Chapter 17 non-renewable energy

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Chapter 17 non-renewable energy Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 17: non-renewable
         energy
  Energy Use and Consumption
              Unit
                      Crude Oil
• Location (world): Middle East (OPEC
  78%) The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
              Crude Oil
• Location (US): Gulf of Mexico, Gulf
  Coast (3% of world reserves)
              Crude Oil
• So how long do we “think” it will
  last?

• US reserves: 10-48 years.
• World reserves: 42-93 years
                Crude Oil
• Advantages: Abundant, convenient,
  cheap
• Disadvantages: Dependant on foreign
  oil, running out, emissions, pollution, at
  current rate, we will run out in 53 years!
               Crude Oil
• Conventional oil/light oil: what we use;
  pumped from ground
• Heavy crude oil: Oil that is difficult to
  pump out; currently not recovered
• Oil sand (tar sand): mixture of clay, sand,
  water and bitumen. Could be used, but
  has high sulfur content
• Shale oil: can be extracted from oil shale
  rock. Low quality oil
            Natural Gas
• Location (world): Russia (31%), Middle
  East (36%)
             Natural Gas
• Location (US): (3%) Gulf coast, above
  crude oil
              Natural Gas
So how long do we “think” it will last?

• US reserves: 55-80 years
• World Reserves: 62-125 (and up to 200
 years with unconventional)
              Natural Gas
• Advantages: Can be transported easily,
  lower pollution than other fossil fuels, high
  energy yield
• Disadvantages: running out, greenhouse
  gas released, explosive
  (especially in liquid form)
              Natural Gas
• LPG: liquefied petroleum gas (LP). For
  rural areas where natural gas lines aren’t
  run. Propane and Butane mixed
• LNG: liquefied natural gas. For shipping
  across oceans
                 Coal
• Location (world): China, Russia
                 Coal
• Location (US): (25% of world supply)
  Eastern areas of US: Montana, Utah,
  Arizona and southern areas of midwest
                  Coal
• So how long do we “think” it will
  last?

• US Reserves: 300 at current rates (64
  years with 4% increase)
• World Reserves:400+ years if new
  reserves are found and current rate of
  usage
                  Coal
• Advantages: most abundant fossil fuel,
  high energy, US has large supply
• Disadvantages: health concerns, high
  pollution when burned, high in sulfur,
  releases mercury
Coal
                   Coal
• Can be converted into synthetic natural
  gas (SNG), but the process releases more
  CO2 than burning coal does.
• Low quality coal is often burnt with high
  emissions: mercury, sulfur, CO2
• Different types of coal: Lignite, Bituminous,
  Anthracite, “Peat”
                                               Increasing heat and carbon content

                     Increasing moisture content


      Peat                        Lignite             Bituminous Coal               Anthracite
   (not a coal)                (brown coal)              (soft coal)                (hard coal)

                    Heat                           Heat                  Heat


                  Pressure                    Pressure                  Pressure

Partially decayed            Low heat content;      Extensively used            Highly desirable fuel
plant matter in swamps       low sulfur content;    as a fuel because           because of its high
and bogs; low heat           limited supplies in    of its high heat content    heat content and
content                      most areas             and large supplies;         low sulfur content;
                                                    normally has a              supplies are limited
                                                    high sulfur content         in most areas




                                   Coal Types
            Nuclear Energy
• Location (world): France, Sweden, Russia
  Location (US): Mostly east of the Mississippi
  River
            Nuclear Energy

• So how long do we “think” it will last?

• US reserves: undetermined. No new
  reactors have been ordered since 1978 and
  all ordered after 1973 were cancelled. Power
  plant lasts only about 60 years
• World Reserves: 1000-8000 (breeder
  reactors)
             Nuclear Energy
• Advantages: Large fuel supply, moderate
  land use, moderate/low pollution
• Disadvantages: subject to terrorist attack,
  weapon-grade, LONG storage of waste.
           Radioactive Waste
• Must be stored for 10,000 (closed fuel cycle)
  to 240,000 years (open fuel cycle)
• Storage ideas:
  – Bury underground
  – Shoot to space or sun
  – Bury on stable area of ocean floor (prohibited by
    law)
  – Change into less harmful isotopes
           Radioactive Waste
• Storage ideas:

  – Bury under Antarctic
    Ice Sheet, Greenland
    ice cap (prohibited by
    law)
           Radioactive Waste
• Storage ideas:
  – Dump into oceanic
    subduction area
    (prohibited by law)
          Radioactive Waste
• Storage ideas:
  – Yucca Mountain Desert storage
TRANSPORTATION OF NUCLEAR WASTE IN
            MICHIGAN
          Breeder Reactors
• Fissionable: U-235, Pu-239
• Commonly found: U-238, non fissionable
• Takes non-fissionable Uranium and
  converts it to fissionable Plutonium (add
  2p and remove 1n)
• Advantages: could use commonly found
  uranium (lasting thousands of years)
• Disadvantages: uses liquid sodium,
  accidents could be devastating,
  EXPENSIVE
                  Fusion
• D-T fusion possible at 100,000,000oC
  (180,000,000oF)
• No CO2 emissions, infinite fuel supply, no
  melt down concerns, no weapon grade
  radioactive materials, waste would only
  need stored 100 years or so.
• Still only experimental – earliest use in
  2030, 2100 more likely