Docstoc

bio-environment

Document Sample
bio-environment Powered By Docstoc
					7.3      Bio-diversity and environmental conservation

Bio- diversity

Bio-diversity is the global wealth given by the nature.
It must dependable assurance of air, land and water stability within the ecosystem.
This is simply because every organism or process which lives or occurs within an ecosystem
affects every organism or process inside it.

Conservation of bio-diversity includes all species of plants, animals and other organisms, the range
of genetic stocks within each species, and the variety of ecosystem.

Bio-diversity simply means millions of different kinds of plants, animals and microorganism.
Moreover, it consists variety of floras, fauna and other microorganism within the natural system.

Such bio-diversity creates a stable environment, which has been sustained since long back.

Conservation of bio-diversity is one of the important global responsibility of mankind to ensure its
safe future.

All lives on Earth are a part of one great, interdependent system.
It interacts with and depends on, the nonliving components of the planets, atmosphere, oceans,
freshwater, rocks and soils.
Humanity depends totally on this community of life.

Bio-diversity is the totality of genes, species and ecosystems in a region or the world.
In other words, bio-diversity is the variability of life in all its forms, levels and combination; it is not
the sum of ecosystem, species and genes concerned, but rather the variability within and between
them.
It is therefore and attribute of life, contrasting with biological 'resources' which are living entities.
In this way bio-diversity is expressed at three levels
     i)     ecosystem diversity,
     ii)    species diversity,
     iii)   genetic diversity. All these three components enrich the nature.


   i)      Ecosystem diversity
           Ecosystem diversity is the variety and frequency of different ecosystem such as forests
           or grasslands. However, we still have much to learn about how ecosystem work and in
           particular extent to which individual process and individual species are vital to the
           survival of the ecosystem.

   ii)     Species diversity
           Frequency and diversity of different species such as tiger or the data palm is known as
           species diversity. It refers to the variety of species within a region, such diversity can be
           measured in many ways, and scientists have not settles on a single best method.
   iii)   Genetic diversity
          It refers to the variation of genes within species. This covers distinct populations of the
          same species or genetic variation within a population. Until recently, measurements of
          genetic diversity were applied mainly to domesticated species and populations held in
          zoo or botanical gardens, but increasingly the techniques are being applied to wild
          species.

Thus, bio- diversity covers from insects to birds to animal's grasses to shrubs to trees tubers to
vegetables to cereals- we name it and its parts of the Earth's bio-diversity.
It is a blanket term for natural world and its biological wealth.
Bio-diversity refers to the number variety and variability of all lives forms- micro-organism, plants
and animals- and the ecological complexes they inhabit.

The global convention on biological diversity held in Rio de Janeiro on 22th May 1992, Nairobi.
Over 150 stats have signed the convention. Nepal is 34th nation among the world and 14th nations
among the Asia Pacific. Nepal expressed its commitment- stated in article 6 - to develop a national
strategy for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resoures.
(Biological diversity) (climet change)

Environmental conservation
Environment
The aggregate of surrounding things, condition or influences is Environment.
P.Gisbert – Environment as the term itself indicates is anything immediately surrounding on object
and exerting a direct influence on it.
According to Kimball Young, Environment refers to those forces, situations or stimuli, which
influence the organism from outside.
Environment as the term itself indicates is anything that surrounds or environs us.
Environment is thus not a simple but a complex phenomenon and consists of various forms such
as;
Physical Environment- it consists-        geographical, climatic
Biological Environment- it includes       - plants and animals found all around men.
Social Environment- it consists three kinds of environment        a) economic environment
                                   b) Cultural environment
                                   c) psycho-social environment
Supra-social Environment- it consists of the notions regarding god or supernatural power.


Type of Environment
1. MacIver and Page-      a) outer environment              b) inner environment
2. Marshall Jones- a) physical environment b) social environment           c)cultural environment
3. P. Gisbert-     a) natural environment          b) artificial environment
                   c) social environment           d) psychological environment
4. Kimball Young- a) geographic environment b) socio-cultural environment
Ecology- ecology is a branch of biology and has been largely concerned with the environment of the animals and
plants.
    - It refers to the influences of the environment upon animal ecology.
    - Human ecology is part of sociology which studies human beings adjustment to their environments which
        includes not only the physical condition of their geographical environment but also other organism such as
        human beings, plants and animal.
    - Ecology is the branch of biology dialing with the relation between organism and their environment.


                 Consumptions of fule- 1999-2000
                 Petrol in k. liter    55589
                 Diesel in k.liter     310561
                 Kerosene in k. liter  331120

                 up to Juli 2000, vehicle registered
                 car/ jeep/ van 53073
                 bus/ mini mini bus      12054
                 truk/ tanker            20011
                 tampo                   6702
                 motercycle              147157
                 doger/ crean            354
                 tracter                 20469
                 others                  3623
                 total                   263443
                 source: CBS 2001
                 Natural disaster                1999         2000
Persons dead                    489              377
                 Affected family                 17842        24900
                 Property loss (M.R)             508.54       1141
                 Source- CBS 2001

1972- Stockholm (Sweeden) conference on environment, June 5-16, called as humanitarian
conference.
1972- United Nations environment program established as a institutional on 15th Dec.
1973- Formation of IUCN (international union of convention of nature and natural     resources),
(world conservation union)
1974- 5th June started to celebrate as an environment day.
1980- World conservation strategy prepared by IUCN
1982- More than 110 nation opened the department or ministry to conserve environment.
1983- IUCN prepared a prospectus for natural convention strategy.
1992- RIO world summit on environment and development - the global convention on biological
diversity held in Rio de Janeiro on 22th May 1992, Nairobi. Over 150 stats have signed the
convention.

Chronological events of Nepal on the environmental conservation.

1980-1985-EIA (environment impact assessment) mention in the sixth five years plan.
1982- Environmental impact study project was lunched in the Ministry of forest and soil
conservation.
1982- National commission for natural resources was formed under the chairmanship of the
ministry of forest and soil conservation.
1985-1990- A separate chapter on environment appeared in 7th five years plan.
1987- National conservation strategy (NCS) and the national council for the conservation of natural
and cultural resources (NCCNCR) proposed.
1988- NCS endorsed.
1989- NPC (national planning commission) started working on environment.
1990- Interim government formed a task force for the conservation of forests and the task force
submitted a report containing short, medium and long-term strategies.
1991- the constitution of the kingdom of Nepal 1991 included environment protection under the
directive principles and policies of the states.
1991- committee on natural resources and environmental protection was constituted in the house
of representative.
1992- Formation of the Ministry of forest and environment.
1992- RIO world summit on environment and development - the global convention on biological
diversity held in Rio de Janeiro on 22th May 1992, Nairobi. Over 150 stats have signed the
convention. Nepal is 34th nation among the world and 14th nations among the Asia Pacific. Nepal
expressed its commitment- stated in article 6 - to develop a national strategy for the conservation
of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resoures.
1993- Environmental protection council was formed.
1993- Nepal’s environmental policy and action plan (Nepap-1) was prepared.
1995- Task force was constituted by the NPC| IUCN for Nepap-2nd, which aims at updating
environmental concerns and determining projects to be undertaken in respects of forestry, water
resources and industry.
1995- A separate Ministry of population and environment was created.
1996- Environmental protection act/ legislation passed from the parliament.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:6/1/2010
language:English
pages:4