Bathymetric Surveying Activities in Istanbul's Bosphorus Strait

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Description: Main control monuments were measured to be stationary for a minimum of eight hours, and the other monuments were measured for a minimum of two hours.4 The GPS geodetic control network, established using permanent stationary GPS points around the region and operated in the International Global Navigation Satellite System Service for geodynamics, was included for the precise datum adjustment of the main control network in the international terrestrial reference frame. Bosphorus cross-leveling measurements were conducted as a part of the vertical control network, using two pairs of Zeiss (Jena, Germany) NI2-level instruments developed for special level surveys to determine the precise height differences between the two sides of the Bosphorus Strait (the GPS network's fifth and seventh monuments N005, European side, and N007, Asian side, respectively).
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