BONE LIST ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY, LAB LIST ONE by cmb14063

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									                                     BONE LIST
                         ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY, LAB LIST ONE

Laboratory procedures:
      1. Please keep the bones clean and don't touch them with either pens or pencils.
      2. Most of these specimens are real human bones which were very expensive and are
now very expensive to replace. Be very careful with them. They are fragile, handle them with
care. You are also required to learn several brain regions and all 12 cranial nerves on brain
models and human brains in this section.
      3. The names of most bones appear on the left column, and structures located on each
one are listed in columns to the right. For best results, learn the names of all bones in a
particular body region before learning the individual parts. The abbreviation CN means cranial
nerve.
      4. To learn the location of each name, refer to the illustrations in your laboratory atlas
and text.
      5. Typical exam questions include:
         a      Name this bone and tell left or right.
         b.     What structure on another bone articulates (contacts) with this point?
         c.     What other bone articulates with the distal end of this bone?
         e.     What structure passes through this foramen?
         e.     Name this structure.

                                               SKULL
Frontal   Sinus (the air filled space within the bone; continuous with the nasal passage)
          Orbital plates (the flat part of any orbital bone)
          Supraorbital foramen (often it is a supraobital notch instead)
          Anterior cranial fossa (cradles the frontal lobe of the cerebrum)

Parietal Fontanels (soft spots on the neonatal skull): frontal (anterior), occipital (posterior),
                                      sphenoid (anterolateral), mastoid (posterolateral)
         Sutures (sagittal, coronal, squamosal, lambdoidal)

Temporal
        Mastoid process
        Styloid process
        Zygomatic process
        External acoustic meatus
        Internal acoustic meatus (CN 7 & 8 passage; CN 7 arises from the pons of the brain
                         and CN 8 arises from the border between the pons and the medulla)
        Mandibular fossa
        Foramen lacerum (carotid artery passage between the temporal and sphenoid)
        Carotid canal (carotid artery passage)
                  Page 1, List for Lab Exam One (8 pages total)
         Jugular foramen (jugular vein, CN 9, 10, 11 passage; all arise from the medulla)
         Stylomastoid foramen (CN 7 passage)
         Middle cranial fossa (cradles the temporal lobe of the cerebrum)
         Squamous part, petrous part, mastoid part

Ear Ossicles: Malleus, Incus, Stapes

Sphenoid
     Optic foramen (CN 2 passage; CN 2 arises from the occipital lobe of the cerebrum)
     Superior orbital fissure (CN 3, 4, ophthalmic branch of 5, & 6 passage; CN 3 arises
                     from the dorsal midbrain and CNs 4, 5 & 6 arise from the pons)
     Foramen rotundum (maxillary branch of CN 5 passage)
     Foramen ovale (mandibular branch of CN 5)
     Foramen spinosum (meningeal artery passage)
     Greater and lesser wings
     Sinus (the air filled space within the bone; continuous with the nasal passage)
     Pterygoid process
     Sella turcica with hypophyseal fossa
     Clinoid process (anterior and posterior)
     Orbital surface
     Dorsum sellae
Ethmoid
     Cribriform plate (CN 1 passage; CN 1 arises from the frontal lobes of the cerebrum)
     Perpendicular plate (separates the left from right sides of nasal cavity)
     Crista galli
     Conchae (middle)
     Sinus (the air filled space within the bone; continuous with the nasal passage)
          Inferior nasal conchae (turbinate)
Occipital
     Foramen magnum (spinal cord, vertebral artery & vein passage)
     Occipital condyle
     External occipital protuberance
     Hypoglossal canal (CN 12 passage; arises from the medulla)
     Posterior cranial fossa
Sutural bones: Small bones located within sutures of the skull (common in the lambdoidal)
Maxilla
     Sinus (the air filled space within the bone; continuous with the nasal passage)
     Palatine process
     Alveolar process (Internal and external alveolar process and septae)
     Anterior palatine foramen (incisive foramen) (blood vessels and nerve passage)
     Infraorbital foramen
     Median palatine suture
                     Page 2, List for Lab Exam One (8 pages total)
Palatine
     Horizontal and vertical plates
Zygomatic bone or Zygoma
     Zygomatic arch (this consists of one process from the temporal bone and
         the zygomatic bones which join to form the arch)
Nasal
Lacrimal Lacrimal canal
Vomer Nasal septum, (separates the left from right sides of nasal cavity)
Mandible
     Mandibular foramen (blood vessels and nerve passage)
     Mental foramen (blood vessels and nerve passage)
     Body
     Ramus
     Coronoid process
     Mandibular condyle
     Alveolar processes (the walls of the tooth holding cups)
     Angle
     Mylohyoid line (a line along the inner surface of the body)
Hyoid
     Body
     Greater and lesser cornu (horns)

                                  VERTEBRAL COLUMN

Vertebra (Be able to distinguish bones from each region: cervical, thoracic etc.)
     Centrum or body
     Intervertebral disc (seen only as a cotton pad on articulated skeletons)
     Vertebral foramen or vertebral canal (spinal cord passage)
     Spinous process
     Transverse process
     Intervertebral foramen (combined inferior and superior notches for spinal nerve passage)
     Laminae (the "roof" part over the vertebral canal)
     Superior articular process and its facet (articular surface)
     Inferior articular process and its facet (articular surface)
     Pedicle (the "wall" part to the sides of the vertebral canal)
Cervical region (the only vertebrae with transverse foramina)
     Transverse foramen
     Atlas
     Axis
          Dens
Thoracic region (the only vertebrae that have rib articulations)
     Articular facets for tubercle of rib
                     Page 3, List for Lab Exam One (8 pages total)
Lumbar region (large vertebrae that lack transverse foramina and rib articulations)
Sacrum
    Median sacral crest
    Sacral foramina (spinal nerve passages)
    Superior articular process
    Auricular joint (sacroiliac)
    Body
    Pelvic face
    Sacral canal
Coccyx
                                           THORAX

Sternum
     Jugular notch
     Manubrium
     Sternal angle
     Body
     Xiphoid process

Rib
      Angle
      Head
      Neck
      Body
      Vertebrosternal rib (ribs 1-7, which do not share cartilage with other ribs)
      Vertebrochondral rib (ribs 8-10, which do share cartilage with other ribs)
      Floating rib (have no articular cartilage connecting to the sternum)
      Articular facet (between 1 and 3 per rib)
      Tubercle (articular and non-articular parts)
      Costal groove
                                     PECTORAL SKELETON

Clavicle
     Acromial end
     Sternal end

Scapula
    Acromion
    Glenoid cavity (fossa)
    Coracoid process
    Spine
                  Page 4, List for Lab Exam One (8 pages total)
   Supraspinous fossa
   Infraspinous fossa
   Subscapular fossa
   Medial border
   Lateral border
   Superior border
   Scapular notch
Humerus
   Head
   Greater tubercle
   Lesser tubercle
   Anatomical neck
   Surgical neck
   Intertubercular groove (bicipital groove)
   Capitulum
   Trochlea
   Lateral & medial epicondyles
   Olecranon fossa
   Radial fossa
   Coronoid fossa
   Deltoid tuberosity

Ulna
       Olecranon process
       Semilunar notch (trochlear notch)
       Coronoid process
       Radial notch
       Head
       Styloid process

Radius
    Head
    Neck
    Radial tuberosity
    Styloid process

Carpals
    Scaphoid, lunate, triangular (triquetrum), pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
        (test questions on these will be on articulated hand and wrist only)
Metacarpals (test questions on these will be on articulated hand and wrist only)
Phalanges
    Pollex (Thumb) (tests on these will be on articulated hand and wrist only)
                   Page 5, List for Lab Exam One (8 pages total)
                                      PELVIC SKELETON
Ilium
      Iliac crest
      Iliac fossa
      Greater & lesser sciatic notch
      Acetabulum
      Sacroiliac joint (articular joint)
Ischium
      Obturator foramen (no passage)
      Ramus
      Tuberosity
Pubis
      Symphysis
      Inferior and superior ramus
Femur
      Head
      Neck
      Body
      Greater & lesser trochanter
      Linea aspera
      Intertrochanteric line
      Intertrochanteric crest
      Lateral & medial condyle
      Lateral & medial epicondyles
      Popliteal surface (the flat area at the posterior distal end)
Tibia
      Lateral & medial condyles
      Tuberosity
      Medial malleolus
      Anterior crest
Fibula
      Head & Neck
      Lateral malleolus
Patella
Tarsals
      Calcaneus
      Talus
      Navicular, cuboid, first (medial), second (intermediate), and third (lateral) cuneiforms
           (tests on these 5 bones will be on articulated foot only)
Metatarsals (test questions on these will be on articulated foot only)
Phalanges
      Hallux (tests on these will be on articulated foot only)
                     Page 6, List for Lab Exam One (8 pages total)
HISTOLOGY:
    Cartilage
        Hyaline cartilage
        Chondrocytes
              Lacunae
              Matrix
        Elastic cartilage
              Chondrocytes
              Lacunae
              Matrix
    Compact bone (longitudinal and cross sections)
        Osteon (Haversian system)
        Haversian canals
        Canaliculi
        Osteocytes
        Lacunae
        Volkmann's canals (perforating canal)
    Spongy bone (cancellous bone)

EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES:

Examine the brain and cranial nerves using the models and the brain specimens. Compare
the lobes of the brain with the bones of the skull, and the cranial nerves with the foramina
through which they pass.

Frontal lobe                                       Gyri
Parietal lobe                                      Sulci
Temporal lobe                                      Lateral sulcus
Occipital lobe                                     Central sulcus
Longitudinal fissure                               Dura mater
Pons                                               Cerebral cortex
Medulla oblongata                                  Cerebral white matter
Cerebellum                                         Optic chiasma
Pituitary gland                                    Olfactory bulb
Cranial nerves I-XII                               Spinal cord

In lab, you will only be tested on the NUMBERS of the cranial nerves (except for CN 5, where
you will need to know the names of the three branches). However, you will eventually need to
know their names, and learning the names now may help you to learn where they are located.



                   Page 7, List for Lab Exam One (8 pages total)
The cranial nerves:

Mnemonic     CN#        Name                         Foramen
On           I          Olfactory
Old          II         Optic
Olympus      III        Oculomotor
Towering     IV         Trochlear
Tops         V          Trigeminal
A            VI         Abducens
Finn         VII        Facial
And          VIII       Auditory
German       IX         Glossopharyngeal
Vined        X          Vagus
Some         XI         Spinal Accessory
Hops         XII        Hypoglossal

                              Commonly Used Skeletal Terms

Canal, an elongate passage through a bone
Crest, a sharp bony ridge
Condyle, a rounded projection that articulates with another bone
Epicondyle, a small projection on or above a condyle
Facet, a smooth flat articular surface
Fissure, a narrow cleft like passage
Foramen, a hole
Fossa, a depression; something used for articulation
Fovea, a smooth pit; used most often for attachment or articulation
Head, the larger end of a long bond; usually set off from the shaft by a neck
Lamina, a thick smooth plate of bone
Line, a slightly bony ridge for muscle attachment
Meatus, a canal
Process, a bony projection
Ramus, a stem; an elongated process
Spine, a slender pointed projection
Sulcus, a groove
Trochanter, a large, blunt process
Tubercle, a small, rough rounded process
Tuberosity, a broad, round process, larger than a tubercle; usually for muscle attachment




                    Page 8, List for Lab Exam One (8 pages total)

								
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