The management of prisons is under a constant state of surveillance by court systems, human rights groups and litigious inmates, and correctional employees are expected by the public to provide more protection than ever before. HOW POPULATION CHANGES EFFECT SECURITY Gangs, mentally ill offenders, elderly offenders and female offenders must all be considered when providing appropriate security measures for prisons and detention centers. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, on Dec. 31,2006: * About 2.3 million offenders were held in federal or state prisons or in local jails - an increase of 2.9 percent from year-end 2005, which is less than the average annual growth of 3.4 percent since year-end 1995; * More than 1.5 million sentenced inmates were under state or federal jurisdiction; * There were an estimated 501 sentenced inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents - up from 411 at year-end 1995; and * The number of women under the jurisdiction of state or federal prison authorities increased 4.5 percent from year-end 2005, reaching 112,498, and the number of men rose 2.7 percent, totaling 1,458,363.
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