A Note On A Severe Salmonella Typhimurium Infection In by yew20072

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									       A Note On A Severe Salmonella Typhimurium Infection In
                           Ostrich Chicks

               Habeeb M. AI-Nakhli, Suleman M. AI-Juwaid, and Mohammed A. AI-Aboud
                                      National Agriculture Research Center
                                   P.D. Box 17285,Riyadh 11484,Saudi Arabia

Abstract. Ostrich baby chicks 1-2.5 months, raised in a private farm with capacity of 25 birds in Al-Kharj
region south Riyadh. were infected with Salmonella, the mortality was up to 20%. A live sick and dead birds
were sent to the poultry disease laboratory for post-mortem examination and bacteria isolation. Salmonella
Typhimurium was isolated from liver, Spleen ,and Intestines of the infected birds, The birds were treated with
Erythromycin (E), and Enrofioxacin(ENO) for five days, but no response showed up to medication ,the in-
vitro susceptibility test was carried out on the isolated salmonella, the isolates were sensitive to Norfloxacin
(NOR), Fosphomycine (FOS), Ciprotril (CIP), Gentamycin (GM), Flurnequine (AR), and Apramycin (APR)
respectively. Norfloxacin (NOR) was the drug of choice in treating the birds. The isolates were resistant to five
antibiotics used in this study were as follows: Ampicillin (AMP), Amoxycillin (AML), Danofloxacin (DF),
Doxycyclin (D), and Sulfamethoxazole+Trimethoprim         (SXT) respectively. The birds were recovered after
treating them with (NOR) for five days, and no more salmonella was detected post treatment with (NOR).




                                                         four pounds of feathers for use in fashion and
                                                         industry. But feathers have little economic
     Ostrich Struthio camelus is a member of the
                                                         value and the birds are being farmed for their
family struthionidae which belong to class
                                                         gourmet meat and hide, the pure red meat has
Aves. Ostrich known to be the largest and
                                                         a higher protein content and lower cholesterol
heaviest bird, weighing up to 156.5kg.(345Ib.).
                                                         level than chickens and turkey. The majority of
There are four subspecies of this bird. Human
                                                         ostriches are slaughtered at a year old, at this
have had a close relationship with ostrich for
                                                         age the bird yield 65-95 pounds of meat and
thousands of years, Ancient Egyptians farmed
                                                         produce 13-20 sq. ft. of fine quality leather
ostrich and used it as a symbol of justice.
                                                         which is three to five times more durable than
ostrich feathers have been used for adornment
                                                         cow hide (Gonzalez, LV. 1992). the Salmonella
by human for at least 5000 years and the eggs
                                                         Typhimuriurn     is common in multispecies
are still used by Bushmen as jewelry and
                                                         collections and causes mortality in ostrich
receptacles for carrying water (Holtzhausen, A.
                                                         chicks younger       than   three months on
and Kotze', M. 1990; Huchzermeyer, F. W. 1998)
                                                         commercial farms, but is rarely found in chicks
.Ostrich farming started in South Africa and
                                                         older than six months (Verwoerd, D.]. 2000).
elsewhere between 1857 and 1864 as a new
industry in agriculture (The South African Stud                     Materials and Methods
Book and Livestock Improvement Association                Samples collection and processing:
2001). Nowadays, each ostrich produces about              Sick and freshly dead ostrich baby chicks were
submitted to the Poultry Disease Laboratory for            was applied to examine the sensitivity of the
bacteriological       examination       by    the farm's   salmonella           isolates. Eleven different antimic-
veterinarian,        the   pre-mortem        examination   robial drugs being used predominantly                     in the
showed       the follOWing signs: uncontrolled head        field of poultry            were used in the examination,
movement, inability to stand, complete inability           they      were        as     follows:     Ampidllin      (AMP),
to lift the head off the ground. On the other              Amoxydllin                 (AML),       Apramycin        (APR),
hand post-mortem           examination revealed liver      Ciprotril (CIP), Danofloxacin (OF), Doxycyclin
congestion and sever enteritis in the intestines.          (0),     Flumequine            (AR), Gentamycin           (GM),
                                                           Norfloxacin          (NOR), Fosphomycine            (FOS), and
Liver, spleen, intestines:
                                                           Sulfamethoxazole+ Trimethoprim                 (SXT).
       Each of the above indicated samples (liver,
spleen, and intestines) were chopped into small
pieces with sterile scissors individually, and
inoculated into selenite broth       (Difco) in                   Because        of the behavior          of the ostrich
volumetric      ratio 1:10,the culture was incubated       chicks, always they pick up feces of other chicks
aerobically     at 37°C for 18-24 hr. A loopful of         ,and      in    case        one chick      is infected     with
the culture was streaked            onto Brilliant Green   salmonella       the infection will be spread rapidly
Agar plates (BGA) (Difco), the plates were then            through the flock. Enteritis can be a major cause
incubated       aerobically   at 370C for overnight.       of mortality in intensive reared ostrich chicks,
Suspected       Salmonella    colonies       on BGA (3     in this case the mortali~y w~                 up to 20%. As
colonies)     were    transferred     into Triple Sugar    shown          in (Table 1). Biochemical              test was
Iron    Agar (TSI), and lysine Iron Agar (LIA) ~ conducted                  according to Ewing method (Ewing,
(Difco), the tubes were then incubated at 370C             W.H. 1986), on the isolates revealed typical
for overnight.                                             reaction of salmonella primarily on (TSI) and
                                                           (LIA). On the other hand, as shown in (Table 2).
Biochemical and Serological Tests:
                                                           The serological analysis revealed group B from
    Biochemical and           serological tests were
                                                           the examined samples. Moreover, the prevalent
conducted  according           to standard method
                                                           serovar         to    be      recovered      was      Salmonella
described     by Ewing (Ewing, W.H. 1986) for the
                                                           Typhimurium,               which possessed      the antigenic
cultures showed        typical reaction of salmonella
                                                           formula 1,4, [5], 12:1:1,2 .
on (TSIA) and (LIA). Serological test as well
                                                                  Salmonella          Typhimurium        isolates   which
was carried out on pure culture of Salmonella
                                                           have been isolated in our laboratory                from liver,
isolates    confirmed biochemically as Salmonella
                                                           spleen and intestines of sick and freshly dead
using slide agglutination      technique, salmonella
                                                           baby chicks of ostrich aging 1-2.5 months are in
polyvalent      "0" A-I and Vi and polyvalent "H"
                                                           accordance with the findings ofVerwoerd, who
A-Z and          specific somatic antisera (Difco,
                                                           pointed out that the Salmonella Typhimurium is
Detroit, Michigan, USA) were used to identify
                                                           common          in multispecies collections and causes
the isolated salmonella.
                                                           mortality       in ostrich chicks younger than three
Susceptibility Test:                                       months .on commercial farms, but is rarely
    Bauer et al. diffusion method (Bauer, A.W.;            found in chicks older than six months
Kirby, W.M.; Sherris, J.e. and Turck, M. 1966)             (Verwoerd, D.J. 2000).
                                                        Source and antigenic formula of isolated Salmonella
 Biochemical                     Salmonella                   Liver                    Spleen                   Intestine
 characteristics               typical reaction         1,4 [5],12: 1: 1,2        1,4, [5],12: 1: 1,2       1,4, [5],12: 1: 1,2

 Motility                             +                         +                         +                          +
 Nitrate reduction                    +                         +                         +                          +
 Glucose utilization with             +                         +                         +                          +
 acid and gas formatioin
 Methyl red reactiion                 +                         +                         +                          +
 Hydrogen sulfide                     +                         +                         +                          +
 production on TSI
 Growth on Simmon                     0                         +                         +                          +


 Indole production
 Urea hydrolysis
 Lysine decarboxylation
 Arginine
 decarboxylation
 Malonate utilization
 Fermentation of Lactose
 Fermentation of
 Saccharose
 Fermentation of Salicin
 Fermentation of


 Fermentation of
 Raffinose




 Source                                   Serogroup            Salmonella    Serovar                    Seroformula

 Liver                                        B                Salmonella Typhimurium                   1,4, [5], 12: 1: 1,2
 Spleen                                       B                Salmonella Typhimurium                   1,4, [5], 12: 1: 1,2
 Intestines                                   B                Salmonella Typhimurium                   1,4, [5], 12: 1: 1,2

    The birds were treated in the farm prior                        isolated salmonella using eleven antibiotics
sending them to the laboratory with (E) and                         being used predominantly      in the field of
(ENO) for five days, but no response has shown                      poultry, and the results were as shown in
up to the used medication. Accordingly, the in-                     (Table 3). The isolates were sensitive to six
vitro susceptibility        test was carried          out on        antimicrobial drugs, (NOR), (FOS), (CIP), (GM),
                                                                                                      Result
                                                                                                  Interpretation

 Ampicillin                     AMP 10
 Amoxycillin                    AML 10
 Apramycin                      APR 15
 Ciprotril                        elP
 Danofloxacin                    DF 5
 Doxcyclin                       D 30
 Flumequine                      AR 30
 Gentamycin                     GM 10
 Norfloxacin                    NOR 10
 Fosphomycine                   FOS 50
 Sulfa + trimetho.              SXT25
 Sulfa + trimetho. = Sulfamethoxazole + Trimethoprim

 R = Resistant 5 = Sensitive MIZ = Minimum Inhibition zone.
 Sulfa + trirnetho.= Sulfamelhoxazole + Trirnethoprim.

(AR), and (APR) respectively. Nevertheless,                   addition, a stress free environment Should be
(NOR) was the drug of choice in treating the                  secure. In order to avoid emerging bacterial
infected birds. Meanwhile, the isolates were                  resistant strains on the farm and spe~y
resistant to five antibiotics used in this study              salmonella, the farmers and veterinarians.
and they were as follows: (AMP), (AML),(OF),                  should limit their use to antibiotics and use
(D), and (SXT) respectively. Salmonella Typhi-                them based on the laboratory recommen-
murium multi-drug resistant pattern has been                  dations. The avoidance 'of unnecessary
observed among farm animals, due to the                       antibiotics usage in food animals concurrently
extensive use of the antibiotics to combat                    with good husbandry, good abattoir practice
Salmonella infection. However, the birds were                 and good hygiene at all stages in the feed
treated with Norfloxacin for five days.                       production chain. Typing of salmonella isolates
Consequently, the birds were recovered post                   is a must, because of the drastic increasing
treatment and no salmonella was detected. As                  incidence of antibiotics resistance among
a matter of fact, Ostriches does not have lymph               salmonella bacteria. Salmonella in pure culture
nodes preventing' the spread of bacteria from                 will be forwarded to international reference
the intestine into the blood stream. So,                      laboratory (LOHMANN TIERZUCHT GMBH
septicemia frequently accompanies or follows                  Veterinary Laboratory, Cuxhaven, Germany)
the enteritis.                                                for further typing and phage typing
     Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria                 identification.
are freely provided by flies, lizards, rats etc.,
                                                                           Acknowledgement
which always are attracted to ostrich rearing
                                                                  The authors are grateful to 'the laboratory
sites. Meanwhile, in intensive ostrich rearing
                                                              technician Jayaraman Moorthi, for assisting in
units, these animals are frequently carry
                                                              post-mortem      examination    and      media
salmonella and it's impossible to keep them
                                                              preparation.
away from ostrich baby chicks reared in wide
open area.                                                                      References
     Nevertheless, biosecurity and meticulous                 Bauer, A.W.; Kirby, W.M; Sherris, J.e. and Turck, M.
hygiene should be emphasized in such cases. In                   1966. Antibiotic susceptibility     testing by a
   standardized    single d;sc method. Am. j. Clin.      H uchzermeyer, F. W. 1998. Diseases of Ostriches and
   Path. 45: 493-496.                                       other Ratites. Agricultural       Research Council,
Ewing, W.H. 1986. Edwards and Ewing's identification         Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Republic of
   of Enterobacteriaceae.4th edition. Elsevier Science      South Africa, 296p.
   Publishing Co., Inc., New York 536p.                  The South African Stud Book and Livestock
Gonzalez, 1. V. 1992. Ostriches in central America:         Improvement        Association 2001. Guidelines for
   big business in big birds. World Poultry 8, 7:8-9.       successful ostrich farming, Overview of ostrich
Holtzhausen, A. and Kotze', M. 1990. The Ostrich, C.        farming 1863 to 1994. SASBA, pp 1-3.
   P. Nell Museum,    Bowles Oudtshoorn publishing       Verwoerd, D.J. 2000. Ostrich Diseases. Rev. sci. tech.
   Co.56p.                                                   Off. Int. Epiz. 19,2:638-661.
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