Working Paper No.2 : TUBEWELL IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN QILA JAWIND SINGH MINOR COMMAND : AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT Executive Summary The present paper is the second working paper in the SPRU’s Working Paper Series to be produced from the groundwater work being done by IPD in Punjab. It analyzes the Tubewell Irrigation System of Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command located in the Khanwah Division of Lahore Irrigation Zone of Pakistan’s Punjab. The analysis was done using the private tubewells data collected during July 2007 from the Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command by Groundwater Management and Monitoring Teams of IPD. The main emphasis was on development, operation and costs (capital and operational) of private tubewells along with groundwater markets aspects to obtain a comprehensive picture of the tubewell irrigation system ecology and economy. Surface water supplies were also included in the analysis to get some insight into the conjunctive use environment of the Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command. The main findings regarding the Tubewell Irrigation System of Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command are presented below. • The current population of private tubewells in Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command area is 802 having an average density of 3.9 TWs/100 acres of CCA, average bore depth of 133 feet, average discharge of 0.50 cusec and average annual utilization factor of 35.2 percent. • In Qila Jawind Singh Minor upto 2007, 433(54%), 286(36%) and 83 (10%) are diesel, electrical and PTO, respectively, out of total PTWs of 802. Clearly, currently, due to economic reasons, a huge number of diesel PTWs (433) followed by electric tubewells (286) owned by the farmers is pumping groundwater for agricultural purposes in Qila Jawind Singh Minor command area. • The horse power (hp) being used to pump GW through PTWs in the command of Qila Jawind Singh Minor varies from 10 to 65. Diesel, electric and PTO tubewells are operated by 10-35, 10-30 and 45-65 hp, respectively. The average hp used for operation of diesel, electric and PTO PTWs is 20, 10 and 55, respectively. Clearly, highest hp of 55 is used for operation of PTO tubewells compared to that used for other types of PTWs in the Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command. • The average tubewell density is equal to 3.9 tubewells per 100 acres of CCA for the command area of Qila Jawind Singh Minor. On average PTW density is higher for head and tail watercourses than for middle watercourses, with 4.4, 3.6 and 3.8 tubewells, respectively; per 100 acres of CCA for the head, tail and middle reach of the minor. Differences in canal water supplies for head, middle and tail watercourses could explain the difference in TW densities in head, middle and tail watercourse command areas. Differences in cropping patterns could be another factor explaining differences in tubewell density in head, middle and reaches watercourse commands. • The bore depth of PTWs varies from 80-250, 100-300 and 90-220 ft for diesel, electric and PTO PTWs, respectively. The average bore depth is 134, 134 and 133 ft for diesel, electric and PTO TWs, respectively. On overall basis, average bore depth is about 134 feet in the command of Qila Jawind Singh Minor. • The average discharge for diesel, electric and PTO tubewells is 0.50 cusec. It reflects that average discharge of PTWs (irrespective of source of power) in the Qila Jawind Singh Minor command area is about 0.50 cusec. • The annual operational hours vary from 1000-6950, 1000-6500 and 1100- 5040 for diesel, electric and PTO PTWs. The overall average annual operational hours for diesel, electric and PTO tubewells are 2770, 3775 and 2189, respectively. Clearly, electric tubewells are operated for larger number of hours (3775) followed by diesel TWs (2770 hours) and PTO (2189 hours) TWs. • The annual utilization factor (UF) varies from 11 to 79 %, 11 to 74 % and 13-58 % for diesel, electric and PTO PTWs, respectively. The average annual utilization factor for diesel, electric and PTO TWs is 32, 43 and 25 percent, respectively. On overall basis irrespective of type of TWs, average UF of PTWs in the Qila Jawind Singh Minor Comand area is 35.2 Percent. • Currently, based on population of PTWs by source of power, their average discharges and average annual utilization factors, the total annual groundwater extraction from PTWs in Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command is estimated as 102184 acre-feet (AF) compared to 96288 AF of canal water (if Qila Jawind Singh Minor flows at 133 Cfs for 365 days continuously, which is not the case presently). TW TW Discharge Pumpage UF (%) Type population (Cs) (AF) Diesel 433 32 0.5 50156 Electric 286 43 0.5 44517 PTO 83 25 0.5 7511 Total 802 35.2 0.5 102184 The comparison of annul PTWs pumpage (102184 AF) and annual canal water supply of 96288 AF reveals that PTWs are pumping GW volume almost equal to that obtained by the Qila Jawind Singh Minor. In other words, GW contributes about 50 % to that total water supply to the area by canal as well as PTWS. This finding strongly suggests that GW plays an important role in irrigated agriculture of Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command. • The hourly operational cost varies from Rs 70-200, 35-140 and 100-190 for diesel, electric and PTO PTWS, respectively. On average basis in Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command, average hourly operational cost is Rs 101, 61 and 123 for diesel, electric and PTO TWs, respectively. Clearly, in Qila Jawind Singh Minor command, average hourly operational cost of electric PTWs is lower than that of diesel and PTO private tubewells. On overall basis, in Qila Jawind Singh Minor Command, average hourly operational cost varies from about Rs 60 to Rs 125 for private tubewells. • Farmers of the Minor are of the view that: Water table depth in the area is in the range of 40-60 ft. Water table in the area is going down at the rate of 2-3 feet/year. After every 5 years, farmers have to lower considerably (10-15 ft) the pumping unit below land surface, (greater depth of sump) from land surface. Diesel TWs do not lift water from deeper depths and are also expensive due to diesel cost. Tractor driven pumps can lift water from deeper depths but are expensive. Farmers are converting existing diesel tube wells to electric tube wells because they are cheaper and can lift water from deeper depths.
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