Biology 411 Conservation Biology by fqy94797


									Conservation                                Biology 411                            Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

                           Biology 411: Conservation Biology
I.       Instructors
Part I                                              Part II
Dr. Ken Otter                                       Dr. Darwyn Coxson
Office: 8-339 New Lab Building.                Office: 8-333 New Lab Building.
Phone: 960 5019                                Phone: 960 6646
Email:                          Email:
Office Hours*: .                               Office Hours*:
11:00-12:30 Thursdays, 2:30-3:30 Fridays       09:00-12:00 am Fridays
*Outside regular office hours meetings should be scheduled by appointment. Comments and
questions can also be addressed, and are encouraged, through email.

II. Course Specifics
          Lecture Time: Mondays, Wednesdays 2:30-3:20 pm (7-238)
          Tutorial Workshops – S1: Thursdays 12:30am -2:20 pm
                               S2: Thursdays 2:30pm -4:20 pm
                               S3: Fridays 12:30am -2:20 pm
III. Textbooks and Readings
Readings (required)
No formal textbook is assigned for the course. Rather, readings will be taken from recent journals or
books, and these will be either posted in the course folder and/or put on reserve in the library. In
addition, Dr. Coxson has put together a reading package for the second part of the course (starting
after winter break) which is available from the UNBC bookstore.

Other Readings (not required)
Apart from the manuscripts that will be required readings for lectures, there will be other resource
material available in the reserve desk of the library. We will place copies of the following general texts
on reserve for students who would like some background reading to familiarize themselves with
particular topics (note, readings from these texts will not be included in exam material unless they are
specifically referenced in the lectures).
   Primack, R.B. 2002. Essentials of Conservation Biology. 3rd Ed. Massachusetts: Sinauer
     Meffe, G.K & Carroll, C. R. 1997. Principles of Conservation Biology. 2nd Ed. Massachusetts: Sinauer

Course Folder (studept on ‘pg-uni-dc-02’)
Lecture/Tutorial Information will be placed in the studept network folder on the University computer
network. Course material will appear in a folder entitled “Biol 411”. This folder can be accessed by any
student at the University by logging onto one of the University computers – it can not be accessed via the
internet. The files can either be printed on University printers, or you can email these to your home
computers and print them at home.

Conservation                                Biology 411                             Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

IV. Course Objectives
Lectures: Conservation Biology is an interdisciplinary field drawing on expertise from Ecology,
Genetics, Geography, Environmental Studies, Behaviour & Evolutionary Biology which are utilized to
generate theories and ideas for utilization in Resource Management. The objective of this course is to
introduce students to concepts and theories in current conservation research, and to discuss the direction
conservation research needs to focus in the future. As such, we will draw on current literature in the field
for lecture readings.
   The course will be taught in two modules: Part I (up to winter break) will focus on Biodiversity and
Conservation at Species/Population Level, whereas the material in Part II (beginning after winter break to
end of semester) will focus on Conservation at a Landscape Level as well as Applied Conservation
Biology. Part I will be taught by Dr. Ken Otter, Part II by Dr. Darwyn Coxson. The two sections will be
somewhat distinct, and there will be a comprehensive exam on either section. However, the material in
Part II of the course will build on material in Part I, therefore knowledge of these topics will be necessary
for the final exam.

Tutorial Workshops
   Often in conservation, the directions to proceed on a particular project may appear obvious, but the
logistics of achieving this with competing worldviews on resource management and development make
the "obvious" difficult to achieve practically. Conservation in practice often takes the form of discussion
groups or workshops in which incorporate everyone with vested interests in the problem at hand
(environmentalists, academics, government and industry reps). The emphasis as such meetings is to
discuss the issues, identify problems and plan implementation strategies. The tutorial workshops will use
a similar forum to introduce students to some provincial issues in conservation biology. Problems will
be given in the workshops, and students will work in groups to discuss issues, identify problems and plan
strategies to implement management plans. The focus of these workshops may change through the course
in an attempt to introduce students to different variants of such workshops they might encounter.
   Groups will prepare hand-in material in the form of management briefs, detailing conservation issues
associated with the problems at hand, as well as the mitigation techniques that will be implemented to
decrease impacts on affected species/habitats. Instructions will be given in the first tutorial on how to
prepare these reports.

V. Grading and Course Marks (% of course marks)
Midterm (25%)
  The midterm will cover the material in Part I of the course. All material covered in the lectures and in
  the readings are examinable. Format of the midterm will be one-word answers, short answers (50-100
  words) and short essays (one to two paragraphs).
Final Exam (35%)
  The final exam will emphasize the material from Part II, but as Conservation can not be fully
  understood in isolated parts, there will also be some questions from Part I of the course. In
  preparation for exams, we suggest that you make detailed study notes of material as you prepare for
  the midterm, which can be referred to in preparing for the final exam. Format of the exam will be one-
  word answers, short answers (50-100 words) and short essays (one to two paragraphs).
Group Reports for Workshops (40% - 20% associated with each of the two parts of the
  During each of the two course modules (Part I & II ), you will work in groups of four and each group
  will hand in conservation reports. Reports will be a maximum of 10 pages (excluding figures), and

Conservation                                Biology 411                            Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

   will consist of two components - the first will identify the relevant conservation issues associated with
   the workshop problem, and the second part will outline the implementation techniques to mitigate
   conservation problems.
VI. Academic Policies
   Deadlines - Material is due at the start of the lecture/tutorial on the date set. Assignments will lose
   10% of their marks each 24h block they are late (assignments handed in after the start of the
   tutorial/lecture on the date they are assigned will be treated as 1 day late, even if they are handed in
   before the end of the class period). After 5 days overdue, the material will not be accepted for marks,
   and the student(s) will receive 0 for the assignment.
   Academic Dishonesty - this includes plagiarism, cheating on exams, misrepresentation of the nature
   of your involvement on projects, or any other act of academic offences. Students involved in any
   such activities can receive an automatic F in the course. If you are unfamiliar with definitions of any
   of the Academic Offences, consult this section of the Undergraduate Academic Calendar. Ignorance of
   these policies will not be accepted as defence.

VII. Additional Reference Material
The Library has many books and edited volumes on Conservation. Journal articles on relevant material
can be found in the journals, such as Conservation Biology, Conservation in Practice, Biological
Conservation, Bioscience, etc. These will help with preparation of the reports associated with the

Conservation                                     Biology 411                                  Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

Tentative Lecture Schedule
PART I – Biodiversity, Threats and Species/Population Conservation –
Dr. Ken Otter
(All readings are pdf files found under ‘readings’ in Biol 411 folder on the studept drive – see above)
January    6   Lecture 1: Intro to Conservation Biology and Principals of Adaptive Management

               1. Salafsky et al. 2002. Improving the practice of conservation: a conceptual framework and research
                       agenda for conservation science. Conservation Biology 16: 1469-1479

January 7-8 Tutorial 1: Introduction to Conservation Workshop Sessions and Writing Technical Reports
               1. Groves et al. 2002. Planning for biodiversity conservation: putting conservation science into practice.
                       BioScence 52: 499-512

January 12 Lecture 2: Biodiversity
               1. Groves et al. (see tutorial 1)
               2. Myers et al. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858

January 14 Lecture 3: Threats to Biodiversity – Extinction

               1. Balmford et al. 2002. Measuring the changing state of nature. Trends Ecol Evol 18:326-330
               2. Sax & Gaines. 2003. Species diversity: from global decreases to local increases. Trends Ecol Evol
               3. Restani & Marzluff. 2002. Funding extinction? Biological needs and polical realities in the
                       allocation of resources to endangered species recovery. BioScience 52:169-177

 January 15-   Tutorial 2. Corridors and Animal Movement
          16      • Problem introduction
                  • Brain storming session
                  • Assigning sub-topics to groups

               1. Ng et al. 2004. Use of highway crossings by wildlife in southern California. Biol Cons 115: 499-507
               2. Field Community Plan – Chapter 2 (Ecology and present situation) (in tutorial folder), see also

     19 & 21
               Lectures 4 & 5: Threats to Biodiversity - Habitat Destruction, Fragmentation, Island Biogeography
               and Source/Sink Populations

               1. Dias 1996. Sources and sinks in population biology. Trends Ecol Evol 11:326-330
               2. Turner & Corlett. 1996. The conservation value of small, isolated fragments of lowland tropical rain
                       forest. Trends Ecol Evol 11:330-333
               3. van der Ree et al. 2003. Gap-crossing by gliding marsupials: threshold for use of isolated woodland
                       patches in an agricultural landscape. Biol Conservation 115: 241-249
               4. McKinney. 2002. Urbanization, biodiversity and conservation. BioScience 52: 883-889

Conservation                                     Biology 411                                 Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

       22-23   Tutorial 3. Corridors and Animal Movement - Implementation Planning
                  • In this tutorial, your group will present information you found over the past week on your
                       assigned topic
                  • General discussion will ensue on implementation policies

 January 26    Lecture 6: Invasive and Introduced Species

               1. Davis. 2003. Biotic globalization; does competition from introduced species threaten biodiversity?
                       Bioscience 53: 481-489
               2. Zavaleta et al. 2001. Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context. Trends Ecol
                       Evol 16:454-459
          28   Lecture 7: Conservation Genetics and Small Populations

               1. Hedrick. 2001. Conservation genetics: where are we now? Trends Ecol Evol 16: 629-636
               2. Alitzer et al. 2003. Rapid evolutionary dynamics and disease threats to biodiversity. Trends Ecol
                       Evol 18: 589-596
       29-30   Tutorial 4. Introduced Species - Problem introduction
                  • Problem introduction
                  • Brain storming session
                  • Assigning sub-topics to groups

               1. Kelly et al. 2003. Are barred owls displacing spotted owls? Condor 105: 45-53
               2. Hulme. 2003. Biological invasions: winning the science battles but losing the conservation war? Oryx
                       37: 178-193
 February 2    Lecture 8: Conservation Genetics and Small Populations Continued
               Readings: see above

           4   Lecture 9: Behaviour and Conservation

               1. Lima & Zollner. 1996. Towards a behavioural ecology of ecological landscapes. Trends Ecol Evol
                       11: 131-135
               2. Godfrey 2003. Potential use of energy expenditure of individual birds to assess quality of their
                       habitats. Pp 11-24. in Williams M (Comp) Conservation applications of measuring energy
                       expenditure in New Zealand birds. Science for Conservation 214. 95 pages.
         5-6   Tutorial 5. Introduced Species - Implementation Planning
                  • In this tutorial, your group will present information you have found over the past week on your
                       assigned sub- topic
                  • General discussion will ensue on implementation policies
                  • GROUP WRITE-UPS DUE FRIDAY FEBRUARY 13 BY 4:30 PM TO MY OFFICE (8-339)

           9   Guest Lecture – Dick Cannings, Bird Studies Canada
                               Large Scale Censusing Programs
          11   MIDTERM - Part I
       12-13   No Tutorials
       16-20   WINTER BREAK - NO CLASSES

Conservation                                      Biology 411                                    Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

PART II – Landscape and Applied Conservation
Dr. Darwyn Coxson
 Lecture:                              Topics:                                                 Readings:

  12 & 13      Conservation Biology Planning in the Robson Valley;          See Part II Resource Material List at end of
               Habitat requirements of major faunal elements (eg.           Outline.
               mountain caribou, grizzly bear); Habitat requirement of
               major floral elements (eg. antique forests, wetlands, rare
               plants); Existing history of human impacts at a
               watershed level (eg. what are previous human impacts in
               the Torpy River watershed).; Your knowledge of meta-
               population dynamics and conservation biology theory.
               Human utilization of resource values in the Robson

     14        Climate change and conservation biology: What lessons        Miller, R.F. & P.E. Wigand. 1994. Holocene
               can we draw from previous “natural” changes in               changes in semiarid pinyon-juniper woodlands.
               climate? The Berengian productivity paradox. “Sky-           Bioscience 44: 465-474. (In course reading
               Islands” of the southwestern USA and Mexico.                 package)

                                                                            McDonell,A. & K. Vacariu. 2000. Ejiob
                                                                            cebadillas, imperiled parrots, and an historic
                                                                            conservation Wild Earth Spring 2000: 55-56. (In
                                                                            course folder)

     15        Hybridization and species extinction; The role of            Payette, S., Fortin, M.-J., Gamache, I., 2001. The
               regional population variants; Which of the “climate-         subarctic forest-tundra: the structure of a biome in
               change” variables; temperature, precipitation, N-            a changing climate. BioScience, 51(9): 709-718.
               availability will likely have the largest effect?            (In course reading package)
               Differential response to climate change in Carolinian vs.
               boreal forest tree species. Observations at ecotone
               boundaries: The forest-tundra ecotone as a model
     16        Anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems: Do long-term            Fuhlendorf, S.D. & D.M. Engle 2001. Restoring
               atmospheric nitrogen inputs alter ecosystem                  heterogeneity on rangelands: Ecosystem
               productivity? Interactions between grazing and climate       management based on evolutionary grazing
               change; Climate change and the Palliser triangle.            patterns. Bioscience 51:625-632. (In course

                                                                             Aber, J. et al. 1998. Nitrogen saturation in
                                                                            temperature forest ecosystems. Bioscience
                                                                            48:921-934. (In course reading package).

     17        El Niño - La Niña oscillations and Pacific Decadal           Garrison, V.H. 2003. African and Asian
               Oscillation" (PDO) : Impacts on Pacific Northwest            dust: From desert soils to coral reefs. Bioscience
               Ecosystems; Long-distance perturbations.                     53:469-480. (In course reading package)

                                                                            Tibbetts, J. 1996. Farming and fishing in the wake
                                                                            of El Nino. Bioscience 46:566-569. (In course
                                                                            reading package)

     18        Scaling in conservation biology: Small-patch                 Poiani, K.A. et al. 2000. Biodiversity conservation

Conservation                                     Biology 411                                 Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

               ecosystems and local scale species; Large-patch          at multiple scales: Functional sites, landscape, and
               ecosystems and intermediate scale species; Matrix        networks. Bioscience 50: 133-146. (In course
               ecosystems; Threats to grassland matrix environments.    reading package).

                                                                        Poini, K.A. & B. Richter. 2000. Functional
                                                                        landscapes and the conservation of biodiversity.
                                                                        Working Papers in Conservation Science 1:1-23.
                                                                        (In course folder).

                                                                        Fox, D. 2003. Distributing risk. Conservation in
                                                                        Practice. 4:32-38. (In course reading package)

     19        Functionality of conservation areas - What attributes    Rosenberg, D.K. et al. 1997. Biological corridors:
               should be examined? Composition and structure of         Form, function, and efficacy. Bioscience 47: 677-
               focal ecosystems and species, dominant environmental     687. (In course reading package).
               regimes, minimum dynamic area, connectivity.
                                                                        Ervin, J. 2003. Protected area assessments in
                                                                        perspective. Bioscience 53:819-841. (In course

                                                                        Kareiva, P. & M. Marvier. 2003. Conserving
                                                                        biodiversity coldspots. American Scientist 91:344-
                                                                        351. (In course reading package).

                                                                        Gerber, L.R. 2000. Measuring success in
                                                                        conservation. American Scientist 88: 316-324. (In
                                                                        course reading package).

                                                                        Rood, S. et al. 2003. Flows for floodplain forests:
                                                                        A successful riparian restoration. Bioscience
                                                                        53:647-656. (In course folder)

     20        Mapping the human “footprint; Functionality of           Shafer, C.L. Values and shortcoming of small
               proposed conservation areas: What attributes should be   reserves. Bioscience 45:80-88.
               examined? Meta-population effects. SLOSS Reserve         (In course reading package)
               Design Choices “Single large” or “Several Small”
               Reserves. Habitat Restoration.                           Sanderson, E.W. et al. 2002. The Human
                                                                        footprint and the last of the wild. Bioscience

Conservation                                        Biology 411                                  Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

     21         Ecosystem restoration. Self-design as an ecosystem          Mitsch,W.J. et al. 1998. Creating and restoring
                property, Limitations on ecosystem restoration:             wetlands. Bioscience 48: 1019-1030. (In course
                Physical restructuring, Overharvesting, Introduction of     reading package).
                Exotic species, Extreme natural events, disruption of
                nutrient cycling, destabilization of substrates. Positive   Rapport, D.J. and W.G. Whitford. 1999. How
                feedback mechanisms that limit restoration efforts.         ecosystems respond to stress. Bioscience 49:
                                                                            193-203. (In course reading package).

                                                                            Allenn, W.H. 1988. Biocultural restoration of a
                                                                            tropical forest. Bioscience 38:156-161. (In course
                                                                            reading package).

                                                                            Schoen, D.J. 2001. The conservation of wild plant
                                                                            species in seed banks. Bioscience 51:960-966. (In
                                                                            course reading package).

     22         Species Introductions. Restoration tool or high risk        Ewel, J.J. 1999. Deliberate introductions of
                venture.; Recreating the role of nurse plants.              species: Research needs. Bioscience 49:619-630.
                                                                            (In reading package)

                                                                            Fox, D. 2003. Using exotics as temporary habitat.
                                                                            Conservation in Practice 4:32-37 (In reading

                                                                            Withgott, J. 2000 Botanical nursing. Bioscience
                                                                            50: 479-484.

                                                                            Vitousek, P.M. 1996. Biological Invasion -
                                                                            Environmental Change. American Scientist

Lecture 23-25: Designated Case Study Lectures.

Conservation                                         Biology 411                                   Otter & Coxson, Winter 2004

Biology 411 – Part II
Tutorial Assignment:       Conservation Biology Planning in the Robson Valley
                                  Landscape Habitat Corridors Between the Columbia and Rocky Mtn. Ecosystems

Posted Tutorial Resources:
     1)       Parsnip Grizzly Bear Project and Habitat Project.
              By L. M. Ciarniello et al. Oct. 2002,
              B.C. Ministry of Water, Air, and Land Protection.
              (BIO 411 course folder)
- provides valuable information on grizzly bear habitat selection values and avoidance of road corridors (*****)

    2)        Grizzly Bear Habitat Selection Along the Parsnip River
              By L. M. Ciarniello et al. Mar. 2002,
              B.C. Ministry of Water, Air, and Land Protection
              (BIO 411 course folder)
- provides valuable information on grizzly bear habitat selection values and avoidance of road corridors (*****)

    3)       Fraser River Chinook Salmon; DFO Stock Salmon Report DC6-11 (1999)
             fraser-river-chinook-salmon.pdf (BIO 411 course folder)
- provides background information on usage of Upper Fraser by Chinook Salmon (**)

    4)        Ecological Characteristics of Inland Rainforests
              A. Arsenault and T. Goward. 1999. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks.
              inland-rainforests.pdf (BIO 411 course folder)
- provides information on what are the defining characteristics of inland rainforest communities (*****)

    5)       Lichens - A Key Indicator for Ancient Forests
             T. Goward. Bioline , Fall/Winter 1993
             Lichens - A Key Indicator for Ancient Forests.pdf
             (BIO 411 course folder)
    -    provides information on the use of lichens as biological indicators for inland rainforests (***)

    6)      Mountain Caribou in Managed Forests – Recommendations for Managers
            S.K. Stevenson et al. B.C> Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. March 2001.
            mountain-caribou-in-managed-forests.pdf (BIO 411 course folder)
    - good information on habitat requirements and forestry interactions for Mountain Caribou (****)

    7)        Development of an Index to Assess Old-growth Features
              M. Harrison et al. Feb. 2002. Robson Valley Enhanced Forest Management Project
              old-growth-attributes.pdf (BIO 411 course folder)
    -    outlines attributes of old-growth forests in Robson Valley (***), long version of (8) below

    8)       Rating Candidate Stands for Old Growth Management in the Robdon Valley Forest District C. DeLong & P.
             Burton 2002. Robson Valley Enhanced Forest Management Project
             old-growth-management.pdf (BIO 411 course folder)
    -    provides a good fairly concise summary of how old-growth attributes should be defined (****)

    9)         Prince George Land and Resource Management Plan
               B.C. Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management
               prince-george-lrmp.pdf (BIO 411 course folder) or view at


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