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sarCevi

VIEWS: 247 PAGES: 32

									ganaTlebis sferoSi genderuli sakiTxebis kvleva

                  saqarTvelo




      iveta silova, filosofiis doqtori,
      gaeros bavSvTa fondis konsultanti




              2004 wlis 8 ivlisi




                         1
                          sarCevi

I. Sesavali .................................................... 3
II. genderuli sakiTxebis kvlevis meTodologia ................... 5
III. ZiriTadi daskvnebi da maTi analizi ........................ 5
  3.1. ganaTlebis sistemis reforma ............................. 6
  3.2. skolaSi Caricxvisa da gakveTilebze daswrebis maCveneblebi 7
    3.2.1. biWebisa da gogonebis Tanabari raodenobiT Caricxva
    skolamdeli da sabazo ganaTlebis doneebze ................... 7
    3.2.2. mzardi xelisSemSleli pirobebi biWebisaTvis saSualo
    skolis ufros klasebSi ...................................... 7
    3.2.3. saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi eTnikuri
    umciresobebisa da sxva daucveli jgufebis warmomadgenelTa
    CaricxvasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis simwire ............. 8
    3.2.4. gogonebisa da biWebis mier gakveTilebze daswrebasa da
    skolis mitovebasTan dakavSirebuli sarwmuno informaciis
    nakleboba .................................................. 9
  3.3. skolebSi ganaTlebis xarisxTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis
  Sefaseba genderuli TvalsazrisiT ............................. 10
    3.3.1. ra moaqvs moswavles ganaTlebis sistemaSi ........... 10
    3.3.2. ganaTlebis Sinaarsi: tradiciuli genderuli
    stereotipebis gadacema .................................... 13
    3.3.3. ganaTlebis procesi: swrafva midgomebisken, romelTa
    mixedviT centraluri adgili bavSvs ukavia .................. 15
    3.3.4. saswavlo garemo: skolebis feminizacia, saskolo
    Senobebis mdgomareobis gauareseba ......................... 16
    3.3.5. swavlis Sedegebi ................................... 17
  3.4. arasamTavrobo da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis roli ...... 18
IV. daskvnebi da rekomendaciebi ............................... 19
  4.1. moklevadiani rekomendaciebi ............................ 20
    4.1.1. „genderis“ cnebis ufro farTo gansazRvris aucilebloba:
    gogonaTa ganaTlebidan genderul Tanasworobamde ............. 20
    4.1.2. sqesebis mixedviT klasificirebuli monacemebis
    mogroveba`praqtikuli kvleva ............................... 21
    4.1.3. koordinireba ....................................... 22
    4.1.4. propaganda ......................................... 23
  4.2. grZelvadiani rekomendaciebi ............................ 23
    4.2.1. ganaTlebis sferoSi politikis SemuSaveba da
    ganxorcieleba ............................................. 23




                                2
I. Sesavali

     sabWoTa      kavSiris     daSlis     Semdeg     saqarTvelos
respublikaSi daiwyo ekonomikis sruli rRvevis, mrewvelobis
ngrevis, mosaxleobis materialuri mdgomareobis gauaresebis,
umuSevrobis donis matebis procesebi. amas Tan daerTo
eTnikuri konfliqtebi da samoqalaqo omebi, ris Sedegadac
gaCnda didi raodenobiT iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri da
ltolvili.    gardamavalma     periodma    erTnairad    uaryofiTi
zegavlena   moaxdina     rogorc    mamakacebze,   ise   qalebze.
mamakacTa uunarobam, aqtiurad SeebrZolon stresul situacias,
rasac   Tan   erTvis    sarisko    qceviT   gamowveuli   ubeduri
SemTxvevebis   raodenobis     zrda    da  saxelmwifo   jandacvis
sistemis rRveva, gamoiwvia mkveTri gansxvaveba mamakacTa da
qalTa sicocxlis xangrZlivobis maCveneblebs Soris.1 Tumca,
meore    mxriv,     socialuri      SeRavaTebis    mniSvnelovanma
Semcirebam da ojaxebze da bavSvebze zrunvis saxelmwifo
sistemis rRvevam gansakuTrebiT uaryofiTad imoqmeda qalebze.
qalebi iZulebulni gaxdnen, erTi mxriv, daicvan TavianTi
kulturuli tradiciebi, meore mxriv ki moergon arsebul
ekonomikur mdgomareobas. garda amisa, gardamaval periodSi
Tavi iCina saqarTveloSi aqamde ucxo uaryofiTma movlenebma
qalebisaTvis, rogoric aris iZulebiTi Sroma da trefikingi,
janmrTelobasTan da cxovrebis wesTan dakavSirebuli riski da
Zaladoba (gaeros bavSvTa fondi, 2003). saxelmwifos mier
deklarirebuli    “qalTa    da   mamakacTa    Tanasworuflebianoba
komunizmTan erTad warsuls Cabarda” (sabedaSvili, 2002, gv.
7).

     gardamavali periodis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelo yvela
socialur   sferoSi,   maT   Soris,     ganaTlebis    sistemaSic,
"genderuli TvalsazrisiT neitralur politikas” atarebda. ar
SemuSavebula arc erTi sakanonmdeblo iniciativa, dadgenileba
Tu    politikuri    SeTanxmeba     genderuli      diskriminaciis
gansazRvrisa da am TvalsazrisiT rogorc saxelmwifo, ise
kerZo struqturebis qmedebaTa marTvis mizniT. marTalia,
saqarTvelos    konstituciis     Tanaxmad,      yvela    adamiani
Tanasworuflebiania    “miuxedavad     sqesisa”     (muxli   14),
sakanonmdeblo debulebebs naklebad Tu iSvelieben xolme
qalebisTvis   samarTlebrivi    dacvis    uzrunvelyofis    mizniT
(amerikel advokatTa asociacia, 2003). genderul sakiTxs arc
saqarTvelos bavSvTa daxmarebis erovnuli gegma (2003-2007)
iTvaliswinebs.    saqarTveloSi    Zalze     swrafad    mimdinare
ekonomikuri, politikuri da socialuri cvlilebebis fonze
arsebiTi   mniSvneloba   eniWeba    sworad    Sefasebas   imisa,
SesaZlebelia Tu ara “genderuli TvalsazrisiT neitraluri”
politikis farglebSi     genderuli Tanasworobis garantireba
ganaTlebis sxvadasxva aspeqtSi (rogoric aris, magaliTad,
ganaTlebis miRebis SesaZlebloba, monawileoba da xarisxi) da

1
  saqarTvelos mosaxleobis aRweris (2002) monacemebis mixedviT, mamakacTa
sicocxlis xangrZlivobaa 68 weli, xolo qalTa _ 74.8 (gansxvaveba
Seadgens 6.8 wels).

                                      3
mosaxleobis sxvadasxva jgufebSi       (magaliTad,   umciresobaTa
jgufebSi, ltolvilebSi da a.S.).

     Cveulebriv,     raodenobrivi    indikatorebi     ar   avlens
saqarTvelos      ganaTlebis     sistemaSi      raime     sagrZnob
gansxvavebebs genderuli TvalsazrisiT, magram aucilebelia,
Seswavlili iqnes xarisxis indikatorebic, romlebic aseve did
zegavlenas axdens sazogadoebaSi genderuli Tanasworobis
sakiTxze.    winamdebare     angariSi    iTvaliswinebs     rogorc
raodenobriv, ise xarisxobriv indikatorebs da Seiswavlis
saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemaSi genderuli Tanasworobis
sakiTxze    gardamavali     periodis    zemoqmedebas.     kerZod,
angariSis    mizania,    (1)   moaxdinos    ganaTlebis    sferoSi
genderuli sakiTxebis identificireba, (2) Seiswavlos, ra
saxis   zegavlenas     axdens   ganaTlebis    sferoSi    arsebuli
politika da praqtika genderul Tanasworobaze ganaTlebis
sxvadasxva aspeqtSi (rogoric aris, magaliTad, skolaSi
Caricxva, daswreba, damTavreba da Sedegebi) da mosaxleobis
sxvadasxva jgufebSi (magaliTad, umciresobaTa jgufebSi,
ltolvilebSi da a.S.), da (3) uzrunvelyos informacia
genderuli        Tanasworobis        principze        dafuZnebuli
saganmanaTleblo     programebis    SemuSavebis,     marTvisa   da
ganxorcielebis Taobaze. winamdebare angariSis safuZvelze
SesaZlebeli    iqneba    arsebuli   viTarebis    gaanalizeba   da
aqtiuri qmedebis ZiriTadi sferoebis dadgena, raTa xorci
Seesxas TiToeuli bavSvis uflebas, iswavlos bavSvisadmi
keTilganwyobil skolaSi, romelSic gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba
bavSvis uflebebi da genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebi.




                                  4
II. genderuli sakiTxebis kvlevis meTodologia

    genderuli sakiTxebis kvleva Catarda kabinetur pirobebSi
da mas safuZvlad mxolod arsebuli informacia daedo. kvleva
emyareba    raodenobrivi    da    xarisxobrivi    monacemebis
erTobliobas. raodenobrivi monacemebi miRebulia sxvadasxva
wyaroebidan,     maT     Soris,     erovnuli     statistikuri
gamokvlevebidan, msoflio bankisa da iunisefis “monis”
angariSis monacemTa bazebidan. raodenobriv informacias
daemata xarisxobrivi monacemebi, romlebSic Sedioda saubrebi
ganaTlebis sakiTxebiT dainteresebul mxareebTan (ix. danarTi
“g”),  erovnuli   sakanonmdeblo   dokumentebis  Seswavla   da
sxvadasxva erovnuli Tu saerTaSoriso angariSebis ganxilva.
qveynis   ganaTlebis    sistemaSi    genderuli   Tanasworobis
sakiTxTa gaSuqebis     mizniT moZiebuli    iqna mTeli rigi
wyaroebisa.

    miuxedavad informaciis sxvadasxva wyaroebis arsebobisa,
winamdebare angariSSi gamoyenebuli monacemebi ar aris
srulyofili.   jer    erTi,    sakmaod    rTuli   iyo   genderTan
dakavSirebuli monacemebis mopoveba ganaTlebis sxvadasxva
aspeqtisaTvis     (rogoric     aris,     magaliTad,    genderTan
dakavSirebuli monacemebi sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufis an
sxvadasxva geografiuli regionis saskolo asakis bavSvebis
Sesaxeb).   meore,    ganaTlebaSi     genderul   TanasworobasTan
dakavSirebiT Zalze cota raodenobrivi gamokvleva (magaliTad,
saxelmZRvaneloTa analizi, ganrigis Seswavla, maswavlebelTa
momzadeba) Catarebula. mesame, ar Catarebula aranairi
gamokvleva      genderul       TanasworobasTan      dakavSirebiT
umciresobaTa   jgufebSi    (magaliTad, azerbaijanelebSi) da
socialurad   daucvel     jgufebSi    (magaliTad,    ltolvilebSi,
iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirebSi da Rarib`mTian regionebSi
mcxovrebTa   jgufebSi).    da    bolos,   drois   simcirisa   da
informaciis simwiris gamo SeuZlebeli iyo ganaTlebis sferoSi
genderuli   Tanasworobis Sefaseba konfliqtiT dazaralebul
teritoriebze _ samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi. aRniSnuli
mravali dabrkolebis gaTvaliswinebiT, winamdebare angariSi
ganxiluli   unda    iqnes   ara    rogorc   arsebuli   situaciis
yovlismomcveli     analizi,     aramed     rogorc    saqarTvelos
ganaTlebis sistemaSi genderuli sakiTxebis zogadi mimoxilva,
romelic ayalibebs ZiriTad problemebs da iZleva rCevebs
Semdgomi kvlevisaTvis.


III. ZiriTadi daskvnebi da maTi analizi

     mimoxilvas   safuZvlad   udevs    ganaTlebis   sistemaSi
genderuli   Tanasworobis    raodenobrivi    da   xarisxobrivi
indikatorebis analizi. am TavSi pirvel rigSi aRwerilia
ganaTlebis   sistemis   reformis   mdgomareoba    gardamavali
periodis   (1991-2003)   ganmavlobaSi.    Semdeg   ganxilulia
genderuli     Tanasworobis     `tradiciuli”      raodenobrivi

                                  5
indikatorebi – skolaSi Sesvla, monawileoba da gakveTilebze
daswreba, rac miznad isaxavs im gansxvavebaTa dafiqsirebas,
romlebic droTa ganmavlobaSi gaCnda orive genderul jgufSi,
miznad   isaxavs,   agreTve,   am   jgufebis    urTierTkavSiris
dadgenas    sxva    faqtorebTan,    maT     Soris,     geografiul
adgilmdebareobasTan,    Semosavlis    doneebsa      da    eTnikur
warmomavlobasTan. garda amisa, angariSSi gaanalizebulia
ganaTlebis sistemaSi genderuli Tanasworobis xarisxobrivi
indikatorebi,    romlebic   emyareba     „iunisefis“     xarisxis
standarts. praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT es niSnavs xarisxis xuTi
aspeqtis   mimoxilvas    genderuli   kuTxiT.     es    aspeqtebia
moswavleTa    skolamdeli    aRzrda,     ganaTlebis      Sinaarsi,
swavlebisa da swavlis procesebi, saswavlo garemo da swavlis
Sedegebi („iunisefis“ xarisxis standartSi ufro detalurad
garkvevis da genderuli sakiTxebis kvlevisTvis teqnikuri
miTiTebebis miRebis mizniT ix. danarTi ”d”).


3.1. ganaTlebis sistemis reforma

    1990-ian    wlebSi    saqarTveloSi   mkveTrad   Semcirda
ganaTlebis sistemis dafinanseba. msoflio bankma aRniSna,
rom   dafinansebis   amgvari   Semcireba  `erT-erTi  yvelaze
mniSvnelovani iyo regionSi da unikaluri msoflio ganaTlebis
sistemis istoriaSi” (gv. 3). 1996 wlis saxelmwifo biujetSi
ganaTlebis seqtorisTvis realurad gamoyofili iqna 1989 wlis
biujetis imave muxlis mxolod 5%, rac gamowveuli iyo 1991-
1994 wlebSi mSp-is 75%-iani vardniT, anu ganaTlebis wili
aRniSnul wlebSi 7%-dan 1%-mde Semcirda (msoflio banki,
2003). marTalia, 1995 wlidan mSp-Si SeimCneva ganaTlebis
wilis mcireodeni zrda, magram saerTaSoriso standartebis
mixedviT igi mainc dabalia. magaliTad, 1998 wels xelaxla
gamoangariSebul mSp-Si ganaTlebis wili 2.4% iyo (msoflio
banki, 2003).

    dafinansebis   naklebobam   uaryofiTi     gavlena   moaxdina
ganaTlebis xarisxze, saswavlo masalebis xelmisawvdomobaze,
skolebis fizikur mdgomareobasa da maswavlebelTa moralur
mdgomareobaze.    magram    ganaTlebis     sistemaSi    arsebuli
sirTuleebi   ver   gadawydeba   mxolod    damatebiTi    Tanxebis
mozidviT. msoflio bankis dakvirvebiT (2003), aucilebelia
ufro Rrma struqturuli reforma sabazro ekonomikisa da
demokratiuli        sazogadoebis         axal         moTxovnaTa
dasakmayofileblad. amJamad saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemaSi
mimdinareobs seriozuli reforma, romlis mizania, Tavidan
ganisazRvros   dawyebiTi    da   zogadi    saSualo    ganaTlebis
sistemis   miznebi    da   yvela    bavSvisTvis     gaumjobesdes
ganaTlebis xarisxi. msoflio bankisgan miRebuli kreditiT
dafinansda saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemis gardaqmnisa da
ganmtkicebis programa, romlis ZiriTadi komponentebia: (1)
dawyebiTi   da   saSualo    ganaTlebis    seqtorSi    saxelmwifo
saswavlo   programis    SemuSaveba   da    ganxorcieleba,    (2)
Sefasebisa   da    gamocdebis    axali   saxelmwifo     sistemis

                                   6
Camoyalibeba, (3) maswavleblebis, skolebis direqtorebisa da
meTodistebis profesiuli ganviTareba moswavleebisTvis axali
saswavlo miznebis miRwevis gaadvilebis mizniT da (4)
xarisxiani   saxelmZRvaneloebisa    da  saswavlo    masalebis
xelmisawvdomobis gazrda. mimdinare reforma iZleva axlad
Camoyalibebul saganmanaTleblo politikasa da praqtikaSi
Tanasworobis   damkvidrebis   unikalur   SesaZleblobas,   rac
miznad isaxavs, rom yvela bavSvma (rogorc biWebma, ise
gogonebma)   erTnairad    isargeblos   ganaTlebis    sistemis
reformis farglebSi ganxorcielebuli wamowyebebiT.




3.2. skolaSi Caricxvisa da gakveTilebze daswrebis maCveneblebi


3.2.1. biWebisa da gogonebis Tanabari raodenobiT Caricxva
skolamdeli da sabazo ganaTlebis doneebze

    sabWoTa periodSi erT-erTi yvelaze prioritetuli sakiTxi
iyo gogonebisa da biWebis skolebSi Caricxvis maRali,
Tanaswori maCveneblebis miRweva. da marTlac, dasaxuli
mizani   warmatebiT   miiRweoda,   vinaidan  yofili   sabWoTa
kavSiris yvela respublikaSi, maT Soris, saqarTveloSic
gogonebi   da   biWebi   Tanabari   raodenobiT   iricxebodnen
skolebSi (msoflio banki, 2002, gv. 44). Tumca gardamaval
periodSi    damoukideblobis    wina    periodTan    SedarebiT
CaricxulTa maCvenebeli daeca ganaTlebis sistemis yvela
doneze, garda umaRlesi ganaTlebisa (ix. danarTi `a”).
mcireodeni gamonaklisis garda (saSualo skolebis ufrosi
klasebi), Semcirda rogorc gogonebis, ise biWebis raodenoba.
ganaTlebis sistemis dafinansebis Semcirebis da siRaribis
maRali   donis   miuxedavad,    ar   SeimCneva   raodenobrivi
gansxvaveba am or jgufs Soris ganaTlebis skolamdel,
dawyebiT da umaRles doneebze, sadac gogonebisa da biWebis
raodenoba TiTqmis erTnairia (ix. cxrili 1).


3.2.2. mzardi xelisSemSleli pirobebi biWebisaTvis saSualo skolis
ufros klasebSi

    maSin, rodesac ganaTlebis sistemis umetes doneebze
gogonebisa da biWebis raodenobaSi didi gansxvaveba ar
SeiniSneba, saSualo skolis ufros klasebSi Tavi iCina
xelisSemSlelma     pirobebma     biWebisTvis.     ganaTlebis
saministros monacemebiT, saSualo skolis ufros klasebSi (me-
10-me-11 klasebi) 5%-iT meti gogona swavlobs. biWebis
raodenobis Semcireba saSualo skolis ufros klasebSi asaxavs
im mkacr ekonomikur garemos, rodesac Sromisunarian biWebs
ojaxis Semosavlis gazrdis mizniT uxdebaT samuSaos Zebna
(adgilobrivad Tu ucxo qveynebSi) da ganaTlebis miRebis
xarjze   sacxovreblad,  samuSaod   Tu  saswavleblad   wasvla
                                7
sazRvargareT („iunisefi", 2003a; eqspertebTan Catarebuli
saubrebi, 2004). miuxedavad imisa, rom moswavle biWebis
raodenoba saSualo skolis ufros klasebSi amJamad igivea,
savaraudoa,   rom  momavalSi igi  kvlav  Semcirdeba,  Tu
gaviTvaliswinebT am doneze moswavle biWebis raodenobis
klebis tendencias.

cxrili 1. moswavle gogonebisa da biWebis procentuli odenoba
saxelmwifo saswavlo dawesebulebebSi ganaTlebis doneebis
mixedviT (2003)

  moswavleTa Caricxva     sul        gogonebi          biWebi      gansxvaveba
  ganaTlebis doneebis     (%)           (%)              (%)      sqesebs Soris
        mixedviT                                                       (%)
skolamdeli               30.9          30.2             31.5            1.3
dawyebiTi                95.4         94.96             95.8           0.84
ganaTleba
(gend.   Tanasw.
maCv.)
saSualo                  56.9         59.42            54.36           5.06
ganaTleba
(gend.   Tanasw.
maCv.)2
umaRlesi                 28.6          28.8             28.5           0.3
ganaTleba
(gend.   Tanasw.
maCv.)
wyaro: statistikis saxelmwifo   departamenti    da   ganaTlebis   saministro,
2003


3.2.3. saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi eTnikuri umciresobebisa
da sxva daucveli jgufebis warmomadgenelTa CaricxvasTan
dakavSirebuli informaciis simwire

    ar    arsebobs     sqesebis    mixedviT     klasificirebuli
statistikuri   monacemebi    saganmanaTleblo    dawesebulebebSi
eTnikuri umciresobebisa da daucveli jgufebis (magaliTad,
ltolvilebis,    iZulebiT    gadaadgilebuli   pirebis,    Raribi
ojaxebis, soflad/maRalmTian regionebSi mcxovrebi ojaxebis)
Svilebis Caricxvis Taobaze. miuxedavad amisa, am sakiTxebze
momuSave     ramdenime     saerTaSoriso     da     adgilobrivma
arasamTavrobo organizaciam araerTxel aRniSna, rom eTnikur
umciresobebs     (gansakuTrebiT     azerbaijanelebs),     CeCen
ltolvilebs, Rarib ojaxebsa da soflad mcxovreb axalgazrdebs
Soris Semcirda saswavleblebSi gogonebis Caricxvisa da
gakveTilebze maTi daswrebis maCvenebeli. magaliTad, msoflio
bankis (2002) angariSSi naTqvamia, rom skolebSi gogonaTa
Caricxvis maCvenebeli biWebTan SedarebiT ufro dabalia Rarib
ojaxebSi (gv. 98). analogiurad, statistikis saxelmwifo
departamentis monacemebiT, saSualo skolis ufros klasebSi
gogonaTa   Caricxvis    maCvenebeli   odnav    dabalia   soflad
(gogonebis 48.6% da biWebis 51.4%) qalaqTan SedarebiT,
2
  ganaTlebis saSualo safexurze Caricxva moicavs genderuli Tanasworobis
maCvenebels me-10-me-11 klasebisTvis (sakuTari gamoTvlebi, romlebic
efuZneba ganaTlebis saministros monacemebs (moswavleTa raodenoba).

                                      8
sadac   gogonebisa   da   biWebis   Caricxvis   maCvenebeli
umTavresad erTnairia. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom saqarTvelos
mosaxleobis 46.7% cxovrobs soflad (statistikis saxelmwifo
departamenti, 2002), xolo daaxloebiT 40-50% - siRaribis
zRvars miRma (gaero, 2002), mniSvnelovania, gagrZeldes
Seswavla imisa, Tu rogor moqmedebs aRniSnuli faqtorebi (anu
siRaribe da soflad cxovreba) gogonebisaTvis ganaTlebis
xelmisawvdomobaze.

    eTnikuri umciresobebi Seadgens mosaxleobis daaxloebiT
15%-s, aqedan azerbaijanelebi – 6.51%-s, rusebi – 5.6%-s,
somxebi   –   1.55%-s   da   sxva    umciresobani   _   2.49%-s
(mosaxleobis 2002 wlis aRwera). marTalia, xeli ar migviwvda
ganaTlebis   sxvadasxva    safexurze    eTnikur    umciresobaTa
bavSvebis   Caricxvis    genderul   maCveneblebze,    zogierTma
arasamTavrobo organizaciam Segvatyobina, rom azerbaijanel
mosaxleobas   Soris   iklo   skolebSi    gogonaTa   raodenobam.
gardamavali periodis ganmavlobaSi azerbaijanelTa Sexeduleba
qalis rolze ufro konservatiuli gaxda (ABA, 2003, gv. 39).
es gulisxmobs qalebis ufro tradiciuli rolis damkvidrebas
ojaxsa Tu bavSvTa aRzrdis saqmeSi, rac, Tavis mxriv, ueWvel
gavlenas   axdens   gogonaTa   ganaTlebaze.    igive   problema
SeimCneva CeCen ltolvilebSic. aRniSnuli tendenciis ukeTesi
Seswavlisa da misi masStabis ukeTesi garkvevis mizniT metad
mniSvnelovania,    Seswavlili     iqnes    moswavle    gogonaTa
mdgomareoba      umciresobaTa      jgufebSi      (gansakuTrebiT
azerbaijanelebs Soris) da socialurad daucvel jgufebSi
(magaliTad, Rarib, soflad mcxovreb da ltolvilTa ojaxebSi)
da mogrovdes genderuli monacemebi eTnikuri jgufebisa da
geografiuli mdebareobebis mixedviT.


3.2.4. gogonebisa da biWebis mier gakveTilebze daswrebasa da
skolis mitovebasTan dakavSirebuli sarwmuno informaciis nakleboba

     saswavlo procesSi monawileobis srulad Sefasebis mizniT
aucilebelia   ara   marto  skolaSi   Caricxvis maCvenebelTa
Seswavla, aramed gakveTilebze daswrebis (anu dakavebis) da
skolis mitovebis maCvenebelTa ganxilvac. marTalia, ver
aRmovaCineT sqesebis mixedviT klasificirebuli monacemebi
gakveTilebze    daswrebis   Taobaze,    magram gakveTilebze
daswrebis zogadi maCveneblebi ar iZleva gangaSis sababs.
oficialuri   monacemebis   mixedviT   (gaero-s ganviTarebis
programa, 2002), dawyebiT skolaSi gakveTilebze daswrebis
saSualo maCvenebeli 98.3% iyo, xolo saSualo skolaSi – 78%.
analogiurad, oficialur monacemebSi ar Cans raime problema
skolis mitovebasTan dakavSirebiT. es maCvenebeli amJamad
Seadgens     0.37%-s    (2565    moswavle)3.   magram    Tu

3
  ganaTlebis saministros monacemebiT (2004), 2003/2004 saswavlo wels
skola miatova 2565-ma moswavlem. maTgan 671-ma swavla miatova muSaobis
dawyebis gamo, 559 oficialurad gairicxa, 450-ma ojaxi Seqmna, 226-is
mier skolis mitoveba avadmyofobis gamo moxda, xolo 659-is mier – sxva
mizezebiT.

                                     9
gaviTvaliswinebT arasaimedo monacemebs, maTi Segrovebisa da
analizis moZvelebul meTodebs, namdvilad arsebobs mizezebi,
romlebic gvafiqrebinebs, rom realuri situacia gacilebiT
seriozulia4. albaT daswrebis maCveneblebs Soris gansxvaveba
sqesebis mixedviT ufro didia, vidre es monacmebidan Cans.
vinaidan   qveynis    sxvadasxva    nawilebSi   (gansakuTrebiT
soflebsa   da   maRalmTian   raionebSi)   gauaresda   ojaxebis
ekonomikuri pirobebi, ufro metma bavSvma SeiZleba miatovos
skola   swavlis   safasuris   da/an   ojaxisaTvis   daxmarebis
gawevis mizeziT. mniSvnelovania, dafiqsirdes is zegavlena,
romelsac gakveTilebis gacdena biWebsa da gogonebze axdens,
saWiroa imis dadgenac, Tu romeli jgufia am oridan ufro
metad daCagruli.


3.3. skolebSi ganaTlebis xarisxTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis
Sefaseba genderuli TvalsazrisiT

    „iunisefis“ xarisxis standartis safuZvelze warmoebuli
xarisxis maCveneblebis Sefaseba genderuli TvalsazrisiT
moicavs xuT gansxvavebul aspeqts. es aspeqtebia: (1) ra
moaqvs moswavles ganaTlebis sistemaSi, (2) ganaTlebis
Sinaarsi, (3) swavlebisa da swavlis procesebi, (4) saswavlo
garemo da (5) swavlis Sedegebi.


3.3.1. ra moaqvs moswavles ganaTlebis sistemaSi

    bavSvebis    mier   skolis   gareT miRebuli   gamocdileba
gavlenas axdens gakveTilebze daswrebasa da miRwevebze
skolaSi. sul ufro xSirad gvxvdeba ganaTlebis sistemaSi
molodinsa     da     Sedegs    Soris   urTierTdamokidebulebis
dadastureba („iunisefi“, 2003c). is bavSvebi, romlebic
aRzrdis Sedegad arc Tu ise bevrs moelian sakuTari Tavisagan
da romlebmac ar ician, rom miniWebuli aqvT adamianis

4
  gakveTilebze daswrebasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis arasandoobis erT-
erT mTavar mizezs warmoadgens daswrebasa da swavlis mitovebasTan
dakavSirebul monacemTa Segrovebisa da analizis moZvelebuli meqanizmi.
magaliTad, yofili sabWoTa qveynebis umravlesoba moswavleTa daswrebis
aRricxvis mTavar saSualebad kvlav Jurnals iyenebs. miuxedavad amisa,
yvela gacdena JurnalSi mainc ar registrirdeba sxvadasxva mizezebis
gamo. pirveli, zogierTi maswavlebeli ubralod ignorirebas uwevs Tavis
uSualo movaleobebs. meore, maswavleblebs ar surT SeniSvnis miReba
xelmZRvanelebisgan  maT   gakveTilebze  aradamakmayofilebeli  daswrebis
gamo. mesame mizezia daswrebasTan dakavSirebuli yalbi informaciis
Sedgena skolebis xelmZRvanelobis mier realuri suraTis Serbilebis
mizniT. da, rac ufro mniSvnelovania, mokrebili monacemebi xSirad ar
analizdeba da ar gamoiyeneba adgilobriv/saskolo doneze programebSi
Sesabamisi cvlilebebis Sesatanad. amis nacvlad es monacemebi imave
mdgomareobaSi ubrundeba regionul organoebs da saministros oficialur
pirebs. da bolos, ar aris mkafiod gansazRvruli terminebi `daswreba” da
`skolis mitoveba” da amitom gaurkvevelia, sad mTavrdeba `daswreba” da
sad iwyeba `skolis mitoveba”. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, ufro azriani
iqneboda gakveTilebze realuri daswrebis dafiqsireba mosaxleobis aRweris
an sanimuSo gamokvlevis Catarebis ganmavlobaSi.

                                     10
ZiriTadi uflebebi, naklebad arian mzad swavlisa da saswavlo
procesSi   monawileobisTvis.    ganaTlebis   maRali   xarisxis
misaRwevad aucilebelia, rom yvela bavSvs SeeZlos yvelanairi
saswavlo SesaZleblobiT sargebloba. kvlevam gviCvena, rom
adreul asakSi xarisxiani swavlis xelmisawvdomoba da Sin Tu
sxvadasxva centrebSi miRebuli bavSvobis gamocdileba zrdis
bavSvis dawyebiT skolaSi Caricxvisa da swavlis albaTobas
(„iunisefi“, 2003c). winamdebare TavSi ganxilulia sami
ZiriTadi sakiTxi, romlebmac SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos
bavSvisaTvis xarisxiani ganaTlebis      xelmisawvdomobaze. es
aris skolamdeli swavla, bavSvTa Sroma da gansakuTrebuli
saWiroebebi   (anu    sagangebo    dacvis   saWiroebis   mqone
bavSvebi,   invalidi,   oboli,   quCis,   ltolvili,   iZulebiT
gadaadgilebuli da sxva bavSvebi)5.

bavSvebis Caricxva skolamdel dawesebulebebSi:                 Tanabrad
dabali done biWebsa da gogonebs Soris

      1990     wlebSi      skolamdel    dawesebulebebSi        bavSvebis
Caricxvis donem 43%-dan (1989 weli) 30%-mde (2001 weli)
iklo („iunisefi“, „monis“ angariSis monacemTa baza, 2002).
skolamdel       dawesebulebebSi      Caricxul      bavSvTa    raodenobis
Semcireba, erTis mxriv, gamowveuli iyo bevri sabavSvo baRis
daxurviT, rac, Tavis mxriv, mohyva saxelmwifo sawarmoebisa
da kolmeurneobebis finansuri pasuxismgeblobis adgilobrivi
biujetisTvis gadacemas. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT gardamavali
periodis mwvave sabiujeto deficits, gasagebi gaxdeba, rom adgilobriv
xelisuflebas ar SeeZlo sakuTar Tavze damatebiTi, skolamdel ganaTlebasTan
dakavSirebuli xarjebis aReba. meores mxriv, sabavSvo baRebi
miuwvdomeli gaxda bevri ojaxisTvis skolamdeli aRzrdis
dawesebulebebSi arsebuli gadasaxadis, dabali xelfasebisa da
mzardi umuSevrobis gamo. arsebuli monacemebi gviCvenebs,
rom skolamdeli aRzrdis dawesebulebebSi mosiarule bavSvTa
raodenobis Semcireba gansxvavebulad ar asaxula gogonaTa
jgufze, Tumca uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdina qalebze (dedebze),
romlebisTvisac         warsuls      Cabarda       skolamdeli     aRzrdis
saxelmwifo dawesebulebebi.

bavSvTa Sroma: ekonomikuri saqmianobis maRali maCvenebeli
vaJebs Soris da araekonomikuri saqmianobisa – gogonebs
Soris

    saqarTveloSi    bavSvTa         Sroma    siRaribiT       motanili
Znelbedobis      simptomia.            statistikis         saxelmwifo

5
   miuxedavad imisa, rom Sobadobis registrireba skolaSi CaricxulTa
kontrolisaTvis mniSvnelovan aspeqts warmoadgens, ar arsebobs sqesebis
mixedviT     klasificirebuli      monacemebi   sqesTan    dakavSirebiT.
mravalindikatoruli klasteruli kvlevis (2000) mixedviT, axalSobilTa 95%
gadis registracias dabadebisas – 97.4% qalaqSi, xolo 91.6% soflad. ver
iqna moZiebuli verc sqesebis mixedviT klasificirebuli da verc saerTod
raime   sxva  iseTi   monacemebi,   romlebic dagvanaxebda  gansxvavebas
dabadebis registraciaSi qalaqSi`soflad an eTnikuri jgufebis mixedviT
(mag., azerbaijanelebs Soris).

                                     11
departamentisa da Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis angariSi
(1999`2000) cxadyofs aSkara urTierTkavSirs xelmokleobasa da
bavSvTa mravalsaaTian samuSao dReebs Soris. erT sul mozrdil
adamianze moxmarebuli produqtis raodenoba im ojaxebSi,
romelTa Svilebi kviraSi 43 saaTze mets muSaoben, minimaluri
kaloriebis Semcvel racionsac ki ver aRwevs (gv. 56).
„iunisefis“ mravalindikatorulma klasterulma kvlevam (2000)
gviCvena, rom bavSvebis 30% Cabmulia ama Tu im saxis
SromaSi, aqedan vaJebis 31.2%, xolo gogonebis 28.7% dReSi
oTx da met saaTs Sromobs (anazRaurebiT, anazRaurebis gareSe
Tu     sakuTar      meurneobaSi).      statistikis     saxelmwifo
departamentisa       da   Sromis    saerTaSoriso     organizaciis
angariSidan (1999`2000) Cans, rom ekonomikur saqmianobaSi
biWebi   ufro     metad   arian   Cabmulebi,    vidre   gogonebi,
araekonomikur      saqmianobaSi    ki   suraTi    sawinaaRmdegoa.
gogonebi    ufro    metad   arian   dakavebulni    araekonomikuri
saqmianobiT, vidre vaJebi, da rac metia maTi asaki, miT
ufro SesamCnevia es gansxvaveba. aq aSkaraa adgilobrivi
tradicia – gogona dedas exmareba Sinaur saqmeSi - recxvaSi,
saWmlis mzadebaSi, umcros da-Zmaze da`an moxucebze zrunvaSi
(statistikis saxelmwifo departamenti da Sromis saerTaSoriso
organizacia, 2000). zogierTi arasamTavrobo organizaciis
dakvirvebiT, soflad mcxovreb did ojaxebSi (Cveulebriv,
azerbaijanul     ojaxebSi)    saswavlo    periodis   ganmavlobaSi
gogonebi saxlSi rCebian, umcros da-Zmas uvlian da ufrosebs
saojaxo    saqmianobaSi     exmarebian.    analogiurad,   biWebis
monawileoba ekonomikur saqmianobaSi zrdis skolis gacdenisa
da mitovebis SemTxvevebs.

sqesebis mixedviT klasificirebuli monacemebis nakleboba
sagangebo dacvis saWiroebis mqone bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT
(invalidebi, oblebi, quCis bavSvebi, bavSvebi, romlebic
seqsualur eqspluatacias ganicdian, ltolvilebis, iZulebiT
gadaadgilebuli pirebis bavSvebi)

    „iunisefis“ angariSSi „qalebi da bavSvebi saqarTveloSi”
naTqvamia, rom sagangebo dacvis saWiroebis mqone bavSvebi
ver Rebuloben aucilebel yuradRebas (gv. 152). sabavSvo
dawesebulebebSi kadrebis naklebobaa, Senobebi ar aris
sakmarisad aRWurvili da zogadad umZimes mdgomareobaSia
(„iunisefi“, 2003, gv. 152). bavSvTa saxlebSi mcxovrebi
zogierTi bavSvi dadis Cveulebriv saxelmwifo skolebSi,
sxvebi     ki     specialur      dawesebulebebSi       swavloben
(gansakuTrebiT    fizikuri   da     gonebrivi    naklis    mqone
bavSvebi). Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom dawesebulebebSi ar aris
sakmarisi damxmare struqturebi (magaliTad, bavSvebs aravin
exmareba   saSinao   davalebis    Sesrulebisas,    ar   arsebobs
damxmare   saswavlo   masalebi),    advili   misaxvedria,    rom
specialur dawesebulebebSi moTavsebuli bavSvebi ver iReben
imave   xarisxis   ganaTlebas,     rogorsac   maTi    Tanatolebi
Cveulebriv skolebSi. Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri
dacvis    saministros     monacemebiT      (2002),     specialur
dawesebulebebSi ufro meti biWia, vidre gogona. magaliTad,

                                  12
2002 wels janmrTel bavSvTa saxlSi 30%-iT meti biWi iyo
registrirebuli,   xolo     gonebrivad    unarSezRudul    bavSvTa
dawesebulebebSi   –    50%-iT     (Sromis,   janmrTelobisa    da
socialuri dacvis da ganaTlebis saministroTa monacemebi,
miTiTebuli `iunisefis~ angariSSi, 2003a). ar arsebobs raime
saxis informacia, romelic axsnida amgvar gansxvavebas
sqesTa   Soris   aseT    SemTxvevebSi,     anda    gamoikvlevda,
erTnairad   eqcevian    Tu    ara   gogonebs    da   biWebs   am
dawesebulebebSi. unda aRiniSnos, rom naklebi yuradReba
eqceva specialur dawesebulebebSi bavSvTa moTavsebis Tavidan
acilebas da maT gaSvilebas an sazogadoebrivi zrunvis
sistemebSi CarTvas („iunisefi“, 2003a).

    ltolvil    da    iZulebiT    gadaadgilebul     bavSvebs    Soris
ganaTlebis xelmisawvdomoba ar warmoadgens did problemas.
ZiriTadad, yvela angariSi miuTiTebs imaze, rom TiTqmis
yvela   aseTi    bavSvi    iricxeba     skolaSi,    xolo    dawyebiT
safexurze     Caricxvis      maCveneblebi       iseTivea,     rogorc
adgilobrivi bavSvebis SemTxvevaSi. marTalia, CaricxvasTan
dakavSirebiT       ver       movipoveT       sqesebis       mixedviT
klasificirebuli        informacia,       romelic      daadasturebda
gogonebisa da biWebis          Tanabar    raodenobas da Tanabar
daswrebas,     magram     zogierTi     saerTaSoriso     organizacia
aRniSnavs,    rom    ltolvili    CeCnebis     ojaxebSi    sul   ufro
klebulobs skolaSi mosiarule gogonaTa raodenoba. da bolos,
Zalze SezRudulia an saerTod ar arsebobs sqesebis mixedviT
klasificirebuli     monacemebi     sagangebo    dacvis saWiroebis
mqone     bavSvTa       bevri       kategoriisTvis      (magaliTad,
bavSvebisTvis, romlebic seqsualur eqspluatacias ganicdian,
quCis bavSvebisTvis da sxv.). ar arsebobs statistikuri
monacemebi       bavSvebis        seqsualur        eqspluataciasTan
dakavSirebiT    da    saxelmwifo ar       icavs amgvar bavSvebs
(„iunisefi“, 2003). ar arsebobs             arc quCis bavSvebis
raodenobis   amsaxveli      statistika6.    miuxedavad     garkveuli
sakanonmdeblo da programuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebisa,
arsebuli problemebis dafiqsirebisa da Sesabamisi zomebis
SemuSavebisTvis     aucilebelia      sabaziso    monacemebi.    didi
Zalisxmevaa saWiro arsebuli situaciis dasaZlevad, raTa
sagangebo dacvis saWiroebis mqone yvela bavSvma miiRos
saTanado mxardaWera, mzrunveloba da ganaTleba.


3.3.2. ganaTlebis Sinaarsi: tradiciuli genderuli stereotipebis
gadacema

    bavSvebis socialuri adaptaciis sakiTxSi mniSvnelovan
rols TamaSobs ganaTlebis Sinaarsi (anu saxelmZRvaneloebi da
saswavlo   programebi).   saxelmZRvaneloebi   da    saswavlo
programebi    gamoiyeneba    sazogadoebaSi    damkvidrebuli
faseulobebis   gadacemis  mTavar   meqanizmad    da   amitom

6
  yvelanairi cifrebi efuZneba arapirdapir faqtebs. meti informaciisTvis
ix. `iunisefi~ (2003a).

                                     13
gansakuTrebuli   roli   akisria   bavSvebis    mier  genderuli
rolebis      gaTviTcnobierebaSi.       qalebis      winaaRmdeg
diskriminaciis yvela formis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb konvenciaSi
aRniSnulia genderul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli saswavlo
masalebis   mniSvnelobas   da   naTqvamia,    rom   `TiToeulma
saxelmwifo uwyebam unda mimarTos yvela SesaZlo zomas, raTa
aRmoifxvras   kacis   rolis    stereotipi.    amisaTvis   unda
Seicvalos saxelmZRvaneloebi da saswavlo programebi da unda
moxdes swavlebis meTodebis adaptireba” (muxli 10).

    saqarTvelos     qalTa     arasamTavrobo     organizaciebis
         7
koaliciis    mier    Catarebuli   saxelmZRvaneloTa    analizis
mixedviT,   qarTul    saxelmZRvaneloebSi   sagrZnoblad   metia
mamakacTa    saxeebi     da   Zalze    tradiciuli    genderuli
stereotipebi gadmoicema. kerZod, pirveli klasis yvela
gaanalizebul saxelmZRvaneloSi8 orjer ufro metia mamakacTa
saxeebi, vidre qalebisa (505 mamakaci da 254 qali). garda
amisa,     xarisxobrivi       analizi     gviCvenebs,      rom
saxelmZRvaneloebSi Zlieri genderuli stereotipebia mocemuli.
magaliTad, gogonebi da qalebi, Cveulebriv, naCvenebi arian
viwro ojaxur konteqstSi – isini, ZiriTadad, dakavebulni
arian bavSvebis movliT, saWmlis mzadebiT, kerviT, qsoviT,
WurWlis recxviT, saxlis dalagebiT, sufris gaSliT da
yvavilebis morwyviT, xolo biWebi da kacebi – kiTxviT,
TamaSiT, cekviT, simReriT, laSqrobiT, peplebis WeriTa da
skolaSi siaruliT, nadirobiT, mecxvareobiTa da xerxviT.
Zalian cotaa saxelmZRvaneloebSi iseTi magaliTi, sadac
kacebi da qalebi erTnair saqmes akeTeben. msoflio bankma
ganixila saSualo skolis ufrosi klasebis istoriis savaraudo
programa da daadgina, rom saxelmZRvaneloebSi naklebad aris
asaxuli qalebis mier sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi Setanili
istoriuli wvlili (msoflio banki, 2001, gv. 11).

    daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saxelmZRvaneloTa
analizis mixedviT, qarTul saxelmZRvaneloebsa da saswavlo
masalebSi mocemulia qalisa da mamakacis rolebis Zlieri
stereotipebi. genderuli sakiTxebi saxelmZRvaneloebSi ori
TvalsazrisiT aris problemuri. jer erTi, isini propagandas
uwevs sqesTa ucvlel rolebs anu genderul stereotipebs.
meore,    qalTa    roli Semofarglulia   ojaxuri    garemoTi.
aucilebelia yvela klasis saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis da
masalebis    genderuli  TvalsazrisiT    gaanalizeba,    raTa
dafiqsirdes    arsebuli genderuli   stereotipebi   da   amis
Sesabamisad   Seicvalos  saxelmZRvaneloebis   Sinaarsi/maTSi
mocemuli saxeebi. garda amisa, saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis
7
  saqarTvelos qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis koalicia Camoyalibda
2000    wels    euTo-s  daxmarebiT    da    Sedgeba    42   arasamTavrobo
organizaciisgan. koaliciaSi gaerTianebulia 6 samuSao jgufi, romelTagan
erT-erTi muSaobs genderul da ganaTlebis sakiTxebze.
8
  analizi moicavda 1-l klasSi gamoyenebul xuT saxelmZRvanelos _ qarTuli
enis,    maTematikis,  Sromis,   xelovnebis    da   xelovnebis   klasebSi
gamoyenebul saxelmZRvaneloebs. damatebiTi informaciisTvis ix. angariSi
`saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis genderuli analizi” (2003), saqarTvelos
qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis koalicia.

                                      14
Sedgenis/damtkicebis standartebi unda moicavdes genderTan
dakavSirebul kriteriumebs, raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli
genderuli stereotipebis gadacema momavali TaobebisaTvis. da
bolos, saswavlo programebis mimdinare gadasinjva (msoflio
bankis kreditis farglebSi) unikaluri saSualebaa saswavlo
programebis axal standartebSi da axali saxelmZRvaneloebis
Sedgenis miTiTebebSi genderTan dakavSirebuli kriteriumebis
CasarTavad.


3.3.3. ganaTlebis procesi: swrafva midgomebisken, romelTa
mixedviT centraluri adgili bavSvs ukavia

    ganaTlebis sferos kanonmdebloba mxars uWers saqarTvelos
yvela skolaSi    interaqtiuli swavlebis`swavlis meTodebis
danergvas. miuxedavad amisa, praqtikaSi bevri maswavlebeli
ganagrZobs swavlebis/swavlis Zveli, tradiciuli meTodikiT
(magaliTad, pirdapiri gadacemis meTodebi, leqciebi da a.
S.) sargeblobas, vinaidan maT TiTqmis ara aqvT raime
winaswari   momzadebis   saSualeba.   maswavleblebs   amgvar
kursebs bevri arasamTavrobo da saerTaSoriso organizacia
sTavazobs,     magaliTad,      „iunisefi“     (maswavlebelTa
daxelovnebis institutTan erTad), arasamTavrobo organizacia`
kavSiri „skola-ojaxi-sazogadoeba” (fondis „Ria sazogadoeba
– saqarTvelo“ da fondi „evraziis“ daxmarebiT), norvegiis
ltolvilTa sabWo da sxv. miuxedavad amisa, gacilebiT met
maswavlebels`skolas sWirdeba profesiuli zrda am axal,
prioritetul sferoSi.

    maswavlebelTa     arc    winaswari      momzadebis     da   arc
kvalifikaciis     amaRlebis     programebi      ar   iTvaliswinebs
genderul    sakiTxebs.     ramdenime     programa     ganaxorcieles
adgilobrivma arasamTavrobo da saerTaSoriso organizaciebma
(amis    magaliTebia     norvegiis    ltolvilTa      sabWos    mier
Catarebuli      kursebi      ltolvil      bavSvebTan       momuSave
maswavleblebisTvis, fondis „Ria sazogadoeba – saqarTvelo“
damxmare    saganmanaTleblo     programa,      saqarTvelos    qalTa
arasamTavrobo organizaciebis koaliciis            mier   Catarebuli
treiningi da sxv.). magram jerjerobiT winaswari momzadebis
da   kvalifikaciis     amaRlebis    programebSi       ar   arsebobs
sistematuri midgoma genderuli sakiTxebis mimarT. saklaso
oTaxebSi     muSaobis     praqtikis     genderuli      TvalsazrisiT
Semowmebamde    maswavleblebsa da skolebis administraciis
warmomadgenlebs unda mieceT saSualeba, winaswari momzadebis
da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis programebis meSveobiT kritikulad
ganixilon sakuTari midgomebi, swavlebis stili da skolaSi
arsebuli     wesebi.    amitom     maswavlebelTa       mosamzadebel
dawesebulebebSi      yuradReba     unda      eqceodes     genderuli
Tanasworobis sakiTxebs, gansakuTrebiT, rodesac es sakiTxebi
ikveTeba iseT socialur faqtorebTan, rogoric aris siRaribe
da eTnikuri warmomavloba. am dawesebulebebSi SesaZlebelia
mimdinare gamokvlevebis, meTodebisa da politikis regularuli


                                   15
Sefaseba    da       gamocdilebis        gaTvaliswinebiT   axlebis
SemuSaveba.


3.3.4. saswavlo garemo: skolebis feminizacia, saskolo Senobebis
mdgomareobis gauareseba

    skolebSi genderuli Tanasworobis uzrunvelsayofad Zalze
mniSvnelovania saskolo garemo. amas ori mizezi aqvs.
pirveli, saskolo garemo moqmedebs rogorc gogonebis, ise
biWebis mier gakveTilebze daswrebaze, saswavlo procesSi
monawileobasa da swavlis Sedegebze. meore, igi warmoadgens
mozrdilTa samuSao samyaros models. aqedan gamomdinare,
saskolo garemos ZaluZs Camouyalibos bavSvebs Sexedulebebi
genderul rolebze samsaxurSi, SeuZlia gansazRvros bavSvebis
piradi miswrafebebic.

skolis feminizacia

    iseve,   rogorc   mTels   msoflioSi,    saskolo   garemo
saqarTveloSic feminizacias ganicdis. skolis maswavlebelTa
umravlesoba qalebia – 97.2% dawyebiT klasebSi (1-4 klasebi)
da 81.4% - ufros klasebSi (5-11 klasebi) (ganaTlebis
saministro, 2003). gardamaval periodSi qali maswavleblebis
raodenoba   skolebSi  TandaTanobiT   matulobda   (ganaTlebis
saministro, 1995; ganaTlebis saministro 2003; ix. danarTi
`b”). amis ZiriTad mizezebs warmoadgens maswavleblobis,
rogorc porfesiis, gaufasureba, maswavlebelTa xelfasebis
Semcireba da tradiciuli midgoma, rom maswavlebloba ufro
qalis saqmea. yvelaferma erTad Sedegad gamoiRo qalebis
dakaveba dabalxelfasiani saqmianobiT. amJamad maswavlebelTa
xelfasebi aRar aris sakmarisi Tavis gasatanad.

    horizontalur    anu    profesiul     segregaciasTan     (anu
maswavleblad,    ZiriTadad,    qalebis    muSaobasTan)     erTad
arsebobs   vertikaluric    (qalebi,   umTavresad,    ganaTlebis
sistemis   yvelaze    dabal    safexurebze    muSaoben).    sxva
sferoebis msgavsad, qalebi mravlad arian saganmanaTleblo
dawesebulebaTa ufro dabal doneze (anu es aris ZiriTadi
momuSave Zala) da naklebad arian warmodgenilni skolis
xelmZRvanelobaSi    (anu     skolis    direqtorebis      saxiT).
magaliTad, qalebi dawyebiTi skolebis direqtorTa 79%-s da
saSualo    skolebis     direqtorTa     44.8%-s     warmoadgenen
(ganaTlebis   saministro,    2003).   1995   welTan   SedarebiT
mamakaci direqtorebis raodenoba saSualo skolebSi 20%-iT
gaizarda (ganaTlebis saministro, 1995; 2003).

saskolo SenobaTa mdgomareobis gauareseba

    1990-ian   wlebSi dafinansebis   naklebobam  seriozuli
uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdina saskolo Senobebis xarisxsa da
mdgomareobaze. ganaTlebis infrastruqturis SenarCunebisken
mimarTuli    Tanxebis naklebobam,   xSirad    ki  skolebis

                                    16
mSeneblobis dabalma standartebma Sedegad moitana is, rom
amJamad saskolo Senobebi isea dazianebuli, rom maTi
reabilitacia seriozul Tanxebs saWiroebs (msoflio banki,
2002). “iunisefis” mier Catarebuli “situaciis analizis”
(2001) mixedviT, soflis skolebis 70%-s da qalaqis skolebis
84%-s esaWiroeba kapitaluri remonti an rekonstruqcia.
sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebis daxmarebiT mTel rig
skolebSi (3 100 skolidan) gaumjobesda Senobebis fizikuri
mdgomareoba – SekeTda saxuravebi, kar-fanjrebi, iatakebi,
Seicvala Sida milgayvaniloba, damontaJda sanitaruli da
gaTbobis   sistemebis   mowyobilobebi.   2000-2001  wlebSi
skolebSi, sadac sxvadasxva proeqti xorcieldeboda, 5.7%-iT
Semcirda im bavSvebis raodenoba, vinc 30 dRis ganmavlobaSi
acdenda gakveTilebs (“iunisefi”, 2003a).

    swavla ar Semoifargleba saklaso oTaxiT, Sesabamisad,
mTliani saskolo garemo uSualo zegavlenas axdens swavlis
xarisxze.    kerZod,   skolebSi    unda    arsebobdes   saTanado
sanitarul-higienuri saSualebebi da dasasvenebeli adgilebi
gogonebisa da biWebisTvis. sabWoTa periodidan gadmoyolili
jandacvisa da higienis standartebis wyalobiT saqarTvelos
umetes    skolaSi    sapirfareSoebi     saerToa    biWebisa   da
gogonebisTvis.       ganaTlebis      sistemis       dafinansebis
SemcirebasTan    erTad   swrafad   ganadgurda    yvela   saskolo
saSualeba. fondi “horizontis” dakvirvebiT (2004), tualetebi
bevr skolaSi aRar aris sufTa da arc TanamSromlebi arseboben
maTi sisufTavis uzrunvelsayofad. “horizontis” monacemebiT,
yovelive amis Sedegad samcxe-javaxeTSi gaizarda infeqciur
daavadebaTa SemTxvevebis raodenoba (“socialuri politika
saqarTveloSi”, 6, gv. 18). Tu gvsurs, rom bavSvebi
regularulad dadiodnen skolaSi da ar acdendnen gakveTilebs,
skolebSi   unda    damyardes   yvelanairi    piroba   moswavleTa
janmrTelobisa da usafrTxoebisaTvis.


3.3.5. swavlis Sedegebi

    rogorc   es    winamdebare    angariSSi    ukve   aRiniSna,
dafinansebis    qronikuli     nakleboba    (da    maswavlebelTa
xelfasebis araregularuli gacema) uaryofiT gavlenas axdens
maswavlebelTa    nayofier    muSaobaze,    ZiriTadi    saswavlo
masalebiT uzrunvelyofasa da skolebis fizikur mdgomareobaze.
marTalia, xeli ar migviwvda raime monacemebze, romlebic
daadasturebda   ganaTlebaze    gaweuli   xarjebis    Semcirebis
uaryofiT gavlenas swavlis Sedegebze, safiqrebelia, rom
swavlis Sedegebi gauaresebulia. zogadad ar arsebobs raime
sistemuri da sarwmuno informacia moswavleTa swavlis saboloo
Sedegebis Taobaze. msoflio bankis dakvirvebiT (2003), me-11
klasis bolos swavlis Sedegebi arafris mTqmelia da arc raime
saSualeba arsebobs imisaTvis, rom Sefasdes, rogor swavloben
moswavleebi qveynis sxvadasxva nawilSi. es, upirveles
yovlisa, sabWoTa ganaTlebis sistemis motanili Sedegia: am


                                 17
sistemis farglebSi yuradReba koncentrirebuli             iyo   codnis
miwodebaze da ara saboloo Sedegebze9.

    2002 wels msoflio bankis saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemis
gardaqmnisa    da     ganmtkicebis   programis    safuZvelze
Camoyalibda Sefasebisa da gamocdebis erovnuli centri,
damoukidebeli organo, romelic pasuxismgebelia ganaTlebis
xarisxis Sefasebasa da gamocdebis Catarebaze. amJamad
centrSi qveynis me-9 da damamTavrebeli klasebisTvis iqmneba
sagamocdo testebi, romlebic gogonebisa da biWebis saswavlo
Sedegebis   Sesaxeb    mniSvnelovan monacemebs   mogvawvdis.
Sefasebis procesi unda vrceldebodes ara marto ganaTlebis
Sedegad miRebul unar-Cvevebze (rogoric aris wera-kiTxva da
ariTmetika),   aramed    cxovrebaSi gamosadeg  Cvevebsa   da
Tvisebebzec.


3.4. arasamTavrobo da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis roli

    gardamavali      periodis      ganmavlobaSi      saqarTvelos
arasamTavrobo    organizaciebma    didi   Sroma   gawies,   raTa
sazogadoebisTvis      miewodebinaT      informacia     genderuli
Tanasworobis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. saqarTveloSi moqmedi
arasamTavrobo organizaciebis Zlieri qseli sazogadoebaSi
propagandas     uwevs     qalTa     uflebebsa    da     genderul
TanasworobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs yvela sferoSi, maT
Soris, ganaTlebaSi. 2000 wels Seiqmna saqarTvelos qalTa
arasamTavrobo     organizaciebis     koalicia,    romelSic    42
arasamTavrobo    organizacia, asociacia      da sauniversiteto
centri Sedioda. koaliciis erTi jgufi (9 organizacia)
ganaTlebis sakiTxebze muSaobs10. arasamTavrobo organizaciaTa
kargad organizebulma qselma, romelic aqtiurad aris CarTuli
genderul      sakiTxebTan        dakavSirebiT       sazogadoebis
gaTviTcnobierebasa       da      adgilobriv      SesaZleblobaTa
ganviTarebaSi, wamoiwyo genderuli sakiTxebis pirveli kvleva
ganaTlebis politikis, skolebSi miRebuli praqtikisa da
maswavlebeli/moswavlis damokidebulebaTa sferoebSi. amave
dros, aRniSnulma organizaciebma maswavleblebsa da skolis
xelmZRvanelobas     profesiuli    ganviTarebis   SesaZleblobebi
SesTavazes. magram oficialur struqturaTa warmomadgenlebi
xSirad    ar    aRiarebdnen     am    pirveli    eqsperimentuli
wamowyebebis     Sedegebs    da     ugulebelyofdnen     saswavlo
politikasTan    dakavSirebul    rekomendaciebs.     aucilebelia,
wamowyebuli iqnes politikuri dialogis ufro farTo procesi,

9
    swavlis   SedegebTan   dakavSirebuli   informaciis  sandoobisa  da
sistemurobis naklebobis ufro detaluri mizezebis dasadgenad ix. msoflio
bankis `swavlis Sedegebis Sefasebis angariSi”, 2003.
10
    aRniSnul organizaciebSi Sedis samoqalaqo kulturis saerTaSoriso
centri, `qalebi momavlisaTvis”, saqarTvelos invalid qalTa saerTaSoriso
asociacia, `dinamiuri fsiqologia ganviTarebisa da demokratiisTvis”,
asociacia `anika”, kavkasiis qalTa qseli, adamianTa uflebebis dacvis
mxardamWerTa kavSiri, asociacia `tranzicia” da SezRudul SesaZleblobaTa
mqone bavSvebis socialuri reabilitaciis kavSiri.

                                    18
romlis   farglebSic    yuradReba   mieqceva   arasamTavrobo
organizaciebisa da ganaTlebis sferos profesionalTa azrs da
es azri gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba.

    adgilobrivi arasamTavrobo organizaciebis iniciativebTan
erTad saqarTvelos skolebisa da umaRlesi saswavleblebis
maswavlebelTa      momzadebas       genderuli       sakiTxebis
gaTvaliswinebiT ramdenime saerTaSoriso organizaciac uWers
mxars. magaliTad, fondi `Ria sazogadoeba – saqarTvelo~
axorcielebda skolis maswavlebelTa da xelmZRvanel pirTa
saswavlo   kurss,    norvegiis   ltolvilTa    sabWom   Caatara
specialuri   kursi    ltolvil   da   iZulebiT    gadaadgilebul
bavSvebTan momuSave maswavleblebisaTvis, xolo gaero-s qalTa
ganviTarebis fondma _ konfliqtiT dazaralebul teritoriebze
ganaTlebis/genderuli Tanasworobis sferoSi kursebi skolebsa
da umaRles saswavleblebSi (dawvrilebiTi informaciisTvis ix.
danarTi    `b”).    samwuxarod,    maswavlebelTa     winaswari
momzadebis da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis oficialur programebSi
ar CaurTavT genderuli sakiTxebi. saerTaSoriso donorma
organizaciebma, arasamTavrobo organizaciebma da mTavrobam
unda moaxdinon konkretuli strategiebis, programebisa da
qmedebebis koordinireba ganaTlebaSi genderuli Tanasworobis
propagandis mizniT.


IV. daskvnebi da rekomendaciebi

    gardamavali periodis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelom SeZlo,
SeenarCunebina      ganaTlebis      xelmisawvdomobis     SedarebiT
erTnairi     maCveneblebi       bavSvebisTvis      (biWebisa    da
gogonebisTvis).      umZimesi     ekonomikuri     pirobebisa    da
siRaribis     mzardi     donis     miuxedavad,      saswavleblebSi
CaricxulTa Sesaxeb arsebuli monacemebi ar iZleva raime
radikalur gansxvavebas genderuli TvalsazrisiT. erT-erT
gamonakliss warmoadgens saSualo skolis ufros klasebSi
biWebis raodenobis Semcireba. Tumca, rogorc winamdebare
angariSi cxadyofs, Zalian mwiria sarwmuno da sqesebis
mixedviT     klasificirebuli        informacia      saswavleblebSi
Caricxvis, gakveTilebze daswrebisa da skolis mitovebis
Sesaxeb geografiuli adgilmdebareobebis (soflad/qalaqSi),
socialur-ekonomikuri klasebis, uciresobaTa jgufebisa da
socialurad daucveli ojaxebis mixedviT. sul ufro xSirad
gvxvdeba   informacia      eTnikur   umciresobaTa    jgufebSi   da
socialurad      daucvel      ojaxebSi     gogonebis      daCagruli
mdgomareobis     Sesaxeb.     aucilebelia    aRniSnuli    sakiTxis
Semdgomi kvleva da analizi. Tumca informaciis mogrovebis
saimedo sistemis uqonloba niSnavs, rom reformis farglebSi
mTavroba    ver     axerxebs     yuradRebis     gamaxvilebas    im
saWiroebebze,      romlebic      ukavSirdeba     bavSvebisa     da
axalgazrdebis saswavleblebSi Caricxvas, maT monawileobas
saswavlo   procesSi     da    ganaTlebasTan   dakavSirebul    sxva
monacemebs.


                                  19
    arsebuli xarisxobrivi monacemebi aaSkaravebs tradiciul
genderul    stereotipebs,     romlebic     mdedrobiTi     sqesis
warmomadgenlebis rols saojaxo saqmianobiT (bavSvebis movla,
saWmlis mzadeba, recxva) zRudaven da saTanadod ar aRiareben
qalis rols saqarTvelos politikaSi, ekonomikasa da socialur
sakiTxebSi. garda amisa, skola ufro da ufro feminizebuli
xdeba da qalebs yvelaze dabalanazRaurebiani Tanamdebobebi
ukaviaT.      imedismomcemia      sxvadasxva       arasamTavrobo
organizaciebis mier SemoTavazebuli saswavlo programebi
genderul   sakiTxebTan     dakavSirebiT,     magram    genderuli
sakiTxebis ugulebelyofam maswavlebelTa winaswari momzadebis
oficialur    kursebSi,     gansakuTrebiT    ki     kvalifikaciis
amaRlebis oficialur kursebSi SeiZleba gamoiwvios skolebSi
genderuli    stereotipebis      TviT     maswavleblebis     mier
damkvidreba. da bolos, arasamTavrobo organizaciebma, maT
mier Catarebuli seminarebiTa Tu mosamzadebeli programebiT,
SeZles zogierTi danaklisis Sevseba genderul TanaworobasTan
dakavSirebuli     treiningis     TvalsazrisiT.      saerTaSoriso
SeTanxmebebisa    da   donori   organizaciebis    mier   gaweuli
daxmarebis meSveobiT saerTaSoriso Tanamegobroba sul ufro
met   yuradRebas    izidavs   ganaTlebis    sferoSi    genderuli
Tanasworobis    mimarT.   Tumca    mainc   rCeba    dabrkolebebi
sakiTxis farTomasStabiani koordinirebis, ganxorcielebisa da
monitoringis TvalsazrisiT.

    winamdebare TavSi mocemulia ori tipis rekomendaciebi.
pirvel   jgufSi    Sedis  moklevadiani    rekomendaciebi.   es
rekomendaciebi koncentrirebulia im strategiebze/qmedebebze,
romlebic dauyovnebliv unda ganaxorcielon dainteresebulma
mxareebma,     maT     Soris,     xelisuflebis     organoebma,
arasamTavrobo da saerTaSoriso organizaciebma, raTa ukeT
gaacnobieron specifikur jgufebSi da specifikur geografiul
teritoriebze     genderul     TanasworobasTan    dakavSirebuli
sakiTxebi da moaxdinon Sesabamis programebSi ZiriTadi
monawile pirebis ukeTesi mobilizeba. meore jgufis _
grZelvadiani _ rekomendaciebi axdens ganaTlebis sferoSi
SesaZlebeli Carevebis identificirebas da iZleva saqarTvelos
ganaTlebis sistemaSi genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebze ufro
farTo sazogadoebrivi dialogis safuZvels. rekomendaciebi
ganzrax vrclad aris Camoyalibebuli, raTa daxmareba gauwios
adgilobriv doneze ufro siRrmiseuli dialogis wamowyebas.


4.1. moklevadiani rekomendaciebi


4.1.1. `genderis~ cnebis ufro farTo gansazRvris aucilebloba:
gogonaTa ganaTlebidan genderul Tanasworobamde

    tradiciulad,    `iunisefi~     da   sxva     saerTaSoriso
organizaciebi     genderul    Tanasworobas     gogonebisaTvis
xarisxiani      ganaTlebis      miRebis      xelmisawvdomobiT
gansazRvraven. ganviTarebis sferoSi warmoebuli programebis

                                 20
umravlesobaSi,    gansakuTrebiT     aziasa     da     afrikaSi,
`iunisefis~ mizans warmoadgens sagangebo damokidebuleba
gogonebis    ganaTlebis     mimarT,    ganaTlebis       Tanabari
xelmisawvdomoba   gogonebisTvis,    maswavlebelTa      Tanaswori
damokidebuleba gogonebisa da biWebis mimarT da saswavlo
wignebsa da masalebSi mocemuli genderuli stereotipebis
dangreva.   Tumca   aseTi   midgomebi    yovelTvis     ar   aris
Sesatyvisi yofil sabWoTa qveynebSi. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT
sabWoTa xanas, genderuli Tanasworobis misaRwevad saWiroa
frTxili, konteqstualuri analizi – iseTi analizi, romelic
iTvaliswinebs rogorc gogonebis, ise biWebis gamocdilebas
ganaTlebis   sferoSi   da  qalebisa    da   mamakacebis     rols
sazogadoebaSi.    genderuli     Tanasworobis      ufro     farTo
gansazRvras ufro mniSvnelovani Sedegebi mohyveba, vinaidan
es gulisxmobs, rom sazogadoebis socialuri da kulturuli
normebisa da ekonomikuri pirobebis Sesabamisad qalebsac da
mamakacebsac   SeiZleba   gansxvavebulad    moepyron.     amgvar
gansxvavebul   mopyrobas   saganmanaTleblo     dawesebulebebSi
SeuZlia martivad gviCvenos, rodis ubiZgeben moswavleebs
tradiciuli genderuli rolebisken an rodis zRudaven maT
saSualebas, isargeblon yvela SesaZleblobiT. imisaTvis, rom
saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sferoSi warmoebulma programebma meti
mniSvneloba SeiZinos, Zalze saWiroa genderuli dinamikis
kompleqsurobis gaTviTcnobiereba, agreTve, imis gageba, Tu
rogor SeiZleba SeuSalos xeli am dinamikam gogonebisa da
biWebis swavlas da/an ra zegavlena SeiZleba moaxdinos
swavlis damTavrebis Semdeg cxovrebaSi maT SesaZleblobebze.


4.1.2. sqesebis mixedviT klasificirebuli monacemebis
mogroveba/praqtikuli kvleva

    genderuli     barierebis     Semcireba       da     aRmofxvra
damokidebulia maT zedmiwevniT zust identificirebaze. magram
amJamad TiTqmis ar arsebobs statistikuri da xarisxobrivi
monacemebi     sxvadasxva     jgufSi     genderuli      dinamikis
dasafiqsireblad.     zogierTi    arasamTavrobo       organizaciis
dakvirvebiT,    izrdeba   genderuli    uTanasworoba     konkretul
jgufebSi   (magaliTad,    eTnikur    umciresobaTa,     ltolvilTa,
soflad/qalaqad mcxovrebTa jgufebSi), magram ar arsebobs
monacemebi,    romlebic    daadasturebda     am     gancxadebebs,
daxmarebas gagviwevda problemaTa mizezebis dadgenaSi da
Sesabamisi    programebis    SemuSavebaSi.      am    problemebis
mosagvareblad Semdegi qmedebebis ganxorcielebaa saWiro:

     sqesebis     mixedviT   klasificirebuli     monacemebis
      mogroveba   yvela   im  kvlevis   farglebSi,   romlebic
      wamowyebulia, tardeba da/an finansdeba `iunisefis~ da
      sxva saerTaSoriso Tu arasamTavrobo organizaciebis
      mier. magaliTad, mravalindikatorul klasterul kvlevas
      SeuZlia saintereso informacia mogvawodos dabadebisas
      dauregistrirebel CvilTa Sesaxeb, SeuZlia mogvawodos,
      agreTve, informacia imasTan dakavSirebiT, SeimCneva Tu

                                  21
      ara amgvar SemTxvevebSi raime gansxvaveba sqesebisa da
      geografiuli       teritoriebis      (soflebis/qalaqebis)
      mixedviT.   analogiurad,   mravalindikatorul    klasterul
      kvlevas   SeuZlia   sayuradRebo   informaciis    mowodeba
      skolebSi   Caricxuli   bavSvebis   Sesaxeb   sqesisa   da
      geografiuli adgilmdebareobis mixedviT da a.S.;

     `araxelsayrel     mdgomareobaSi     myofi”    mosaxleobis
      ganaTlebaSi   genderul    TanasworobasTan   dakavSirebuli
      sakiTxebis    siRrmiseuli    kvlevis    xelSewyoba,   rac
      aucilebelia    aRniSnuli    araxelsayreli    mdgomareobis
      mizezebis   dasadgenad     da   Sesabamisi    programebis
      SemuSavebisTvis     meqanizmis    Sesaqmnelad.    amgvari
      kvlevebi SeiZleba moicavdes (magram ara mxolod):

         genderul TanasworobasTan dakavSirebul kvlevebs
          eTnikur    umciresobaTa    jgufebs    (gansakuTrebiT
          azerbaijanelebs) da socialurad daucevel sxva
          jgufebs (gansakuTrebiT ltolvilebs, saSualo skolis
          ufrosi klasis moswavle biWebs da a. S.) Soris. es
          kvlevebi unda     moicavdes   informacias   skolebSi
          Caricxvis,    gakveTilebze     daswrebis,    swavlis
          Sedegebis Sesaxeb, aseve im ZiriTadi mizezebis
          Seswavlas, romlebic xels uSlis gogonebsa da
          biWebs xarisxiani ganaTlebis miRebaSi;

         gakveTilebis   gacdenisa    da    skolis    mitovebis
          SemTxvevebis    Seswavlas,    rac    ufro    sarwmuno
          informacias   mogvcems   moswavle    gogonebisa    da
          biWebis mier gakveTilebis gacdenisa da skolis
          mitovebis masStabis Sesaxeb, dagvexmareba imis
          gagebaSi, Tu romeli jgufebi dgas riskis winaSe,
          da    xels   Seuwyobs     Sesabamisi      programebis
          SemuSavebas   gakveTilebis gacdenisa da skolis
          mitovebis SemTxvevebis Sesamcireblad.


4.1.3. koordinireba

    arsebobs mTeli rigi arasamTavrobo da saerTaSoriso
organizaciebisa, romlebic miznad isaxaven        saqarTveloSi
genderul     TanasworobasTan     dakavSirebuli     sakiTxebis
mxardaWeras. magram am organizaciebis qmedebebi yovelTvis
ar   aris   kargad   koordinirebuli   da   xSirad   mTavrobis
yuradRebis miRma rCeba. `iunisefs~ (an sxva romelime
organizacias) SeuZlia mniSvnelovani koordinatoris rolis
Sesruleba genderuli sakiTxebis mxardaWeraSi da sxvadasxva
arasamTavrobo   da   saerTaSoriso   organizaciebs,   saswavlo
dawesebulebebsa da mTavrobas Soris dialogis warmarTvaSi.
amis miRweva ori gziT SeiZleba: (1) gaero-s genderul
Temebze momuSave jgufis saqmianobis ganaxlebiT da (2) ufro
warmomadgenlobiTi sakoordinacio komitetis CamoyalibebiT,
romelSic   Sevlen   ganaTlebis    sakiTxebiT   dainteresebuli
                                 22
mxareebi (gaero-s organizaciebi, sxva saerTaSoriso da
arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi
da sxv.).


4.1.4. propaganda

    da     bolos,     `iunisefs~,    ganaTlebis     sakiTxebiT
dainteresebul sxva mxareebTan erTad, qveynis ganaTlebis
reformis programebsa da politikaSi genderuli sakiTxebis
CarTvasTan dakavSirebiT mniSnvelovani propagandis gaweva
SeuZlia.     magaliTad,     arsebiTi    mniSvneloba    eniWeba
saqarTvelos bavSvTa daxmarebis erovnul samoqmedo gegmaSi,
saskolo    programebsa     da   maswavlebelTa    kvalifikaciis
amaRlebis     kursebSi    genderuli   sakiTxebis    CarTvisken
mowodebas.     amJamad    arsebobs   unikaluri    SesaZlebloba
genderuli kriteriumebis Setanisa msoflio bankis sesxiT
warmoebuli ganaTlebis reformis yvela aspeqtSi (magaliTad,
saskolo     programebis    gadasinjvaSi,    saxelmZRvaneloebis
Sedgenasa da maswavlebelTa treiningSi). `iunisefs~ am
procesSi mniSvnelovani rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia.


4.2. grZelvadiani rekomendaciebi

    qvemoT CamoTvlili ufro farTo rekomendaciebi yuradRebas
amaxvilebs     im    sferoebze,    romlebTan     dakavSirebiTac
ganaTlebis problemebiT dainteresebul mxareebs jer kidev
bevri    msjeloba    marTebT.    imisaTvis,     rom    aRniSnuli
rekomendaciebis safuZvelze SesaZlebeli iyos programebis
SemuSaveba,    aucilebelia,    adgilobrivad    Semowmdes    maTi
Sesrulebis    SesaZlebloba    da    maTi   saswrafo     xasiaTi.
rekomendaciebi    Camoyalibebulia     kvlevisas     gamoyenebuli
`xarisxis standartis~ safuZvelze da moicavs Semdeg ZiriTad
komponentebs: (1) ganaTlebis sferoSi politikis SemuSaveba
da ganxorcieleba; (2) ganaTlebis sistemis monitoringi; (3)
saswavlo    programebi   da    masalebi;   (4)    maswavlebelTa
treiningi; (5) saswavlo garemo da (6)             sazogadoebaSi
arsebuli mdgomareobis analizi.


4.2.1. ganaTlebis sferoSi politikis SemuSaveba da ganxorcieleba

    Tavad politikis SemuSavebis procesi ufro metad unda
iTvaliswinebdes genderul sakiTxebs. aRniSnuli sakiTxebis
dasanergavad unda Seicvalos ganaTlebis sferoSi politikis
SemuSavebisa da ganxorcielebis gzebi. amisaTvis qalebi an
qalTa organizaciebi monawileobas unda iRebdnen rogorc
gadawyvetilebaTa miRebaSi, ise skolis xelmZRvanelobaSi.

     ganaTlebis   sistemis   reformis   erT-erT   prioritetad
      Tanasworobis,   maT   Soris,   genderuli   Tanasworobis,
      dasaxva. politikisTvis ar aris sakmarisi genderuli
                                 23
    TvalsazrisiT    amJamad     arsebuli    `neitraliteti”.
    konstituciaSi   gansazRvruli   genderuli   Tanasworobis
    garda aucilebelia mkafio samarTlebrivi normebisa da
    politikis SemuSaveba sqesTa dacvasTan dakavSirebiT.

   politikasTan    dakavSirebuli       dialogis     procesSi
    dainteresebuli   mxaris   saxiT     qalTa   arasamTavrobo
    organizaciebis    CarTva.    rogorc    adgilobriv,    ise
    saxelmwifo doneebze qalebs unda mieceT SesaZlebloba
    (arasamTavrobo    an    sxva    romelime     organizaciis
    daxmarebiT), TavianTi Sexedulebebis, codnisa da unar-
    Cvevebis meSveobiT sakuTari wvlili Seitanon procesis
    ganviTarebaSi.

   ZiriTad dainteresebul mxareebs Soris urTierTkavSirisa
    da TanamSromlobis ganmtkiceba genderuli Tanasworobis
    propagandis      mizniT.      genderuli      Tanasworobis
    propagandaSi monawile organizaciebs da individebs –
    magaliTad,   genderul    sakiTxebze    momuSave   jgufebs
    arasamTavrobo    organizaciebSi,    universitetebsa    da
    saerTaSoriso   organizaciebSi    –  xeli   unda   SeewyoT
    TanamSromlobis     da     propagandis,     molaparakebaTa
    warmoebisa da `cvlilebis agentisTvis~ saWiro sxva
    TvisebebSi SesaZleblobaTa ganviTarebis meSveobiT.

   mTavrobasa    da    saswavlo    dawesebulebebs    Soris
    TanamSromlobis xelSewyoba, rac miznad isaxavs iseTi
    strategiisa da programebis SemuSavebas, romlebSic
    gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba genderuli sakiTxebi.       didi
    mniSvneloba aqvs    samTavrobo struqturebSi    genderul
    sakiTxebze momuSave jgufis (an iqneb komitetisac ki)
    Camoyalibebas. am jgufma unda uzrunvelyos genderuli
    Tanasworobis   sakiTxis   gaTvaliswineba  yvela   saxis
    politikasa Tu programaSi.

   genderul    sakiTxebTan   dakavSirebuli   sauniversiteto
    kvleviTi    programebis   CarTva    ganaTlebis   sferoSi
    warmoebul Sesabamis kvlevaSi. genderul sakiTxebTan
    dakavSirebul sauniversiteto kvleviT programebs didi
    wvlilis   Setana    SeuZliaT   genderuli   uTanasworobis
    dadgenaSi saswavlo programebis analizis da iseTi axali
    saswavlo programebis SemuSavebis meSveobiT, romlebSic
    adgilobrivi situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT Setanili iqneba
    genderuli sakiTxebi.
   saerTaSoriso     donor   organizaciebTan    koordinaciis
    gaumjobeseba, raTa saerTo ZalisxmeviT aRmoifxvras
    genderuli uTanasworoba ganaTlebis sferoSi. saswrafod
    saWiroa    saerTaSoriso   donor    organizaciebs   Soris
    ganaTlebis      sferoSi     genderul     TanasworobasTan
    dakavSirebuli konkretuli strategiebis, programebisa da
    RonisZiebebis koordinirebis gaumjobeseba.


                               24
(1) ganaTlebis sistemis monitoringi

    qmediTi politikis SemuSaveba da gatareba damokidebulia
sarwmuno    statistikuri    monacemebis    arsebobaze.   Tumca
saqarTveloSi    amJamad    arsebobs    uamravi    statistikuri
monacemi, amocana didi moculobis informaciis mogrovebasa da
SenaxvaSi ki ar mdgomareobs, aramed imis dadgenaSi, Tu
romeli informaciaa mniSvnelovani genderuli Tanasworobis
monitoringisaTvis, da mis gamoyenebaSi siRrmiseuli analizis
Casatareblad.   ganaTlebis    sferoSi   saxelmwifo   politikis
SemuSavebisa da ganaTlebis sferos efeqtiani marTvisTvis
zusti     informaciaa    saWiro.      genderul     sakiTxebTan
dakavSirebuli     sando    monacemebis     gareSe    genderuli
uTanasworobis problema SeiZleba yuradRebis miRma darCes.

     unda gaumjobesdes sqesebis mixedviT klasificirebuli
      arsebuli   monacemebis   xelmisawvdomoba    da   analizi.
      miuxedavad sqesebis mixedviT klasificirebuli garkveuli
      monacemebis arsebobisa, isini yovelTvis xelmisawvdomi
      ar aris da/an araefeqtianad gamoiyeneba politikis
      SemoqmedTa mier. saqarTveloSi genderul TanasworobasTan
      dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis saTanadod dafiqsirebisa da
      dasabuTebis    mizniT    politikis    gaanalizebisa    da
      dagegmvisas   aucileblad    xelmisawvdomi   unda   gaxdes
      arsebuli masalebi. amisaTvis saWiro iqneba ZiriTadi
      monacemebis            analizze            pasuxismgebeli
      uwyebis/organizaciis gansazRvra.

     unda Segrovdes sarwmuno, amJamad ararsebuli, sqesebis
      mixedviT    klasificirebuli    monacemebi     ganaTlebis
      xelmisawvdomobis,     gakveTilebze     daswrebisa     da
      ganaTlebis    Sedegebis    Sesaxeb.    imisaTvis,    rom
      uzrunvelyofili iqnes genderuli Tanasworoba ganaTlebis
      sistemis funqcionirebis yvela aspeqtSi – maT Soris,
      saswavleblad CaricxvaSi, gakveTilebze daswrebasa da
      saswavlo SedegebSi _ aucilebelia sqesebis mixedviT
      klasificirebuli    statistikuri     monacemebis    sruli
      speqtris arseboba. unda mogrovdes sqesebis mixedviT
      klasificirebuli            monacemebi            skolaSi
      Caricxvis/gakveTilebze daswrebis TvalsazrisiT rogorc
      regionul doneze, ise sxvadasxva eTnikuri umciresobis
      jgufebisaTvis.

     unda ganviTardes adgilobrivi SesaZleblobebi genderul
      sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli indikatorebis SesamuSaveblad
      ganaTlebis     sistemaSi     genderuli    Tanasworobis
      monitoringis mizniT. ganaTlebis xelmisawvdomobasa da
      saswavlo procesSi monawileobaSi iseTi problemebis
      arseboba, romlebic uwindel dros ar iyo aRiarebuli,
      warmoaCens ganaTlebis sistemaSi genderuli sakiTxebis
      raodenobrivi da xarisxobrivi monitoringis saWiroebas.
      es monitoringi unda moicavdes detalur informacias
      sxvadasxva jgufebSi (rogoric aris, magaliTad, eTnikuri
                                 25
      jgufebi, soflad/qalaqad mcxovrebi jgufebi, sagangebo
      dacvis    saWiroebis   mqone   bavSvebi)   ganaTlebis
      xelmisawvdomobis, saswavlo procesSi monawileobisa da
      saswavlo Sedegebis Sesaxeb.

     unda      ganviTardes       saxelmwifo      dawesebulebaTa
      SesaZlebloba,      genderuli     TvalsazrisiT     Seafason
      programebi,    politika,    sistemis    funqcionireba    da
      procedurebi.     magaliTad,     organizaciebSi    SeiZleba
      Catardes      genderuli      `auditi”      TanasworobasTan
      dakavSirebul iniciativebSi dadebiTi magaliTebisa da
      winaaRmdegobebis     aRmoCenis    mizniT,   garda    amisa,
      skolebis, umaRlesi saswavleblebisa da gadawyvetilebis
      mimRebi pirebisaTvis SesaZlebelia Catardes treiningi
      zogadi da Tematuri genderuli analizis sferoSi. es
      SeiZleba iyos codnis gazrda (magaliTad, dialogebis,
      mrgvali    magidebisa    da    brifingebis    organizeba),
      saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebisa da kiTxvarebis Seqmna,
      raTa dadgindes, uWeren Tu ara mxars saganmanaTleblo
      dawesebulebebi     genderuli    Tanasworobis    sakiTxebs,
      agreTve,     genderul     TanasworobasTan     dakavSirebiT
      samoqmedo     gegmebis     Sedgena     sazogadoebriv     da
      instituciur doneebze.

     skolebis, mSoblebisa da sazogadoebis monawileoba.
      mSoblebisa da sazogadoebis CarTvam adgilobriv doneze
      ganaTlebis          miwodebasTan          dakavSirebuli
      gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi SeiZleba dadebiTi gavlena
      moaxdinos saswavlo procesSi gogonebisa da biWebis
      Tanabari monawileobis saqmeSi (magaliTad, programa
      “EMIS“-is   farglebSi    centraluri   aziis    soflebSi
      `iunisefis~    daxmarebiT    ganxorcielebuli    proeqti
      sazogadoebis monawileobiT).

(2) saswavlo programebi da masalebi

    genderuli       Tanasworobis      dasamyareblad      Zalze
mniSnvelovania    reformis   procesSi   saswavlo   programebSi
genderuli    sakiTxebis    Setana.    reformirebul    saswavlo
programebSi unda damkvidrdes standartebi sqesTa saTanado
warmoCenisa da maTi Tanasworobis damyarebisTvis. aRniSnuli
standartebi    xazgasmuli    unda   iqnes   saxelmZRvaneloebis
avtorebisTvis Sedgenil miTiTebebSi da saswavlo wignebis
Sefasebis kriteriumebSi.

     unda ganxorcieldes saxelmZRvaneloebisa da saswavlo
      programebis     analizi     genderuli     stereotipebis
      aRmosafxvrelad. saxelmZRvaneloebis genderuli analizis
      mizania genderuli stereotipebis aRmoCena da Semcireba.
      kritikuli   azrovnebis   Cvevis    SeZena   moswavleebs
      aswavlis sqesTa urTierTobebis Sesaxeb kiTxvebis dasmas
      da    am    urTierTobebTan     dakavSirebiT    sakuTari
      Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebas.
                                  26
     saswavlo programebSi, saxelmZRvaneloebsa da saswavlo
      masalebSi   gaTvaliswinebuli   unda  iqnes   genderuli
      sakiTxebi. aucilebelia iseTi saswavlo programebis,
      saxelmZRvaneloebisa da saswavlo masalebis Sedgena,
      romlebSic ar iqneba genderuli stereotipebi da romlebic
      xels Seuwyobs genderul Tanasworobas.

     axali    saswavlo     programebis     standartebsa     da
      saxelmZRvaneloebis       momzadebisTvis        gankuTvnil
      miTiTebebSi   unda   Sevides   genderuli   kriteriumebi.
      saswavlo   programebis    mimdinare   reforma,    romelic
      msoflio bankis kreditis farglebSi xorcieldeba, axali
      saswavlo        programebis        standartebsa        da
      saxelmZRvaneloebis SedgenisTvis gankuTvnil miTiTebebSi
      genderuli kriteriumebis CarTvis unikalur saSualebas
      warmoadgens.

 (3) maswavlebelTa treiningi

    vinaidan maswavleblebs mniSvnelovani roli ekisrebaT
ganaTlebis   sferoSi   genderuli   Tanasworobis   xelSewyobis
saqmeSi,   saWiroa   maTi  treiningi   genderul   sakiTxebSi.
maswavlebelTa   winaswari    momzadebisa   da   kvalifikaciis
amaRlebis programebis mimdinare reformaSi gaTvaliswinebuli
unda iqnes genderuli sakiTxebi.

     kvalifikaciis asamaRlebeli programebis daxmarebiT unda
      gaizardos genderuli sakiTxebis Sesaxeb maswavlebelTa
      codnis   done.    unda  ganviTardes   saqarTveloSi   ukve
      arsebuli SesaZleblobebi da ufro farTod gavrceldes
      maswavlebelTa kvalifikaciis asamaRlebeli programebi,
      romlebic Seicavs genderuli Tanasworobis elementebs. es
      programebia `nabij-nabij,” `wera da kiTxva kritikuli
      azrovnebis mizniT~ da `ganaTlebis gaumjobeseba” (fondi
      `Ria sazogadoeba – saqarTvelo~), `aqtiuri swavla da
      cxovrebaSi    gamosadegi   unar-Cvevebi”    (`iunisefi~),
      `ganaTleba     konfliqtiT    dazaralebul    teritoriebze”
      (gaero-s    qalTa    ganviTarebis   fondi),    `genderuli
      Tanasworoba” (norvegiis ltolvilTa sabWo) da a.S.
      (saqarTveloSi maswavlebelTa kvalifikaciis asamaRlebeli
      treiningis programebTan dakavSirebuli ufro detaluri
      informaciisTvis ix. danarTi `b”).

     uzrunvelyofili     unda      iqnes,      rom      saswavlo
      dawesebulebebSi   maswavleblebma    SeiZinon    is   unar-
      Cvevebi,    romlebic    aucilebelia     saklaso     oTaxSi
      Tanasworobis dasamkvidreblad. maswavlebelTa saswavlo
      dawesebulebebi (pedagogiuri kolejebi, institutebi da
      universitetebi) is instrumentia, romelmac momavali
      maswavleblebi   unda  aRWurvos    im   meTodikiT,    unar-
      CvevebiTa da midgomebiT, romlebic aucilebelia klasSi

                                  27
      Tanasworobis dasamkvidreblad, rac, Tavis mxriv, miznad
      isaxavs yvela moswavlis mier Tanabari Sedegis miRebas
      (saqarTveloSi   maswavlebelTa   winaswari   momzadebis
      programebis Sesaxeb ufro detaluri informaciisaTvis ix.
      danarTi `b”).

     maswavlebelTa winaswari momzadebisa da kvalifikaciis
      amaRlebis arsebuli programebis genderuli elementebi
      unda   CairTos    maswavlebelTa    xelaxali    treiningis
      saxelmwifo    programaSi,    romelic    msoflio    bankis
      daxmarebiT muSavdeba. msoflio bankis mier organizebul
      samuSao jgufebSi ukeTesi koordinaciis mizniT Seyvanili
      unda   iqnen    im    arasamTavrobo    da   saerTaSoriso
      organizaciaTa    warmomadgenlebi,    romlebic    genderul
      sakiTxebTan dakavSirebul programebs (rogorc winaswari
      momzadebis, ise kvalifikaciis amaRlebis programebs)
      axorcieleben.

(4) saswavlo garemo

    zogad saswavlo garemos didi mniSvneloba aqvs skolebSi
genderuli   Tanasworobis   damyarebisTvis  da    bavSvebSi
Sesabamisi    genderuli   rolis    Sesaxeb   warmodgenebis
CamoyalibebisTvis.

     skolebSi janmrTelobisa da usafrTxoebis dacvis mizniT
      uzrunvelyofili    unda     iqnes    adekvaturi    saskolo
      saSualebebi.   skolebSi    unda   arsebobdes   adekvaturi
      higienuri da sanitaruli saSualebebi da dasasvenebeli
      adgilebi   (magaliTad,    sportuli   darbazebi),   iseve,
      rogorc jandacvis samsaxurebi da kvebis momsaxureba,
      rac   uzrunvelyofs     gogonebisa    da   biWebis    mier
      gakveTilebze regularul daswrebas.

     unda    Camoyalibdes    saskolo    kultura,    romelSic
      gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba genderuli sakiTxebi. saskolo
      kultura unda Seicvalos da xeli unda Seuwyos gogonebisa
      da biWebis cxovrebis Secvlas; amis erT-erTi saSualebaa
      sazogadoebaSi   orive   sqesisTvis   arsebul    uaryofiT
      mxareebze Tavisufali msjeloba da moswavleebisTvis am
      uaryofiTi mxareebis aRmofxvris survilis aRZvra.

     saswavlo dawesebulebaTa   xelmZRvanel rgolebSi unda
      gaizardos   qalebis  raodenoba.    sqesebis  mixedviT
      skolebSi rolebis dayofasTan brZolis mizniT saswavlo
      dawesebulebaTa xelmZRvanel rgolebSi unda gaizardos
      qalebis raodenoba.

     unda   gaizardos   maswavleblis  profesiis   prestiJi.
      ganaTlebis sferoSi politikis SemuSavebisas aucilebelia
      dafiqreba imaze, Tu rogor SeiZleba maswavleblobis
      prestiJis amaRleba. profesiis prestiJis gazrdasTan

                                 28
      erTad sazogadoebaSi gaizrdeba maswavlebelTa xelfasebis
      gazrdis survilic.

(5) sazogadoebaSi arsebuli mdgomareobis analizi

    aucilebelia      mWidro     TanamSromloba       adgilobriv
sazogadoebriv jgufebTan da socialurad gansakuTrebiT daucvel
ojaxebTan, raTa davadginoT rogorc biWebis, ise gogonebis
mier   gakveTilebis    gacdenis   mizezebi.     garda    amisa,
adgilobrivi sazogadoebis doneze saWiroa muSaoeba eTnikur
umciresobaTa jgufebSi, raTa Seicvalos midgomebi gogonebis
ganaTlebis     mimarT.    ganaTlebis      sferoSi     politikis
SemuSavebisas    gaTvaliswinebuli    unda    iqnes    siRaribe,
umciresobisadmi kuTvnileba da soflad cxovreba, vinaidan es
faqtorebi zegavlenas axdens gakveTilebze daswrebasa da
swavlis Sedegebze.

     skolebSi     yvela     doneze    Caricxvisas      genderuli
      uTanasworobis       Sesamcireblad        Seswavlili      da
      gaTvaliswinebuli     unda     iqnes      regionuli/eTnikuri
      gansxvavebebi.     aucilebelia      eTnikur     uciresobaTa
      jgufebSi (magaliTad, azerbaijanelebSi) da socialurad
      daucvel jgufebSi (magaliTad, ltolvilebSi, RaribebSi)
      skolebSi    Caricxvisa     da   gakveTilebze      daswrebis
      Semcirebis mizezebis dadgena, dokumenturad dafiqsireba
      da     gamokvleva.      amgvari      kvlevis     CatarebaSi
      mniSvnelovani    rolis   Sesruleba     SeuZliaT   genderuli
      sakiTxebis       Semswavlel       departamentebsa        da
      universitetebs.

     dadgenili   da   Seswavlili    unda   iqnes   gakveTilebis
      gacdenisa da skolis mitovebis mizezebi. unda gairkves
      savaldebulo    ganaTlebis    doneze    problemis   siRrme,
      Sefasdes sxvadasxva faqtoris (rogoric aris, magaliTad,
      soflad/qalaqad cxovreba, socialur-ekonomikuri done,
      sqesi   da   a.S.)    zemoqmedeba,    Semowmdes   arsebuli
      kanonmdeblobisa     da    dadgenilebebis    Sinaarsi    da
      ganxorcieleba,      gaizardos      ganaTlebis     seqtorSi
      sxvadasxva dainteresebuli mxareebis mier problemis
      gaTviTcnobiereba.

     dadgenili da gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes saSualo
      skolis ufros klasebSi biWebis raodenobis Semcirebis
      mizezebi.   aucilebelia saSualo skolis feminizaciis
      fenomenis   Semdgomi   kvleva da   iseTi   meqanizmebis
      SemuSaveba,   romlebic   xels Seuwyobs   biWebis   mier
      swavlis gagrZelebas.




                                  29
30
bibliografia

amerikel advokatTa asociacia (2003). `qalebis winaaRmdeg
diskriminaciis yvela formis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb konvenciis
Sesrulebis mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi~. saqarTvelo, Tbilisi.

saqarTvelos     mTavroba     da     `iunisefi~  (2003-2004).
`gardamavali   periodis    mimoxilva~. saqarTvelo, Tbilisi,
`iunisefi~.

`wiTeli jvari~ (2000). `bavSvebis mimarT cudad mopyrobis
Seswavla~. saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, `wiTeli jvari~.

statistikis saxelmwifo departamenti (2004). `saqarTveloSi
2002 wels Catarebuli mosaxleobis pirveli erovnuli aRweris
ZiriTadi   daskvnebi~.   saqarTvelo, Tbilisi: statistikis
saxelmwifo departamenti.

statistikis saxelmwifo departamenti (2002). `saqarTvelos
mosaxleobis   2002   wlis  aRwera~.  saqarTvelo, Tbilisi:
statistikis saxelmwifo departamenti.

gaero-s    ganviTarebis    programa      (2000).    `humanuri
ganviTarebis angariSi: saqarTvelo~.     saqarTvelo, Tbilisi:
gaero-s ganviTarebis programa.

gaero-s   ganviTarebis   programa (2001-2002).  `humanuri
ganviTarebis angariSi: saqarTvelo~. saqarTvelo, Tbilisi:
gaero-s ganviTarebis programa.

gaero-s ganviTarebis programa (2003). `samuSao moxseneba
iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa daucvelobisa da ekonomikuri
TvalsazrisiT sakuTari Tavis gatanis Sesaxeb~. saqarTvelo,
Tbilisi: gaero-s ganviTarebis programa.

`iunesko~    (2003).   `genderi    da      ganaTleba     yvela
adamianisTvis: swrafva xarisxisaken~.    safrangeTi,   parizi:
`iunesko~.

`iunisefi~ (2000). `mravalindikatoruli klasteruli kvleva~.
saqarTvelo, Tbilisi: `iunisefi~.

`iunisefi~ (2003a). `qalebi da bavSvebi saqarTveloSi:
situaciis analizi~. saqarTvelo, Tbilisi: `iunisefi~.

`iunisefi~ (2003b). `saqarTvelo:      2003   wlis   angariSi~.
saqarTvelo, Tbilisi: `iunisefi~.

`iunisefi~    (2003c).    `ganaTlebis    sferoSi  genderuli
sakiTxebis mimoxilvis Catareba: saxelmZRvanelo miTiTeba da
instrumenti~.      niu-iorki:     `iunisefis~    ganaTlebis
ganyofileba, programebis qvedanayofi.


                                 31
gaeros ganviTarebis programa (2000). `qalebis mdgomareoba
saqarTveloSi~. saqarTvelo, Tbilisi.
msoflio banki (2001). `saqarTvelosTvis ganaTlebis sistemis
gardaqmnisa da ganmtkicebis programis gansaxorcieleblad
25.9 milioni aSS dolaris odenobis kreditTan dakavSirebuli
savaraudo programis pirveli etapis Sefaseba~. kolumbiis
olqi, vaSingtoni: msoflio banki.




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