Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations by pcu17276

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									Developing and Delivering
 Effective Presentations


    Participant Guide




                      Sponsored by:
   The Pennsylvania & Ohio Public Health Training Center
Tips to Remember…
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations         Introduction


Table of Contents

                                        Topic               Page
    Introduction                                              3

    Define the Situation                                      7

       • Determine Presentation Purpose                       7
       • Identify Your Audience                               8
       • Timeframe                                            9
       • Delivery Medium                                      10

    Design the Presentation                                   12

       • Crafting Your “Story Line”: Generating Content       14
       • Write the Introduction                               20
       • Plan the Ending                                      21
       • Use of Visual Aids                                   25

    Deliver the Presentation                                  31

       • Physical Presence                                    31
       • Managing Presentation Stress                         39




Participant Guide                     January 24, 2008         Page 1
Introduction                                           Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




                       Ice Breaker
                        Getting to Know You…

                          Introduce yourself:
                          • name
                          • where you work

                          Share:
                          • your favorite hobby
                          • your least favorite movie and why
                          • your most memorable work experience



---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                        Our Greatest Fears


                        1.    _____________________________
                        2.    _____________________________
                        3.    _____________________________
                        4.    _____________________________
                        5.    _____________________________


                             from: The Book of Lists , by Wallace and Wallechinski




Page 2                                          January 24, 2008                               Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                                    Introduction


                                      Introduction
Welcome

                 Welcome to Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations. In this
                 course you will learn techniques to design an effective presentation and
                 deliver it with confidence.

                 Since simply absorbing content from a manual is not the best way to learn to
                 give effective presentations, you will have opportunities to sharpen your
                 presentation design and delivery skills.


                 An ice breaker is a good way to start any get-together, whether it’s a meeting,
                 a training session, or something else. It:
                     • puts people at ease.
                     • uncovers some of the differences that people bring to the table.
                 You may be surprised to find that you have some interesting things in
                 common with your fellow participants!




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                     Page 3
Introduction                   Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




                   Serve Your Customer




               Content                      Delivery




Page 4                   January 24, 2008                     Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                                   Introduction


Session Structure

                 Session Objectives: Upon completion of this session, you will be able to:
                 • Organize content for greatest impact,
                 • Create supporting visuals that enhance your presentations,
                 • Project a professional message, and
                 • Utilize effective presentation delivery techniques



                 Session Modules:
                  1. Define the Situation
                  2. Design Your Presentation
                  3. Deliver Your Presentation




                 A common assumption is that outstanding presenters have dynamic
                 personalities, and many of them do. But there is far more to presenting than
                 personality traits. Outstanding presentations begin with solid preparation and
                 practice.


Serve Your       When preparing for a presentation, think about your audience as a valued
Customer         customer. Since the audience is your customer, you need to create a
                 presentation that strikes a balance between the message content and the
                 delivery.

                 If you think of delivering an effective presentation and serving your
                 customer, it really comes down to a balance between the content (what you
                 present) and the skills you employ in your delivery (how you present it).

                 A strong message poorly delivered, or even the strong delivery of a weak
                 message is an ineffective use of your time as well as your audience’s.




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                  Page 5
Define the Situation                           Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




                                  Know Your Purpose

                       Alice       “Will you tell me, please, which way I
                                    ought to go from here?
                       Cheshire    “That depends a good deal on
                       Cat          where you want to get to.”
                       Alice       “I don’t much care.”
                       Cheshire    “Then it doesn’t matter which way
                       Cat          you go.”

                                         Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland




Page 6                                   January 24, 2008                     Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                             Define the Situation


                                Define the Situation
Why Are You Giving the Presentation?

                 This module addresses the main purpose of giving a presentation. It also
                 discusses your audience and factors you should consider when designing your
                 presentation. Lastly it addresses how you can better prepare by knowing how
                 much time you have and the delivery medium you will use.

                 Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:
                 • Specify what you want the audience to Do, Know, or Feel,
                 • Complete an audience analysis so content can be adapted accordingly, and
                 • Identify the medium required to deliver your presentation


Know your        The very first thing you must ask yourself before giving any presentation is:
Purpose
                                      Why Are You Giving This Presentation?
                 One of the keys to delivering an effective presentation is to know your
                 purpose. You need to be clear about your purpose. Case in point, this
                 dialogue that occurs between Alice and the Cheshire Cat in Alice in
                 Wonderland.

                 Do you know what your purpose is? If you don’t, how do you expect your
                 audience to know?

                 Your audience may not be as interested in listening to your presentation as
                 you are in giving it. They may:
                 • _____________________________________________________________
                 • _____________________________________________________________
                 • _____________________________________________________________



Specify Your     Decide before you develop your presentation what you expect from your
Objective        audience. What do you want the audience to:
                 • Do
                 • Know
                 • Feel




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                    Page 7
Define the Situation                             Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Who Is Your Audience?

Analyze Your      It’s amazing how many presenters stand up and talk about their project, their
Audience          ideas, their product, as if what is of interest to them is also of interest to their
                  audience. Several key questions you must consider about your audience are:
                  • Who is your audience?
                  • How familiar are they with the material?
                  • What is their interest level?
                  • What’s at stake? (Gain or Loss?)
                  • What will their attitudes be?
                  • What questions will they have?


                  In addition to analyzing your audience, you need to be aware that they are not
                  always listening to you. A study by the American Psychological Association
                  revealed these listener activities:

                  Are They Listening?

                  ______%         Actively Listening

                  ______%         Looking Ahead

                  ______%         Reminiscing

                  ______%         Other Thoughts


                  It’s also important to note that individuals perceive the world around them
                  according to their own belief system. No two individuals are alike because
                  what each person sees, hears, and thinks is the result of that individual’s
                  belief system.

                  We listen and perceive through our own filters and experiences.




Page 8                                   January 24, 2008                           Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                            Define the Situation


How Much Time do You Have?

Define the       When the participants assemble for your presentation, you can be sure that at
Scope            least one person is thinking…
                                        How long is this going to take?
                 That’s not personal – that’s human nature. The amount of time you have has
                 a significant effect on what you can and cannot accomplish. Because
                 participants only retain limited amounts of information, limit the number of
                 main points regardless of the timeframe you have been given. There are a
                 few other factors that affect your ability to meet your goals.


Allotted Time    You may be the person who decides how much time you are allotted. More
                 likely, someone else determines the amount of time for you to deliver your
                 message.
                            You owe it to the participants to begin and end on time.
                 What if the time allotted is insufficient? To manage the situation, and time:
                 • Settle for a less ambitious but more realistic objective
                 • Prioritize what you must present
                 • Provide an introductory handout a few days in advance
                 • Inform audience they will receive additional information in a handout at
                   the end of the presentation
                 • Make an agreement with the audience


                 Make an agreement with the audience when it is clear that you cannot finish
                 on time without leaving many individuals in the room feeling incomplete.
                 Offer to allow those who have other commitments to leave. For those that
                 remain, offer to stay and answer their questions as your time allows.


                 The time of day you give your presentation has a significant impact on the
Time of Day /    audience. Another consideration is the day of the week. Some days of the
Day of Week      week are more challenging to presenters than others.



                 No one will ever complain if your presentation takes less time than scheduled.
End Early        Someone will complain – and rightfully so – if you take longer than what was
                 communicated.




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                   Page 9
Define the Situation                          Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


What Delivery Medium Should You Use?

                  The medium is the method you use to deliver your message.
You!
                  The most basic option is – you. You and your voice can be the sole source to
                  deliver your message. Depending on the situation and the audience size, this
                  may be the most appropriate choice. Developing your delivery skills will be
                  discussed later in this session. The other medium choices can be classified as
                  low-tech and high-tech.


                  A low-tech medium is one that typically does not require a computer:
Low Tech          • Handouts
                  • Easels or Flip charts
                  • Overhead Transparencies
                  • Videos
                  • Props
                  Low-tech media can be used effectively when working with a small group or
                  when individuals need something in their hands to guide them through your
                  presentation.



                  High tech mediums likely use a computer to deliver or control the
High Tech         presentation:
                  • LCD Projectors
                  • Whiteboards
                  • Presentation Software (PowerPoint®, PresentationsTM)
                  • Multimedia

                  Ideally a medium would exist that was universal to all locations, easy to
                  setup, usable in any size room, and the light source would never burn out.
                  This, however, is not the case. When using high-tech mediums, you need to
                  plan additional time for creation and testing.




Page 10                                 January 24, 2008                       Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                            Define the Situation


ACTIVITY: Define Your Situation

Directions       Complete this form to define your presentation situation.


Topic:           ______________________________________________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________


Specify Your     What do you want your audience to:
Objective
                 Do?     ________________________________________________________
                 Know? ________________________________________________________
                 Feel?   ________________________________________________________


Analyze Your     Who is your audience? ___________________________________________
Audience         ______________________________________________________________
                 How familiar are they with your project? ____________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________
                 What is their interest level? _______________________________________
                 Gain or loss? ___________________________________________________
                 What will their attitudes be? _______________________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________
                 What questions will they have? ____________________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________


Specify Time     ______________________________________________________________


List Medium      Low-Tech                                 High-Tech
                 ___________________                      ___________________
                 ___________________                      ___________________




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                 Page 11
Design the Presentation                      Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


                            Design the Presentation
Crafting a “Story Line”

                 This module presents a process that enables effective presentation design with
                 a strong introduction and conclusion.
                 Upon completion of this module, you will be able to
                 • Use the State – Support – Summarize technique
                 • Use brainstorming techniques to generate content
                 • Organize your content
                 • Construct an effective introduction and ending


Components       An effective presentation can be broken down into three main components:
                 • Introduction
                 • Body
                 • Ending
                 We will begin this module with some techniques you can use to generate and
                 organize the presentation body content. From that, you will also develop the
                 introduction and ending that will make your presentation effective.


State-Support-   Presentations are frequently given to convince people of something and/or
Summarize        move them to take action. A simple but effective technique to organize your
                 information and let your audience know what you want them to do, know and
                 feel is:
                                         State – Support – Summarize
                 The Macro Structure
                 Use this technique to summarize the essence of your presentation:
                 • State – “Tell ‘em what you’re going to tell ‘em.”
                 • Support – “Tell ‘em.”
                 • Summarize – “Tell ‘em what you told ‘em.”

                 The Micro Structure
                 Use the same technique to develop the main points of your presentation:
                 • State your point - “I recommend we develop new clinic hours.”
                 • Support your point - “Feedback on our current hours indicate…”
                 • Summarize your point - “My recommendation is that…”




Page 12                                January 24, 2008                       Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                       Design the Presentation


ACTIVITY: 30 Second Presentation

Directions       Use the next 2 minutes to prepare a 30 second presentation using the State-
                 Support-Summarize technique.

                 Your goal is to convince the class members to do one of the following:
                 • Move to your city or state.
                 • Visit your favorite vacation spot.
                 • Work for your agency.
                 • Participate in your favorite sport or activity.



                 Topic: ________________________________________________________

                 State: _________________________________________________________

                 ______________________________________________________________

                 Support: ______________________________________________________

                 ______________________________________________________________

                 Support: ______________________________________________________

                 ______________________________________________________________

                 Support: ______________________________________________________

                 ______________________________________________________________

                 Summarize: ____________________________________________________

                 ______________________________________________________________




Participant Guide                     January 24, 2008                                    Page 13
Design the Presentation                       Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations



Craft Your “Story Line”, con’t.

Generate         A powerful technique to generate your main points and supporting
Content:         information is brainstorming.
Brainstorming
Techniques       There are several brainstorming techniques you can use to generate the
                 presentation’s content. Any of these techniques can be completed
                 individually or in a group setting.

                 The key to using any of these techniques is speed. Do not spend time
                 contemplating what to write; just capture your thoughts without judgment.
                 One thought often leads to another, and an idea can easily be eliminated if it
                 does not “flow” with the others generated.


Key Words        • List ideas in words or phrases in vertical columns on paper or flipchart
                 • Allow for space between ideas
                 • Keep columns narrow


Sticky-Notes    • Write ideas on individual sticky-notes
                • Paste notes on a wall or flipchart
                • Arrange and group notes to generate main points and supporting content


Project         • Write main idea in middle of paper or flipchart and circle it
Mapping         • Draw “spokes” off main idea circle and write subordinate ideas at ends
                • Draw additional “spokes” off subordinate ideas until all are recorded




Page 14                                January 24, 2008                        Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                       Design the Presentation


ACTIVITY: Brainstorm Your Content

Directions       Using a brainstorm technique listed on the previous page, generate the content
                 for the presentation you identified in the previous module.

                 You will have 10 minutes to work.




Participant Guide                     January 24, 2008                                 Page 15
Design the Presentation                      Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Craft Your “Story Line”, con’t.

Organize Your    At this point, the ideas you generated from brainstorming may seem
Content          somewhat disorganized. The next step is to arrange your ideas into a form
                 you can easily use to develop your presentation. To do this you need to:
                 • Group
                    − Put like ideas together
                    − Label them Point 1, Point 2, etc.

                 • Select
                    − Identify ideas that fit what you want your audience to Do, Know, Feel
                    − Keep number of main points between three and five
                    − Consider the allotted time

                 • Arrange
                   − Organize your main points in the order you want to present
                   − Most important to least
                   − Chronological
                   − Cause and Effect
                   − Problem to Solution


How Much         Another consideration is that participants can retain only limited amounts of
Content?         information. Consequently, you should limit the number of main points in
                 your presentation, regardless of the time you have available.

                 Here’s a simple procedure to determine how many points to include:

                 Presentation Time:                   _____________
                 Subtract 20 Percent                  _____________
                 (for Opening & Closing)
                 Divide by 3:                         _____________

                 This formula assumes that you will spend approximately 3 minutes on each
                 supporting point. If you need to spend more time on a particular topic, you
                 should adjust this number down.




Page 16                                January 24, 2008                       Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                      Design the Presentation


ACTIVITY: Organize Your Content

Directions       Follow the guidelines presented on pages 14-16 to structure your presentation
                 content. Use the space below to record your work.
                 Point 1
                    ___________________________________________________________
                    ___________________________________________________________
                    ___________________________________________________________

                 Point 2
                    ___________________________________________________________
                    ___________________________________________________________
                    ___________________________________________________________

                 Point 3
                    ___________________________________________________________
                    ___________________________________________________________
                    ___________________________________________________________


                 Point 4
                    ___________________________________________________________
                    ___________________________________________________________
                    ___________________________________________________________


                 Presentation Time:                   _____________
                 Subtract 20 Percent                  _____________
                 (for Opening & Closing)
                 Divide by 3:                         _____________




Participant Guide                     January 24, 2008                                 Page 17
Design the Presentation                      Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Craft Your “Story Line”, con’t.

Develop          Now that you brainstormed your content and organized it, your next step is to
Supporting       develop your supporting points that form the body of your presentation – the
Points           micro structure. You will do this using the State – Support – Summarize
                 technique covered earlier:

                 • State your point
                 • Support your point
                 • Summarize your point

                 The State – Support – Summarize technique benefits both you and the
                 audience by keeping you on track and providing a structure that the audience
                 can easily follow.


                 One of the most effective kinds of supporting material is your own personal
                 experience. When you use personal examples, you share your conviction and
                 speak with authority.




Page 18                               January 24, 2008                       Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                      Design the Presentation


ACTIVITY: Organize Your Content

Directions       Use the space below to develop supporting points for your main points.
                 Point 1
                 State:        _________________________________________________
                 Support       _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                 Summarize     _________________________________________________

                 Point 2
                 State:        _________________________________________________
                 Support       _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                 Summarize     _________________________________________________

                 Point 3
                 State:        _________________________________________________
                 Support       _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                 Summarize     _________________________________________________

                 Point 4
                 State:        _________________________________________________
                 Support       _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                 Summarize     _________________________________________________




Participant Guide                     January 24, 2008                                Page 19
Design the Presentation                       Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Writing the Introduction

The              A key factor in a presentation’s success is the introduction, as your audience
Introduction     “tunes in” at the beginning. This is your chance to create enthusiasm for
                 attending and anticipation for what you’re about to present. The introduction
                 must:
                 • Gain attention
                 • State your purpose
                 • Preview the main points


Gaining          Several ideas you can use to gain the audience’s attention are listed below:
Attention
                 Questions                     Illustrations                  Humor
                 Anecdotes                     Quotations                     Stories
                 Rhetorical Questions          Analogies                      Challenges


ACTIVITY: Write Your Introduction

Directions       Write your introduction using the form provided.

                 Gain Attention
                 ______________________________________________________________

                 ______________________________________________________________


                 State Your Purpose
                 ______________________________________________________________

                 ______________________________________________________________


                 Preview Your Main Points
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 • ____________________________________________________________




Page 20                                 January 24, 2008                       Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                        Design the Presentation


Plan the Ending

The Ending       The ending is another time when the audience’s attention is the highest. It’s
                 also the final to reinforce why you gave your presentation in the first place.
                 Your ending must do the following:
                 • Summarize Your Major Points
                 • Restate Your Purpose
                 • Close With Power
                 There are several ways to create a powerful ending. One simple way is to
                 employ the same technique used to Gain Attention, but with a small twist.


Mirror Effect    An effective technique to close your presentation is the Mirror Effect.
                 Examples of the Mirror effect include:
                 • If you opened with a question, use your conclusion to answer it.
                 • If you opened with a starting statement, repeat the statement.
                 • If you opened with a quotation, use another quotation on the same subject
                   or from the same source.
                 This is a useful way to close your presentation while tying it back to the
                 introduction.



ACTIVITY: Plan The Ending

Directions       Write your closing using the form provided.
                 Summarize Your Main Points
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 Restate Your Purpose
                 ____________________________________________________________________


                 Close with Power
                 ______________________________________________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                   Page 21
Design the Presentation                     Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Presentation Design Template

Specify Your     What do you want your audience to:
Objective
                 Do? ________________________________________________________
                 Know? ________________________________________________________
                 Feel? ________________________________________________________


Analyze Your     Who is your audience? ___________________________________________
Audience         ______________________________________________________________
                 How familiar are they with your project? ____________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________
                 What is their interest level? _______________________________________
                 Gain or loss? ___________________________________________________
                 What will their attitudes be? _______________________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________
                 What questions will they have? ____________________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________


Specify Time     ______________________________________________________________


List Medium      Low-Tech                                High-Tech
                 ___________________                     ___________________
                 ___________________                     ___________________


Introduction     Gain Attention
                 ______________________________________________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________

                 State Your Purpose
                 ______________________________________________________________
                 ______________________________________________________________

                 Preview Your Main Points
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 • ____________________________________________________________


                                                                       continued on the next page

Page 22                               January 24, 2008                     Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                Design the Presentation


Presentation Design Template, con’t.

Supporting       Point 1
Points           State:        _________________________________________________
                 Support       _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                 Summarize     _________________________________________________
                 Point 2
                 State:        _________________________________________________
                 Support       _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                 Summarize     _________________________________________________
                 Point 3
                 State:        _________________________________________________
                 Support       _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                 Summarize     _________________________________________________
                 Point 4
                 State:        _________________________________________________
                 Support       _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                               _________________________________________________
                 Summarize     _________________________________________________



The Ending       Summarize Your Main Points
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 • ____________________________________________________________
                 Restate Your Purpose
                 ____________________________________________________________________


                 Close with Power
                 ______________________________________________________________
                 ___________________________________________________________________




Participant Guide                     January 24, 2008                          Page 23
Design the Presentation                                Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




                                       Visuals Affect Recall

                                                 After 3 Hours          After 3 Days

                          Telling alone

                          Showing
                          alone

                          Telling and
                          Showing




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                                               Visual Aids




                                    Keep it Simple, Sweetheart




Page 24                                         January 24, 2008                               Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                        Design the Presentation


Visual Aids

How do Visual    If you spend several hours designing and preparing to deliver a presentation,
Aids Affect      you want to know the audience can remember some portion of what you
Recall?          presented. One of the best ways you can enhance the audience’s recall is to
                 accompany your presentation with visuals. This chart shows the effect of
                 including visuals on recall.



                 In any presentation, people’s attention can be focused on many things that are
                 not related to your topic. The stimulus offered by visuals help to:
                 • Regain attention
                 • Increase retention
                 • Bring everyone to the same point or conclusion



Visual Aid       Focus on one idea or concept that clearly and obviously supports your
Design           presentation. Keep in mind the KISS principle: Keep it Simple, Sweetheart.

                 Planning and Creation Guidelines:
                 • use the Six by Six Rule:
                   - six words per line,
                   - six lines of content,
                 • use bulleted lists and active words,
                 • use checkmarks, bullets, or arrows
                   for non-sequential items, and
                 • use pictures, illustrations, cartoons,
                   graphs, maps, charts and symbols,

                 Things to avoid:
                 • information so complex or tiny it is unreadable, and
                 • horizontal and vertical orientations in the same presentation




Participant Guide                       January 24, 2008                                Page 25
Design the Presentation         Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




Page 26                   January 24, 2008                     Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                      Design the Presentation


Visual Aids, con’t.

Text             Text Guidelines:
                 • use upper and lower case
                   letters,
                 • adequately space between
                   letters, words, and lines,
                 • use serif fonts for
                   handouts, and
                 • use sans serif fonts for
                   projected visuals


Font Size        Font Size Guidelines for Power Point:
                 • main headings from 36 – 44 pt
                 • sub headings at 32 pt
                 • bullets at 28 pt
                 • sub-bullets at 24 pt
                 • notes at 18 pt



Color            Color Guidelines:
                 • use to highlight, organize and capture attention,
                 • use two or three colors maximum,
                 • use orange and red only as accent colors,
                 • use effective color combinations:
                   - blue and black
                   - green and black
                 avoid difficult to read color contrasts:
                 - red and green
                 - orange and blue
                 - yellow
                 - negative news in red text




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                               Page 27
Design the Presentation                       Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Visual Aids, con’t.

Flipcharts       The most commonly used visual aid, flipcharts consist of an easel and a pad
                 of blank pages that can be written on.

                 Planning and Creation Guidelines:
                 • print letters 2 inches high, and leave 2 inch spaces between lines,
                 • highlight key points with color, shape, graphics, boxes, lines and pictures,
                 • pencil presentation notes in the margins,
                 • tab and label specific pages ahead of time,
                 • leave blank pages between prepared pages,
                 • leave the bottom quarter blank (the back of the room can’t see it), and
                 • apply adhesive labels over mistakes and write corrections on the labels


                 Use Guidelines:
                 • check readability from around the room,
                 • stand to the side when writing,
                 • cover information not in use,
                 • use two flipcharts to compare and contrast, and
                 • hang pages on the wall to display information


Handouts         Prepared ahead of time and given out during training, the information in a
                 handout can be used during training and kept as a job aid after training.
                 Handouts allow participants to:
                 • access information after training,
                 • grasp information at their own pace, and
                 • attend to the discussion instead of memorizing

                 Planning and Creation Guidelines:
                 • title and date the handout,
                 • specify when and how the handout is to be used, and
                 • underline, capitalize or use bold print to selectively emphasize information




Page 28                                January 24, 2008                         Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations        Design the Presentation


Notes and Ideas _____________________________________




Participant Guide                     January 24, 2008                  Page 29
Deliver the Presentation                               Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




                                How Presenters Create Impressions




                     • _____ % Verbal

                     • _____ % Vocal

                     • _____ % Visual




---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                        Physical Presence

                   Eye Contact                                           Facial Expression



                                              Movement



                   Gestures                                              Appearance




Page 30                                         January 24, 2008                               Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                       Deliver the Presentation


                            Deliver the Presentation
Physical Presence

                 In this module, we will discuss how visual and vocal skills enhance your
                 presentation. Lastly, we will discuss techniques to manage the stress you feel
                 prior to delivering a presentation.


                 How do presenters create impressions? When we give a speech or
Creating         presentation, we create an impression on the audience. Consider a well
Impressions      known example:

                 On August 28, 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King delivered his famous “I have a
                 Dream” speech in Washington DC. If you were to just read a manuscript of
                 this speech, it would inspire you, but not as much as watching a video.

                 Research was done at UCLA about how presenters create impressions.



Physical         Clearly, how we say it and what we look like when we say it is much more
Presence         important than what we say. The audience assesses your credibility based on
                 how you look and move.

                 Your ability to connect with the audience can alter or reinforce the point you
                 are trying to make. Developing a strong physical presence helps maintain
                 attention and encourages participation. This includes the way you maintain
                 eye contact, the expressions on your face, the way you move, your gestures,
                 and your appearance.




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                  Page 31
Deliver the Presentation                     Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Physical Presence, con’t.

Eye Contact      One of the most important presentation skills to master is to establish eye
                 contact with your audience. Eye contact is a “psychological handshake” that
                 engages your audience and helps them to feel as if you are having a personal
                 conversation with each of them.

                 To use eye contact to your advantage:
                 • Use direct eye contact – look into the person’s eyes
                 • Establish eye contact with several people
                 • Maintain eye contact for 3-5 seconds – avoid eye darting
                 • Reestablish eye contact throughout the presentation


Eye Contact      • Form two groups.
Activity
Directions       • You have 30 seconds to choose a story. (e.g.; How I proposed to my
                   spouse, When I bought my first car, My favorite vacation memory.)
                 • Each person will be the speaker once.
                 • While you are speaking, tell your story while making direct eye contact
                   with one person for 3-5 seconds as you say each sentence or thought. Move
                   to the next set of eyes before beginning the next sentence.
                 • While you are the person being spoken to raise your hand and silently and
                   count to three. If the speaker looks away before you count to three, keep
                   your hand up and restart your count.
                 • Lower your hand when the speaker makes direct eye contact for a full three
                   seconds. Continue until each person has a chance to speak.




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Physical Presence, con’t.

Facial           After establishing a “psychological handshake” with your audience, you next
Expression       need to demonstrate your conviction about your topic. An effective way to do
                 this is through your facial expressions.
                 Appropriate facial expressions increase your effectiveness by allowing your
                 face to reflect what you are saying. Use facial expressions to let your
                 understanding, encouragement and puzzlement show on your face.
                 The most important facial expression is to _________________. Successful
                 facial expressions:
                 • are congruent with the intended message, and
                 • communicate interest in the subject matter as well as the participants


Movement            Movement enhances your presentation because it catches the audience’s eye
                    and demands attention. Movement queues the audience that their attention is
                    required. Hence, all your movement should have a purpose.
                                                Move with Purpose
                    Use movement when you want to emphasize important points or change the
                    topic. A simple technique is to move toward your audience or away from
                    your presentation. Your proximity to the audience also affects how the
                    audience receives your message. People are more likely to agree when you
                    are closer.


Caution!         Do not invade your audience’s “space.” This will have the reverse effect and
                 cause people to not agree with you.
                 Continuous movement is a distraction and makes you appear nervous and
                 unsure. Some movements are distracting and should be avoided.
                 •   Rocking up and down
                 •   Tap dancing
                 •   Pacing
                 •   _____________________________________________________________
                 •   _____________________________________________________________




Participant Guide                       January 24, 2008                                Page 33
Deliver the Presentation                      Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Physical Presence, con’t.

Gestures         When used effectively, gestures clarify and reinforce your point. The most
                 effective gestures project your individual style. Some guidelines to follow for
                 gesturing include:
                 • Keep your elbows away from your waist
                 • Gesture left and right to emphasize ideas such as before/after, cause/effect
                 • Vary your gestures as repetition becomes distracting
                 If your gestures appear to be contrived, they can distract from the point you are
                 trying to make. Additionally, when you know your audience, your gestures
                 tend to flow more naturally.


Gestures         • Form groups of two and stand on opposite sides of the room from each other.
Activity         • Retell your story; this time include deliberate gestures, facial expressions
Directions         and movement that help emphasize your message.
                 • Once one side is complete, the other side does the same.



Appearance       A major factor in creating a first impression with your audience is your
                 appearance. Your credibility is greatly enhanced by observing these
                 guidelines. Wearing professional clothing shows respect for the participants,
                 the subject matter and yourself.
                 Dress:
                 • slightly more formally than you think necessary, and
                 • in layers so you can remove or put on a jacket
                 • dress one step higher than your audience
                 • use good judgment – conservative is better
                 Grooming
                 • Ensure you are well groomed and neat
                 • Use styles that compliment you
                 Posture
                 • Stand straight but not stiff
                 • Keep your weight balanced and slightly forward on the balls of your feet
                 • Use a podium effectively
                    Stand free or touch it lightly
                    Do not lean
                    Lean forward only to stress an occasional point




Page 34                                January 24, 2008                        Participant Guide
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Physical Presence, con’t.

Your Voice      Previously, we focused on what you plan to say. Now the focus will be how
                you say it. Your voice is an important asset that affects how you deliver your
                presentation. Variety in your voice communicates enthusiasm, interest,
                seriousness, and excitement. Try to:
                • project your voice so you can be heard throughout the classroom, and
                • use a variety of intonation and inflection,
                 There are several aspects to consider about how you present.
                 Projection
                 Your voice projection affects how well the audience hears what you are saying.
                 It’s generally better to be loud than too soft. Also, try to match your voice to
                 the context of what you are saying.
                 Tone
                 Tone refers to how high or how low your voice is.
                 Enunciation
                Try to use language that is slightly better than everyday speech:
                • pronounce each word clearly and correctly,
                • avoid filler words such as um’s or uh’s,
                • complete each word, and
                • emphasize important words
                 Pace
                • speak fluently rather than haltingly,
                • vary the speed and tempo of your speech, and
                • pause to breathe so you can project your voice
                Appropriate Word Choice ensures that you will:
                • not lose participants because of unfamiliar words, and
                • not insult participants with words that are too simple
                When speaking, follow a pattern:
                • make eye contact with someone who looks friendly,
                • maintain eye contact for one complete thought (about 3-4 seconds),
                • smile or nod,
                • scan the group briefly, and then
                • begin the pattern again




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Deliver the Presentation                               Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




                               Get Rid of “Ums” and “Uhs”

                   Roger Mudd (CBS): “Will anyone ever really believe your explanation
                   of Chappaquiddick?”

                   Ted Kennedy: “Well, there’s the, the problem is, is from that night uh, I
                   found the, the, conduct of behavior almost beyond belief myself. I mean
                   that’s why it’s been uh (pause) uh, but I think that that’s, that’s the way
                   it was. That’s, that’s that happens to be the way it was. Now, uh, I find
                   as I’ve stated it, that I’ve found that the conduct that uh, in that evening
                   and in, in the uh, as a result of the impact of the accident and the, the
                   sense of loss, the sense of tragedy and the, the whole set of circ,
                   circumstances, the uh, behavior was inexplicable. So I find those, uh,
                   those types of questions as they apply to that are questions of my own,
                   uh, could as well uh, uh, that, that happens to be the way it was.”




---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                        Physical Presence

                                              Soft Spoken?




Page 36                                         January 24, 2008                               Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                        Deliver the Presentation


ACTIVITY: Vocal Variety

Directions       Select one of sentences below to read out loud in front of the class. As you are
                 reading, use extreme variation in volume, tone, enunciation, and pace.
                 • “Many of these accusations – in fact most of them – are completely
                   unjustified. I am sick and tired of these sensational distortions. This
                   situation is ridiculous.”
                 • “If we don’t get on our horses and complete this now, we are all going to
                   have plenty of regrets. With the deadline approaching quickly, the more we
                   talk about it the more time we loose.”
                 • “The press just has to share some of the blame. Remember, part of their job
                   – as I see it, anyway – is to create news where no news exists. I’m
                   absolutely fed up with their ridiculous accusations.”
                 • “Many overt messages have covert if not hidden messages. In many cases,
                   the covert message carries the primary weight of the entire message’s
                   meaning. Someone complaining, ‘My desk is too small’ is overtly saying
                   ‘My work requires more space.’ The covert message is ‘I’m not getting the
                   recognition I deserve.’”



“Ums” and        Vocal pauses that are filled with “ums” and “uhs” take away from your
“Uhs”            credibility. Suggestions to minimize the “ums” and “uhs” include:
                 • Focus on your vocal pauses.
                 • Once you start to hear yourself say the “ums” and “uhs”, you will make a
                    conscience effort to not say them.
                 • Have someone tap a water glass each time you say “um” or “uh.”




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                  Page 37
Deliver the Presentation            Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




                           Get in “The Zone”




Page 38                       January 24, 2008                     Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                        Deliver the Presentation


Managing Presentation Stress

Symptoms of       Nearly every presenter exhibits some form of stress prior to and during their
Presentation      presentation. It’s our body’s natural reaction to prepare for a “performance.”
Stress            Some ways presentation stress exhibits itself are:

                  •   Sweaty Palms
                  •   Fainting
                  •   _________________________________
                  •   _________________________________
                  •   _________________________________



Get in the Zone   Even seasoned presenters experience some stress prior to delivering a
                  presentation. However, they manage their stress so they don’t experience too
                  much or too little. The goal is to experience just enough to “get in the zone.”

                  Just enough “excitement” enables you to be at your best when delivering a
                  presentation contributing to the enthusiasm and energy that are part of every
                  successful presentation.


                  Too Nervous
                  _______________________________________________________________
                  _______________________________________________________________

                  Not Nervous Enough
                  _______________________________________________________________
                  _______________________________________________________________




Participant Guide                       January 24, 2008                                  Page 39
Deliver the Presentation                 Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations




                           Techniques to Manage Stress


                                   Preparation



                    Practice                            Frequency




Page 40                            January 24, 2008                     Participant Guide
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Manage Presentation Stress, con’t.

Preparation      Effective preparation can reduce your presentation to mild anxiety:
                 • review all presentation material well in advance
                 • get sufficient sleep
                 • arrive early
                 • have a backup plan
                 Planning
                 • create an agenda and a timeline, including breaks
                 • create instructor notes, develop or locate relevant stories/examples/metaphors
                 • prioritize activities and develop alternatives
                 Materials
                 • participant guides and handouts,
                 • flipcharts, videotape, Power Point presentation
                 • door sign,
                 • extra writing paper and pens,
                 • post-it notes
                 • masking tape, push pins and markers
                 Equipment
                 • practice using every piece of equipment:
                   − laptop computer and projection equipment
                   − TV monitor and VCR
                 • carry extra extension cords and plug adapters
                 • know how to fix a breakdown yourself or who to call for help
                 Facilities
                 • visit the facility beforehand to see the layout of the room:
                   − note the location of light switches, electrical outlets, heating and air
                      conditioning controls ,and the phone, and
                   − confirm the name and number of the emergency contact person
                 • confirm a week ahead that:
                   − facilities and equipment are reserved,
                   − room arrangement is mapped out, and
                   − refreshments are ordered
                 • set up the room:
                   − preferably the night before, but at least an hour before participants arrive
                   − arrange furniture and equipment
                   − check sound levels, clean screens, and tape cords to the floor
                   − use a checklist to make sure you have needed supplies
                   − have training materials organized and ready at each workspace



Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                   Page 41
Deliver the Presentation                     Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations


Manage Presentation Stress, con’t.

Practice         Professional athletes work over and over to sharpen their skills. They also
                 practice in the environment in which they will ultimately perform. Presenters
                 should do the same. Some techniques include practicing:
                 • vocally
                 • in front of a mirror, family or peers
                 • into a tape recorder for later playback
                 • using technology and/or visual aids

                 Practice until:
                 • you have memorized the opening,
                 • your presentation is smooth and relaxed, and
                 • you know where you should be at 15 minute intervals


Frequency        Seasoned presenters often experience less presentation stress.
                 Consider joining an organization like Toastmasters that provides
                 frequent opportunities to practice your presentation skills.



Note!            The actual presentation will take approximately 20% longer than the practice.




Page 42                               January 24, 2008                       Participant Guide
Developing and Delivering Effective Presentations                       Deliver the Presentation


ACTIVITY: Ready to Present!

Directions       Use the activities you completed during this session to prepare to deliver your
                 presentation. You may want to reference the following pages when creating
                 your Power Point slides:
                                                Topic                                     Page
                 • Gain Attention                                                          20
                 • 6 x 6 Rule                                                              25
                 • Font Style, Size and Color                                              27

Notes and Ideas:           _______________________________________________________




Participant Guide                      January 24, 2008                                  Page 43

								
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