
stuffed, or used as an ingredient in ratatouille, mous-
Autoxidation An autocatalytic oxidation reaction avocado oils. Fruits do not ripen if left on the tree
that occurs spontaneously in the atmosphere. Initiators and are usually treated with ethylene in ripening
include heat and light. Unsaturated fatty acids rooms to ensure uniform maturation.
present in foods are susceptible to autoxidation when Avoparcin Narrow-spectrum glycopeptide antibiot-
exposed to the air, with the reaction proceeding by a ics active against Gram positive bacteria. Used in
free-radical mechanism. The reaction may result in the past for growth-promoting purposes (improves ab-
production of stable nonpropagating products that con- sorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract) in
tribute to off flavour. In addition, radicals produced chickens, turkeys, swine and calves. Remains
by autoxidation may cause bleaching of food colour virtually unabsorbed within the gastrointestinal tract
and destruction of vitamin A, vitamin C and vita- and is rapidly eliminated in the form of the parent
min E. This type of deterioration is prevalent in fried compound; no withdrawal period is required. Banned
snack foods, nuts, oils and margarines. for use as a feed additive across Europe during 1997,
Auxins Plant growth regulators important for and subsequently in many other countries. This fol-
ripening and quality of fruits. lowed concerns that continued use of avoparcin in
Availability The extent to which dietary nutrients are food-producing animals may lead to acquired bacterial
present in a form that can be absorbed and utilized. resistance development in the gut of the animals and
Similarly, bioavailability. pose a possible threat to human health by being a con-
Avenanthramides Phenols unique to oats that tributing factor to the emergence of vancomycin re-
possess antioxidative activity. N-Cinnamoyl deriva- sistant enterococci.
tives of anthranilic acid or hydroxyanthranilic acid. aw The symbol for water activity, which is a measure
Avenasterol Sterols fraction which occurs in the of the water vapour generated by the moisture pre-
unsaponifiable fraction of many vegetable oils. In sent in a hygroscopic product. It is defined as the ratio
combination with other sterols, avenasterol concentra- of the partial pressure of water vapour to the partial
tion may be used as an index for identification and for pressure of water vapour above pure water at the same
monitoring the authenticity of vegetable oils sam- temperature. In foods, it represents water not bound to
ples. food molecules. Level of unbound water has marked
effects on the chemical, microbiological and enzymic
Avenins Glutelins present in oats; the major stor-
stability of foods.
age proteins of this cereal.
Awamori Rice-derived spirits originating in the
Avermectins Insecticides and acaricides which
Okinawa region of Japan.
may be used for control of pests on plants and para-
sites on animals. May occur as contaminant residues Ayu A fish species (Plecoglossus altivelis) distributed
in foods. in western North Pacific waters that regularly migrates
Avian flu Also known as bird flu or avian influenza. between the sea and freshwater; some forms remain in
Caused by the Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus. Pri- lakes and rivers for long periods. Ayu are cultured in
marily affects poultry, but can be spread by wild several Asian countries and their flesh flavour is
birds. First human cases seen in Hong Kong in 1997, highly regarded. Usually marketed fresh and consumed
due to close contact with infected birds. Not thought to fresh, fried and grilled.
represent a food safety risk, as long as proper han- Azaperone Sedative drug used primarily to reduce
dling, cooking and general hygiene procedures are stress in swine prior to and during transportation. Fre-
observed. However, can cause severe economic prob- quently administered to animals a few hours prior to
lems for poultry producers. slaughter; a high level of active residues in edible
Avidin Glycoproteins fraction which occurs in egg tissues is a potential hazard to consumers. Also known
whites and binds biotin. as Stresnil.
Avocado oils Unsaturated oils rich in oleic acid Azaspiracids Group of toxins produced by marine
derived from the pulp of avocados (Persea ameri- algae. Cause food poisoning in people eating con-
cana). taminated shellfish, especially mussels.
Avocados Common name for Persea americana, also Azinphos-ethyl Non-systemic insecticide and acari-
known as alligator pears. A pear-shaped fruit with a cide used for control of chewing and sucking insects
leathery green or black skin enclosing yellow to orange and spider mites on fruit trees, vegetables, cereals and
flesh and a single pit. Compared with other fruits, avo- coffee plants. Classified by WHO as highly hazardous
cados have high protein and oil contents. Traditionally (WHO Ib).
marketed fresh and used like a vegetable, they can also Azinphos-methyl Non-systemic organophosphorus
be processed into guacamole or used as a source of insecticide used for control of chewing and sucking
insects on fruit trees, vegetables, cereals, nuts, amaranth, tartrazine, Sunset Yellow and Car-
sugar cane and coffee plants. Classified by WHO moisine.
as highly hazardous (WHO Ib). Also known as Azotobacter Genus of aerobic, rod-shaped Gram
guthion. negative bacteria of the family Pseudomonadaceae.
Occur in soil and water. Capable of nitrogen fixation,
Azodicarbonamide Oxidizing bakery additives thereby converting atmospheric nitrogen into a chemi-
used to age and bleach cereal flour, and to condition cal form which is usable by plants. Azotobacter vine-
dough for breadmaking. landii is used to produce alginates.
Azodrin Alternative term for the insecticide Azoxystrobin A translaminar systemic and protectant
monocrotophos. member of the strobilurin class of fungicides. Active
against a broad spectrum of fungi and used on a wide
Azo dyes Series of artificial colorants containing at range of crops. Classified by WHO as unlikely to
least 1 chromophoric azo group. Examples include present acute hazard in normal use.