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					  MTC Transit Connectivity Study




Technical Memorandum 1
 Review of Other Planning Efforts




          Wilbur Smith Associates
        Kimley-Horn and Associates
           Harley & Associates
               July 25, 2005
Technical Memorandum #1
REVIEW OF OTHER PLANNING EFFORTS
The purpose of Task 1 of MTC’s Regional Measure 2 Transit Connectivity Study is to identify, review, and
summarize local, regional or state sponsored plans, studies and/or other technical resources currently
underway or recently completed that could contribute to, and inform this planning effort. The Consultant
Team has coordinated with MTC and the members of the Connectivity Working Group to identify and
gather the relevant studies and information sources discussed in this Technical Memorandum. The intent of
this task is to identify current or recently completed information which address the issues of customer
satisfaction and convenience with the regional transit network and information services.

Each information source has been reviewed for completeness and relevance to the overall connectivity effort.
Following this review, an overall assessment of the adequacy of the available data is provided along with
recommendations as to the types of data which should be collected as part of this study.


RELATED PLANNING EFFORTS
Each of the relevant planning efforts that have been identified as part of the Task 1 effort are identified and
summarized below. The applicability of the information to the Connectivity Study is also addressed in each
case.

Many of the past and ongoing planning efforts are not directly related to this project, as connectivity was not
the primary objective of these efforts. While access studies and station area plans have been performed at
many of the major regional transit hubs, the focus of these efforts tends to be more on the quality of access
to and from the hub from the surrounding area, rather than on the connectivity of the transit services at the
hub itself.

The review of the available studies reveals that there is very little information available which quantifies the
amount of transferring activity occurring between transit operators at the regional transit hubs. BART has
some information as to what percent of its riders transfer to another transit mode, but generally there is no
information on the actual distribution of these transfers by special transit operation or route. BART has
conducted transfer surveys that provide this information at a few of its stations. The VTA has performed an
origin-destination survey which provides some information by inference as to how and where passengers
transfer during their trips on the transit network.

Of particular applicability to this Transit Connectivity Study are:
     MTC Transit Connectivity Report of 2005
     BART Station Access Guidelines
     BART Station Access Plans
     BART Wayfinding and Signage Standards
     WTA San Francisco Ferry Building Wayfinding Study
     Bay Area Clean Air Partnership (BayCAP) Shuttle Inventory Project
     RM-2 Real-time Transit Information Grant Program


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MTC TRANSIT CONNECTIVITY STUDY                                                       WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES
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These efforts, and their applicability to this study, are described in more detail below:

MTC Transit Connectivity Report, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, January 2005
This report summarizes the initial planning effort conducted by MTC with the Connectivity Working Group
as the precursor to the RM-2 Transit Connectivity Study. The report:
     identifies connectivity features that are in greatest need of improvement;
     identifies 19 priority connection locations or transit “hubs;”
     identifies best practices and models of how to implement improvements;
     recommends a series of steps to address connectivity gaps and barriers.

    Applicability: This report lays the groundwork to guide the RM-2 Transit Connectivity Study. It also
    establishes criteria for defining the characteristics of a regional transit hub, and for identifying the most
    significant hubs in the region.

BART Station Access Guidelines, BART, October 2003
This document presents specific guidelines for the provision and development of access at BART stations. It
provides principles for guiding the provision of wayfinding, walking, connecting transit services, bicycle
access/storage, drop-offs, and park-and-ride.
    Applicability: These guidelines include a number of connectivity related principles in terms of
    wayfinding and connections between transit modes. This information is directly applicable to the
    connectivity study. The wayfinding guidelines focus on the route the passenger must take between the
    train platform and their immediate destination in the station area. The guidelines establish wayfinding
    principles which relate to the directness and sense of security of the route. A key principle is that
    “Passengers should be able to quickly and easily orient themselves.”
There is also a section of guidelines for access connections by rail, bus, and other transit. The principles
stated in this section include:
     Platforms and bus stops should be in close proximity and enjoy safe access;
     Prioritize feeder transit service in order of transfer activity;
     Rail-to-rail connections should be short, direct, and convenient; and
     Provide a comfortable, safe waiting environment for intermodal transfers, including adequate
      information.

The report also presents discussion of guidelines for “Last Mile” connections involving the accommodation
of taxis, shuttle, and car sharing programs.

BART Station Access Plans, BART, 2002 - 2004
These are a series of plans prepared by BART staff for most of the major BART stations. These plans
include recommendations for transit connectivity improvements.
    Applicability: These plans are directly applicable to the connectivity program. Many of the
    recommendations address specific issues regarding the quality and convenience of modal transfers at the
    BART stations. The plans also represent a good model for a comprehensive evaluation of a transit hub.
    The plans provide the following types of information:


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MTC TRANSIT CONNECTIVITY STUDY                                                          WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES
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     A summary of existing conditions at the station including data on ridership, ridership characteristics,
      mode split, on going access activities, station area land use (existing and future), station area
      demographics, and programmed capital improvements.
     The results of an outreach process which included internal coordination with other BART
      departments, contacts with the jurisdictions served by the station and meetings with the peer transit
      agencies providing connecting service to the BART station.
     An evaluation of the current characteristics of station access including the distribution of the origins
      and destinations of all trips through the station by mode.
     The access mode evaluation is then used to identify deficiencies in current transit access to and from
      the station and to define opportunities to make improvements.
     Recommendations and conclusions are provided as to the specific access improvements which would
      best address the problems and opportunities resulting from the access evaluation process.
     Mode share targets are established to improve the mode share by reducing the drive-alone auto share
      through the access improvement program. These targets provide a benchmark for measuring
      performance over a five-year and ten-year period.
     A matrix of recommended access improvements is defined, identifying the project by access category
      and defining the agency responsible for implementation as well as the funding source.

BART staff indicates that in terms of issues of transit connectivity, the access plans have resulted in
modifications to the location and design of bus berthing areas at the stations, changes to the routes and
schedules designed to increase ridership, and improved communications between BART and the transit
operators in addressing station related issues.

BART Wayfinding and Signage Standards, BART, 2004
The architecture group at BART has developed a standard for wayfinding and signage throughout its system.
These standards were developed as a formal input to the Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in Santa
Clara County. The VTA will be responsible for the design and construction of the BART extension to San
Jose. BART developed the wayfinding standards to assure the future new stations in Santa Clara County
would include wayfinding and signage that was consistent with BART practices and would reflect the lessons
learned from BART’s experience with other recent new station construction.
    Applicability: These standards do not involve a major departure from current BART wayfinding and
    signage practices. They clearly define BART’s approach to wayfinding and signage and are a useful guide
    for developing improved wayfinding and signage programs such as those called for as part of the
    connectivity project.
    Because so many of the major regional transit hubs are at BART stations, these standards should serve as
    a starting point for developing the regional wayfinding and signage program. The standards consist of
    two reports: Architectural Standards, and Wayfinding and Signage Guidelines. Of particular use and interest are
    the following sections of the guidelines report:

                  Purposes of Wayfinding and Signage
                  Design Principles - Wayfinding
                   Design Principles – Signage
For example, the design principles address such issues as sign visibility, decision points, redundancy, and the
hierarchy of placement. The architectural standards emphasize the consistent use of symbols, logos, and
visual patterns from one signage component to the next, and minimize the use of word and text.
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MTC TRANSIT CONNECTIVITY STUDY                                                          WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES
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San Francisco Ferry Building Wayfinding Study, Water Transportation Authority (WTA), 2005
The WTA recently completed a wayfinding study for the Ferry Building and is in the process of developing a
wayfinding and signage program for application at all Bay Area ferry terminals. An important opportunity
exists to closely coordinate with WTA staff as they develop their program, to ensure consistency with the
regional wayfinding standards that are developed through this project.
    Applicability: The ferry building wayfinding study provides an excellent example of how to develop a
    wayfinding and signage program for a specific transit hub. The study documents the procedures and
    process uses to developing a overall wayfinding and signage strategy, and then details how the strategy
    would be implemented in terms of the types and locations of the various signs and information pieces.
    Elements of this work provide a good starting point for a regional transit wayfinding toolbox that can be
    applied to any of the regional transit hubs.

Bay Area Clean Air Partnership (BayCAP) Shuttle Inventory Project, 2004
This is an ongoing effort that provides an inventory of the Bay Area’s shuttle programs and some
information on costs, ridership, management, key issues and best practices. The BayCAP working group
meets quarterly to share information and share common goals of advancing new shuttle services.
    Applicability: Shuttle services are a key element of the “Last Mile” program element of the RM-2
    Transit Connectivity Project. This project is the only comprehensive inventory of shuttle services for the
    entire Bay Area. BART, VTA and Caltrain have completed shuttle inventories specific to their respective
    service areas. The Bay Group has been briefed on the purpose and status of the Transit Connectivity
    Study. They will be given the opportunity to review the Transit Connectivity Study findings and provide
    comments on the study recommendations. This will be particularly helpful in developing the
    recommendations for “Last Mile” Connections.

RM2 Real-time Transit Information Grant Program, MTC, 2005
The RM-2 program provides $20 million for a competitive grant program to assist transit operators in
implementing high-technology systems to disseminate real-time transit arrival information to the general
public via 511 phone, 511 website, transit-stop signage, and other innovative dissemination mechanisms.
Project applications were submitted March 23, 2005. Applicants must have an existing Automated Vehicle
Location (AVL) system. Projects are expected to be approved in July 2005. Project recipients will be
expected to comply with any recommended standards that are developed through this planning effort.
    Applicability: Real-time transit information programs represent a new way for the transit operators to
    communicate with their customers. There is broad interest and financial support to implement these
    programs at the major regional transit hubs. The Transit Connectivity Project can support these efforts
    in providing insight and guidance as to which types of real-time information displays and devices are
    preferred by the customers, and when and where is best to provide access to this type of information.




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MTC TRANSIT CONNECTIVITY STUDY                                                      WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES
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OTHER RELATED PLANNING EFFORTS
BART Station Area Plans – BART
These include station area plans, specific plans, transit village plans and other station area efforts. The
stations covered include Richmond, El Cerrito, El Cerrito del Norte, Coliseum/Airport, Millbrae,
West Oakland, Fruitvale, Pittsburg/Bay Point, Union City, Glen Park and Balboa Park. Currently station area
plans are underway for Lake Merritt, Hayward and Daly City.
    Applicability: These plans focus mainly on the land uses and linkages around the station site, but they
    do include consideration of elements related to connectivity. They provide a vision of the potential
    future character of the station and it surroundings.

BART Station Access Monitoring Program – BART
This is an ongoing program that provides a database of access characteristics and performance for all BART
stations. The database includes an inventory of all the access facilities available at each station, such as
parking spaces by type, bicycle storage, bus berths and loading areas, taxi stands, and other special access
provisions. The database also includes ridership and access mode usage data. The information is updated
periodically. The program includes special bus transfer activity studies at key stations.
    Applicability: The access database provides an inventory of all connecting transit services and shuttles
    at each BART station. It also provides a broad spectrum of information regarding the availability and
    usage of parking, bicycle, and other access related facilities at each station. The special bus transfer
    surveys are a good example of an effective way to understand the characteristics of passenger movements
    between transit modes, services, and operators at a major transit hub.

Caltrain Strategic Plan 2003-2004, Caltrain
This document includes recommendations for station access and environment improvements.
    Applicability: This plan provides a vision of Caltrain’s long term plans relative to station access and
    modal connections.

Solano Transportation Authority I-80, I-680 and I-780 Transit Corridor Study, Wilbur Smith Associates,
June 2004
This study recommends improvements to existing transit hubs, transit connectivity improvements, and other
transit/HOV improvements as part of the overall program to improve these major highway corridors.
    Applicability: This report recommends improvements to the Vallejo Ferry Terminal and Fairfield
    Transportation Center hubs, which are two of the 20 regional hubs identified for study in this project.
    The guidelines and principles for connectivity improvements outlined in this study have general
    application to the regional connectivity project.




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MTC TRANSIT CONNECTIVITY STUDY                                                    WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES
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DATA AVAILABILITY AND NEEDS
The review of the existing reports, studies, and on-going planning efforts with a relationship to the issue of
transit connectivity indicates that there is not a lot of work available that is directly applicable to the needs of
this project. The following table provides a summary of the types of data needed to review and evaluate the
connectivity of a given transit hub. The current availability of the data is identified and the plan to collect the
data as part of this study for each of the prototype transit hubs is also defined.

                               Summary of Connectivity Data Availability
   Topic/Data Type            Types of Information            Availability                Data to be Collected
 Transit Usage                                         BART has the most well            Will obtain all available
                              Transit Ridership       developed database;               data from the
                               Data                    otherwise while most              operators.
                              Transfer Activity       operators have ridership
                                                       counts, very little
                              Origin/Destination      transfer activity data is
                               Data                    available.
 Wayfinding & Signage                                  BART and the WTA                  Will photo-log samples
                              Standards or Design     have wayfinding                   of wayfinding practices
                               Guidelines              standards.                        at the prototype hubs.
                              Sign Inventory          Inventories are generally
                                                       not available.
 Customer Use of                                       Not available.                    Will document the
 Transit Information          Inventory of transit                                      types of information
                               information                                               available.
                               displays/maps
 Physical Connections                                  Generally available in            Will obtain copies as
                              Site layout plans       varying formats and               available for each hub.
                                                       level of detail.
 Amenities                                             BART has a complete               Will obtain available
                              Facilities Inventory    inventory, others may             inventory and will
                                                       have some information.            conduct on-site review.
 Scheduling                                            Available from each               Will obtain current data
                              Current route           operator.                         from each operator.
                               descriptions,
                               timetables, and service
                               hours
 Real-Time Information                                 Available from each               Will obtain current
                              Inventory of            operator.                         information and plans.
                               equipment
                                 Equipment
                                  Specifications
                                 Proposed future plans
 Last Mile Service                                          BayCAP provides the          Will conduct research
                                  Inventory of available   most complete                at each transit hub.
                                 shuttle, taxi, car         inventory.
                                 sharing, and other
                                 services



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MTC TRANSIT CONNECTIVITY STUDY                                                          WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES
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