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					ESOL Workshop
Includes ESOL Strategies to meet
Response to Intervention and the
Sheltered Instruction (SIOP) Model
By
Pamela Lorenzo
Educational Specialist in TESOL
ESOL Instructor for Brevard County
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
Annual Measurable Achievement
Objectives (AMAOs) under Title III
 Accountability for English Language
  Learners (ELLS) is required under
  NCLB as measured by annual
  performance targets that must be
  met by all Title III-funded Local
  Education Agencies (LEAs)
http://www.fldoe.org/aala/amao.asp
Cultural Riches Chart
           Puerto Rico   China   Mexico

Music

Language

Food
 Cultural Diversity
1. Student's native culture should be
   accepted and accommodated
2. The educational system should
   seek to expand and enrich the
   existing repertoire of teaching
   styles, instructional activities, and
   even administrative procedures to
   provide for the cultural diversity of
   students.
 http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/classics/culture/applications.htm
  Cultural Diversity
1. Useful components of the second
   culture should be taught
2. Students should expand and enrich
   their repertoire of knowledge, skills,
   and behaviors, and extend their
   cultural competence
3. Students should develop positive
   biculturalism
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/classics/culture/applications.htm
Standards for Effective
Teaching and Learning
1. Joint Productive Activity: Teacher and Students
  Producing Together
2. Language Development: Developing Language
  Across the Curriculum
3. Making Meaning: Connecting School to Students’
  Lives
4. Cognitive Challenge: Teaching Complex Thinking
5. Instructional Conversation: Teaching Through
  Conversation
 Echavarria, J. (1998). Teaching language minority
 students in elementary schools.
  http://www.cal.org/crede/pdfs/ResBrief1.pdf
     ESOL Strategies
1.   Teachers should use a variety
     of instructional methods
     whenever possible (including
     visual and manipulative)
2.   Never assume there is one
     best way to teach anything.
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/classics/culture/applications.htm
    Communication
BICS and CALP refer to a distinction introduced
by Cummins (1979) between basic interpersonal
communicative skills and cognitive academic
language proficiency. The distinction draws
attention to the very different time periods
typically required by immigrant children to
acquire conversational fluency in their second
language as compared to grade-appropriate
academic proficiency in that language.
Cummins, J. (1979) Cognitive/academic language proficiency,
linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some
other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19, 121-129
 Parent Involvement
  Parents made recommendations for improving parent
   involvement in their school:
1. Changing the attitudes of school staff to “make the
   parent feel more welcome”
2. Taking parents’ interests into consideration when
   planning activities
3. Recognizing that even if parents cannot be present
   at school, helping their children at home is also a
   valuable contribution
4. Providing parents with knowledge about how to be
   involved in a range of involvement opportunities.
    Pena, Delores C. (2000)Parent Involvement: Influencing factors and
   implications. The Journal of Educational Research, 94 (1), pp. 42-54.
   http://www.floridapartnerships.usf.edu/pdfs/RTP_2007/Rsrch_Prac_Res
What is the Response To
Intervention Model?
1. Multiple tiers of evidence-based
  instruction service delivery
2. A problem-solving method designed to
  inform the development of interventions
3. An integrated data
  collection/assessment system to inform
  decisions at each tier of service delivery
  http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
What does Response to
Intervention look like?
Teacher Place   Time   Strategy Material
                       or Skill
1.

2.

3.

4.
How does Response to
Intervention apply to the
classroom?
1. Scientific research-based instruction is
   delivered by highly qualified personnel
2. Curriculum and instructional approaches
   must have a high probability of success for
   most students
3. Differentiate instruction to meet individual
   learning needs
   http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
Why is the Response to
Intervention used?
1. Data are used to guide instructional decisions
  and to align curriculum and instruction to
  assessment data
2. To allocate resources
3. To drive professional development decisions
4. To create student growth trajectories to target
  and develop interventions
  http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
  RTI Framework
                  Tier 1
is the foundation and consists of
scientific, research-based core
instructional and behavioral
methodologies, practices, and supports
designed for all students in the general
curriculum.
http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
  RTI Framework
                Tier 2
consists of supplemental instruction
and interventions that are provided in
addition to and in alignment with
effective core instruction and behavioral
supports to groups of targeted students
who need additional instructional
and/or behavioral support.
http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
  RTI Framework
                   Tier 3
consists of intensive instructional or
behavioral interventions provided in addition
to and in alignment with effective core
instruction with the goal of increasing an
individual student’s rate of progress. Tier 3
interventions are developed for individual
students using a problem-solving process.
http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
Collaboration with
Parents for RTI Model
Parent Involvement
 Meaningful and effective parental/family
  involvement is critical to student progress and
  required by both NCLB and IDEA. It is vital
  that parents be informed and involved at each
  step in the process. Regardless of whether the
  parent or the teacher initiated a concern,
  parent involvement should be facilitated
  throughout the process.
 http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
What is the problem-
solving method for RTI?
1. Define the problem by determining the discrepancy between what
   is expected and what is occurring. Ask, “What’s the problem?”
2. Analyze the problem using data to determine why the discrepancy
   is occurring. Ask, “Why is it taking place?”
3. Establish a student performance goal, develop an intervention plan
   to address the goal, and delineate how the student’s progress will
   be monitored and implementation integrity will be ensured. Ask,
   “What are we going to do about it?”
4. Use progress monitoring data to evaluate the effectiveness of the
   intervention plan based on the student’s response to the
   intervention plan. Ask, “Is it working?” If not, how will the
   intervention plan be adjusted to better support the student’s
   progress?
   http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
Support Websites for RTI
Problem Solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI)
   (http://floridarti.usf.edu/)
Positive Behavior Support (PBS)
   (http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/)
Student Support Services Project (http://sss.usf.edu/)
Reading First
   (http://www.justreadflorida.com/reading_first.asp)
Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR)
   (http://www.fcrr.org)
Florida Center for Research – Science, Technology,
   Engineering and Math (FCR-STEM)
   (http://www.fcrstem.org/center11.aspx)
Application of RTI to English
    Language Learners

 A challenge facing educators is the difficulty in
 determining an English Language Learner’s (ELL) actual
 learning potential using standardized intelligence
 assessments and testing procedures. Educators often
 misinterpret ELL’s lack of full proficiency in English as
 low intelligence (Oller, 1991) or as a language or
 learning disability (Langdon, 1989). RtI models hold
 promise for preventing academic failure by providing
 support for culturally and linguistically diverse students
 within the general education environment. Ideally, this
 will decrease the number of ELLs who are
 inappropriately referred to and placed in special
 education (Vaughn & Fuchs, 2003).
 http://www.florida-rti.org/RtI.pdf
    ESOL Standards
   TESOL Standards. Goal statements for LEP
    students:
   Use English to Communicate in social setting.
   Use English to achieve academically in all content
    areas.
   Use English in socially and culturally appropriate
    ways.
   Best educational practices emerge when the
    teachers understand and use both sets of standards
    to guide them in making decisions about curriculum
    and instruction. We have an obligation to provide
    evidence of our teaching and student learning.
   www.tesol.org
                                                Speaking Rubric at www.tesol.org
  Task Level           Linguistic Complexity              Vocabulary Usage                         Language Control
1.Entering     Single words, set                          Highest frequency      When using memorized language, is generally
               phrases or chunks                          vocabulary from        comprehensible; communication may be significantly
               of memorized oral                          school setting and     impeded when going beyond the
               language                                   content areas          highly familiar
1.Beginning    Phrases, short oral                        General language       When using simple discourse, is generally
               sentences                                  related to the         comprehensible and fluent; communication may be
                                                          content area;          impeded by groping for language structures or by
                                                          groping for            phonological, syntactic or
                                                          vocabulary when        semantic errors when going beyond phrases and short,
                                                          going beyond the       simple sentences
                                                          highly familiar is
                                                          evident
1.Developing   Simple and expanded                        General and some       When communicating in sentences, is generally
               oral sentences;                            specific language      comprehensible and fluent;
               responses show                             related to the         communication may from time to time be impeded by
               emerging complexity                        content area; may      groping for language structures or
               used to add detail                         grope for needed       by phonological, syntactic or semantic errors, especially
                                                          vocabulary at times    when attempting more complex oral
                                                                                 discourse
1.Expanding    A variety of oral sentence lengths of      Specific and           At all times generally comprehensible and
               varying linguistic complexity; responses   some technical         fluent, though phonological, syntactic or semantic
               show emerging cohesion used to             language related to    errors that don’t impede the overall
               provide detail and clarity                 the content area;      meaning of the communication may appear at times;
                                                          groping for needed     such errors may reflect first language
                                                          vocabulary may be      interference
                                                          occasionally evident
1.Bridging     A variety of sentence lengths of varying   Technical language     Approaching comparability to that of English proficient
               linguistic complexity in extended oral     related to the         peers in terms of comprehensibility
               discourse; responses show cohesion and     content area;          and fluency; errors don’t impede
               organization used to                       facility with needed   communication and may be typical of those an English
               support main ideas                         vocabulary is          proficient peer might make
                                                          evident
                                                           Writing Rubric at www.tesol.org

 Task Level              Linguistic Complexity                               Vocabulary Usage                                  Language Control

Reaching      A variety of sentence                                  Consistent use of just the right word in   Has reached comparability to that of English
              lengths of varying linguistic complexity in a single   just the right place; precise Vocabulary   proficient peers functioning at the “proficient” level
              tightly organized paragraph or in well-organized       Usage in general, specific or technical    in state-wide assessments.
              extended text; tight cohesion and organization         language.




Bridging      A variety of sentence                                  Usage of technical language related to     Approaching comparability to that of English
              lengths of varying linguistic complexity in a single   the content area; evident facility with    proficient peers; errors don’t impede
              organized paragraph or in extended text; cohesion      needed vocabulary.                         comprehensibility.
              and organization


Expanding     A variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic    Usage of specific and some technical       Generally comprehensible at all times, errors don’t
              complexity; emerging cohesion used to provide          language related to the content area;      impede the overall meaning; such errors may reflect
              detail and clarity.                                    lack of needed vocabulary may be           first language interference.
                                                                     occasionally evident.




Developing    Simple and expanded sentences that show                Usage of general and some specific         Generally comprehensible when writing in sentences;
              emerging complexity used to provide detail.            language related to the content area;      comprehensibility may from time to time be impeded
                                                                     lack of needed vocabulary may be           by errors when attempting to produce more complex
                                                                     evident.                                   text.


Beginning     Phrases and short sentences; varying amount of         Usage of general language related to the   Generally comprehensible when text is adapted from
              text may be copied or adapted; some attempt at         content area; lack of vocabulary may be    model or source text, or when original text is limited
              organization may be evidenced.                         evident.                                   to simple text; comprehensibility may be often
                                                                                                                impeded by errors.




Entering      Single words, set phrases or chunks of simple          Usage of highest frequency vocabulary      Generally comprehensible when text is copied or
              language; varying amounts of text may be copied        from school setting and content areas.     adapted from model or source text;
              or adapted; adapted text contains original                                                        comprehensibility may be significantly impeded in
              language.                                                                                         original text.
  Sheltered Instruction
  Observation Protocol
Lesson Plan Checklist for SIOP
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
I. Preparation
1. Write content objectives clearly for students:
2. Write language objectives clearly for students:
3. Choose content concepts appropriate for age and educational
    background level of students.
4. Identify supplementary materials to use (graphs, models, visuals).
5. Adapt content (e.g., text, assignment) to all levels of student
    proficiency.
List ideas for adaptation:
6. Plan meaningful activities that integrate lesson concepts (e.g.,
    surveys, letter writing, simulations, constructingmodels) with
    language practice opportunities for reading, writing, listening, and/or
    speaking (www.cal.org)
SIOP Model: Instruction

II. Instruction
Building Background
7. Explicitly link concepts to students’
  backgrounds and experiences
8. Explicitly link past learning and new concepts.
9. Emphasize key vocabulary (e.g., introduce,
  write, repeat, and highlight) for students.
  List key vocabulary        (www.cal.org)
SIOP Model:
Comprehensible Input
Comprehensible Input
10. Use speech appropriate for students’
  proficiency level (e.g., slower rate,
  enunciation, and simple sentence
  structure for beginners).
11. Explain academic tasks clearly.
12. Use a variety of techniques to make
  content concepts clear (e.g., modeling,
  visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations,
   gestures, body language). (www.cal.org)
SIOP Model: Strategies
Strategies
13. Provide ample opportunities for students to use
  strategies, (e.g., problem solving, predicting,
  organizing, summarizing,categorizing, evaluating, self-
  monitoring).
14. Use scaffolding techniques consistently (providing the
  right amount of support to move students from one
  level of understanding to a higher level) throughout
  lesson.
15. Use a variety of question types including those that
  promote higher-order thinking skills throughout the
  lesson (literal, analytical, and interpretive questions).
                                           (www.cal.org)
SIOP: Interaction
Interaction
16. Provide frequent opportunities for interaction and
  discussion between teacher/student and among
  students about lessons concepts, and encourage
  elaborated responses.
17. Use group configurations that support language and
  content objectives of the lesson.
   List the grouping types:
18. Provide sufficient wait time for student responses
  consistently.
19. Give ample opportunities for students to clarify key
  concepts in L1 as needed with aide, peer, or L1 text
SIOP: Practice and Apply

Practice/Application
20. Provide hands-on materials and/or
  manipulatives for students to practice using
  new content knowledge.
21. Provide activities for students to apply content
  and language knowledge in the classroom.
22. Provide activities that integrate all language
  skills (i.e., reading, writing, listening, and
  speaking). (www.cal.org)
SIOP: Lesson Delivery

Lesson Delivery
23. Support content objectives clearly.
24. Support language objectives clearly.
25. Engage students approximately 90-
  100% of the period (most students taking
  part and on task throughout the lesson).
26. Pace the lesson appropriately to the
  students’ ability level. (www.cal.org)
       SIOP: Review and
          Evaluation
III. Review/Evaluation
27. Give a comprehensive review of key
  vocabulary.
28. Give a comprehensive review of key content
  concepts.
29. Provide feedback to students regularly on
  their output (e.g., language, content, work).
30. Conduct assessments of student
  comprehension and learning throughout
  lesson on all lesson objectives (spot checking,
  group response).             (www.cal.org)

				
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