TRINITY 7 QUESTIONS Format Total time: 15 minutes The examination consists of three assessed phases: - Candidate-led discussion of a topic prepared by the candidate (up to 5 minutes) - Interactive task (up to 4 minutes) - Conversation on two subject areas selected by the examiner (up to 5 minutes) Candidate performance In performing the required tasks, the candidate is expected to demonstrate the following communicative skills and use the language ítems listed below. Communicative Skills In the Topic phase - Show understanding by responding appropriately to the examiner - Communicative variety of facts, ideas and opinions, and account for these, about a chosen topic across a series of extended turns - Engage the examiner in discussion of the topic - Be prepared to ask and answer questions about the content of the topic - Handle interruptions or requests for clarification throughout the discussion of the topic In the Interactive task phase - Initiate the discourse - Maintain the discourse by asking for information - Help the discussion along by inviting comment from the examiner - Take and give up turns when appropriate to do so - Where appropriate to the individual task, make use of the functions listed below Two subject areas for conversation will be selected by the examiner from the list below: - education - national customs - village and city life - national and local produce and products - early memories - pollution and recycling Functions - Giving advice and highlighting advantages and disadvantages - Making suggestions - Describing past habits - Expressing possibility and uncertainty - Eliciting further information and expansion of ideas and opinions - Expressing agreement and disagreement Language production The candidate is expected to demonstrate the ability to use the items listed below, in addition to the items listed for the previous grades. Grammar 1. – Second conditional 2. – Simple passive 3. – Used to 4. – Relative clauses 5. – Modals and phrases used to give advice and make suggestions e.g. should/ought to, could, you’d better 6. – Modals and phrases used to express possibility and uncertainty may, might, I’m not sure 7. – Discourse connectors because of, due to Lexis 1. – Vocabulary specific to the topic area 2. – Vocabulary specific to the subject areas 3. – Expressions of agreement and disagreement 4. – Appropriate words and expressions to indicate interest and show awareness of the speaker, e.g. Really? Oh dear! Did you? 5. – Simple fillers to give time for thought, e.g. Well...Um... Phonology 1. – The correct pronunciation of vocabulary specific to the topic and the subject areas 2. – Basic intonation GRAMMAR 1. – Second conditional - Open conditional “If you turn on the lights, you can see better” (If clause: Present Simple) (Main clause: Present Simple) - First Conditional “If you study hard, you will pass your exams” (If clause: Present Simple) (Main clause: Future Simple) “When you study harder, you will pass your exams” (When clause: Present Simple) (Main clause: Future Simple) - Second Conditional “If you had studied harder, you would have passed your exams” (If clause: Past Perfect) (Main clause: Perfect Conditional) “If you had passed all your exams, you would have gone on holidays” (If clause: Past Perfect) (Main clause: Perfect Conditional) To talk about unlikely or imaginary present or future situations and their present or future consequences, we use the second conditional: If + past tense + would + infinitive We use “would” when we feel sure about the consequence: “If they reopened the school, it would be great” We can use “could” to talk about ability = “would be able to” “If I had more money, I could buy a house in the village” We can also use “might” when we are not sure about the consequence; it‟s a possibility “If she lived in the country, she might not be able to find a job” When speaking, and in informal writing, we use „d instead of “would” “If there was a cinema in the village, I’d go there every night!” To make a question using the second conditional: Question word + „would‟ / „could‟ + infinitive + if + past tense How often would you see a film if you lived in a village? We can also make a question in this way: If + past tense + (question word) + „would‟/‟could‟ + infinitive If you had lots of money, would you buy a big house? If you didn’t have to work tomorrow, where would you go? 2. – Simple Passive Structure: verb to be (present / past) + past participle “The exam is done by the students” Verb to be (present) + past participle “Don Quixote was written by Miguel de Cervantes” Verb to be (past) + past participle 3. – Used to Used to (past habits) = solía… “When I was younger, I used to play football everyday” = “Cuando era más joven, yo solía jugar al fútbol todos los días” 4. - Relative clauses We use relative clauses in sentences to give information about the noun (or noun phrase) in the preceding clause. We connect the clauses using relative pronouns (that, which, who, when, where). Who = for people Which = for animals or things That = for people, animals or things (only in defining relative clauses) When = for time Where = for places There are two types of relative clauses: “Defining and non-defining relative clauses” 1. - Defining relative clauses These are used to give essential information. Without this information, the sentence would be meaningless, or mean something different. “She’s the friend who/that lived abroad for years” (for people) “For holidays, I like the kind of place where I can just lie on the beach and relax” (for places) “Can you tell us about some of the customs that/which you found difficult at first?” 2. – Non-defining relative clauses These are used to add extra, non-essential information. Without this information, the sentence would still make sense. “Coming from Britain, where it’s normal practice to have dinner much earlier, I found this a bit difficult at first”. “I went to the carnival celebration in Venetia, which is very famous in Italy”. Attention! We can‟t use “that” in non-defining relative clauses. 5. – Modals and phrases used to give advice and make suggestions e.g. should/ought to, could, you’d better Giving advice There are many words and expressions we can use to give advice. This is the most common: Should/should not + infinitive without “to” “You should see your tutor” “Should we ask the teacher first?” In speaking and informal writing we use contractions (shouldn‟t) “You shouldn’t leave your work to the last minute, just before the exams”. We often introduce a question with “should” with the phrase: “Do you think…?” “Do you think I should take a course this year?” To give strong advice we can use “ought to” + infinitive without “to” “You really ought to study hard” Other ways we can offer advice and suggestions: It is (not) a good idea + infinitive with “to” “It’s a good idea to go to the cinema now” “It’s not a very good idea to watch television now” “Do you think it’s a good idea to do homework now?” Giving advice and making suggestions There are many ways we can give advice and make suggestions in English: - The modal verb “could” Could + infinitive without “to” “You could go and put it in the recycling bin” - To make the suggestion sound less strong, we can add “perhaps”: “Perhaps you could ask them if they have done the exam” - “You’d better” = giving advice and making suggestions “You’d better go and see the doctor” = Es mejor que vayas y veas al médico 6. – Modals and phrases used to express possibility and uncertainty may, might, I’m not sure Possibility: may and might May = poder Might = podría “It may be possible that the exam of English is tomorrow” = Puede ser possible que el examen de inglés sea mañana “It might be true” = Podría ser verdad Uncertainty: “I’m not sure” “I’m not sure that the exam is tomorrow” = No estoy seguro de que el examen sea mañana 7. – Discourse connectors because of, due to (conectores del discurso) Because of = due to = debido a… “Because of / due to the bad weather conditions, they could not play the football match” Vocabulary TRINITY EXAMS –USEFUL LANGUAGE FOR GRADE 7 Education Primary school –colegio de educación primaria pupils –alumnos secondary school –colegio de educación secundaria stay at school –quedarse en el colegio go to school –ir al colegio leave school –marcharse del colegio get a job –conseguir un trabajo go to university –ir a la universidad subjects –asignaturas English –inglés French –francés History–historia Geography –geografía Art –arte Music –música Maths –matemáticas Physics –física Chemistry –química Biology –biología Physical Education–educación física Timetable –horario The school day is divided into 6-7 lessons in different subjects, with a break (= period of rest between work) in the morning and afternoon. There is also a one-hour lunch break. The school year is usually divided into three terms (= periods of study). Each term is about 13 weeks, and each week pupils do (= study) about ten subjects. At the end of the school year they do/take an exam in each subject. After the holidays, pupils go back (= return) to school. Success and failure Success failure I passed my exam I failed my exam = aprobé mi examen = suspendí mi examen I did very well I did very badly = lo hice muy bien = lo hice muy mal I got nine out of ten for my homework (9/10) I got three out of ten for my homework (3/10) = saqué 9 de 10 en mis deberes = saqué 3 de 10 en mis deberes I got a very high mark I got a very low mark = saqué una muy buena nota = saqué una nota muy mala I got a good grade I didn’t get a very good grade = saqué una buena nota = no saqué una buena nota I’m good at English I’m hopless at Maths = se me da bien el inglés =no se me da bien las matemáticas National customs The most important National Customs that we celebrate in Spain are: Christmas and The Holy Week. - Christmas Christmas Day = Día de Navidad New Year’s Eve = día de fin de año Father Christmas = Papá Noel The three Wise Men = Los Reyes Magos En el mundo anglosajón no se celebra el día de Reyes de la misma manera que en España. El calendario religioso es el mismo, pero no es tradicional recibir los regalos ese día, sino el día de Navidad. Para explicar nuestra tradición, di: “The Three Kinas bring people presents on January 6th, the day when the Three Wise Men brought gifts for the baby Jesús”. - Holy Week / Easter Easter Holiday = vacaciones de Semana Santa Subject Area Vocabulary: th 1. Where is it the custom to eat fish for dinner on Christmas Eve (24 December)? - In Italy 2. Where is it the custom to eat twelve grapes at midnight on New Year’s Eve (31 December)? - In Spain 3. Where is it the custom for Saint Nicholas to leave gifts inside clean boots on the night th of 5 December? - In Hungary 4. Where is it normal practice to have a large, late lunch, e.g. at 3 or 4 pm, and dinner at 9 or 10 pm? - In Spain 5. Where is it a practice to fly kites on “Clean Monday”, to mark the start of the period before Easter? - In Greece 6. In which country do people normally have to leave bars and pubs at 11 pm? - In Britain Example: “In Britain, we don’t have the custom of eating fish on Christmas Eve. In fact, there isn’t a th custom of eating anything in particular on 24 December, but on Christmas Day, lots of people eat a traditional Christmas dinner, which is usually turkey, with…” . National customs to practice for the exam: 1. food customs 2. religious customs 3. typical timetables 4. typical clothes 5. typical topics of conversation Village and city life - CITY LIFE Buildings and places Here are some of the things you will find in most towns and cities. Commercial centre (= area with lots of banks and company offices) Shopping centre (= place with many shops, either indoors or outdoors) Car parks (= places to leave many cars) Factories (= buildings where you make/manufacture things, e.g. cars) Skycrapers / high-rise buildings (= buildings with many floors) Libraries (= places where you can borrow books) Suburbs (= areas outside the centre of town where people live) People on the move For many people, the worst time of day is the rush hour (= the time when people travel to and from work, e.g. 7-9 in the morning). At this time of day the public transport system (= trains and buses) has to cope with (= manage something which is difficult) the people who live in the city, and also commuters (= people who live in the country but travel into the city for work). The roads get congested (= busy and full of cars) and people are always in a hurry (= want to get to another place very quickly). For many, this is very stressful (= makes you nervous and anxious). Going out (= going to places for social reasons) I live and work in the suburbs, but I usually go into town (= the town centre) two or three times a week. In the evening, it is pretty lively (= lots of people and lots of things happening), and there‟s plenty to do (= lots of possibilities, e.g. bars, discos, etc.) One problem is that there’s nowhere to park in the centre, so I usually get/take a bus into town and take/get a taxi home if I’m late.) There are many common phrases using this construction: there‟s plenty to do; there‟s nothing to do; there‟s plenty to see; there‟s nowhere to go; there‟s nowhere to park, etc. Advantages and disadvantages “The best thing about living in a city is that”: - There’s good nightlife. (= places to go at night, e.g. bars, discos, cinemas) - There’s a wide range of shops. (= many shops selling different things9 - You can get whatever you want. (= buy everything and anything you want) - There are lots of cultural activities. (e.g. museums, concerts, films - It’s cosmopolitan. (= full of people from many different countries and cultures) - There are more job opportunities. (= easier to find work) “The worst thing about living in a city is that”: - It’s very crowded. (= full of people) - People are more aggressive. (= seem angry and very unfriendly) - It can be noisy (opposite: quiet) and dangerous. (opposite: safe) - The streets are often dirty (opposite: clean) and it’s polluted. (= dirty air) - There’s traffic congestion (= too many cars) and parking is difficult. - There’s a high crime rate. (= number of crimes) - You have a higher cost of living. (e.g. houses are more expensive, so is transport) - LIFE IN THE COUNTRY Surrounded by nature I grew up (= spent my childhood) in a rural area (= an area in the country; opposite: an urban area). It was quite a remote area (= an area far from towns) and we lived in an old cottage (= a type of house, often small, you find in the country). My sister and I played a lot in the woods (= an area of trees like a small forest), not far from the nearest village (= a place smaller than a town). I loved being in the country. (not I loved to be in the nature). Working in the country A lot of land in the country/countryside (both words are used) is used for agriculture/farming. Some farms grow crops (e.g. wheat, apples, and potatoes) and some keep animals (e.g. cows, sheep and pigs). When I was younger, I worked on a farm during my school holidays. Advantages and disadvantages “The best thing about living in the country is that:” - You get peace and quiet. (a common phrase to describe a place that is quiet and calm) - You get fresh air. (= air outside a building or town which is clean). - You’re surrounded by lovely scenery and you can walk in the countryside. - The pace of life (= the amount of activity in life) is slower and more relaxed. “The worst thing about living in the country is that:” - There isn’t much nightlife. - Public transport (= buses and trains) is hopeless. (= terrible) - You don‟t get many shops. - There isn’t much privacy (= private life) because everyone knows what you are doing. National and local produce and products National products/production Give examples of typical products/production in Spain Local products/production Give examples of typical products/production in Spain Early memories (Preparar la narración de las primeras memorias que tú tienes…Por ejemplo, cuando tu hermano nació, la celebración de un cumpleaños…etc). Con un solo ejemplo será suficiente. Preparar y luego corregir por el profesor. Pollution and recycling The environment (= air, water and land around us) Many people believe we are destroying the environment. If you “destroy” something, you damage it so badly it does not exist any more. For example: Cars and factories pollute the air. (= make the air dirty) We continue to cut down rainforests and increase the dangers of global warming. (= an increase in temperature because of increased carbon dioxide around the earth). How can the planet (earth) survive? (= continue to exist) - We must save/conserve (= use less and use well) natural resources (e.g. water, oil, and gas). We mustn’t waste them. (= use them badly). - We must protect animals and plants. (= keep them safe from human damage) - We mustn’t throw away bottles and cans. We must recycle them. (= use them again) Many of the verbs above form common nouns: Verb Noun Verb noun destroy destruction pollute pollution survive survival protect protection waste waste recycle recycling Environmental problems in the world today There are many environmental problems in the world today. The air, rivers and seas are all polluted, especially in over-populated and heavily industrialised regions. Poor waste disposal is the cause of much of this pollution. Overfishing has depleted the numbers of fish in the oceans. The destruction of the ozone layer is leading to climatic changes and what is known as the greenhouse effect. The destruction of the rainforests is causing widespread ecological problems. Battery farming provides large amounts of food but it involves keeping animals in crowded and unnatural conditions. Pollution and recycling We live in a world of diminishing natural resources yet we continue to consume and consume when there are other solutions. How about taking steel cans as an example? Steel cans are 100% recyclable. In fact, they can be recycled not only once, but again and again. Making cans from recycled steel uses 75% less energy than if you use raw material. Yet only 55% of all steel made in Europe comes from recycled steel. But steel cans are not the only problem. Each week the average family in a developed country uses 4 glass bottles or jars, 13 cans, 3 plastic bottles and 5 kilograms of paper. So, what can you do? We have some suggestions to help you reduce, reuse and recycle. Reduce - buy loose food rather than packaged food - cancel the delivery of any unwanted newspapers - read the newspaper on the Internet - grow your own vegetables - take a packed lunch to school or to work in a reusable plastic container Reuse - reuse plastic carrier bags from the supermarket - use scrap paper for writing notes - reuse envelopes, stick labels over the address - buy rechargeable items instead of disposable ones Recycle - choose products in packaging that you know can be recycled - separate your rubbish and use recycling bins provided in your town - compost your food scraps from the kitchen – your plants will love it - buy products made from recycled material Answer the following questions: How many types of organic food can you think of? - I can think of… How many ways can you think of saving energy? - In order to save energy, I can think of…. How many types of product can be recycled? - Types of product that can be recycled are…. How many products can you think of that could be refillable? - (In relation to products that could be refillable,) I can think of… Do you recycle at home? What? - Yes, I do. I recycle… - No, I don’t. Do you recycle at school? What? - Yes, we do. We recycle… - No, we don’t. Say the names of products or things that can be recycled? - Cans of coke, bottles of plastic, batteries, newspapers, old books, old fashioned magazines… What are the advantages of recycling? - If we recycle, we will pollute less…and the entire world wins. Make a list with all the things that you can recycle at school and at home. -… ATTENTION WITH THESE MISTAKES: A) Cuando uses el verbo LIKE, si quieres usar otro verbo detrás, por ejemplo “Me gusta jugar al fútbol”, el verbo en inglés debe terminar en –ING: “I like playing football” B) No te olvides de usar bien los posesivos: HIS es para masculino (su) y HER es para femenino (su). C) Recuerda que el presente continuo se usa para lo que está ocurriendo en este momento. No se te puede olvidar usar el presente del verbo TO BE y el verbo terminado en ING (por ejemplo: She is dancing –Ella está bailando) D) Recuerda que los adjetivos van siempre delante del nombre: a grey sweater, a big house... E) Delante de plural, no puedes usar A o AN, She’s wearing a shirt and trousers. A trousers estaría mal. F) No confundas nunca el verbo HAVE (tener) con el verbo TO BE (ser y estar). Es un fallo grave. G) Recuerda que en presente simple, el verbo lleva –S en afirmativa (My father works in an office) y que se usa HAS (My sister has got a computer) H) No te olvides de usar DON’T y DOESN’T en las negativas de presente simple. I) Con las fechas se usan los números ordinales, no los cardinales. J) Repasa muy bien la pronunciación de las partes del cuerpo. K) Recuerda que cuando entres en la sala de examen, tienes que saludar (Good afternoon, good evening) y cuando termines tienes que despedirte (Goodbye) L) No te quedes callado. Si te hacen una pregunta y no la entiendes, pregunta “Sorry?” o “Can you repeat, please?” Si finalmente no la entiendes, debes decirlo: “I don’t know” (No lo sé), “I don’t understand” (No lo entiendo) M) No utilices ninguna palabra en español. N) Demuestra todo el inglés que sabes. Si estás seguro de que sabes construirlas, usa frases completas. Si no, contesta brevemente. O) Si haces referencia a algo con nombre español (una ciudad, una festividad, un artista, un equipo, una película, una serie...) tienes que explicar lo que es. Por ejemplo: “I like Feria. Feria de Abril is a festivity in Seville. People eat, drink, ride horses, go for a walk, get on attractions and many people wear special clothes for the occasion...” P) NO USES NUNCA PALABRAS QUE NO ESTÉS SEGURO DE QUE EXISTEN Q) Atento a las partículas interrogativas. Son esenciales para entender la pregunta. INTERVIEW Q. And what are you going to talk about today? A. Today I’d like to tell about “Dolphins”. I have been interested in dolphins since I was eleven. Q. A friend of mine has asked me to lend him a large amount of money. A. Why does he want to borrow this money? Attention: Ask to the examiner (fase interactive = interactive task) Q. I think I have lost something very important. A. Oh, dear! What exactly have you lost (fase interactive = interactive task) Q. If you were me, what would you do? A. If I were you, I’d probably go to the police (“second conditional”) Attention: Grammar structure: “second conditional” Q I am thinking of moving from the UK to live in Greece. A. Well, one advantage is the weather but the disadvantages might be (might: possibility) Attention: Grammar structure: “modal verb might to speak about possibility” Q Who do you think should be responsible for recycling? A. I think it’s mainly the government’s responsibility but we should all take part. And you, what do you think? (interactive task) Attention: Grammar structure: “should = giving advice” / vocabulary: pollution and recycling Q I used to hate green vegetables when I was small. A. So did I – but my mother used to make me eat them. (expressing agreement) (structure used to speak about past habits) Did you like fruit? (interactive task) Q Tell me about some of the marriage customs in your country. A. Well, the ceremony is usually held in a church and the bride is dressed all in white. (passive structure: verb to be + past participle) (passive structure: verb to be + past participle) Attention: Grammar structure: “simple passive” / vocabulary: national customs Q Do you think you might go to university when you finish school? A. I’m not sure, though my brother is studying medicine and enjoying university a lot. Expression of doubt Attention: Vocabulary: education ATTENTION! Don’t forget to ask the examiner one or two questions.