Examples of effects of language contact

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					Examples of effects of language contact

1. Arabic influence on Turkish
    • many non-basic loan words (e.g. cami “mosque”)
    • some closed-class borrowings, like wa, meaning "and" (pronounced "ve"; earlier
       Turkish expressed "and" through a different grammatical structure)

2. Spanish influence on Nahuatl
    • loans in basic vocabulary
    • loans of closed-class words (e.g. y “and”)
    • borrowed word-parts (like -ero, meaning "-er" as in "baker")
    • borrowed spanish plural ending -es

3. English influence on Low German in Nebraska
    • changed from having SOV in some clauses and SVO in others to always having
       SVO (like English)

4. Polish influence on Yiddish
    • borrowed several Polish consonants
    • borrowed feminine ending -ke (e.g. shnejder/shnejderke “tailor/seamstress”)
    • borrowed grammar of yes/no questions (start with ci)

5. German influence on Romansch in Switzerland
    • lost gender marking on predicate adjectives (e.g. "the woman is tall"), like
       German
    • changed word order from usually Noun + Adj to always Adj + Noun (like
       German)

6. German influence on Estonian
    • has words for "his", "her", etc. like German (used to use suffixes)

7. Turkish influence on Asia Minor Greek
    • borrowed content and function words (e.g. if, that, and)
    • loss of sounds Turkish lacks (e.g. th)
    • addition of Turkish sounds (e.g. ü)
    • Turkish-style case endings (made up of Greek parts)
    • borrowed Turkish pronunciation rules (e.g. all vowels in a word must either be
       pronounced front-of-mouth or back-of-mouth)
    • loss of grammatical categories that Turkish lacks (e.g. gender)


8. Michif (influence of French on Cree, and vice versa)
    • most nouns and adjectives are French
    • grammar of noun phrases follows French
    • most verbs are Cree
    • general sentence grammar follows Cree (e.g. word order)