The Empire State Experience:
Cultural & Heritage Tourism = Diversity & Dollars
A White Paper Prepared by the
Statewide Cultural Tourism Coalition
coordinated by the Museum Association of New York
October 27, 2003
Dear Friends and Colleagues:
We are delighted to share with you this study of cultural and heritage tourism in
New York State. Prepared by the Museum Association of New York in cooperation with the
Statewide Cultural Tourism Coalition, the report offers valuable information about this rapidly
growing segment of the tourism industry. The study includes an overview of cultural and
heritage tourism, a guide to local, regional, and statewide resources, and recommendations
for strengthening tourism partnerships. We hope it helps you to increase cultural
and heritage tourism activities in your community.
Tourism plays a particularly important role in the growth and development of our
economy. In 2001, tourism contributed well over $500 billion to the nation's economy, making
it the country's third largest retail industry behind automotive dealers and food stores. In New
York, tourism is second only to agriculture and generates more than $39 billion in revenue each
year. According to the Travel Industry of America, visitors to cultural and historic attractions are
more likely to stay longer, spend more money, and travel longer distances than other types of
leisure travelers. In addition to the economic benefits, well planned cultural and heritage tourism
can help to improve the quality and character of our communities.
New York has an incredibly significant and diverse collection of scenic, historic, and
cultural resources. Found in every corner of the state, New York’s wide range of historic places
document significant themes in local, state, and national history, as well as a wide variety of
cultural traditions. New York is home to many outstanding cultural institutions. Each year, our
world-renowned museums, historic sites, cultural events, and performing arts centers attract
millions of tourists. We also have one of the oldest and largest state park and historic site
systems in the country, serving 60 million visitors each year. With our impressive array of natural,
cultural, and historic attractions, New York is well situated to expand tourism activities significantly.
Heritage tourism is also increasing across the country. There are various public and
private programs that help to promote these efforts, including Preserve America. This new White
House initiative, administered by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and the U.S.
Departments of the Interior and Commerce, promises to foster the growth of local and regional
heritage tourism programs.
Developing visitor amenities in harmony with the preservation and enhancement of
historic and cultural resources presents both challenges and exciting opportunities in New York.
Tourism, historic preservation, and cultural organizations must work together to organize and
market sites and localities to visitors. Strengthening and expanding public/private and community
partnerships will help to ensure a well-coordinated and long-lasting approach.
New York has all the resources to build a thriving cultural and heritage tourism industry.
We commend the association and the coalition for their commitment to improving cultural
and heritage tourism in New York State. We encourage others to join us in creating tourism
initiatives that safeguard and enhance our communities while offering visitors meaningful,
authentic, and educational experiences.
George E. Pataki, Governor Charles A. Gargano, Chairman Bernadette Castro, Commissioner
State of New York Empire State Development New York State Office of Parks,
Recreation and Historic Preservation
The Empire State Experience 3
development and promotion of cultural
Executive Summary and heritage tourism. It is anticipated
that this “Statewide Cultural Tourism
In 2003, it was projected that New York Coalition” will continue to expand.
State’s museums, historic sites, festivals, Current participants are:
and visual and performing arts centers
would welcome 28.4 million tourists. These Arts & Business Council, Inc.
tourists are part of a growing international Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor
movement in which heritage and arts Museum Association of New York
activities are overtaking other recreational New York State Council on the Arts
options in attracting and engaging visitors. New York State Division of Tourism
This growth trend is particularly gratifying New York State Education Department
at a time when tourism – New York State’s - Freedom Trail Commission
second largest industry – is recovering New York State Office of Parks,
from severe challenges, including the Recreation and Historic Preservation
terrorist attacks of September 11.
People seeking to experience other
cultures and cultural activities while travel- Traveling for Enrichment
ing tend to stay longer, spend more, and
travel longer distances than other types of Nationally, the Travel Industry of America
leisure travelers. New York is a premier reports that 81% of adult American travel-
cultural and heritage destination for visitors ers indicated they included a cultural, arts,
throughout the country and the world. As heritage or historic activity or event while
such, it is a national leader in the number on a trip of 50 miles or more in the past
of leisure travelers taking advantage year.1 These travelers included historical
of its cultural and heritage opportunities. or cultural activities on almost 217 million
person-trips last year, up 13% from 192
Tourism contributed more than $39 million in 1996.2 Of those travelers, 48%
billion to the state’s economy in 2000, attended a performing arts event, 47%
according to Travel Industry of America visited an art museum or antique establish-
(‘TIA”). Cultural and heritage organizations ment, 41% visited a historic site, and 41%
are a major component of this industry, visited a festival or fair. “As people travel
but these celebrated assets are often not more, they don’t travel aimlessly – they travel
fully recognized by elected officials and to get to know a particular place in a meaning-
community and tourism industry leaders ful way. The strength of cultural tourism is
as the economic development and in its ability to satisfy this desire for meaning
educational resources they truly are. New in people’s lives.”3
Yorkers need to know about the positive
impact of cultural and heritage tourism. The most widely used definition
of cultural tourism states that it is travel
In an effort to stimulate dialogue about based on a mosaic of places, traditions,
New York State’s cultural tourism mission, art forms, celebrations, and experiences
a broad-based group of public and private that portray a place and its people and
partners have joined together to facilitate
communication and collaboration. Our goal
is to build recognition and support for 1
Historic/Cultural Traveler, 2003. Prepared by the Research
Department of the Travel Industry Association of America,
cultural tourism as an important factor in Washington, DC.
A person-trip is one person on one trip traveling 50 miles
the economy and quality of life of New York or more, one way, away from home, or includes one
State, and to expand opportunities for the 3
or more overnights.
May, Margaret L.“Cultural Tourism: Trends and Expectations
Between Tourism and Culture.” Lord Cultural Resources
Planning and Management, Inc. 2000.
reflects their diversity and character.4 What is their impact on
In 2002, the Statewide Cultural Tourism the economy?
Coalition further refined the definition
for New York State: Cultural tourism is In 2003, the Travel Industry of America
travel that is directed toward experiencing the reported on two consumer studies in “The
rich arts, heritage, and diversity of the people Historic/Cultural Traveler.” Among the find-
and landscapes of New York State. ings are: cultural/historic trips tend to last
longer (5.2 nights vs. the U.S. average trip
of 4.1 nights, excluding transportation);
Who are these tourists? and cultural travelers spend more
($623/trip vs. $457). While traveling,
Travelers who include cultural events cultural/historic travelers tend to stay at
on their trips come in all shapes and sizes. paid lodging facilities (62% vs. the average
They share many similarities with other of 56%). Furthermore, cultural/historic
US travelers: trips are more likely than the average trip
to last seven nights or longer and include
62% are married air travel, a rental car, and a hotel stay.
41% are Baby Boomers Cultural/historic travelers are also more
33% have children under 18 likely to extend their stay to experience
history and culture at their destination.
Travel statistics also point up some In fact, four in ten added extra time to
differences. Compared to other US travel- their trip specifically because of a
ers, cultural/historic travelers are more cultural/historic activity.
likely to explore geographically diverse
locations. Furthermore, they have a higher In New York State, tourism ranks as
propensity to shop and are more likely the second largest industry employing
to visit national or state parks. more than 750,000 people and generating
more than $5.2 billion in revenue per year
Cultural/historic travelers also tend to for local and state governments. In 2002,
take trips for entertainment purposes, there were 111 million person trips in New
travel in the summer, and readily combine York State with total spending an estimated
business and pleasure travel. They are $39 billion. New York State ranks second
more likely to be retired, to be divorced, in terms of numbers of international visi-
widowed or separated, and to travel with tors and fifth in domestic travel nationally.
other adult family household members.
More than 29% of New York State
leisure travelers listed cultural activities
and historic sites as a primary activity
while on vacation. This compares to 19%
“Cultural tourists tend to be slightly of U.S. leisure travelers and 20% of leisure
older than other travelers and spend travelers in the Northeastern region of
more on their trips than other age the U.S.6 In fact, when compared to the
groups. The sophistication of this primary activities enjoyed by visitors to
market will demand an experience that other Northeastern States, New York State
is authentic, high quality, and in many visitors have the highest propensity to list
cases, customized to meet individual cultural activities as a primary trip activity.
interests and needs.” 5
Definition developed by the National Assembly of
State Arts Agencies.
Webb, Amy Jordan. “2001 Outlook for Cultural Heritage
Tourism.” National Trust for Historic Preservation.2001.
Statistics from D.K. Shifflet. 2003.
The Empire State Experience 5
Where arts and heritage venues are Example: American Revolution
vigorously promoted to visitors, the impact
upon local and state economies can During the summer and fall of 2002,
be remarkable. the decisive events of 1777 were
reenacted and remembered at
events honoring the 225th anniver-
sary of the American Revolutionary
Example: Summer of Monet War. Linked and promoted under
the combined banner of “3 Valleys
In the summer of 1999, ten cultural to Freedom”, activities at dozens
of historic sites in the Mohawk,
institutions in the Buffalo area joined Champlain, and Hudson Valleys drew
forces to develop “The Summer of more than 125,000 attendees.
Monet” initiative that was built The estimated combined economic
around the exhibition, “Monet at impact of these events was more
Giverny: Masterpieces from the than $31 million in income for the
Musee Marmottan” at the Albright- region, as reported by the Mohawk
Knox Art Gallery. Nearly half of the Valley Heritage Corridor Commission.
audience for the exhibition came
from outside the Buffalo area. The In the four counties of the western
Mohawk Valley, more than 40,000
success of this collaboration and
people attended events at 14 his-
its related marketing resulted in toric sites commemorating the
an economic impact to the city 225th anniversary of the Battles of
in excess of $11 million. Oriskany and Fort Stanwix. These
sites reported a 61% increase in
attendance from the same time
period in 2001. Total attendee
expenditures in the same period
also rose by 63%.
Example: New York City
New York City welcomed over 35
million visitors in 2002. Of that Resources for Cultural Tourism
total, almost 30 million traveled to
the city from elsewhere in the US. in New York State
Of these US visitors, more than 40%
identified culture as a primary activity New York State’s remarkable role in the
on their trip. Broadway performances history of the United States has given resi-
alone sell over ten million tickets every dents and visitors alike a legacy of cultural
year, about 43% to US visitors and and historical experiences that reflect a
about 4.8% to international visitors. sweeping spectrum of creative and intellec-
With discussions of lower Manhattan’s tual expression, invention and innovation,
future well underway, many individuals imaginative leadership, and triumph of the
and groups are urging New York City human spirit. This legacy can be found in
government to use arts and culture every region of the state, from Niagara
as a lynchpin in its revitalization. Falls to Montauk, and from New York City
There are approximately 1,400 muse-
ums and heritage organizations and 2,000
arts organizations spanning New York
State. Not only is New York State the NEW YORK campaign, as well as numer-
home of world class museums, operas, ous others that are not affiliated. Where
symphonies, and theaters, it was the first these local tourism promotion organiza-
state in the nation to maintain a historic tions have taken an interest in promoting
site for educational purposes - cultural institutions and events, projects
Washington’s Headquarters in Newburgh. have greatly benefited all participants,
Today, the state’s network of parks and as well as local economies.
historic sites draws 60 million attendees
annually. The National Park Service Partnering and Packaging
operates 19 units in New York State,
which drew more than 15.5 million The impact of cultural tourism can
attendees in 2002. be greatly increased when cultural and
tourism organizations work together to
Historic preservation is also an effective package and market themselves to travel-
vehicle for meeting important community ers. There is a significant need within the
goals, such as increasing tourism, creating cultural and tourism communities to learn
new jobs, and providing affordable housing. about each other and find ways to plan
In a recent report commissioned by the and execute meaningful and economically
Preservation League of New York State, successful collaborations. There have been
the economic impact of historic preserva- some initial efforts to address this need.
tion activities was found to be significant. The New York State Council on the Arts
Much of the economic benefit of an historic and the Arts & Business Council Inc.
site extends beyond the site itself. Every are facilitating partnering and packaging
dollar that regional visitors spend at an opportunities through their Cultural Tourism
historic site is matched by nearly two Initiative Grants program, now in its fourth
dollars spent elsewhere. For overnight year. In 2002, the program received $5 in
visitors, the economic leverage of the requests for every $1 it had to give away.
historic site is even greater.7
There is a growing realization that
New York State’s Division of Marketing, cultural and heritage organizations and
Advertising and Tourism, within Empire their activities have substantive and
State Development, oversees the well- quantifiable impacts on the health and
known I LOVE NEW YORK campaign, well being of the communities in which
which has recently begun to focus greater they reside. Saratoga Springs, Beacon,
attention on the growing cultural/heritage Troy, and Buffalo are recent examples
tourism market. In the past two years where local governments and businesses
I LOVE NEW YORK has promoted cultural are making investments in their communi-
resources to potential visitors through ties by supporting the promotion,
television and radio, travel guides, programmatic, and physical development
brochures, partnerships with cultural of cultural and heritage organizations
organizations, and on its Web site. through financing, creating cultural
districts, and brokering public-private
There are local tourism promotion partnerships. Public-private investment
agencies (“TPA”s) and convention and visi- also ensures broad public access.
tor bureaus (“CVB”s) throughout the state
that are a part of the statewide I LOVE 7
New York: Profiting Through Preservation.
Preservation League of New York State. 2001. p. 20.
The Empire State Experience 7
may include development of visitor
centers, lodging and restaurant options,
CHALLENGES TO BE MET parking, ongoing front-line staff training,
and cross-promotional strategies.
Technical assistance, as well as funding,
Developing the state’s full potential for will be needed to help communities
cultural and heritage tourism will require successfully plan and implement improve-
coordination and commitment. Our goal ments to infrastructure for tourism.
should be not only to increase the numbers
of cultural/heritage visitors, but also to
increase the diversity of our audiences Physical Access
and to expand the impact of tourism into Cultural institutions and activities must
previously unvisited locales. To do so will be physically accessible and “visitor
require innovative branding concepts, ready.” This may include adequate and
cross-regional and cross-industry convenient restrooms, easy and safe
collaborations, increased public-private parking, rampways and elevators,
partnerships, and a concerted effort comfortable seating, and easy-to-read
to address the following challenges: printed materials and signage.
Showcasing our Diversity Tourism Structure
There are hundreds of local The tourism structure in New York State
resources reflecting the great diversity needs the flexibility to cross traditional
and history of the state, from Polish boundaries in order to capitalize on
cultural festivals in western New York, unique experiences and facilitate collabo-
to music tours in Harlem and the Bronx, ration in product development and mar-
or the Underground Railroad sites that keting. An example of this type of flexibil-
have been discovered throughout many ity can be found in those programs that
communities. Finding ways to better are based on thematic content in
coordinate and promote these destina- addition to geographical location.
tions accomplishes several goals: they
strengthen the state’s ability to draw
ever more diverse visitors; they give all Data Capture, Trend Analysis,
visitors a greater choice of authentic and Planning for Tourism
experiences; and they foster exciting and Cultural Partners:
collaborative opportunities to market Sustained capture and timely analysis
ethnic and artistic traditions. Tourism of information on visitors is essential to
can provide new revenues to communi- determining marketplace trends. The
ties that have had only limited success development of a research base to keep
in showcasing their heritage and the field abreast of travel trends would
cultural assets. enable cultural tourism stakeholders to
successfully plan, initiate, and fund new
initiatives. The New York State Division
Infrastructure of Tourism could be the lead for this,
Communities interested in attracting with the proper resources. Institutional
cultural/heritage tourists must make commitment on the part of managers
a commitment to create adequate and/or boards will ensure the develop-
infrastructure to handle tourists. This ment of meaningful partnerships,
marketing/business plans specific to
target markets, and the direction of Understanding the Market
resources toward sustaining best Now more than ever, people are
efforts. It is imperative that information searching for meaning. Many will find it
about the impact of cultural tourism in nature, heritage, and culture. Tourism,
to the state’s economy should be is the means not the end to fulfilling
readily and regularly accessible a widespread desire for meaningful,
to decision-makers. integrated experiences. For example,
the power of experience marketing can
bring exciting new perspectives to how
Sustainability cultural institutions position themselves
Successful cultural tourism programs in local and travel markets, reach
need to be planned with a long view. non-traditional audiences, and develop
A key to sustainability is the creation consumer-oriented programming.
of products that are in harmony with
a community’s values and aspirations
to maintain its own heritage, culture, The Internet
and environment. A major trend in travel has been the
increasing use of the Internet for
research and booking. It is crucial that
Development of Partnerships cultural and heritage organizations have
Partnerships are key to success in good Web sites with links to the main
cultural tourism. Cultural tourists state and/or regional Web sites, and
demand quality and variety from their that these Web sites respond to the
tourism experiences. Very few institu- current cultural tourism trends of
tions or communities can provide a experience, authenticity, and conven-
complete experience, but by partnering ience. Web sites must be consumer-
with neighboring communities, comple- driven, allowing visitors to explore and
mentary institutions, events and attrac- find integrated experiences that are
tions can develop and offer a variety of meaningful to them.
diverse opportunities. It must be recog-
nized, however, that partnerships take
time and resources to nurture and Information Capture and
grow – they require organizational Access for Visitors and Travelers
commitment and financial support. We need to develop consumer-driven
information about the state’s diverse
cultural community so that travelers and
Coordinated Planning residents can easily access information
Many communities and cultural institu- about cultural organizations and activi-
tions need help determining if cultural ties, plan itineraries, and provide feed-
tourism is a good marketing fit for them. back. Technology is still an issue for
A commitment to cultural tourism is a many cultural organizations – many lack
commitment to collaboration, authenticity up-to-date equipment and the resources
and quality, preservation of resources, to develop and keep current Web sites
and balancing the needs of visitors and and Internet-based promotional tools.
residents. Cultural tourism is not for all
communities, and it takes a thorough
process to determine if it is a good fit.
The Empire State Experience 9
expertise, resources, and leadership talent
from the business world to the arts
CULTURAL AND HERITAGE TOURISM community. www.artsandbusiness.org
Association of Hispanic Arts (AHA): Founded in
1975, Association for Hispanic Arts is a
Alliance of National Heritage Areas (ANHA): not-for-profit organization dedicated to the
Organization of federally designated advancement of Latino arts and artists in
heritage areas and corridors. the United States. www.latinoarts.org
Association of Retail Travel Agents (ARTA):
Alliance of New York State Arts Organizations: Trade association of American travel retailers.
Provides leadership and vision, and delivers www.artaonline.com
services, resources, and tools that strengthen
community cultural organizations. Business Enterprises for Sustainable Tourism
www.thealliancenys.org (BEST): An initiative of The Conference
Board in association with the World Travel
American Association for State and Local History & Tourism Council, BEST serves as a
(AASLH): Not-for-profit organization provides repository for information on global
leadership, service, and support for its "best practices" in sustainable tourism.
members who preserve and interpret state www.sustainabletravel.org
and local history in order to make the past
more meaningful in American Society. Heritage New York: Established to preserve,
www.aaslh.org interpret, and celebrate the State’s heritage
through the administration of the state’s
American Association of Museums (AAM): historical collection and the development
National organization representing the of a series of thematic heritage trails
museum community - including cultural, www.heritageny.state.ny.us
historic and natural museums - and
addressing its needs, thereby enhancing Hudson River Valley Greenway: Facilitates the
the ability of museums to serve the development of a voluntary regional strategy
public interest. www.aam-us.org for preserving scenic, natural, historic,
cultural, and recreational resources.
American Automobile Association (AAA): www.hudsongreenway.state.ny.us
Membership organization providing information
relating to owning and operating automobiles. Institute of Museum and Library Services
Also operates retail travel agencies. (IMLS): An independent federal agency that
www.aaa.com fosters leadership, innovation, and lifetime
of learning through support of all types
American Bus Association (ABA): Trade association of museums and libraries. www.imls.gov
representing charter and intercity bus
companies. www.buses.org International Association of Amusement
Parks & Attractions (IAAPA): The trade
American Craft Council: National, not-for-profit association of theme parks, zoos, resorts,
educational organization dedicated to fostering tourist attractions, and other fixed-location
an environment in which craft is understood entertainment facilities. www.iaapa.org
and valued. www.craftcouncil.org
International Association of Convention
American Hotel & Lodging Association (AHLA): & Visitors Bureaus (IACVB):
Trade association for accommodations. Worldwide association of convention and
www.ahla.com visitors bureaus, based in Washington, DC.
American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA):
Trade association of retail travel agents. Long Island Museum Association: A not-for-profit
www.astanet.com organization that provides support, advice, and
training to museums and historical societies
Americans for the Arts: National organization on Long Island. www.LIMAmuseums.org
that strives to make arts more accessible to
every adult and child in America by working Lower Hudson Conference: Provides regional
with cultural organizations, arts and business services for historical agencies & museums
leaders, and individuals to foster leadership, of the Hudson Valley and greater metropolitan
education, and information that will encourage area. www.lowerhudsonconference.org
support for the arts and culture in U.S.
communities. www.artsusa.org Museum Association of New York: Membership
organization that works on behalf of all
Arts & Business Council, Inc.: Through its local museums in the state. www.manyonline.org
and national programs the Council brings
Museum Store Association: International they originate, foster the sharing of folk
organization representing museum store traditions across cultural boundaries, and
professionals worldwide from more than further cultural equity and cross-cultural
1,900 institutions. www.museumdistrict.com understanding. www.nyfolklore.org
National Assembly of State Arts Agencies New York State Association of Convention
(NASAA): Membership organization of the and Visitors Bureaus: Statewide organization
nation's state and jurisdictional arts agencies that is made up of representatives of the
that advances and promotes a meaningful Convention and Visitors Bureaus ("CVBs") in
role for the arts in the lives of individuals, New York State. www.newyorkmeetings.com
families and communities throughout the
United States. www.nasaa-arts.org New York State Council on the Arts (NYSCA):
A state funding agency that provides support
National Endowment for the Arts (NEA): for activities of not-for-profit arts and cultural
Independent agency of the federal government organizations in New York State and helps to
serving the public good by nurturing human bring artistic programs of high quality to the
creativity, supporting community spirit, and citizens of the state. www.nysca.org
fostering appreciation of the excellence and
diversity of America's artistic accomplishments New York State Department of Education:
through grant-making, leadership initiatives, Encompasses the Office of Cultural Education,
partnerships, and public information. which includes the Chartering Program for
www.arts.endow.gov museums and historical organizations;
manages the Freedom Trail Commission.
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH): www.nysed.gov
Independent grant-making agency of the
federal government dedicated to supporting New York State Division of Tourism: Implements
research, education, and public programs a variety of activities to promote tourism in
in the humanities. www.neh.gov New York State, including administration of
the I LOVE NEW YORK campaign.
National Park Service (NPS): A division of the www.iloveny.com
U.S. Department of Interior, the National Park
Service administers the joint federal-state-local New York State Heritage Area Association
historic preservation program established by (NYSHAA): Provides networking and advocacy
Congress in the National Historic Preservation opportunities for New York State’s Heritage
Act of 1966. It also oversees the National Areas.
Register of Historic Places and assists
the group of federally designated national New York State Hospitality and Tourism
heritage areas. www.nps.gov Association (NYSHTA): A not-for-profit trade
organization representing more than 1,300
National Tour Association (NTA): A trade member businesses and individuals in the
association of motorcoach tour operators lodging and attractions industry.
and group travel buyers. www.ntaonline.com www.nyshta.org
National Trust for Historic Preservation New York State Office of Parks, Recreation
(NTHP): National not-for-profit organization and Historic Preservation (OPRHP):
chartered by Congress to protect and Manages New York's state parks, historic
preserve the nation's historic resources and sites, and recreation areas. In addition, it
cultural heritage. The National Trust operates manages the New York State Heritage Areas
historic properties and provides advice and Program. www.nysparks.com
assistance to communities in preserving
historic properties. It also manages the Office of Travel and Tourism Industries,
nation's first cultural heritage tourism U.S. Department of Commerce: The federal
program and the National Main Street agency responsible for tracking and analyzing
Center. www.nationaltrust.org international visitation to the United States.
New York Council for the Humanities:
Devotes itself to insuring the presence of Partners in Tourism: Coalition among national
the humanities in the state's cultural and service organizations and federal agencies
intellectual life and to guaranteeing the future broadly representing the arts, humanities,
of the humanities among young people. heritage, and tourism organizations around
www.nyhumanities.org the country. Includes: Advisory Council on
Historic Preservation, Alliance for National
New York Folklore Society: Statewide not-for- Heritage Areas, American Association of
profit organization that offers a wide range of Museums, Americans for the Arts, Cultural
programs and services to nurture traditional and Heritage Tourism Alliance, Federation of
arts and culture in the communities where State Humanities Councils, National Assembly
The Empire State Experience 11
of State Arts Agencies, National Association
for African-American Heritage Preservation,
National Conference of State Historic
Preservation Officers, National Geographic GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Society, National Trust for Historic
Preservation, National Endowment
for the Arts, National Endowment for
Bed and Breakfast: Overnight accommodations, usually in
the Humanities, Institute for Museum and a private home or boarding house, with a full American-style
Library Services, the President's Committee breakfast included in the rate.
on the Arts and Humanities, Travel Industry
Association of America, U.S. Department Blocked Space: Reservations made with suppliers by
of Agriculture, and the U.S. Department wholesalers or travel agents in anticipation of resale.
of the Interior.
Booking/Reservation Form: Signed by customers
Preservation League of New York State: purchasing tours stating exactly which tour is being
purchased. The form also outlines all liability.
Dedicated to the protection of New York's
diverse and rich heritage of historic Certificate of Appropriateness: Permit granted by a
buildings, districts, and landscapes. historic preservation commission or design review board
www.preservenys.org under local law in some communities recognizing that
proposed work to an officially designated local landmark
Society of American Travel Writers (SATW): or historic district conforms to community guidelines
An association of journalists whose primary for historic preservation projects.
occupation is writing about or photographing
travel. www.satw.org Certified Local Governments (CLG): A federal
program that provides preservation assistance and grants
to communities who have passed laws to encourage preser-
Statewide Cultural Tourism Coalition: vation of historic places and set up a commission of qualified
An informal group of statewide and multi- citizens to advise on preservation of local historic resources.
regional public and private partners involved
in Cultural Tourism in New York State. Charter Flight: A flight booked exclusively for the use
of a specific group or groups who are traveling on
Tourism Promotion Agencies Council: an inclusive tour charter program.
A statewide organization that is made up
Commission (Preservation ): A governmental body
of representatives of Tourism Promotion established by the mayor or city council under local law
Agencies (TPAs) in New York State. TPAs in some communities to advise on matters affecting historic
are generally not-for-profit organizations or resources, to recommend official designation of significant
departments of local government, charged historic properties and historic districts as local landmarks,
with promoting their county’s tourism and to review proposed work to the community's officially
attractions and businesses, and designated local landmarks and in its official historic districts.
the tourism industry as a whole. Although the responsibilities and composition of commissions
vary by local law, most have five to ten members represent-
ing a variety of interests and areas of expertise related to
Travel & Tourism Research Association preservation and revitalization of historic properties.
(TTRA): A professional society of market
research specializing in the travel industry. Commission (Travel) : The amount which travel agents
www.ttra.com receive from a supplier for selling transportation,
accommodations or other services.
Travel Industry Association of America (TIA):
The not-for-profit umbrella trade organization Confidential Tariff: A schedule of wholesale rates distrib-
of companies and government agencies repre uted in confidence to travel wholesalers and travel agents.
senting all segments of the travel industry Consolidator: A person or company which forms groups to
formed to promote travel to and within travel on air charters or at group fares on scheduled flights
the US. www.tia.org to increase sales, earn override commissions or reduce
the possibility of tour cancellations.
Upstate History Alliance: A not-for-profit
organization which provides support, advice, Cultural Tourism Alliance: Informal group of U.S.
and training to historical societies, museums, practitioners responsible for cultural tourism programs
historians and others interested in history in in states, cities, and regions.
a 35 county area of upstate New York. Design Review: A tool used by many communities to
www.upstatehistory.org ensure that changes to local landmarks are made in a way
that is sympathetic to the building's historic character, and in
Western New York Association of Historical the best interest of conserving the building's historic fabric.
Agencies: A not-for-profit organization
which provides support, advice and training Destination: The place to which a traveler is going;
to historical societies, museums, historians, or any city, area, region or country being marketed
and others interested in history in Western as a single entity to tourists.
New York. Double Occupancy Rate: The price per person for a room
shared with another person.
The information in this list of cultural and heritage tourism-
related agencies was updated in February 2004.
Easement: Tool for preserving historic properties. An owner
may donate a part of his/her historic property to a not-for- Historic Resource: A historic building, site, structure,
profit organization, granting the organization permission to object or district which has the potential to benefit the
see that the features on which it holds the rights are community economically, educationally or in some
maintained and preserved by the owner and any future other way if it is preserved.
owners. The not-for-profit organization monitors the
property to ensure compliance with preservation Hostel: An inexpensive, supervised lodging, particularly
standards and/or guidelines. used by young people or elders.
Escort: A person, usually employed by a tour operator, Hotel Package: A package offered by a hotel, sometimes
who accompanies a tour from departure to return as guide consisting of no more than a room and breakfast;
or trouble-shooter; or a person who performs such functions sometimes, especially at resort hotels, consisting of
only at the destination. The terms host-escort or host are (ground) transportation, room, meals, sports facilities
often used, and are preferred, to describe this service. and other components.
Escorted Tour: A prearranged travel program, usually House Museum: A residence which has been preserved
for a group, with escort service. Fully escorted tours may or restored to represent a particular point in time or
also use local guide services. a particular theme in history, and which is open to
the public as a museum.
Familiarization Tour: A complimentary or reduced-rate
travel program for travel agents, airline or rail employees Incentive Tour: A trip offered as a prize, usually by
or other travel buyers, designed to acquaint participants with a company to stimulate employee sales or productivity.
specific destinations or suppliers and to stimulate the sale of
travel. Familiarization tours, also called fam tours, are some- Itinerary: Travel schedule provided by a travel agent for
times offered to journalists as research trips for the purpose his/her customer. A proposed or preliminary itinerary may
of cultivating media coverage of specific travel products. be general or specific. A final itinerary, however, provides
all details - flight numbers, departure times, reservation
Foreign Independent Travel or Foreign Individual confirmation numbers - and describes planned activities.
Travel (FIT): An international pre-paid unescorted tour that
includes several travel elements such as accommodations, Landmark: A building, structure or object that marks
rental cars and sightseeing. A FIT operator specializes in the land - the familiar old building or other property
preparing FIT documents at the request of retail travel - that provides orientation to a community or region.
agents. FITs usually receive travel vouchers to present to
on-site services as verification of pre-payment. Motorcoach: A large highway passenger vehicle used
to perform any travel service other than scheduled
Ground Operator: A company that provides local travel transportation for individually ticketed passengers.
services, including transportation or guide services.
Museum: Institution devoted to the procurement, care,
Heritage Area: A place where natural, cultural, historic, study, and display of objects of lasting value or interest.
and recreational resources combine to form a cohesive
distinctive landscape arising from patterns of human activity National Heritage Area Program: New York State
shaped by geography. These patterns make Heritage Areas has two National Heritage Areas, the Hudson River Valley
representative of the human experience through the physical National Heritage Area and the Erie Canalway National
features that remain and the traditions that have evolved in Heritage Corridor.
the areas. Continued use of Heritage Area by people whose
traditions helped to shape the landscapes enhances their National Register of Historic Places: The nation's
significance. A heritage corridor is a heritage area that is official list of properties that should be preserved because
organized around and focused on one linear resource such of their significance in American history, architecture,
as a river, canal, or road. www.cr.nps.gov/heritageareas/ archaeology, engineering or culture. The National Register
recognizes important historic buildings, sites, structures,
Historic Guidelines: A set of parameters for making objects, and districts. It includes properties of local,
decisions about the appropriateness of alterations to historic state or national importance.
properties or districts. Historic preservation commissions
charged with reviewing the appropriateness of proposed Net Rate: Price of goods to be marked up for eventual
alterations to historic properties in their communities use resale to the consumer.
written design guidelines to help them make fair and consis-
tent decisions that allow change to take place while preserv- Packager: Anyone organizing a tour including prepaid
ing and enhancing the historic character of local landmarks. transportation and travel services, usually to more
than one destination.
Historic Property: A site which has qualities that make
it significant in history, architecture, archaeology, engineering Package Tour: A saleable travel product offering an inclu-
or culture; sometimes more specifically a site which is eligible sive price with several travel elements that would otherwise
for or listed on the National Register of Historic Places, be purchased separately. Usually has a pre-determined price,
or on a local or state register of significant sites. length of time and features but can also offer options for
Historic District: A defined geographical area which may
be as small as a few contiguous buildings, or as large as an Person-trip: The research term for one person taking one
entire neighborhood, central business district, or community, trip of 50 or more miles, one-way, away from home.
within which historic properties associated with a particular
time or theme in a community's history predominate. Often
the collective significance of the district may be greater than Preservation: The conservation of the qualities and
that of any one building or archaeological site. As a planning materials that make historic buildings, sites, structures,
tool, historic district designation is often used to ensure objects and districts significant. Approaches to preservation
the preservation of historic properties within the defined include stabilization, restoration, rehabilitation,
boundary, or to encourage reinvestment of the buildings. and reconstruction.
The Empire State Experience 13
Preservation Ordinance: A local law enacted to protect is consistent with the policy of preserving historic properties
a community's historic resources. Although such ordinances whenever possible set forth by Congress in the National
vary in specifics from community to community, typically they Historic Preservation Act.
establish the preservation of a community's historic
resources as being in the public interest, provide for the Single Supplement: An extra charge assessed to
creation of a historic preservation commission to advise individuals traveling alone who do not want to share
the chief elected officials on historic preservation matters, accommodations.
establish a procedure for designating local landmarks and
historic districts, and authorize the commission to review Stabilization: Short-term measures to halt deterioration
proposed alterations, additions, and demolitions affecting of a historic property.
local landmarks and historic districts to see that they are
in accord with a set of broad community guidelines Supplier: The actual producer of a unit of travel merchan-
for such work which are part of the ordinance. dise, such as a carrier, hotel or sightseeing operator.
Preservation Plan: A document which evaluates a Survey: A study of historic properties or historic resources
community's historic resources and makes recommendations within a defined geographic area such as a neighborhood,
on steps which may be taken to ensure that they are community or township. A survey often serves as the
preserved and reused to the community's economic foundation for a historic preservation plan for a neighbor-
and social benefit. hood, community or region.
Rack Rate: The official cost posted by a hotel, attraction Investment Tax Credit: The 20% Rehabilitation
or rental car, but not used by tour operators. Investment Tax Credit available to owners of properties
listed on the National Register of Historic Places who invest
Receptive Operator: A tour operator or travel agent in a substantial rehabilitation of their buildings, provided the
specializing in services for incoming visitors, such as work they do is certified by the National Park Service as
meeting them at the airport and facilitating their conforming to the Secretary of the Interior's Standards
transfer to lodging facilities. for Rehabilitation.
Reconstruction: The recreation of a historic building or Technical Visit: Tour designed for a special interest group,
feature that has been demolished or destroyed based on usually to visit a place of business with a common interest.
documentation or research. The product resembles its The tour usually includes part business/part leisure
historic predecessor, but is not historic. and is customized for the group.
Restoration: The act of returning a historic property as Tour: Any prearranged (but not necessarily prepaid) journey
closely as possible to its exact appearance at a particular to one or more places and back to the point of origin.
point in time, based on careful research. Few buildings call
for this kind of treatment, which often involves removing Tourism: The business of providing and marketing services
modern systems, technological improvements, and additions. and facilities for pleasure travelers. Thus, the concept of
tourism is of direct concern to governments, carriers, and
Retail Agency: Travel company selling directly to the lodging, restaurant, and entertainment industries and
the public, sometimes a subdivision of a wholesale of indirect concern to virtually every industry and business
and/or retail travel organization. in the world. Generally, travel over 50 miles, one way
is considered “tourism”.
Revolving Fund: Fund established for acquisition and
rehabilitation of historic properties. When the acquisition Tour Leader: A person with special qualifications to
and rehabilitation of a historic property has been completed, conduct a particular travel group, such as a botanist
the property is sold, and the proceeds of the sale go back who conducts a garden tour.
into the revolving fund, which is then used to acquire
and rehabilitate additional properties. Tour Operator: A company that creates and/or markets
inclusive tours and/or performs tour services.
Secretary of the Interior's Standards for
Rehabilitation: A broad set of guidelines for the Travel Agent: The individual who sells travel services,
rehabilitation of historic properties designed to encourage issues tickets, and provides other travel services
work which is in keeping with the historic character of the to the traveler at the retail level.
building, and which does not do damage to the building's
historic fabric. Projects receiving federal tax credits or grants Vouchers: Documents issued by a tour operator to
from the federal Historic Preservation Fund must conform be exchanged for accommodations, meals, sightseeing,
to the Secretary of Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation; admission tickets, etc.
however, the Standards are also widely accepted among
professionals in historic preservation as sound strategies Wholesaler: A company that usually creates and markets
for people working with any historic property. inclusive tours and FIT for sale through travel agents.
Usually sells nothing at retail, but also does not always
Section 106: A portion of the National Historic Preservation create his/her own product; also less likely to perform
Act of 1966 directing agencies of the federal government local services.
and peoples using federal funds, permits or licenses to
consider the effects of their proposed projects on properties
eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places
during the planning stage of their project, and to allow the
State Historic Preservation Officer and the federal Advisory
Council on Historic Preservation to comment on their
findings. A Section 106 Review is a routine part of the Ref: Cultural Heritage Tourism Glossary of Terms, National Trust for
planning phase that is federally assisted and is meant to Historic Preservation, Heritage Tourism Program 2001; New York
ensure that federal funds are being spent in a way which State Culture and Tourism Directory of State and Multi-Regional
Organizations, New York State Division of Tourism, 2001.
For additional information about this report, Photo captions & credits
Front Cover: Images courtesy of NYS Department
Museum Association of New York of Economic Development
265 River Street
Inside Cover: Excursion on the Erie Canal - the packet
Troy, NY 12180
boat William B. Kirk c1890. Courtesy of the Erie Canal
(518) 273-3400 Museum, 318 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13202,
e-mail: Info@MANYonline.org (315) 471-0593, http://www.eriecanalmusuem.com
Division of Tourism Back Cover: Statue of Liberty looking west. Courtesy of
Empire State Development the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division,
30 South Pearl Street Historic American Engineering Record, 1978.
Albany, NY 12245
The Empire State Experience 15