FIA Technology Roadmap Workshop Sensors and Controls by fad10689

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									Smartsmith™




              FIA Technology Roadmap Workshop
                     Sensors and Controls
  OG™




                              Tzyy-Shuh Chang, Ph.D.
                              OG Technologies, Inc.
                              Ann Arbor, MI 48103
                              August 14-15, 2001       1
Smartsmith™




                         About Smartsmith™
                                     A Project Sponsored by

                        Advanced Technology Program
                 National Institute of Standards and Technology
                                               and

                                        State of Ohio
  OG™




              • Target applications: forging and rolling processes
              • Goals:
               – To develop in- line sensing device for real- time production information
               – To develop methods/processes to best utilize the information
               – To improve OEE, yield and profitability
                                                                                      2
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              Industrial Participation



  OG™




                                         3
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                                      Scope
              • Data Acquisition System
                 – Focus on hot-state dimensions and surface quality
                 – Deal with distortions caused by heat

              • Thermo-mechanically Induced Geometric Error
                Estimator
  OG™
                 – Model the states of forged parts
                 – Compare the measured/estimated dimensions to CAD model

              • Predictive Process Control System
                 – Develop an observer for production information
                 – Tie the production information for predictive process control

                                                                              4
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                                   Use of Smartsmith™
                                                                                                 Blank for
                                                                                                 machining


              Ti, Steel       Induction heating        Forging of part     Trim      Table
              Super alloy     or furnace               ± ? d, Deflection             cool
              ± ? V, Volume   1500 - 2300 °F           of press
                              ± 10 ° F
               Material                           Hot Data Acquisition             Cool down
               porperties                                                          conditions

  OG™
                                                     Hot information
                                     Production (process and product) Information
              Sensor
              Deployment                                             Geometric Error Estimation
              Information
                                                                   Predicted Final Product Information

                Predictive Process Control
                                     Higher OEE, Better yield, More Profits
                                                                                                      5
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                         Data Acquisition, 1
              • HotEye™ Technology
                 – Imaging based
                 – Dimensional measurements at high temperature
                 – Surface quality inspection at high temperature

  OG™
              • Challenges
                 – Excessive heat on sensor survivability/performance
                 – Optical distortion from radiation/natural convection
                 – Excessive vibrations
                 – Debris
                 – Lub drops
                 – Scale covering
                                                                          6
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                          Data Acquisition, 2
              • Capable of dimensions
                measurements such as
                closure, diameters, bends,
                TIR/mismatches, etc.
              • Capable of surface qualities
                such as underfills, pin marks,
  OG™           tool wear marks, etc.
              • Designed and protected to
                work in forging shops




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                             Data Acquisition, 3
              • Pilot installation in a forging site
              • Gauge R&R at 10%,
                  – no special fixturing / no vibration insulation for the part
                  – 10 to 15 categories can be distinguished over a range of 1 mm
                  – standard deviation of measurements at 0.030 mm (0.0012”)
              • Conditions:
  OG™
                  – > 1,200ºC
                  –   ~ 1G
                  – Debris
                  – Scale
                  – Maintenance free


                                                                                    8
Smartsmith™




               Geometric Error Estimator, 1

                                                Cooling Process
                                                Information



                                                                                          Dimensional
              DAS Info. (Hot       IDE               GVE              GC                  Error
              part surface      (Internal         (Geometrical     (Geometric
              Temp. and        Distribution         Variance       Comparator)            Cold part
              Dimensions)      Estimator)          Estimator)                             dimensions
  OG™


                                          TIG



                                                                  Dimensional      PPCS
                                                                  Specifications




                                                                                                        9
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                               Geometric Error Estimator, 2
                                                  Flange Diameter

                              98.9

                              98.8
              Diameter (mm)




                              98.7

                              98.6

                              98.5

                              98.4
  OG™
                                     1

                                         4

                                             7

                                                 10

                                                        13

                                                             16

                                                                   19

                                                                        22

                                                                             25

                                                                                               28

                                                                                                     31

                                                                                                          34
                                                                                                                   Main bearing Diameter
                                                      Sampling interval (10 sec)
                                                                                              74.3
                                                                                              74.2
                                                                                              74.1
                                                                              Diameter (mm)


                                                                                               74
                                                                                              73.9
                                                                                              73.8
                                                                                              73.7
                                                                                              73.6
                                                                                              73.5
                                                                                                     1

                                                                                                          4

                                                                                                               7

                                                                                                                    10

                                                                                                                           13

                                                                                                                                16

                                                                                                                                      19

                                                                                                                                           22

                                                                                                                                                25

                                                                                                                                                      28

                                                                                                                                                           31

                                                                                                                                                                34
                                                                                                                         Sampling interval (10 sec)
                                                                                                                                                                10
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              Geometric Error Estimator, 3

                                       FEM/FDM
                Flow Stress                           Metal Flow and
                f (? , ? , T , S)
                       ?                              Heat Transfer

  OG™                               Microstructural
                                     evolution (S)




                                      Recrystallization
                                      Grain growth
                                      Phase transformation
                                                                       11
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               Geometric Error Estimator, 4
              Verification of Geometric Conformity
                 – Human review/comparison
                 – Software
                    • Comparing to a Golden Part
                    • Comparing to a CAD solid
  OG™




                                                   (Picture provided by SDRC)


              Geometric Comparator is a New Solution!
                                                                                12
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                Predictive Process Control, 1
              Tasks                  Conventional SPC      PPC

              (1) Process faults     • Detection           • Detection, isolation
                                                           and Identification
              (2) Product defects • Inspection             • Prevention

              (3) Problem            • Off-line operator   • Systematic Approach
                  Resolution         intervention
  OG™


              Expand the use of sensors from
                 – equipment control / protection
                 – product quality verification

              To have complete quality and process control with in-line
                monitoring of the interaction between equipment and parts
                                                                                13
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                Predictive Process Control, 2
              • Where and how many sensors (deployment)
              • What information is in the sensor signals
                (observability)
              • How to apply the information for healthy production
  OG™           (controllability)




                                                                  14
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               Predictive Process Control, 3
                                             Statistical Process Control
              operator intervention
                                           SPC

                                                           Product
                Controller      Machines and Processes               Measurement


                                                      sensors
  OG™

                                        Statistical analysis


              Action/Compensation            Fusion                  Knowledge
                                                                       Base

                                        Engineering Model

                                                                               15
Smartsmith™




                   Predictive Process Control, 4
                                                            Tonnage




                                                                 0
                                                                      0   120      160    200   240     280
                                           Measurement                            Crank Angle
                                          (Tonnage, shut height, punch
  OG™                                     speed, vibration, die
                                          temperature, acoustic emission)
                                                                                     Stamped Part
              Process Variables
                                                                                     (part variation)
              (material, die, blank
                                                    Press
              interactive, and press
              variables)
                                                     Die
                                       Blank
                                                                           Part


                                                                                                      16
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                       Predictive Process Control, 5
                                      Process Variable            tonnage (ton)
                                                                   400
                                                                         Loose Tie Rod              Worn Bearing
                                      Measurement                  350
                                                                   300
                                                                   250
                           Tie Rod
                                        Stamping Press             200
                                                                   150      Worn Gib
                                                                   100
                                                                                        Excessive Snap
                                                                       50
                         Bearing                                       0
                                                                   -50
                                                                            120   140   160   180   200   220   240
                                           Tonnage                                       crank angle (degree)
                                           Sensors           Linkage
                            Punch
                            Speed                            Gib
  OG™                                                        Slide

                            Shut              Die
                            Height
              Billet
                          Upright




                       Engineering:   Press/Die Mechanics, Forming Theory, Working Stage
                                      Segmentation
                       Statistics:    SPC, DOE, Wavelets, Classification, Pattern Recognition
                                                                                                                      17
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              Predictive Process Control, 6



  OG™




                                              18
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                          The SmartSmith™

                                     Hot Data Acquisition


                          Information
                                                 Geometric Error Estimation
  OG™




              Predictive Process Control


                         Higher OEE, Better yield, More Profits

                                                                         19
Smartsmith™




                        Vision of the Future
              • Less “experience dependent”
              • Faster change over
              • Less waste
              • Less variability
  OG™         • Linked and Integrated

                                     Taking
                        Information Technology
                                        to
                         Your Production Line
                                                 20
Smartsmith™




                    From Here to There

              OG Technologies and our partners
              are committed to work with the
              forging industry
  OG™




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