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									A CORPUS-BASED ANALYSIS OF T AND 'ME' VARIATION IN

             COORDINATE NOUN PHRASES

                             by

                   Nancy Romans Turley




       A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment
            of the Requirements for the Degree
                    Doctor of Philosophy




             ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

                         May 2009
                         UMI Number: 3351520




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A CORPUS-BASED ANALYSIS OF T AND 'ME' VARIATION IN

           COORDINATE NOUN PHRASES

                         by

                Nancy Romans Turley




                 has been approved

                    January 2009




           Graduate Supervisory Committee:

                 Karen Adams, Chair
                  Elly van Gelderen
                     Dawn Bates
                     Mark Davies




       ACCEPTED BY THE GRADUATE COLLEGE
                                       ABSTRACT

        Language spoken today contains many non-prescribed constructions

similar to "me and Chris quote that movie" or "please believe my wife and I."

This study employed corpora extractions to examine these non-prescribed

coordinated pronominal noun phrases (NP). Unlike listener reportings, this

research was an equal opportunity study for all non-prescribed orderings of the T

and 'me' coordinated pronoun NPs: [me and          / [      and me], [I and      ],

and [       and I]. The use of 484 million words from the Corpus of Contemporary

American English (COCA), the British National Corpus (BNC), the Michigan

Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE), and the TIME Magazine Corpus

gave an unbiased insight into the use of non-prescribed coordinated pronominal

NP forms.

        The search process was designed to find only non-prescribed examples

which were coordinated pronouns, not coordinated sentences. The non-

prescribed coordinated pronominals found to be highest in frequency were [me

and      ], appearing 8.3 times per million words in the spoken corpora; [

and I] occurred 2.2 times per million words; [     and me] occurred 0.07 times

per million words. The [I and      /string exhibited little impact, with 0.07 tokens

found per million words.

        The COCA contains spoken, fiction, newspaper, magazine, and academic

genres. When searched for coordinated pronominals, the same pattern of string

frequencies was found. TIME Magazine was used to view non-prescribed usage

over an 85 year time span. The token count was small, but a comparison of

                                         iii
generational forty-year time blocks showed a slight increase in 'me' tokens

and a decrease in non-prescribed T tokens, indicating a direction of language

change.

        This study also examined subjective complements and speakers'

preferred case, verbs and prepositions preceding strings, and triple coordinates

with T consistently in an internal position. Findings on location in the sentence of

non-prescribed pronoun strings, case frequency with fragments and ellipses,

idiomatic tendencies, and social variation portrayed in television and radio scripts

are also discussed. It was found that non-prescribed [       and I] is present in

hypercorrections, while objective [me and *]\s encroaching on subjective

territory.




                                         IV
                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                     Page

LIST OF TABLES                                         xi

LIST OF FIGURES                                       xvi

INTRODUCTION                                            1

   Purpose of Dissertation                              1

   Method                                               3

   Parameters Used for Analysis                         7

   Significance                                        10

   Outline of Study                                    11

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE                               14

   Prescriptivism and Language Change                  14

            A Standard Defined                         15

            Prescriptivism                             18

            Enforcers                                  26

                  Government                           27

                  Grammarians                          31

                  Publishers                           37

          A Changing Language                          38

                  Leaning away from prescriptivism     40

                  Listening to the people              42

            Communication as the Standard              45

   Changes in Pronominal Coordinated NP Usage          47

                                        v
                                                                Page

       Prescriptive Pronoun Rules                                 47

       Pronoun Changes                                            49

             Historical evidence                                  49

             Current examples                                     51

       Pronoun Usage Varies Widely                                51

       Possible Explanations of Pronoun Variations                53

             Inaccurate assimilation to Latin                     53

             Social variation                                     55

             Politeness                                           58

             Hypercorrection                                      60

             Semantic environment                                 62

             Syntactical considerations                           68

             Idiomatic speech                                     75

             Lexical leveling                                     78

             Local or pattern grammars                            81

             Summation of possible pronoun variation theories     82

       Studying Variations of Pronominal Coordinated NPs          83

             The old way                                          83

             Using corpora                                        84

The Value of Corpora                                              85

       Early Corpus Linguistics                                   85

             At odds with Chomsky                                 86

                                    vi
                                                                   Page

               Intuition'
								
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