United Nations Development Programme Regional Bureau for Arab

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					United Nations Development Programme / Regional Bureau
             for Arab States (UNDP / RBAS)



             THE PROJECT
   “Enhancement of Quality Assurance and
   Institutional Planning in Arab Universities”

                        Phase I
             1/1/2002 – 30/6/2004 (30 months)
                         Phase II
             Started June 2005 (42 months)
                                                         1
                                 PROJECT AIMS

TO WORK, IN VOLUNTARY PARTNERSHIP WITH ARAB
     UNIVERSITIES:
           To introduce- implement – demonstrate
           On a pilot regional scale and
           In real academic time

THREE INDEPENDENT INSTRUMENTS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE
    AND ENHANCEMENT:
A. EVALUATION OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMS
        Through internal and external (peer) evaluation

B. ADMINISTRATION OF INTERNATIONAL TESTS
        For assessing the performance of students of reviewed programs

C. DEVELOPMENT OF STATISTICAL DATABASES
        On the programs and resources of universities (programs / students and staff
        demographic/ finances) in accordance with commonly agreed data definitions and
        specifications C)




                                                                                         2
           FIRST PHASE ACHIEVEMENTS

A. PROGRAM EVALUATION: TWO CONSECUTIVE REVIEW CYCLES OF
   PROGRAM EVALUATION
    First cycle (2002-2003): review of computer science programs in 15
     universities
    Second cycle (2003–2004) : review of business administration
     programs in 16 universities

B. STUDENT TESTING: TWO PARALLEL CONSECUTIVE CYCLES OF
    STUDENT TESTING
    First cycle ( 2002-2003) English-based CS + BA tests (788 senior
     students)
    Second cycle (2003-2004) Arabic / French-based CS + BA tests (921
     senior students). translation: Unesco Beirut Office.

C. ONE CYCLE FOR DATABASE DEVELOPMENT
    Statistical database development in 15 universities in accordance with
     common data definitions and specifications

                                                                          3
         PARICIPATING UNIVERSITIES

 TWENTY NINE LEADING ARAB UNIVERSITIES
    29 universities = 23 Public + 6 Private
   Moh V, Al-Akhawayn*, AM Saadi ( Morocco); USTHB, Oran (Algeria), Helwan,
     Cairo, Arab Academy* ( Egypt), SUST, Khartoum ( Sudan), Sanaa, UTS*, Aden (
     Yemen), Bahrain U ( Bahrain), Ajman ( UAE), SQU ( Oman), Jordan, JUST,
     Yarmouk, Zarka* ( Jordan) , IUG, PalPoly, An-najah, Al-Azhar ( Palestine),
     Lebanese U, Jinan* (Lebanon), Damascus, Aleppo (Syria).

 FROM 12 COUNTRIES:
   Oman, Bahrain, UAE, Jordan, Palestine, Syria,
    Lebanon, Yemen, Sudan, Egypt, Algeria and Morocco


                                                                                   4
                                  PROJECT TEAM

Sponsorship and Strategic Oversight                   UNDP Country Offices
(UNDP/RBAS)                                           12 countries
                                                      Focal point in each office
Director: Rima Khalaf Hunaidi / Amat Al-Alim
Soswa
                                                      Project Management Team
Project Advisory Committee                            Project Manager: Isam Naqib
Rima Khalaf Hunaidi (chair), Assia Bensalah Al        Regional Coordination Unit: Rima
Aaoui, Adnan Al Amin, Hussein Anis, Victor Bileh,         Mulhim, Head
Hasan Al Ebrahim, Ali Fakhro, Zahir Jamal, Marwan     Staff: Rami Dababneh; Basima Shaheen
Kamal, Amin Mahmood, Safwan Malek Masri,                  (2003-4),
Mohammed Zahi Mogherbi, Mohammed Masheer Al           PT Consultant: Ali Yaghi
Munajied, Maen Nsour, Isam Naqib, Kamal Al Sha’er
Regional Programme Division (RPD)                     Academic Team
Portfolio Management : Zahir Jamal / Nada Al-         92 Leading Academics = 31 programs x 2
Nashif (chief) ; Maen Nsour / Azza Karam (portfolio       (A+B) + 15 x 2 (C)
manager)                                              29 University Coordinators ( VP level)
Executing Agency: UNOPS
Portfolio Manager:
Gilman Rebello / Melissa Esteva

                                                                                       5
PROJECT COMPONENT A

Evaluation of Programs



                         6
                EVALUATION OF PROGRAMS
                   CYCLES OF REVIEW
FIRST CYCLE: COMPUTER SCIENCE (2002-2003)
      15 participating universities in 12 countries
      Cycle duration: 15 months.
      Individual reports distributed (Feb 2003)
SECOND CYCLE: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  (2003-2004)
      16 universities in the same countries
      Cycle duration: 15 months
      Reports distributed ( Aug 2004) .
REGIONAL OVERVIEW REPORT
      Dual report public distribution ( 2005).
      Reports on state of education in both subjects.
      Based on 15 + 16 individual reports
------------------------------------------------------


                                                         7
                  EVALUATION CYCLE - 2

   Cycle stages
     Self evaluation
     External evaluation
     Final reporting
   Cycle Duration
     15 months
     Activities closely timed with academic calendar. Strict deadlines
   Main Aspects of evaluation
     Academic standards
     Learning Opportunities
     Internal Mechanisms for Quality Assurance and Enhancement

                                                                          8
           JUDGMENTS AND OUTPUTS
JUDGMENTS
 Academic Standards (G / S / U)
               Intended learning Outcomes (contract with students) ( G / S / U)
               Curricula (G / S / U)
               Student Assessment (G / S / U)
               Student Achievement (G / S / U)

 Quality of Learning Opportunities
             Teaching and learning (G / S / U)
             Support for Student progression (G / S / U)
             Learning resources (G / S / U)
 Quality Assurance and Enhancement (G / S / U)

OUTPUTS
 Individual Reports
           Analyses of each aspect. Recommendations for improvement
           Judgments ( U/S/G)
 Overview Report
           Regional patterns of strengths and weaknesses
           Recommended reforms and strategies
           Comparative chart of Judgments and Indicators
                                                                                   9
                     PROJECT METHODOLGIES

1) START FROM AN ADVANCED POINT
      Academic Subject Review Method (QAA, UK)
      Generic: Discipline – independent. Tested
2) ADAPT TO SUIT REGION’S NEEDS AND PRIORITIES
        additions
             Expanded Program Specification
             New Key data and information (added annex)
             Cross-match curriculum to an external reference ( MFT)
             Amplified reporting (annex)
         Benefits
             Accommodate variations of systems and terminology
             Bring up the detailed developmental conditions with regard to human and physical
              resources.
             In depth view of strengths and weaknesses: mini judgments on sub-issues.
              Indicators .
             Learn from experience: successive implementations (cycles)
         Comprehensive handbook ( three editions / three languages).
          Training of UK reviewers
         Ownership
3) INVEST IN CAPACITY BUILDING ( Means and outcome of process)                               10
               REVIEW CYCLE STRUCTURE

   THREE WORKSHOPS + THREE PROCESSES ( 15 months)

 WORKSHOP 1
  Training on/ and discussion of the method. Planning of tasks and
  schedules
 PROCESS 1
  Internal ( -self) evaluation of program. Preparation of SE documents.
  Advisory support
 WORKSHOP 2
    Review of progress: Group discussions. Bilateral tutorials.
 PROCESS 2
    First SED drafts, Detailed feedback. Submission of final SED documents.
 WORKSHOP 3
    Training on external reviewing. Selection of reviewers (39/62; 33/48)
 PROCESS 3
    External review missions ( UK + Arab reviewers) . Final individual
      reports. Overview report
                                                                            11
             HIGHLIGHTS OF FINDINGS

COMPUTER SCIENCE
  Academic standards quality gap ( 1 U no G).
  Wide variations between universities
  Programming Fundamentals: Predominant. Emphasis on repetitive
   teaching of many languages. Wasteful. Weak theoretical foundation.
  Theory and Computational Mathematics: Continuous mathematics:
   Little Discrete / Computational methods

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  Academic standards quality gap ( 2G 4 U).
  Wide variations between universities
  Weakness of Quantitative methods / Finance
  Language of Teaching
  CS RESULTS
  BA RESULTS

                                                                   12
              EVALUATION OF PROGRAMS
                     PHASE II
                    THIRD CYCLE OF REVIEWS: EDUCATION
STARTED
     – June 2005
     – 24 universities
     – New participation: 35 universities in 14 countries (Qatar, SA).

COMPLETED
   – Workshops 1, 2 and 3 ( July - Dec 2005) .
   – All SEDs and related documents submitted, commented on / finalized ( Jan 2006) .
   – Review missions (May 5, 2006). Each 2 UK + 2 Arab reviewers
   – Draft reports ( June 2006)
   – Reviewers coordination / editing meeting ( June 7, 2006)
   – Pending review: Islamic University of Gaza

FINAL REPORTS
    – Final individual reports to universities: before Aug 31, 2006
    – Overview report for regional distribution before Dec 31, 2006

     FOURTH CYCLE OF REVIEWS: LAW/ ENGINEERING (2007-08)RTED

                                                                                   13
PROJECT COMPONENT B

 STUDENT TESTING



                      14
                     MODEL

THE MAJOR FIELD TEST (MFT) / EDUCATIONAL
 TESTING SERVICES (ETS) /PRINCETON, USA
    Multiple choice two hour test.
    Published detailed curriculum of topics (with
      weights) , updated periodically ,
    Represents core topics of knowledge and skills
      across a wide cross section of American education
    ETS provides statistical analysis for each group
      of test takers, enabling comparison with other
      groups and with much larger international groups


                                                      15
                             IMPLEMENTATION

• TWO CYCLES
  – Spring 2003: English-based CS and BA ( 788 senior students from 17 universities.
  – Spring of 2004: French and Arabic-based CS and BA (921 senior students from 16
    universities). Translation /administration carried out by UNESCO Beirut Office.
  – Total: 1808 senior students.
• REGIONAL TEST ADMINISTRATION
  –   Workshop
  –   ETS Manual + Added Guidelines
  –   Independent Observers. Added Security
  –   Regional scheduliong

• TEST OUTCOMES
  – Results with analyses sent by ETS to each university and project.
  – Regional analyses by project. Overview report being prepared, one on each cycle..
    Regional comparison and with international groups of test-takers ( 3029 test-takers
    from 133 institutions for CS and 24,715 from 359 institutions for BA) .



                                                                                   16
                     TEST RESULTS
              ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
COMPUTER SCIENCE ( ENGLISH-BASED)
   – Distribution of grades for Arab group: Normal, but
     grades A and A+ under-populated: total 6% compared
     with 20% for international group. Another
     manifestation of of quality gap.
   – Combination with outcomes of program review show
     clear potential for improvement . Examples:
     programming and Computational Theory.
CS Results
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (ENGLISH-BASED)
   – Very surprising result. A and B and part of C grades
     under populated
   – Possible role of teaching language. BA culture.Requires
     regional consultation.
BA Results
                                                          17
                       STUDENT TESTING – 4
                        Lessons Learned

• Feasibility and value of coordinated regional testing: Regional
  guidelines, use independent observers, optimum utilisation of
  resources, regional comparisons, competition

• Importance of university /regional analyses: Correlations

• English-based tests: importance of analysing impact of student
  language proficiency on performance ( especially for BA)

• Arabic / French-based tests : importance of analysing impact of
  translation accuracy on. performance

• Analyses by ETS showed cultural bias of tests not pronounced




                                                                    18
                           STUDENT TESTING – 5
                    Project Phase II
           Administration of MFT – Education
CHALLENGES
   Education is a culturally sensitive field
   ETS Claim: Test covers core knowledge and skills
   An Arabic version is needed ( 21 out of 24 universities)
PILOT STAGE
   Produced Arabic version in consultation with universities.
   Estimated culturally ( contextually) biased questions ( 25%)
   Administered test to a sample of 600 students from 12 universities ( June
    2006)
PLAN
   Analyse results with universities
   Weed out culturally biased questions.
   Add questions by university ( 25%)
   Administer test to all universities in spring 2007.
                                                                                19
PROJECT COMPONENT C
STATISTICAL DATABASE
    DEVELOPMENT



                       20
           AIM AND INTENDED BENEFITS

                              AIM
Develop a model for the collection and dissemination of
  management information to be adopted by Arab
  universities.
                          BENEFITS
• Comparability of information (statistical indicators) : national,
  regional, international: (HE planning, research, int. presence)
• Provide access to reliable updated HE data and information to
  all stakeholders (public accountability) .
• Strengthening of communication with stakeholders: students,
  employers, HE Ministries, other universities
• Informing funding processes (UK experience)

                                                                21
                     CHALLENGES


ARAB UNIVERSITIES HAVE DIVERSE:
  – Academic organizational / academic structures
    Structures (governance, faculties, departments)
  – Program structure ( credits, semesters, degrees)
  – Methods of internal data management (e.g. levels of:
    centralization, computerization)
  – Definitions of data variables
  – Commitment to public access to data ( e.g. apart from
    selective practices: annual reports, press releases. All
    selective)




                                                               22
                          AS A RESULT



Users (stakeholders) encounter difficulty in:
   –   Accessing
   –   comparing
   –   Interpreting HE data
   –   e.g. poor Arab HE data in regional / international reports
   –   Credit: Pioneering work of Dr. Subhi Al-Qassem

Needed: A common set of data definitions that :
   – Interfaces with / not replaces internal system / definitions of data.
   – Accommodates diversity among universities
   – Is agreed through regional field application, testing and
     consultation
   – Adhered to be all (participating) universities

                                                                             23
                           METHOD

MODEL
    – UK Higher Education Statistical Agency (168 institutions). Statutory. System
      independent
    – With adaptations (below)

DEFINITIONS (32) UNDER:
    – Cost centres (academic / non-academic) , subject areas, reporting period, program
      level, mode of study, staff costs, etc.

DATA SPECIFICATIONS
template tables (14)
Example

ADAPTATIONS ( CHALLENGING)
    –   Cost Centres
    –   Staff rank, non-academic staff
    –   Language of teaching
    –   Program based loads
    –   Aggregated finances
    –   Interface tables

                                                                                24
               STUDENT NUMBER AND GROWTH

           Student Number in 2001-02 and Growth since Previous Year

120000
                         Total:: 485,000; range 1000 to 106,000/university
         -2%
                         Average: 32,000 (UK: 13,000 )
100000
               4%
                    10%Average       growth: 7.4%; range –6% to 57%
80000
                                                  Private universities:          22 %
                           0%
60000                                             Public universities:          6.6 %

40000
                                57%               UK:                           5%
                                      9%    -3%
20000                                             26% 20% 18% 13%
                                                                           11% 20%   5%   -6%
    0
         13     2    3     9     4     12    8    15    14        6   11    1   10   5         7
                                        Individual Universities
                                                                                          25
                             SPECIAL FEATURES


               Student Population( 2001-2002)
Level                             Average      UK
 Sub-degree*                     11.3 %       27.2%
 First degree                    83.0 % 50.3%
 Postgraduate**:                 5.7%         22.5%
 Part-time (only in 3 /15) 1%           UK: 44%

* Less sub-degree qualifications ( vocational, employment related).
** Intermediate: 4.5 %, Doctorate: 1.2%. None in 3 for-profit private universities.
*** Rigid modes of learning (lifelong, open, etc)



                                                                                      26
                                                               STUDENTS PER SUBJECT AREA

                                                                     Distribution of Students by Subject Area and Course Level

                                                               Students at the Subdegree and First Degree Level Students at the Intermediate and Doctorate Level

                                            18% 17.9% 17.6%
                                                            Education,                Business Administration, Law and Social Sciences: 55 %
  Proportion of Total Number of Students




                                            16%
                                                                                         Sciences, Engineering & Medicine: 27 % (UK: 41%)
                                            14%
                                                                                                Creative Arts ( none in 10 universities): 1.3 %
                                            12%
                                                                     10.0% 9.7%
                                            10%                                    9.1% 8.6%
                                             8%
                                             6%                                                   4.7% 4.4%
                                             4%                                                                 3.1% 2.6%
                                                                                                                          2.1% 2.1% 1.9% 1.7%
                                             2%                                                                                               1.6% 1.5% 1.3%

                                             0%
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                                                                                                                                                                   27
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                                                                         s
                                                                      as
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                                              Female % of Students and Staff
                                                    (Average students: 47%; Average staff: 19%)

                                                                                                                        Female Students %
                                                                                                                        Average Students
                                                                                                                        Female Staff %
                                                                                                                        Average Staff


                 80


                 70


                 60


                 50
Proportion (%)




                 40


                 30


                 20


                 10


                  0
                      U-1   U-2   U-3   U-4   U-5      U-6     U-7      U-8       U-9   U-10      U-11   U-12   U-13   U-14     U-15
                                                                     University

                                                                                                                                        28
                                      GENDER OF STUDENTS

                                       Female Students per University 2001-02
                                                     All Females   UK Average

                  70%
                  60%
Female Students




                  50%
                  40%
                  30%
                  20%
                  10%
                  0%
                        9   14   15    12   6   13   7      8      11     4     10   5   3   2   1   Average
                                                     Individual Universities


                                      • 46 % (UK 56%)
                                      • Range: 27 % and 65 %

                                                                                                     29
                                                   AGE OF STUDENTS

                                             Age Distribution for All Students
                                                                  Arab   UK
                           45%

                           40%
                                                           Majority below 25 years
Total Number of Students




                           35%
                                                           6% 30 years or over ( UK: 30%)
                           30%
                                                           Compare to UK (modes of learning)
                           25%

                           20%

                           15%

                           10%

                           5%

                           0%
                                 Under 20   20 to 24   25 to 29    30 to 34   35 to 39   40 to 44   45 to 49   50 and
                                                                                                                over

                                                                                                                        30
LANGUAGE OF TEACHING - 1

    Teaching Lagnuage for All Fields

      Combination           English
         12%                 18%


                                 French
                                   4%




           Arabic
            66%




Single language: 3 (2 Arabic, 1 English)
                                           31
              LANGUAGE OF TEACHING - 2
Social Sciences & Humanities

Combination         English
   12%               8%
                                   French               Science & Engineering
                                     4%
                                                      Combination
                                                         14%

                                                                            English
                                                                             39%

                                   Arabic
                                    76%
                   Medical Sciences                   Arabic
                                                       42%
                                                                        French
                     Combination                                          5%
                        4%


          Arabic
           33%

                                            English
                                             56%

                                                                                 32
              French
                7%
                                                                                                                          Student-Staff Ratio
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                                           et            e tu
                                              al Ag ner die
                                                ., r. al s
                                                   & & E
                                                                                                               13 11 11




                                                      M F ng
                                                        at or .
                                                                                   9




                                                          er es
                                                             ia tr
                                                                ls y
                                                                                   9




                                                             Av Eng
33




                                                                 er .
                                                                               5




                                                                   ag
                                                                      e
                                                                                                                                          34
      GENDER OF ACADEMIC STAFF BY RANK

      Gender per Academic Rank 2001-02
                                                          20 % Professors; 25 %
                   Male Staff   Female Staff              Associates; 31 % Assistant;
25%
                                                          24 % Lecturers
                                                          Trend: rising (AHDR)
20%



15%



10%



5%



0%
      Professor   Associate        Assistant   Lecturer
                  Professor        Professor
                                                                              34
                                     EXPENDITURE PER STUDENT

                               Expenditure per Student for Individual Universities 2001-02

                       16000

                       14000

                       12000
                                    4 below US$ 1,000
Expenditure in Euros




                       10000
                                    5 between US$ 1,000 – US$ 2,000
                       8000
                                    4 between US$ 2,000 – US$ 5,500
                       6000
                                    1 above US$ 13,000
                       4000

                       2000

                          0
                                7     13   11   14   8   10     6      5     9     12   1   3   4   Average
                                                         Individual Universities
                                                                                                     35
END SLIDE




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